Ancient pagan and modern Christian symbolism

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.RISTUN

fe,5. 0-^

'&>^

PRINCETON,

N.

J.

Purchased by the Mary Cheves Dulles Fund.

Division

Section

:e\-85

1573

^

PLATE

I

JUN e -

ANCIKNT PAGAN V^ ASD

MODERN CHRISTIAN SYMBOLISM BY,

THOMAS INMAN, AUTHOR OF "ANOIENT FAITHS EMBODIED

IN

M.D., ANCIENT NAMES.

REVISED AND ENLARGED.

WITH AN ESSAY ON BAAL WORSHIP, ON THE ASSYRIAN SACRED "GROVE," AND OTHER ALLIED SYMBOLS. BY

JOHN NEWTON,

M.R.C.S.E., Etc.

/ourtl) (edition.

WITH TWO HUNDRED ILLUSTRATIONS.

NEW YORK PETER ECKLER PUBLISHING COMPANY 1922.

192c

PROCESS ELATES

PKEFAOE TO FIEST EDITION.

The woodcuts

in the present

volume originally appeared in a

large work, in two thick volumes, entitled y^nr/ciit Faiths

embodied in Ancient Naines,

It

has been suggested to

me

by many, that a collection of these Figures, and their explanation, are

more

likely to be generally

voluminous book.

The one

them opportunities

to

work endeavours

state of things almost

were,

it

an alphabet

the eyes;

means

;

the other

use their vision.

teaches to read; the other affords larger

as

The one opens

the other, an essay. gives

is,

examined than a very

for practice.

The one

As

the

to demonstrate the existence of a

unknown

to the British public, so

it is

necessary to furnish overwhelming proof that the allegations

and accusations made against certain nations of antiquity,

and some doctrines of Christianity, are substantially Consequently, the number of witnesses absolutely necessary to prove the point.

12,

Rodney Street, Liverpool, July, 1869.

is

true.

greater than is

PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION.

has sprung up for this work has induced

The demand which the Author to

But

made

volume whose

When

ness.

discourse,

more complete than

it

could not he

it

into a

make

size

it

was

originally

perfect without being

expanded

would be incompatible with cheap-

every Figure would supply a text for a long attention

a close

required lest a description

is

should be developed into a dissertation.

In

the explanation of

typified

obliged to confine himself to

is

symbols, and cannot launch out into

modern

ancient and

A

Author

this work, the

faiths,

except in so far as they are

by the use of certain conventional signs.

great

many who

time, and find

how

peruse a book like this for the

strange were the ideas which for

first

some

thousands of years permeated the religious opinions of the civilised world,

might naturally consider that the Author

mere visionary

— one

who

is

a

possessed of a hobby that he

Such a notion

rides to death.

is

is

strengthened by finding

that there is scarcely any subject treated of except the one

which

associa:^

man, with

I

9 3

religion,

of the

a thoughtful reader will

a matter of the

highest aim to

most intensely earthly kind. readily discerif that an

Symbolism must be confined

to visible

emblems.

But

essay on

By no

VI

fair

means can an author

makes the

wlio

crucifix his text

introduce the subject of the Confessional, the Eucharist, or

Extreme Unction. and Jesus visible

Nor can

who knows

one,

Buddha

that

which was unmarked by

alike inaugurated a faith

symbolism, bring into an interpretation of emblems a

comparison between the preaching of two such distinguished

men.

In

like

manner, the Author

is

obliged to pass over

the difi'erence between Judaism, Christianity as propounded

by the son of Mary, and that which Christianity in

Rome and most

All these points, and fully discussed in the

to in this,

passes current for

countries of Europe.

many more, have been somewhat^

Author's larger work, so often referred

and to that he must

refer

the curious.

The

following pages are simply a chapter taken from a book,

complete perhaps in

itself,

perfect, without giving to

taken.

If

house from which

readers will regard

it

these pages as a

a building, the Author will be content.

8,

may be

an individual any idea of the

or architecture of the

style,

but only as a brick

Vyvyan Tebrace, Clifton, Bristol, August, 1874.

size,

has been

bjam

in

INTKODUCTION,

It may, we think, be taken for granted, that nothing or has

been,

ever

adopted into the service

without a definite purpose. is built

If

upon the foundation

Almighty, as the Hebrew that every emblem,

rite,

is

said to be, there is a full belief

ceremony, dress, symbol,

have, for example, heard a pious

staggered in this belief

etc.,

has

earnest Christians, indeed, see

in Judaic ordinances a reference to Jesus of

was only another word

Religion,

of

be supposed that a religion

of a distinct revelation from the

Many

a special signification.

it

is,

man

" sin "

for

when

Nazareth.

assert that ;

**

I

leprosy"

but he was greatly

I pointed out to

him

that

if

a person's whole body was afi'ected he was no longer unclean (Lev.

13),

xiii.

which seemed on the proposed hypothesis

to

demonstrate that when a sinner was as black as hell he

was the equal of a

saint.

the paschal lamb

is

whom

According to such an interpreter,

a type of Jesus, and consequently

his blood sprinkles are blocks of wood, lintels, and

side-posts (Exod. xii. 22, 23).

By

the

same

style of

and the proof wilderness,

is

clear,

for

one was driven away into the

and the other voluntarily went there

be destroyed, the other to be tempted infer that there is

meta-

" scape-goat,"

phorical reasoning, Jesus was typified by the

we

all

by'- the

devil

— one !

to

Hence

nothing repugnant to the minds of the

pious in an examination respecting the use of symbols, and into that

which

been done for religion.

is

shadowed

forth

by them.

Judaism may be attempted

What has

for other

forms of

Vlll

is the Hebrews and Christians God-given,

be

to

other

so

theology, regard their

own

their reli^on

believe

having

nations,

a

different

Though we may,

peculiar tenets.

with that unreasoning prejudice and blind bigotry which are

common

mass

so to the

and

Briton and the Spaniard, and pre-eminently

to the

to the

of Irish

and Scotchmen amongst ourselves,

Carlists in the peninsula, disbelieve a heathen

pretension to a divine revelation,

symbols,

etc., of

we cannot doubt that the

Paganism have a meaning, and that

it is

lawful to scrutinise the mysteries which they enfold as to

speculate upon the Urim and

Thummim

nations serve their gods ? " of

(Deut.

viz.,

How The

xii.

30.)

is

well

the prohibition thus enunciated

for there

" Take heed that

saying.

after their gods,

;

rigidly to the precept

amongst us who adhere

addressed to the followers of Moses,

thou enquire hot

is

of the Jews.

Yet, even this freedom has, by some, been denied are a few

it

as

did these intention

marked

in the

following words,^ which indicate that the writer believed that

the adoption of heathen gods would follow inquiry respecting

them.

It

not now-a-days feared that we

is

Mahometans

if

may become

we read the Koran, or Buddhists

if

we study

but there are priests who fear that au the Dhammapada inquiry into ecclesiastical matters may make their followers ;

Papists,

Protestants,

Wesleyans,

Baptists,

dislike of inquiry ever attends those

which

is

known

believed or

The philosopher

to.

The

profess a religion

to be weak.

of the present day, being freed from the

shackles once riveted around

may

who

or

Unitarians,

some other religion which the Presbytery object

him by

a dominant hierarchy,

regard the precept in Deuteronomy in another light.

Seeing that the same

symboUsm

is

common

religion, professed in countries widely apart

to

many forms

of

both as regards

time and space, he thinks that the danger of inquiry into 1

"

evfcji

so will 1 do likewise."

IX

but the relinquishment

faiths is not the adoption of foreign,

methods of religious belief. When we see the same ideas promulgated as divine truth, on the ancient banks of the Ganges, and the modern shores of the Mediterranean, we are constrained to admit that they have something com-

of present

mon

or

revelation,

all

may

they

all

presumption that others

men

are essentially

result of celestial

emanate

alike

As men invent new forms

ingenuity. is a

They may be the

in their source.

human

from

of religion now, there

may have done so formerly. As so we may believe that their

human,

inventions will be characterised by the virtues and the ings of humanity.

Again, experience

tells

in thought involves similarity in action.

seeing a hare run off

fail-

us that similarity

Two

sportsmen,

from between them, will

at it

fire

so simultaneously that each is unaware that the other shot.

So a resemblance in religious

belief will eventuate in the

selection of analogous symbolism.

We

search into

emblems with an intention

different

from

The that with which we inquire into ordinary language. the Earth, upon nations of last tells us of the relationship first

of the probable connections of

The devout

may hope

Christian believes that

for a

happy

the.

existence as

who

venerate the Cross

eternity, without ever

dreaming that

Homeric Troy, and was Phoenicians probably before the Jews had any a people; whilst an equally pious Mahometan

the sign of his faith

used by

all

mankind with Heaven.

is as

ancient as

regards the Crescent as the passport to the realms of bliss, without a thought that the symbol was in use long before the

Prophet of Allah was born, and amongst those nations .which mission to convert or to destroy. it was the Prophet's

and words mark the ordinary current of man's thought, whilst religious symbols show the nature of his

Letters

aspirations.

may

be

But

all

have this in common,

misunderstood.

Many

a

viz.,

that they

Brahmin has

uttered

prayers

in

a

language to him unintelligible

;

and many

a Christian uses words in his devotions of which he never

" Om manee pani" '' Om know the meaning. manee padme ho\im,'' ''Amen'' and '* Ave Maria purissima'* In like manner, may fairly be placed in the same category. The the signification of an emblem may be unknown. seeks to

antiquary finds in Lycian coins, and in Aztec ruins, figures for

which he can frame no meaning; whilst the ordinary

church-goer also sees, in his place of worship, designs of

which none can give him a rational explanation. find that a language

system of exposition said of symbols.

may is

Again, we

find professed interpreters,

wholly "wrong

;

whose

and the same may be

I have seen, for example, three distinctly

different interpretations given

to

one Assyrian inscription,

and have heard as many opposite explanations of a particular figure, all of which have been incorrect. In the interpretation of unknown languages and symbols, the observer gladly allows that much may be wrong ; but this does not prevent him believing that some may be right. In giving his judgment, he will examine as closely as he can

system adopted by each inquirer, the amount of materials at his disposal, and, generally, the acumen which

into the

has been brought to the task. such as we collation

Perhaps, in an investigation

describe, the most important ingredient

and comparison.

satisfactorily

when he

demand much time and

is

care in

But a scholar can only

collate

has

research.

time than ordinary working patience than those

who have

means,

sufficient

The labour

folk can

and these

requires

more

command, and more

leisure are generally disposed

to give.

Unquestionably, we have as yet had few attempts in

England

to classify

It is

perhaps not

and explain ancient and modern symbols.

strictly true that there

laxity in the research, of

making public the

has been so

much

a

which we here speak, as a dread of

results

of inquiry.

Investigators, as a

'

XI

have a respect for their own prejudices, and dislike to make known to others a knowledge which has brought rule,

pain to their

Like the Brahmin of the

own minds.

story,

they will destroy a fine microscope rather than permit their co-religionists to

know

that they drink living creatures in

The

their water, or eat mites in their fruit.

people

is,

The

" If truth

following attempts to explain

modern symbolism

motto' of such

is disagreeable, cling to error.^'

much

of ancient

me

various devices contained herein seem to

views which I have been led

to

'to

support the

form from other sources, by a

careful inquiry into the signification of ancient

Th^

the examination of ancient faiths. ginally

and

The

can only be regarded as. tentative.

names, and

figures

were

ori-

intended as corroborative of evidence drawn from

and the idea of numerous ancient and modern writings collecting them, and, as it were, making them speak for ;

In the following

themselves, has been an after-thought.

pages I have simply reprinted the figures, in

Ancient

Faiths

etc.,

which appear

embodied in Ancient Names (second

make no attempt to exhaust the subject. There and are hundreds of emblems which find herein no place make there are explanations of symbols current to which I I

edition).

;

no reference,

For

for

they are simply exoteric.

the benefit of

many

of

my

readers, I

In most,

the meaning of the last word italicised. all,

must explain if

not in

forms of religion, there are tenets not generally imparted

to the vulgar,

and only given

of

A

secrecy.

similar

to a select few

under the

seal

in

common

life.

reticence

exists

There are secrets kept from children,

commonly known to doctors, ef

when

to all parents

;

for

example, that are

there are. arcana, familiar

which patients have no

idea.

For example,

a lad innocently asks the family surgeon, or his parent,

where the

last

new baby came from, he

is

put

a reply, wide of the mark, yet sufficient for him.

ofi"

with

When

I

Xll

put such a question to the maids in the kitchen, to which

answer was that the

place for a time I was relegated, the

first

baby came from the parsley bed.

On

hearing this, I went

into the garden, and, finding the bed

had been unmoved,

and

came back

reproached

my

informant for falsehood.

Another then took up the word, and said

As

bed which the baby came from.

was the carrot

it

laughter

a roar of

followed this remark, I felt that I was being cheated, and

now I can, They had esoteric sense of the sayings. The only one two distinct significations.

asked no inore questions.

understand the to the

servants

Then

I could not,

which I could then comprehend was exoteric; that which In was known to my elders was the esoteric meaning. .

what

is

called "religion" there has been a similar distinc-

We

tion.

'^

see this, not only in the

mysteries" of Greece

and Kome, but amongst the Jews; Esdras stating the followcommand from God, " Some things shalt thou pub-

ing as a lish,

(2

and some things shalt thou show secretly

to the wise

"

Esdras xv. 26).

When ments,

there

about

"esoteric,"

exist

the

true,

two distinct explanations, or

a

time

known

may come when As an

the last alone remain.

the original

one

and known only to the few, the other

"exoteric/' incorrect, and that

state-

emblem, the

an

of

signification

many,

to the

the

first

may

be

it

is

lost,

clear

and

we can point

illustration,

and correct pronunciation of the word

to

nms

Known only to a select commonly pronounced Jehovah. few, it became lost when these died without imparting it; yet what is considered to be the incorrect method of pronouncing the word survives until to-day.* *

It is supposed

word, but as the or

0,

whilst the second

analogous to the it is

by some that Jahveh

first

Ju

letter

may

and fourth are the

in Jupiter

;

read on Assyrian inscriptions

is

represent

Jehu, the ;

i,

the pioper pronunciation of this ja, ya, or

soft h,

name

one

and the third u,

e,

may

of a king of Israel

Jeho, as in Jehoshaphat

v,

read the word Jhuh.

;

;

Yahu

as

Ehoh, analogotls to

Xlll

We

may

monly received

known

is

assume

fairly

when two such meanings

that,

they are not identical, and that the one most com-

exist,

is

becomes a question whether another

to exist, it

should be sought.

If, it

may be

asked, the

are contented with a fable, believing

them upon

enlighten

its

bearing of this subject,

me

But when one alone

not the correct one.

let

common people why seek to

true,

it

To show

hidden meaning ?

us notice what has always struck

The second commandment

as remarkable.

the

declares to

" Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven

the Jews,

image, or any likeness of anything that

is in

heaven above,

or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under

the earth

;

(Exod. XX.

thou shalt not bow down thyself to them,"

Yet we

4).

Numbers

find, in

xxi., that

etc.

Jehovah

ordered Moses to frame a brazen serpent, whose power was so miraculous that those

who

only looked at

it

were cured of

the evils inflicted by thanatoid snakes.

Then to

He

that for

again, in the temple of the

have thus spoken, and who

would dwell in

Him, an

Cherubim were and the

or

ark,

box,

the

is

reported

house that Solomon made

was worshipped, and over

it

These were likenesses of something,

seen.

We

was worshipped.

first

God who

also said to have declared

is

find

it

described

as

being so sacred that death once followed a profane touching of

it

done

(2

Sam.

vi. 6, 7),

and no fewer than 50,070 people were

Bethshemesh because somebody had venlook inside the box, and had tried to search into

to death at

tured to

the mystery contained therein (1 Sam. the Evoe or

Euoe

of the Gnostics.

associated with Bacchus

;

The. Greek "Fathers" give

vi.

19).

It is curious

and Jaho, analogous to the J. A. O. word as if equivalent to yave,

trhe

yaoh, yeho, and iao. is not how the word may be pronoanced, but how it was when used in religion by the Hebrew and other Semitic

But the question expressed in sound nations,

amongst

whom

to be " taken in vain."

it

was a sacred

secret, or ineffable

name, not lightly

XIV

who must have touched

that the Philistines,

their strange offerings beside

Sam.

(sec 1

it

the box to put

were not

vi. 8),

They were "profane"; and

particularly bothered.

priests

only invent stories, which are applicable to the arcana which

they use in worship, to blind the eyes of and give a holy horror to the people

whom

How

they govern.

shipped the ark as being the representative of 2 Sam.

vi.

God we

see in

14, 16, 17, 21.

The ark

much

David wor-

of the covenant

was indeed regarded by the Jews

as a saint's toe-nail, a crucifix, an

a bit of wood, or a rusty old nail

image of the Virgin,

by the

is

Roman

Catholics.

So flagrant an apparent breach of the second commandment

was covered

for the

common Hebrews by

the assertion that

the mysterious box was a token of God's covenant with His

people

;

but that this statement was " exoteric," we

feel sure,

and used in "the myste-

when we

find a similar ark existing

ries "

Egypt and Greece, amongst people who probably know what

of

never heard of Jews, and could by no chance

passed in the Hebrew temple.

When become

dissatisfied with

endeavour to ascertain what

is

a statement,

behind the curtain.

who rushes upon

they resemble the brave boy,

which

is

some individuals naturally

evidently intended to be a blind,

In this

a sheet and

turnip lantern, which has imposed upon his companions and

passed for a ghost.

What

is

a bugbear to the

rather run

night than grapple with

it

Trom a phantom night

when

the cheat

is

after

it.

for a spectre

Nevertheless, even

exposed.

As when, by some courageous hand, mistaken by hundreds

often

once, and would dissuade others

from being bold enough to encounter the former rejoice

is

Yet there are a great

a contemptible reptile to the few.

number who would

many

that which has been

has been demonstrated to

bo a crafty man, no one would endeavour to demonstrate the reality of

ghosts by referring to the

many

scores of

men

XV

who had been duped by the apparition thus so, in like manner, when the falsehood of an

of all ranks

detected

;

exoteric story is exhibited,

it

is

no argument in

that the vulgar in thousands and many a wise believed

Speaking metaphorically, we have

it.

ghosts amongst ourselves ful giants,

me

to

in which

;

them

trembles at that

in every age

whom

the devil,

We

them.

felt fear at

who manufactures,

for

a Fetish, and then

know

perfectly well

the pious fear, just as

a

Mumbo Jumbo.

negro dreads

In the

and nation, made

power, but the learned

its

men made

It

contemplate the manner

themselves bugbears, and then have deride the African,

such

power-

for

to the apocryphal vampires.

a melancholy thing to

mankind have,

have

Such we may

but are in reality perfect shams.

describe by comparing is

phantoms, which pass

favour

its

man many

fictitious narratives

which passed

for truth in the

dark ages of Christianity, there were accounts of individuals

who

died and were buried, and who, after a brief repose in

Some imagined

the tomb, rose again.

that the

was the identical one who had been

tated being

Others believed that some body, and restored to

it

evil

spirit

resusci-

interred.

had appropriated the

apparent vitality. Whatever the fiction

was, the statement remained unchallenged, that some dead

having the same guise as when they

folk returned to earth,

quitted

We

it.

believe that a similar occurrence has taken

Heathendom

place in religion. after a brief

interval, it

unlike the vampire,

not recognised. If

tive dress.

sheep

;

if

It it

its

garb was changed,

devil, yet its clothing

were a

not pitied.

manners, morals and

hke

and was buried

If

it

;

tomb.

and

moved through Christendom

a wolf, it-jyore broadcloth.

victims were

countries,

its

died,

rose again from-

yet,

But, it

was

in a seduc-

was that of a ravened, the

Heathenism, by which I mean the rites

prevalent

in

pagan times or

a resuscitated vampire, once bei^ rule through-

XVI

out Christendom, in which term

where Christian baptism vast majority.

When

is

used by

is

In most parts

those parts

the people, or the

reigns supreme.

it still

we

are told, ignominiously killed, by a

stake being driven through the body to

all

all

vampires were discovered by the acumen of any

observer, they were,

them

included

have such tenacity of

;

life

but experience showed that they

rose again,

and again, notwithstanding renewed impalement, and were not ultimately laid to rest till wholly burnt. In like manner, the regenerated Heathendom, which dominates over the

fol-

lowers of Jesus of Nazareth, has risen again and again, after

being

transfixed.

Still

denounced by the few. voice

and

Christianity,

by

many,

the

it

other accusers, I raise

Paganism which

against the

ecclesiastical

in

cherished

Amongst

exists will

do

is

my

so

extensively

my

utmost to

expose the imposture.

In a vampire

story, told

in

Thalaba, by Southey, the

resuscitated being takes the form of a dearly beloved maiden,

and the hero does so

;

is

feels sure that

when

obliged to

her with his own hand.

kill

He

but, whilst he strikes the form of the loved one, he

he slays only a demon.

In

like

manner,

I endeavour to destroy the current Heathenism, which

has assumed the garb of Christianity, I do not attack real religion.

Few would

accuse a

workman

cleanses from filth the surface of

may yet

the

be some

who

of malignancy

a noble statue.

who

There

are too nice to touch a nasty subject;

even they will rejoice when some one else removes dirt.

Such a scavenger

is

much

wanted.

If I were to assert, as a general proposition, that religion

does not require any symbolism, I should probably win assent from every true Scotch Presbyterian, every Wesleyan,

Yet I should be opposed by every and every Independent. But why ? Is Papist, and by most Anglican Churchmen. it

not because their ecclesiastics have adopted symbolism into

XVll

their churches

second

wrong

and into their

commandment

They have broken the

ritual ?

and refuse

of Jehovah,

to see anything

in their practice or gross in their imagery.

But they

adopt Jehovah rather than Elohim, and break the command-

ments, said to be given upon Sinai, in good company.

The reader

of the following pages will probably feel

interest therein if he has

some

may

clue whereby he

more guide

himself through their labyrinth.

From

the earliest

known times

there seems to have been

in every civilised nation the idea of an unseen power.

the speculations of thoughtful minds a necessity

nised for the existence of a Being is at

who made

things

all

times beneficent, sending rain and warmth, and

In

recog-

is



who who at

others sends storm, plague, famine,

and war. After the crude idea has taken possession of the thoughts, there has been a desire to know something more of this Creator, and an examination into the works of Nature has been made with the view to ascertain the will and designs of the

Supreme,

In every country this great One has been sup-

posed to inhabit the heaven above us, and consequently celestial

phenomena have been

mind soon

all

But the

noticed carefully.

got weary of contemplating about an essence, and,

contenting itself with the belief that there was a Power,

began to investigate the nature of His ministers.

amongst the Aryans, were the sun, sky,

the day, night, etc.

An

fire,

intoxicating drink, too, was

regarded as an emanation from the Supreme.

form of belief

men

lived as they

These,

storm, wind, the

had done

in their relations with each other

high class animals as elephants.

may

ere

it

^With

this

existed,

and

be compared to such

Men

can

live

peaceably

together without religion, just as do the bisons, bufi'aloes, iiBitelopes,

form of

The assumption

and even wolves. faith is

absolutely

a necessity b

for

that

man

is

some only





XYlll

founded on the fancies of some religious fanatics who know little

of the world.*

But

as there is variety in the workings of the

human

mind, so there were differences in the way wherein the Some regarded the sun and religious idea was carried out. * Whilst these sheets were passing through the press, there appeared a work, published anonymously, but reported to be by one of the most esteemed theologians who ever sat upon an episcopal bench. It is entitled Supernatural Religion. London Longmans, 1871. From it we quote the following, vol. ii., p. 489: :

"We

more than we lose in abandoning belief in the reality of Whilst we retain pure and unimpaired the treasure of Christian Morality, we relinquish nothing but the debasing elements added to it by human We are no longer bound to believe a theology which outrages reason superstition. gain infinitely

Divine Revelation.

and moral sense. W^e are freed from base anthropomorphic views of God and His government of the universe and from Jewish Mythology we rise to higher conceptions of an infinitely wise and beneficent Being, hidden from our finit'^ minds, it is true, in the impenetrable glory of Divinity, but whose Laws of wondrous comprehensiveness and perfection we ever perceive in operation around us. We are no longer disturbed by visions of fitful interference with the order of Nature, but we recognise that the Being who regulates the universe is without variableness or ;

shadow

of turning.

It is singular

how

little

there

in the supposed Revelation of

is

alleged information, however incredible, regarding that which

human '

thought, but that

little is of

Let no

wildest delusion.

is

beyond the limits

of

a character which reason declares to be the

man whose

belief in the reality of a Divine Revelation

be destroyed by such an inquiry complain that he has lost a precious possesThe Revelation not being a reality, that sion, and that nothing is left but a blank.

may

which he has

lost

was but an

illusion,

and that which

is left is

the Truth.

If

he be

content \vith illusions, he will speedily be consoled if he be a lover only of truth, blank, he will recognise that the reality before him is full of great instead of ;



peace. less than we have supposed of man's destiny, we may at least we are no longer compelled to believe that which is unworthy. The limits of thought once attained, we may well be unmoved in the assurance that all that we do know of the regulation of the universe being so perfect and wise, all that we do not know must be equally so. Here enters the true and noble Faith which is the child of reason. If we have believed a system, the details of which must at one time or another have shocked the mind of every intelligent man, and

"If we know

rejoice that

believed

it

simply because

it

was supposed to be revealed, we may equally beUeve in The mere act of communication is not revealed.

the wisdom and goodness of what to us is nothing:

Faith in the perfect ordering of

all

things

is

independent of

Revelation. " The argument so often employed by Theologians that Divine Revelation is

necessary for man, and that cei-tain views contained in that Revelation are required by our moral consciousness, is purely imaginary, and derived from the Revelation which it seeks to maintain. The only thing absolutely necessary for man is Truth and to that, and that alone, must our moral conscioasness adapt itself."

.

;

ZIZ

moon, ihe constellations and the planets, as ministers of tlie unseen One, and, reasoning from what was known to what

unknown,

w^as

seems

argued thus

he a dualism.

to

" Throughout nature there

:

In the sky there are a sun and moon

there are also sun and earth, earth and sea.

In every set of

An

inquiry into the

animals there are males and females."

influence of the sun brought out the facts that by themselves its

beams were

desti active

;

they were only beneficent

As

the earth was moist with rain.

then, caused things on earth to grow,

main source and the to

of light

when

the rain from heaven, it

was natural that the

and heat should be regarded as a male,

As

eartji as a female.

have the emblems of

a male, the sun was supposed

virility,

and a spouse

impregnated, and who thereby became

whom

he

fertile.

examining ancient Jewish, Phoenician, and other

In

Shemitic cognomens, I found that they consisted of a divine

name and some

attribute of the deity,

generally referrible equally to a god, and to the masculine

female, the

moon and

name

and that the

the Supreme, emblem.

last

was

to the Sun, as

If the deity

was a

of her votary contained a reference to the

the beauties or functions of

ideas of the Creator were held only

women.

adopted a lower and more debased view. the sun became a chief god and the

The higher

by a few, the

moon

many

In this manner his partner,

and

the former being supposed to be male and the latter female,

both became associated with the ideas which terrestrial animals.

in

ciated

all

have of

Consequently the solar deity was asso-

symbolism with masculine and the moon with

feminine emblems.

An

inquiry into antiquity, as represented by Babylonians,

Assyrians, Egyptians, Phoenicians, Hebrews, Greeks, Etruscans, rent,

Eomans, and as

others,

represented

in

and into modern the

peninsula of

faiths still cur-

India,

in

the

Lebanon, and elsewhere, shows that ideas of sex have been

XX

God has

very generally associated with that of creation,

been described as a king, or as a queen, or as both united.

As monarch, he

man

A.S

very

is

means

supposed

from

differs

be man, or woman, or both.

to

woman

in certain peculiarities, these

of distinction have .been incorporated

worship of god and goddess. in ancient times

Rival sects have been ranged

under the symbol of the

in later times they are under the cross

The worship that of

God

of

God

into the

T ^-nd

the

Q,

as

and the crescent.

the Father has repeatedly clashed with

the Mother, and the votaries of each respectively

have worn badges characteristic of the sex of their

deity.

An

;

illustration of this is to be seen

amongst ourselves

one

sect of Christians adoring chiefly the Trinity, another reve-

There

rencing the Virgin.

is

a well-known picture, indeed,

Mary worshipping her infant and to the former is given the title Mater Creatoris, "the mother of the Creator." Our sexual sections are as well marked as those in ancient Jeruof

;

salem, which sv/ore by Jehovah and Ashtoreth respectively.

The

idea of sexuality in religion

is

quite compatible with

a ritual and practice of an elaborate character, and a depth of piety which prefers starvation to impurity, or, as the Bible

has

it,

to

uncleanness.

To

eat

"with the blood" was

amongst the Hebrews a crime worthy of death

unwashed hands was a dreadful Pharisees of Jerusalem

we have seen

;

;

to eat with

offence in the eyes of the

and in the recent famine

in Bengal,

that individuals would rather die of absolute,

hunger, and allow their children to perish too, than eat bread or rice which

may have been touched by

profane

hands, or drink milk that had been expressed by British

milkmaids from cows' udders.

Yet these same Hindoos, the

very particular sect of the Brahmins, have amongst themselves a

form of worship which to our ideas

with real religion.

The

is

incompatible

folks referred to adore the Creator,

and respect their ceremonial law even more deeply, than did

XXI

the Hebrews after the time of the Babylonish captivity

they have a secret cult in which fact

way

—they

— and

homage

pay a very practical

other of the parts which

is

but

;

most matter-of-

in the

to

one or

thought by the worshipper to be

mundane emblem of the Creator. The curious will find in Essays on the Religion of the HinduSf by H. H. Wilson, in the Dahistan, translated by

a

Shea and Troyer (Allen and Co., London), 3

Memoirs

in

(Triibner

method

of

and

Anthropological

the

Co.), vols.

1

and

much

2,

named author thinks

it

advisable to

of London

information on the

conducting the worship referred

of

and

vols., 8vo.,

Society

The

to.

first

Brahminic

leave the

rubric" for the "Sakti Sodhana," for the most part under

**

the veil of the original Sanscrit, and I to

withdraw

am

not disposed wholly

it.

But Christians

are not pure

some of

;

my

may

readers

have seen a work written by an Italian lady of high birth,

who was

in early life forced into a nunnery,

as soon as

she had a chance.

and who

left it

In her account she

women in the monastery were seduced by rend Fathers, who were at one time the instruments of

us

at

how

the

guides to penitence.

another the

to instruct their victims that

tells

revevice,

Their practice was

whatever was said or done must

be accompanied by a pious sentence.

Thus,

**

I love you

but "I desire your " of Jesus," and I embrace in you the

dearly"

was a

profane

company

in the

name

expression;

Holy Virgin," were orthodox.

In

like

have prayers prescribed for their use,

manner, the Hindus

when

the parts are to

be purified prior to proceeding to extremities, when they are

mtroduced

to each other, in the agitation

when the ceremony Ritualists orgie,

would

sanctified

penance

is

completed.

say, decently

and in order

by prayers, cannot

ordained by some

which

follows,

Everything ;

is

and

done, as

and a pious

than the " confessors " to those faithful be worse

XXll

damsels whose minds are plastic enough to believe that a priest is an embodiment of the Holy Ghost, and that they

become assimilated to the Blessed Virgin when they are shadowed by the power of the Highept (Luke i. 35).

over-

being, then, in "religion" a strong sensual has been exercised to a wonderful extent ingenuity element,

There

in the contrivance of designs, nearly or remotely significant

which we

of this idea, or rather union of the conceptions to

have

Jupiter

refen-ed.

a Proteus in form

is

now

;

a man,

now a bull, now a swan, now an androgyne. Juno, or her equivalent, is sometimes a woman, occasionally a lioness, and at

woman were

conceivable

All

time^ a cow.

symbolised

;

attributes

man and

of

and gods were called by the names Every-

of power, love, anger, desire, revenge, fortune, etc.

thing in creation that resembled in any way the presumed Creator, whether in name, in character, or in shape, was

supposed to represent the deity. religious

oak, for

emblem, because it is

resemble the male cause. its

leaf

A

is

it

hard and firm; a triad.

The

Hence

a

palm

long, erect, fig-tree,

tree

was a

and round; an

because

its

leaves

ivy was sacred from a similar

myrtle was also a type, but of the female, because a

is

close

representation

of

vesica

the

piscis.

Everything, indeed, which in any way resembles the characteristic

organs of

one or the

man and woman, became

other

deity,

Jupiter

Astarte, the Father or the Virgin. rarely, the parts in question

or

symbolic of the

Jehovah

Juno,

Sometimes,

were depicted

ait

or

but very

naUtrel,

and

the means by which creation is effected became the mundane emblem of the Almighty; and two huge phalli were seen before a temple, as

churches,

and

we now

see towers or spires before our

minarets before mosques.

(Lucian,

Dea

Syria.)

Generally, however, to represent the organs

was considered the most correct plan by some conventional form, understood it

XXIU

by the

initiated,

upright, and father

but not by the unlearned.

longer

than broad, became symbolic of the

was hollow, cavernous,

whilst that which

;

A

symbolised the mother.

circular,

Whatever was oval, or

sword, spear, arrow,

ram, spade, ship's prow, anything indeed

dart, battering

intended to pierce into something else was emblematic of the

male

whilst the female was symbolised as a door, a hole, a

;

sheath, a target,, a shield, a field, anything indeed which

The Hebrew names

to be entered.

sufficiently indicate the

the one ^^?^ other and the of digger,

upon which the sexes were distinguished

plan

is a ^^^ zachar, a perforator

nekebah, a hole or trench,

L

was

e.

;

male and female.

These symbols were not necessarily those of religious

They might

belief.

indicate war, heroism, prowess, royalty,

command, etc., or be nothing more than they really were. They only symbolised the Creator when they were adopted Again, there was a

into religion.

and advantage was taken of the tripliform, the other single different.

;

still

fact,

farther refinement

;

that one symbol was

one of one shape, and the other

Consequently, a triangle, or three things, arranged

so that one should stand above the two, became emblematic of the Father, whilst an unit symbolised the Mother.

These

some

three sentences deserve close

last

individuals have, in

objected, that a person

attention, for

somewhat of a senseless

who can

see in a tortoise an

fashion,

emblem

of the male, and in a horse-shoe an effigy of the female

must be

organ, to

me, as

to

quite too fantastical to deserve notice.

But

other inquirers, these things are simply what

they appear to be

when they

are seen in

common

life.

Yet

when

the former creature occupies a large space in mytho-

logy

when

;

the

Hindoo

places

it

as the being

upon which the

world stands, and the Greeks represent one Venus as resting

upon a

tortoise

and another on a goat; and when one knows

that in days gone by, in which people were less refined, the

XXIV xTs)g was-

displayed where the horse-shoe

some curiously mysterious part in question

;

we cannot

now, and that

is

attributes were assigned to the

refuse to see the thing signified

in the sign.

may

Again, inasmuch as what we part of the

tripliform

the most prominent

call

organ was naturally changeable in

character, being, at one time soft, small,

and pendent, and at

another hard, large, and upright, those animals that resembled

it

in these respects

therefore, one Indian,

and necks, and

are able to distend their heads

up

erect,

were emblematic, and each in the

typified

father,

Two

became symbolical.

serpents,

and the other Egyptian, both of which

the

great

its

Creator.

to raise

them

respective country .In

manner,

like

another portion of the triad was regarded as similar in shape

and

size to the

Haller,

ologist,

living thing

common

As

hen's egg.

remarked,

*'

the celebrated physi-

Omne vivum

comes from an egg

ovo,^^

more ancient

so

;

ex

every

biologists

recognised that the dual part of the tripliform organ was as essential to the creation of a new- being as the central pillar.

Hence an egg and

a serpent became a characteristic of

'*

the

Father," El, Ab, Ach, Baal, Asher, Melech, Adonai, Jahu, etc.

When

to

this

was added a half moon, as in certain

Tyrian coins, the trinity and unity were symbolised, and a faith expressed like the one held in

mother of creation

modern Eome, that the

co-equal with the father

is

;

the one

seduces by her charms, and the other makes them fructify.

To the

the Englishman,

subject

who

as a rule, avoids talking

which forms the basis

may seem

religion,

it

writers^

could

circumlocutory

have

of

many an

upon

ancient

incredible that any individual, or set of

exercised

euphemisms

natural, are rarely Darned. find, in the writings of

their

for

ingenuity in

things

which,

finding

though

Yet the wonder ceases when we

our lively neighbours, the French, a

host of words intended to describe the parts referred

to,

XXV which correspond wholly with the

emblems adopted

pictorial

by the Greeks and others.

As English writers have, as a rule, systematically avoided making any distinct reference to the sexual ideas embodied Paganism, so they have, b;y their silence, encouraged the formation of a school of theology which has no

in ancient

soli4 foundation, except a very

animal one.

vidual finds out this for himself,

him how

far the

the determination

taken, that

we can point

to refer our readers.

thereto,

As each

indi-

becomes a question with

information shall be imparted to others.

rarely has

easily accessible

it

;

to accuse

to very few

We

the vampire

So been

English books to which

do not know one such that

is

K. Payne Knight's work, and the addition

having been privately printed,

found in the market.

To

is

not often to be

give a list of the foreign works

which the author has consulted, prior

to

and during the

composition of his book on Ancient Faiths, would be almost equivalent to giving a catalogue of part of his library.

may, however, indicate the name of one work which unusually valuable for reference,

viz.,

He is

Histoire ahregee des

Differens C^iltes^ par J. A. Dulaure, 2 vols., small 8vo., Paris, IS^o.

Though out

of print, copies can generally be

procured through second-hand booksellers.

Rechcrches sur

les

Another work,

Mystcres de Paganisme, by

equally valuable, but

it is

St. Croix, is

very difficult to procure a copy.

The ancient Jews formed no exception to the general law for the male emblem of the Creator; and though we would, from their pretensions to be the chosen of reverence

people of God,

gladly

find

them exempt from what we

consider to be impurities, we are constrained to believe that,

even in the worship of Jehovah, more respect was given to the symbol than we, living in modern times, think that deserves.

it

In their Scriptures we read of Noah, whose infirm

temper seems

to

have been on a par with his weakness for

;

XXVI

wine, cursing one of his three sons because, whilst drunk, he

had negHgently exposed his person, and the young man had thought the sight an amusing one.

Ham

had no reverence

symbol of the Creator, but Shem and Japhet had,

for the

and covered

it

with a veil as respectfully as

had been the

if it

As our

ineffable framer of the world (Gen. ix. 21-27).

feel-

ings of propriety induce us to think that the father was a far greater sinner

than the son, we rejoice to know that the

causeless curse never

fell,

and that Ham, in the lands of

Canaan, Assyria, and Babylonia, and subsequently in Carthaginian Spain, were the masters of those Hebrews, whose

main

force, in old times, lay in

impotent scoldings, such as

Shakespeare puts into the mouth of Caliban.

One

of the best proofs

the

of

strong sexual element

which existed in the religion of the Jews

the fact that

is

Elohim, one of the names of the Creator amongst the

Hebrews,

is

represented, Gen. xvii. 10-14, as

making

cir-

cumcision a sign of his covenant with the seed of Abraham

and in order to ascertain whether a as being in the covenant,

God

is

— as

the state of the virile organ, or

the

hill of

the foreskin.

quite as particular,

Elohim

:

for

We

to be regarded

the Scripture has

find, indeed, that

at the "trinity" of

when the

—of

closely as

when Moses and Zipporah were on iv.

it

Jehovah was

and examined a male quite as

from Midian to Egypt, Exod.

fect as

man was

supposed to have looked at

way

their

24, Jehovah having looked

Moses' son, and having found

lad was born, sought to slay him,

it

as per-

and would

have done so unless the mother had mutilated the organ according to the sacred pattern.

and in the following the

verses, that

Hebrew males having

Again, we find in Josh.

their virile

member

suppose that any scribe could dwell so

upon the subject

much

all

in the covenant

condition ere they went to attack the Canaanites.

scriptural writer does

v. 2,

Jehovah insisted upon

We

cannot

as almost every

of circumcision,

had

;

XXVll

not the masculine

emblem been held

in religious veneration

amongst the Jewish nation.

But the David who leaped and danced, obscenely should say, creator

— who

ark

the

before

— an

emblem

the

of

as

we

female

purchased his wife from her royal father by

mutilating a hundred Philistines, and presenting the foreskins

which he had. cut (1

therefrom "in

off

full

tale" to the king

14), who was once the captain monarch who thought it a shame beyond endurance tc

Sam.

of a

xviii.

27, 2 Sam.

be abused, tortured,

"or

a natural condition

iii.

by men whose persons were

slain

Sam.

(1

xxxi. 4),

in

and who imagined

that he, although a stripling, could conquer a giant, because

the

man whom we know

Christians

The king who, even

much

women

of

as the author of

refresh their

still

their souls.

was supposed

to think so

that his courtiers sought a lovely damsel as

a comfort for his dying bed,

is

believed to have been the

author of the noble nineteenth Psalm, others full

is

Psalms with which

minds and comfort

in his old age,



member

the one had a sanctified and the other a natural

of holy aspirations.

and a number of

It is clear, then, that sexual

ideas on religion are not incompatible with a desire to be holy.



The two were

co-existent

in

Palestine

;

they

are

equally so in Bengal.

We

next find that Abraham, the cherished

the honoured patriarch of the Jews, his

makes

to

do

bidding,

his

precisely

like

Palestinian miglit do.; and Jacob docs the

See Gen. xxiv.

As

it is

thigh,"

and

3,

God,

is

which the

loins)

is

xlvii.

a more modern same with Joseph.

29.

known that the expression, " under euphemism for the words, " upon the symbol

not generally a

of the Creator," I in

of

hand upon the master's member, whilst he takes an

oath

my

man

his servant lay

may

thic/Ji

point to two or three other passages

(translated in

used periphrastically

:

the authorised version

Genesis xxxv.

2,

xlvi.

26

XXVlll

Exod.

See Ginsburg, in Kitto's Biblical Cyclopcedia,

5.

i.

348,

vol. 3, p.

s. V,

Oath.

make

I have on two occasions read, although I failed to a note of

that an Arab, during the Franco -Egyptian war,

it,

when accused by General Kleber of treachery, not only vehemently denied it, but when he saw himself still dishe uncovered himself before the whole military staff, and swore upon his trinity that he was guiltless. In the-

trusted,

LebanoH, once in each year, every female considers duty to salute with her

it

her

organ of the Old

lips the reverenced

Sheik.

Again we

learn,

from Deut.

xxiii. 1, that

any unsanctified

mutilation of this part positively entailed expulsion from the

congregation of the Lord.

Aaron could

Even

minister, as such,

no;t

been in any way impaired (Lev. that,

in our Christian times,

perfect finds

a priest of the house of

Jewish

the

his masculinity

xxi. 20)

;

Popes have

see also Deut. xxv. 11, 12.

;

that

if

Scriptures

had

and report says to

be privately

Moreover, the inquirer

teem with promises of

abundant offspring to those who were the favourites of Jehovah and Solomon, the most glorious of their monarchs, ;

is

described as

he were a Hercules amongst the daughters

if

Nothing can indicate the licentiousness of the

of Thespius.

inhabitants of Jerusalem more clearly than the writings of Ezekiel.'^

then,

If,

in

Hebrew law and

practice,

we

find

such a strong infusion of the sexual element, we cannot be surprised

if it

should be found elsewhere, and gradually

influence Christianity.

We

must next

notice the fact, that

what we

call

impurity

in religious tenets does not necessarily involve indecency in

The ancient Romans,

practice.

kings,

seem

to

in the time of the

have been as proper

as

early

It is true that, in the declining days of the

maidens. 2

See Ezekiel

xxii.

1-30, and compare Jerem. v.

7,

8.

early

Christian

empire

;

XXIX city,

exhibitions that

called forth the

denunciations

fierce

of the fathers of the

Church took place

similar occurrences in

modern Christian

but we find very

;

In Spartan

capitals.

days, chastity and honesty were not virtues, but drunkenness

was a

In Christian England, drunkenness

vice.

general,

is

and we cannot pride ourselves upon universal honesoj and chastity. practice,

land,

It

is

but the national

not the national belief,

Spain and Ire-

which evidences a people's worth.

called

"the

respectively "Catholic" and

land

of

saints," cannot boast of equality with " jnfidel " France and " free-thinking " Prussia. England will be as earnest, as

and as

upright,

civilised,

when

has

she

abandoned

the

heathen elements in her religion, as when she hugs them as if

necessary to

good

her

spiritual

Attachment

welfare.

parts of religion is wholly distinct from a close

of the bad ones

country discord.

and we believe he deserves best

;

.of

his

who endeavours to remove every possible source None can doubt the value of the order, " Do

others as you would wish others to do to you." to carry this out,

How

be sunk. people

the

to

embrace

now

If all unite

small differences of opinion worthless are

many

the

of

of to

may

at

once

dogmas that

fight about, the following pages will show.

In our larger work we have endeavoured to show that there

may

be a deep sense of religion, a feeling of personal

responsibility, so

keen as to influence every act of

out there being a single symbol used.

.

The

life,

with-

earnest Sakya

Muni, or Buddha, never used anything as a sacred emblem nor did Jesus, who followed him, and perhaps unconsciously propagated the Indian's doctrine.

When

the Apostles were

sent out to teach and preach, they were not told to carry out

any form of ark or

crucifix.

To them the doctrine of the them had any- parti-

Trinity was unknown, and not one of

XXX cular reverence for her if

she was

'

tainly different

though said

whom we

virgo intacta

'

when she bore

to be

call

the Virgin Mary, who,

when Jesus was his brothers.

the fathers of the

born, was cer-

Paul and Peter,

Roman Church,

used or recommended the faithful to procure

"a

cross" as an aid to memory.

for

never

themselves

The* early Christians

recognised each other by their deeds, and never had, like the Jews, to prove that they were in covenant with God, by

putting a mutilated part of their body into Society of Friends,

with the

prefer

full view.

primitive to

We,

modern

Christianity.

In the following pages the author has

felt

himself obliged

make use of words which are probably only known to scholars." He has to treat of those who are more or less parts of the human body, and acts which occur habitually in the world, which in modern times are never referred to in polite society, but which, in the period when the Old Testament was written, were spoken of as freely as we now talk of to

'*

our hands, and

In those days, everything which was

feet.

common- was spoken of without shame, and that which occurred throughout creation, and was sren by every one, was

as

drinking

much

the

subject

of conversation

The Hebrew

now.

is

as

eating and

writers were extremely coarse

down by subsequent redactors, much which is in our modern judgment improper still remains. For example, where we in their diction,

and although

this has been softened

simply indicate the sex, the Jewish historians used the word

which was given to the symbol by which male and female are

known

;

for

example, in Gen.

i.

27,

and

v.

2,

and in

a

host of other places, the masculine and feminine are spoken

zachar and nekehah, which is best translated as Another equally vulgar, way of borers " and " bored."

of as '

describing

men

is

to

be found in 1 Kings

xiv,

10.

But

;

these obeervations would not serve us

much

did we not know that they were euphemisms by which when one thing

in

intended ask what

;

an illustration

for is

meant

let

and consequently

Again, when we find in Gen.

the sceptre shall not depart

57,

original,

language

"the water of is

this with Deut. xxviii.

27, where the

xviii.

their feet,"

it

is

words

used to express something which,

Genesis

and

xlvii.

put into the

if

Again, in

29, and in Heb. xi. 21,

known to scholars that the word " thigh " and euphemisms In Deut.

to express that part

xxiii. 1,

we have

is less refined.

''

it is

well

staff" are

which represents the male.

evidence, as in the last three verses

quoted, of the sanctity of the part referred

guage

in the

are,

clear that symbolic

vernacular, would be objectionable to ears polite. xxiv. 2

xlix. 10,

from Judah, nor a lawgiver

and compare

feet,"

and 2 Kings

20, and

vii.

by the phrase, " the hair of the feet " ?

can never be shaved.

from between his

said another is

is

us take Isaiah

It is certain that the feet are never hairy,

*'

symbolism

with certain

associated

but the lan-

to,

Now-a-days our ears are not attuned

to

the rough music which pleased our ancestors, and we have to

use veiled language to

express

certain

matters.

In the

following pages, the words which I select are drawn from the

Latin, Greek, Sanscrit, Shemitic, or Egyptian.

Hea, Ann,

and Asher replace the parts referred to in Deut. Osiris, Asher, Linga,

represent the

Mahadeva,

Hebrew zachar

;

xxiii. 1

Siva, Priapus, Phallus, etc.,

whilst Isis,

Parvati,

Sacti, Astarte, Ishtar, etc., replace the Jewish nekebah.

junction of these parts

is

or mystic four,

I will only add, that

;

deity, the arba,

like.

what I

refer to lias long

to almost every scholar except English ones.

are learned

The

spoken of as Ashtoreth, Baalim,

Elohim, the trinity and unity, the androgyne

and the

Yoni,

been known

Gf these a few

but for a long period they have systematically

refrained from speaking plainly, and have written in such a

XXXll

manner

as to be guilty not

only of suppressio veri but of

suggestio falsi.

many

After reading thus far, I can imagine

saying with astonishment,

so?" and

things

''Are these

a person

following up his thoughts by wondering what style of per-

who could introduce which we have treated.

sons they were, or are, matters as those of

into religion such

In roply, I can only say that I have nothing extenuated,

and

set

down nought

in

But the

mahce.

volume there are

assertion requires modification, for in this

many

my

clause of the

first

things omitted which I have referred to at length in

larger

In that I have shown,

work.

not only that

religious fornication existed in ancient Babylon, but that

reason to believe that

there

is

The

word

existed also in Palestine.

it

Kadesh, which

^"^P'

"pure, bright,

signifies

young, to be holy, or to be consecrated,"

is also

the root from

.which are formed the words Kadeshah and Kadeshim, which are used in the Hebrew writings, and are translated in our

See Deut.

"whore" and "sodomite."

authorised version xxiii. 17.



Athanasius

us

tells

something of this as regards the

Phoenicians, for he says, {Oratio Contr. Gent.y part

"Formerly,

it

is

certain that Phoenician

themselves before their idols,

gods in the place of

bodies to their

made her

propitious

them." Strabo



p. 24.)

being persuaded that they

first fruits,

pleased the goddess by that means, and to

women

ofi'ering their

i.,

prostituted

mentions a similar occurrence

Pontus, book

mous number

xiii.,

c. iii.

of w^omen

p.

36— and

at

Comana,

in

notices that an enor-

were consecrated to the use of

worshippers in the temple of Venus at Corinth.

Such women

exist in

India,

and the

priests of certain

temples do everything in their power to select the loveliest of the sex, and. to educate

them

so highly as to be attractive.

XXXlll

The customs XV.

that

12,

2 Kings

common

Kadesh'im were

xxiii. 7,

seem

wliich existed in other places

been known in Jerusalem, as we find in

1

in

Kings Judea,

to

have

xiv. 24.,

and in

we discover that these " consecrated, ones"

were located " by the temple," and were associated with

women whose business was '' to make hangings for the grove." What these tissues were and what use was made them

of

will be seen in Ezekiel xvi. 16.

Even David, when dancing and

temple,

his

of

the

hand upon

porch

We

and

have seen how Abra-

ordered their inferiors to swear by putting ''

the

thigh "

atrocities

which occurred

Ezekiel.

Yet the Jews

But without going

and we have read of the

;

Jerusalem in

in

are

and the Psalmist as

people,

pillars in the

them Jachin and Boaz,

called

added pomegranate ornaments.

ham and Jacob

shamelessly

before the ark,

Solomon erected two

exposed himself.

still

a

man

the

time

of

spoken of as God's chosen after

God's own heart. us inquire into the

so far back, let

conduct of the sensual Turks, and of the general run of the

From

inhabitants of Hindostan. learn

known

the Turks and Hindoos familiarly

position in

My

as morally good as

life

readers

must not now

partisan or a special pleader

consider that I I

everything that I can

— and I have repeatedly conversed with those who have

am making

— these are in every

common

assert that

when

I

Christians are.

am

I

say this

the comparison 'as

;

either a

they must

man by man.

do not, as missionaries do, compare the; most vicious

Mahomedan and Brahmin nor do

I,

with the most exemplary Christian;

on the other hand, compare the best Ottoman and

Indian with Christian criminals

mass, and assert that there folks in India

England

The

is

;

but I take the whole in a

as large a per centage of good

and Turkey as there

is

in Spain

and France,

or America.

grossest form of worship

is

compatible with general

XXXIV

The

purity of morals.

story of Lucretia is told of a

Pagan

woman, whilst those of Er and Onan, Tamar and Judah relate David, who seduced Bathsheba, and killed her to Hebrews. husband, was not execrated by " God's people," nor was he consequently driven from his throne as Tarquin was by the

Romans; the Babylonians, with their

In prowess and learning,

religious prostitution, were superior to the " chosen people."

Of the wealth and enterprise of the Phoenicians, Ancient History

tells

us abundance.

There are probably no three times which contain so Paris, tells

and New

many

cities in

vicious individuals as

United

London,

Yet there are none which history

York.

No Babylonian army

us of that were more powerful.

equalled in

ancient or modern

might or numbers the army of the Northern Nineveh never wielded armies equal

States.

to

those of the French Napoleon and the

German WilHam,

and Rt)me never had an empire equal

to

that

which

is

headed by London.

The its

existence of personal vice does not ruin a nation in

Nor does the most sensual form

collective capacity.

of

religion stunt the prosperity of a people, so long as the latter

do not bow their necks to a priesthood.

The

greatest curse to a nation is not a bad religion, but a

form of faith which prevents manly inquiry.

I

know

nation of old that was priest-ridden which did not

the swords of those

The tics

gi-eatest

who wink

who

danger

at vice,

does to other

is to

be feared from those ecclesias-

and encourage

men

under

did not care for hierarchs.

it

as a

they can gain power over their votaries.

man

fall

of no

as he

means whereby

So long as every

would that they should do

to

him, and allows no one to interfere between him and his

Maker,

all will

go well with the world.

— XXXV the following sheets were going through the press,

Whilst

my

Mr. Newton, who has not only assisted nie in a

friend

variety of ways, but

who has taken

the subject of symbolism, gave

a great deal of interest in

me

understand that there

to

were some matters in which he differed very strongly from

me

One

in opinion.

tation

of

the

of these

so-called

was as

another was the

grove;

Assyrian

signification of one of Lajard's

to the correct interpre-

gems, Plate

iv..

Fig. 3

;

and

the most conspicuous of our divergencies was respecting the

which prompted the use in religion of those organs of reproduction which have, from

fundamental,

or

basic

idea,

time immemorial, been venerated in Hindostan, and, as far as we can learn, in Ancient Egypt, Babylonia, Assyria, Tyre, Sidon, Carthage, Jerusalem, Etruria, Greece, and

to acquiesce in the opinions

which

respecting the Assyrian grove, but

Eome,

as

I feel quite disposed

well as in countries called uncivilised.

my old friend has formed I am not equally ready to

assent to his other opinions.

Where two

individuals

are

working earnestly

elucidation of truth, there ought, in

my

for

the

opinion, to be not

only a tolerance of disagreement, but an honest effort to

submit the subject to a jury of thoughtful readers. As I should not feel satisfied to allow any other person to express fair

to

my

opinions in his words,

Mr. Newton

his views in his

that

my

to give

him

own language.

friend's observations

the It

it

seemed

facility of

to

me

only

enunciating

was intended,

originall}|,

upon the "grove" should be

followed by a dissertation upon other relics of antiquity

notably upon that

known

as Stonehenge

—but circumstances

have prevented this design being carried into execution.

When

two individuals who have

much

in

common

go

XXXVl ox-)!'

the same ground,

natural, indeed almost necessary,

it is

upon

that they should dwell

identical topi'cs.

Hence

it

will

be found that there are points which are referred to by us both, although possibly in differing relationship.

As my own

part of the following remarks were printed

long before I saw Mr. Newton's manuscript, I hope to be

pardoned

volume

The bulk

allowing them to stand.

for

of

the

will not be increased to the extent of a full- page.

If I were to be

Newton

in

asked the reason

I differ from Mr.

exalted idea about the adoption of certain

his

emblems

bodily organs as tjpes, tokens, or

an inscrutable Creator,

my

made upon

observations

why

of an

unseen and

answer would be drawn from the

known

every

order of priesthood,

from the most remote antiquity to the present time.

No

matter what the creed, whether Ancient or Modern, the main object of its exponents

and supporters

minds of the populace.

is to

gain over the

This has never yet been done, and

probably never will be attempted, by educating the mind of the multitude to think.

In Great Britain we find three sets of hierarchs opposed

and

to each other,

all equally,

by every means in their power,

prohibit independent inquiry.

A

young Romanist convert,

as

we have

recently seen,

is

discouraged from persevering in the study of history and logic

;

a Presbyterian

is

land permits,

if

Bible, of the

God which

the

laws

England

some

that is

of his

writings

persecuted, as far as the law of the

he should engage in an honest study of the

it

it

presents for our worship,- and of

enforces.

visited

nominal equals

as other

A

bishop of the

by the puny and spiteful

critics

if

Church

of

efforts

of

he ventures to treat Jewish

study the tomes of Livy or of

Herodotus.

One earth,

set of

men have banded

and endeavour

together to elect a god on

to coerce their fellow-mortals to believe

XXXVll

make the one

that a selection by a few old cardinals can

whom

they choose to honour "infallible."

Another

set of

infallibility in a

men, who profess

to

Pope, assuixie that they possess the quaHty

themselves, and endeavour to blot out of the faithful those

God hath

left at

Surely,

who

differ

when with

to search after truth, first

set their faces

still

we

if

of

life,

when we

assert,

had no exalted views of and highest

in the higher

difi'erence

a

kakodoemon

at

if,

or

between

my

friend and

any time a figured represen-

— except

by way of Christianity — and the Devil — by Typhon — Satan to the

against an

indeed in any sense of the word.

whether there has been

is,

tation

communion

possible, every endeavour

priests of barbarism

Another small point of

me

if

are not far v;rong

such an abstract subject as senses,

^he

our modern learning, thought, and

all

advance in knowledge, and quell,

that the

frf>'v

from them ''on points which

large."

enquiry, hierarchs

scientific

eschew the idea of

since

the

beginning of

stretching a point, this

we

call

name, as being opposed

Agathodocmon, whether we are justified in providing

this evil genius with wings.

Chaldean and Assyrian

As

far as I can

sculptu^-es,

judge from

wings were given

to ihe

them to modern angels. The Babylonian Apollyon, by whatever name he went, was The Egyptians but so were all the good gods. winged

lesser deities as our artists assign



seem

to

have assigned wings only to the favourable

divinities.

The Jews had in their mythology a set of fiery flying we must notice that their cherubim and seraphim were all winged, 'some with no less than three pairs much as Hindoo gods have four heads and, six, or any other number of arms. Mr. Newton assumes that the dragon mentioned in Rev. serpents, but

xii.



was a winged creature, but

especially from verses 14

it

is

clear

from the context,

and 15, that he had no pinions,

for

XXXVlll

he was unable

woman

to follow the

whom

to

two

aerial oars

had been given.

The dragon, creation

;

we know

as

such a creature

I believe, a mediaeval

is,

it,

only spoken of in the Bible in

is

the book of Revelation, and the author of that strange pro-

duction drew his inspiration on this point from the Iliad,

where a dragon

described as of huge size, coiled like a

is

with changeful hues, and

snake, of blood-red colour, shot

having, three heads. gfaxojv

and

.

Liddell,

o
of Rev. in ch. xx. 2.

gnostic

Homer,

and Scott add

— used

So does the author

a serpent.

I have been unable to discover any

gem with anything

like a

modern dragon on

it.

Holding these views, I cannot entertain the proposition

Lhat the

winged creatures in the very remarkable gem already

referred to are evil genii.

In a question of this kind the mind sciously biassed

another.

A

by comparing one

is

perhaps unconidea with

antiquarian

searcher 'amongst Etruscan vases will see not

only that the angel of death

winged, but that Cupid, Eros,

is

''desire" or love goes, frequently

or by whatever other name hovers over the bridal or otherwise voluptuous couch, and attends beauty at her

toilet.

a pair of wings, intended, flutterings of the heart,

think of each other. place

amongst so

is

fancied,

also gave to to

Eros

represent the

produced when lovers meet or even

Such

many

The Greeks it

a subordinate deity

sexual

emblems

would be

as Plate

iv.

in

Fig. B

contains, whilst a koakdcemon would be a " spoil sport,"

and

would make the erected serpents drop rather than remain in their glory.

These matters are apparently of small importance, but

when one

is

studying the signification oT symbolical lan-

guage, he has to pay as close an attention, and extend the net of observation over as wide a sea as a scholar does when

endeavouring to decipher some language written in long-

XXXIX

forgotten characters,

and some divergence of opinion between

independent observers^ sharpens the intellect more than tries the temper.

it

PAGAN AND CHKISTIAN SYMBOLISM, PLATE This in the

The Isis,

is

I.

taken from a photograph of a small bronze image collection of the Free

Mayer

Museum,

in Liverpool.

figure stands about nine inches high, and represents

Horus, and the

ancient custom,

still

fish.

It is

an apt illustration of an

prevalent amongst certain Christians,

of reverencing a woman, said to be a virgin, giving suck to her child, and of the association of Isis, Yenus, and Marj with the fish. Friday, for example, is, with the Romanists, both ''fish day," and " dies Veneris." Fish are known to

be extraordinarily

prolific.

There was a belief that animals,

noted for any peculiarity, imparted their virtues to those who consequently, tigers' flesh was supposed to give ate them. ;

The use of fish Those who consider it

courage, and snails to give sexual power. in connubial feasts is

still

common.

pious or proper to eat fish on Venus' day, or Friday, proclaim themselves, unconsciously, adherents to those heathen ideas which deified parts about which no one now likes to talk. The fish has in one respect affinity with the mandrake.

Since the gested to

me

first

publication of this work, a friend has sug-

another reason, besides

From among the lower

being emblematic of woman. a surgeon, and especially

its fertility, for

the fish

his extensive experience as

order of courtesans,

he has repeatedly noticed during the hot months of the year that the parts which he had to examine have a very strong odour of fish. My own observations in the same department lead

me

that in

to endorse

warm

his assertion.

Consequently, I think

climates, where the utmost cleanliness can

scarcely keep a female free

from odbur, scent, as well as

other attributes, has had to do with the selection of the fish as an

emblem

Still

of

woman. have been informed by another friend

further, I

that in Yorkshire, and I understand in other counties of

England, the

marked that

dotihle

it is

difiicult to

render

it

It will suffice to say that in the

phraseology. tioned, Lais or

of fish,"

entente connected with the fish is so

somewhat

and

into decent

county men-

Phryne would be spoken of as "a choice bit man who bore on his features the stamp

that a

imprinted by excessive indulgence, would be said to have indulged too much in " a fish diet." I do not suppose that in the Yorkshire Eidings the folks are unusually well

which

is

acquainted with mythology, yet

it is

curious to find amongst

their inhabitants a connection between

precisely similar to that

remote ages and in It is clear

Venus and the Fish,

which has obtained in the most

far distant climes.

from

all

these facts that the fish is a symbol

not only of woman, but of the yoni.

PLATE

11.

Is supposed to represent Oannes,

god.

It

is

pi. xxii., 1,

Dagon, or some other

fish

copied from Lajard, Sur le Culte de Venus, la, and is thus described, " Statuette inedite, de

Elle porte par gres houiller ou micace, d'un brun verdatre. en caraclegende un perpendiculaire, devant, sur une bande teres

Syriaques

a Lyon)."

tres

anciens

I can find no

{Cabinet

de

M. Lamberty

clue to the signification of the

would seem paradoxical to say that there is something in common between the bull-headed deity and Oannes. It is so, nevertheless. One indicates, par excelThat Oannes lence, physical, and the other sexual, power.

inscription.

may,

It

for the Assyrians, represent a

man who

played a part

among the Indians of Pennsylvania, I do not deny but, when we find a similar fish-god in Philistia and Hindostan, and know that Crishna with them similar to that of Penn ;

PLATE

II.

^v.

Jf >;

r

V

fnlwi

PLATE

A:^.^

III.

%^,(^f|M ^\__

3

once appeared as a

the explanation does not suffice.

fish,

curious that Jesus of Nazareth should be called

It is

*x9'jc,

or ''a fish "; but this only proves that the religion of Christ

has been adulterated by Paganism.

PLATE and 4 are

1

Figs. religious

branched lotus

the antelope

of

illustrations

emblem amongst

Layard's Nineveh, and in triply

III.

it

we

its

as

first is

see carried in one

a

from

hand a

the second, showing the regard for the

;

spotted antelope, and for *'the branch,"

Nineveh and

The

the Assyrians.

from Bonomi's

is

Palaces.

Fig. 2 illustrates Bacchus, with a mystic branch in one

hand, and a cup in the other his robe is covered with spots The branch is emblematic of the arbor arranged in threes. ;

vitcB,

or tree of

symbol

life,

and

its

Such a

powers of sprouting.

by outsiders, figured on the houses of newly

is,

married couples amongst the Jews of Morocco, and seems to indicate the desire of friends that the man will show that he is

vigorous,

life.

and able

to

have

It will be noticed that

many

SLnd

use

Hislop's

Two

Two

show the prevalence

of the

;

353.

tion of spots, see Plate

For an explanation of the iv.,

represents

significa-

Fig. 6, infra,

PLATE 1

Hislop's

they are copied from on priestly dresses Babylons, and Wilkinson, vol. vi., pi. 33, and

vol. iv., pp. 841,

Fig.

round the god's

Smith's Dictionary, p. 208.

Figs. 3 and 5 are intended to of spots

fillet

From

head are arranged many crosses.

B aby Ions,

sprouts from the tree of

on the

IV.

an Assyrian

presentation of the thumb, which

priest

worshipping by

had a peculiar

signifi-

Sometimes the forefinger is pointed instead, and in both cases the male is S3'mbolised. It is taken from a plate illustrating a paper by E. C. Ravenshaw, Esq., in Journal cation.

of Royal Asiatic Society,

vol.

xvi.,

p.

114.

Amongst the

;

Hebrews, and probably

all

the Shemitic tribes, boheUy the

thumb, and ezba, the finger, were euphemisms. so in some parts of Europe to the present day.*

They are The hand

thus presented to the grove resembles a part of the Buddhist cross,

and the shank of a key, whose

signification is described

in a subsequent page.

Fig. 2 is a Buddhist circle represent the

emblem

the two fishes forming the

;

mystic yoni, the sacti of Mahadeva, while

the triad above them represents the mystic trinity, the triune Bel,

Siva,

father,

From Journal plate

united with

Asher,

or

of Royal Asiatic Society,

392,

ii.

Fig. 3

is

second. boles,

Memoir e,

et

les

(Paris, 1837), in pages 32,

The

1.

is

described by him in his

entitled Recherches sur

Attributs,

les

It originally

a very remarkable production.

belonged to Mons. Lajard, and

fig.

Anu and Hea.

vol. xviii., p.

le

Culte, les

Monumens Figures et

real age of the

seq.,

SymVenus

de

and figured in plate

gem and

its

origin

i.,

are not

known, but the subject leads that author to believe it to be The stone is a white of late Babylonian workmanship. the cutting is on its lower and shaped like a cone, agate,

The shape of Venus. The central

this

face.

gem

indicates its dedication to

figures represent the androgyne deity,

Baalim, Astaroth, Elohim, Jupiter genetrix, or the bearded

Venus

Mylitta.

On

the

left side

of the cutting

we

notice an

whose rayed head makes us recognise the solar emblem, and its mundane representative, mentala arrecta ; on a spot opposite to the centre of the male's body erect

we

serpent,

find a lozenge, symbolic of the yoni, whilst opposite to

his feet *

is

A friend

the

amphora, whose mystic signification

may

has informed me, for example, that he happened, whilst at Pesth, and handsome young woman. To his astonishment

to look at a gorgeously dressed

manner adopted by the Assyrian priests and being, as it were, fascinated, he continued to gaze. The damsel then grasped the thumb by the other hand thus indicating her profession. My friend, who was wholly inexperienced in the ways of the world, only understood what was meant when he saw my explanation of Fig. 1. she pointed her

thumb

this surprised the

precisely in the

young man

still

farther,

;

/5

readily be recognised

;

it

meant

is

Ouranos, or the Su«i

for

fructifying Terra, or the earth, by pouring

inverted

from himself into

three stars over the head of the figure, and the

The

her.

triangle

on

its

head,

representations

are

of the

Egyptian symbol of mythological four, are the moon, female the Opposite to life (figs. 81, 32). and another serpent, which may be recognised by physiologists In a part corresponding to as symbolic of tensio clitoridis. the

equivalent to

the diamond, on the atic,

left side, is

cup, which

emblem-

a six-rayed wheel,

feet is placed a

At the female's

apparently, of the sun.

intended to represent the passive element in it is analogous to the crescent moon, and

is

As such

creation.

associated in the Roman church with the round wafer, the symbol of the sun the wafer and cup thus being synonymous with the sun and moon in conjunction. It will be

is

;

that

observed

each

attacked by what difficulty

serpent

we suppose

in is

the

plate

a dragon.

in understanding the exact idea

conveyed by these

;

my own

opinion

is

is

apparently

There

is

some

intended to be

that they symbolise

Satan, the old serpent that tempted Eve, viz., fierce lust, Eros, Cupid, or desire, which, both in the male and female, It brings about the arrectation which the serpents figure.

not to be passed by without notice, that the snake which represents the male has the tail so curved as to suggest

is

the idea of the second and third elements of the trinity. Monsieur Lajard takes the dragons to indicate the bad principle in naturcy

i. e.,

darkness, night, Ahriman, etc.

On

the

pyramidal portion of the gem the four sides are ornamented



three represent animals remarkable for their by figures salacity, and the fourth represents Bel and Ishtar in conjunction, in a fashion which can be more easily imagined

The learned

than described in the mother tongue. find the position

book

iv.,

assumed

in Lucretius,

will

De Rerum Naturd,

lines 1256, seq.

Fig. 4

is

also copied

from Lajard, plate

i.,

the reverse of a bronze coin of Vespasian,

fig.

10.

It is

struck in the

6 island of Cyprus, and represents the conica] stone, under whose form Venus was worshipped at Paphos, of which Tacitus remarks, Hist, ii., c. 3, " the statue bears no resem-

blance to the

human

form, but

and gradually tapering of this

is

round, broad at one end

is

The reason

at the other, like a goal.

not ascertained."

remarkable that a male emblem should be said to represent Venus, but the stone was an aerolite, hke that which fell at Ephesus, and was It is

said to represent Diana.

It is clear that when a meteoric the chief priests of the district can say that it to be taken as a representative of their divinity.

stone is

falls,

My

very ingenious friend, Mr. Newton, suggests that the

Venus in question was androgyne emblem, within a door, gateway, the Assyrian grove.

is

a

male

It is certain that the serpents, the

and the two candelabra, or

stars,

that the cone

;

or delta, thus resembling

two

altars with flame, favour his

idea,

Fig. 5 represents the position of the hands assumed by Jewish priests when they give the benediction to their flock. It will be recognised that each trinity,

hand separately

indicates the

whilst the junction of the two indicates the unit.

The whole is symbolic of the mystic Arba— the four, i.e., the trinity and unity. One of my informants told me that, being a " cohen " or priest, he had often administered the to me this method of benehands so that his nose entered the On his doing so, I remarked " bene nasa-

blessing, and, whilst

showing

diction, placed his joined

central aperture. tus,''

and the expression did more

probaljility of

my

to convince

Fig. 6, modified in one form or another,

assumed by the hand and can bishops people.

A

or

him

of the

views than anything else.

other

fingers,

hierarchs give

similar disposition

is

is

the position

when Roman and Anglibenediction

to be

met with

to

their

in Indian

mythology, when the Creator doubles himsolf into male and female, so as to be in a position to originate

new beings.

Whilst the right hand in Plate VII. symbolises the male,

PLATE

IV.

r -/v.

WM

ii',ii;i^--'-M,

:SSi

PLATE

V.

^^".C\/:A?,;;'A^nX^;-Ayl)-^"^J>^^'"a^lX.A^^',>M>:

— the

left

hand represents the mystic feminine

circle. In found in Moor's Hindu Pana similar figure, but draped fully, and in that

another plate, which theon, there is

is

to be

the dress worn by the celestial spouse

is

covered with groups

of spots arranged in triads and groups of four. to the signification of spots,

cated, either

we may

by their shape or by

womankind.

A

confirms this.

He

is

name, the emblem of Hindoo god of the sky,

their

story of Indra, the

covered with eyes

With regard

notice that they indi-

usually represented as bearing a robe

but the legend runs that, like David, he became enamoured of the wife of another man, who was very ;

and seen by chance, but her spouse was one whose made him almost equal to Brahma. The evil design of Indra was both frustrated and punished. The woman escaped, but the god became covered with marks that recalled his offence to mind, for they were pictures of the beautiful

austere piety

yoni.

Rishi,

.

These, by the strong intercession of

were changed by the

latter

enables us to recognise clearly the

the Hindoo and Egyptian eye,

Brahma with

into eyes.

the

This story

hidden symbolism of

the oval

representing the

female, and the circle the male lodged therein

i,e.,

the

androgyne creator.

PLATE Is a copy of a mediaeval Virgin

v..

and Child, as painted

in

Delia Robbia ware in the South Kensington Museum, a copy of which was given to me by my friend, Mr. Newton, to

whose kindness I ancient Christian

am art.

indebted for

many

illustrations of

It represents the Virgin

and Child

precisely as she used to be represented in Egypt, in India,

and Etruria ; the accident no mythological consequence. In the

in Assyria, Babylonia, Phoenicia,

of dress being

of

framework around the group, we recognise the triformed emblematic of Asher the grapes, typical of Dionysus ; the wheat ears, symbolic of Ceres, Vahricot fendu, the mark

leaf,

of

;

womankind, and the pomegranate rimmon, which charac-

8

The

teeming mother.

terises the

living group,

moreover,

are placed in an archway, delta, or door, which is symbolic of the female, like the vesica piscis, the oval or the circle.

This door snails, i.

moreover, surmounted by what appear to be

is,

whose supposed virtue we have spoken of under Plate

This identification of Mary with the

by-and-by we shall see that

it is

Sacti is strong;

as complete as

it is

possible

made.

to be

PLATE

VI.

Is a copy of figures given in Bryant's Ancient Mythology, plates

story

That

dolphin.

The first two illusand Cetus, introducing the

third edition, 1807.

xiii., ^^xviii.,

the

trate

of fish

Palemon is

symbolic of the female, in conse-

quence of the assonance in Greek between of the

arbor the

womb,

vitce,

delphis and delphus.

The

third figure,

name and

that

tree symbolises the

and the ark is a symbol of where a man rests upon a rock

the life-giving sprout

womb.

The

its

;

and dolphin, and toys with a mother and child, is equally suggestive. The male is repeatedly characterised as a rock, hermes, menhir, tolmen, or upright stone, the female by the dolphin,

or

fish.

The

result

elements appears in the child,

The

fourth

creator, a

and

figure

man and

ship.

of

whom

the junction

of

these

both parents welcome.

two emblems of the male and two of the female, a dolphin

represents trident,

The two last figures represent a coin of Apamea, Noah and the ark, called Cibotus, Bryant prove that the group commemorates the story

representing labours to

told in the Bible

respecting the flood, but there

is

doubt whether the story was not of Babylonian origin.

strong

The

was in Phrygia, and the coin appears to have been struck by Philip of Macedon. The inscription round the head is ATT. K. lOVA ^lAinnOC. ATT. on the reverse, ERMA. VP. AA. EHANAP. 0TB. APXI AHAMEX2N. See Ancient Faiths, second edition. Vol. ii., pp. 123, and 385 - 392. city referred to

;

PLATE VI

PLATE

VII.

The Supreme Spibit in the act of creation became, by Voga, two-fold, the RIGHT SIDE WAS MALE, THE LEFT WAS PRAKRITI. ShE 13 OF ONE FORM WITH BRAMAH. 18 M.AYA, eternal and imperishable, such as the Spirit, such is the inherent ENERGY. (The Saoti) as THt faculty, op burning is inherent in fire. (Bramah Vaivartta Puranu. Professor Wilson.) She

-

ARDANARI-ISWARA.

From an original drawjnq by Chrisna Swami. Pundit.

9

PLATE

VIT.

made by a learned Hindoo Simpson, Esq., of London, whilst he was

Is a copy of an original drawing

pundit for in

Wm.

India studying

supreme, who i.e.,

mythology.

its

male and female.

of the figure far too

Brahma double,

In the original

the

central part

occupied by the triad and the unit, but

is

grossly

represents

made himself

It

in the act of creation

shown

for

reproduction here.

The

replaced by the crux ansata.

They

are

reader will notice the

triad

and the serpent in the male hand, whilst in the female

is to

be seen a germinating seed, indicative of the relative The whole stands upon a

duties of father and mother. lotus, the

symbol of androgyneity.

this incarnation is "

PLATE Is Devi, the

same

by one of the symbols dress

is

It is copied

from

The goddess represents the xxx. Her forehead is marked universe.

feminine element in the

Her

technical word for

VIII.

as Parvati, or Bhavani.

Moor's Pantheon, plate

the unit.

The

Arddha Nari."

of the four creators, the triad,

and

covered with symbolic spots, and one marked by a circle having a dot

foot peculiarly placed is

The two bear

in the interior.

the same signification as the

not able to define the symbolic import Moor considers that of the articles held in the lower hands. The raised I doubt. this but paper, of scrolls they represent sits goddess and the flower, lotus hands bear the unopened

Egyptian eye.

I

am

pon another.

PLATE

IX.

Consists of six figures, copied from Maurice's Indian Antiquities, vol. vi., p. 273, and two from Bryant's Mythology, vol.

ii.,

third edition, pp.

the idea of the male triad

above the other two. mystically, the linga

;

203 and 409. :

All are symbolic of

a central figure, erect, and rising

In one an

and fire indicate, same is pourtrayed as

altar

in another, the

10 a man, as Madaheva always

stump and

is

;

in another, there is a tree

serpent, to indicate the

same

The two

idea.

appendages of the linga are variously described; in two instances as serpents, in other two as tree and concha, and snake and the

left

The two

shell.

that the right

produces girls

physiologists.

The

last

seem

to

embody the

idea

of the male germinates boys, whilst

"egg"

;

a theory

common amongst

ancient

by the

figure of the tree encircled

ser-

'* tolmen," is pent, and supported by two stones resembling to point seem figures The whole of these very significant.

unmistakably to the origin of the very

common

belief that

figure is Bel, Baal, or

In Assyrian theology the central Asher the one on the right Am:,

that on the left Hea.

See Ancient Faiths, second edition.

the male Creator

Vol.

I.,

pp.

is triune.

;

83-85.*

There are some authors who have treated of tree and

and of

serpent worship,

its

prevalence in ancient times,

without having, so far as I can see, any idea of that which The tree of knowledge, the tree the two things typify. of

life,

the serpent that tempted Eve, and

many figures

still

tempts

man

of speech which the wise

by his subtlety, are so understand, but which to the vulgar are simply trees and In a fine old bas-relief over the door of the Cathesnakes. dral at Berne,

An

we

see an ancient representation of the last

is dividing the sheep from the goats, and devils are drawing men and women to perdition, by fixing hooks or pincers on the portions of the body whence their

judgment.

angel

For those who have not an opportunity of consulting the work referred to, observe that the Assyrian godhead consisted of four persons, three beinf male and one female. The principal god was Asher, the upright one, the cquiva-. lent of the Hindoo Mahadeva, the great holy one, and of the more modem Priapus. He was associated with Anu, lord of solids and of the lower world, equivalent to Hea was lord of waters, and represented the " testis," or egg on the right side. the left " stone." The three formed the trinity or triad. The female was named the Ishtar or Astarte, and was equivalent to the female organ, the yoni or vulva The male god in Egypt was Osiris, the female Isis, and these icrets of the Greeks. names are frequently used as being euphemistic, and preferable to the names which are in vulgar use to describe the male and female parts. •

I

may



PLATE

ly.

11

One

sins sprung.

fat priest,

nude

as our risen bodies

be, is being savagely pulled to hell

by tree and serpent, whilst she vainly sought to disgrace,

the blest.

is

must

by the part symbolised

whom

he has adored and

amongst Eve alone that are

rising to take her place

It is not those of the sex of

inveigled to destruction by the serpent.

PLATE Contains pagan

X.

symbols of the

trinity or

linga,

with or

without the unity or yoni. Fig. 1 represents a symbol frequently architecture, etc.

met with

in ancient

represents the male and female ele-

It

ments, the pillar and the half moon. Fig. 2 represents the mystic letters said to have been

By some

placed on the portal of the oracle of Delphi.

it

is

proposed to read the two letters as signifying "he or she is;"

by others the

and the

taken to be symbolic of -the triad

letters are

If they be, the pillar is a very unusual form

unit.

the yoni. An ingenious friend of mine regards the upright portion as a " slit," but I cannot wholly agree with for

him,

the pillar cannot be looked upon as an

for in Fig. 1

aperture.

Fig. 3

is

a

Hindoo

Hindu Pantheon, and

sectarial

mark, copied from Moor's

one out of

is

many

indicating the

union of the male and female. Fig.

4

emblematic

is

of

the

and

virgin

the two with the crescent.

identifies

It

some designers should unite the moon with the and others with the

virgin.

We

p. is

15.

5 It

highly

is

and Ashtaroth in

we may otherwise express

and the immaculate Fig.

solar symbol,

second that of Astarte or Venus in the

Or, as

singular.

It

believe that the first indi-

cate ideas like that associated with Baalim,

the plural, the

child.

singular that

is

it,

the married

virgin.

copied

from

Sharpe's

Egyptian Mythology,

represents one of the Egyptian

symbolic,

not

only

indicating

trinities,

the

triad,

and here

12

and Nepthys, but its union with the female central god Osiris is himself triune, as he bears the horns symbolic of the goddess Athor and the feathers of the god Ka. Fig. 6 is a Hindoo sectarial mark, from Moor's Hindu Pantheon, The lozenge indicates the yoni. For this asserOsiris, Isis,

The

element.

tion

we not only have evidence

in Babylonian

gems, copied by

Lajard, but in Indian and Etruscan designs.

example, in

vol. v., plate xlv., of

David

par. F. A.

her breast a half

We "find,

-

Antiquites Etrusques,

for

etc.,

draped female, wearing on and mural crown, holding her hands

(Paris, 1785), a

moon

over the middle spot of the body, so as to form a "lozenge"

with the forefingers and thumbs.

we may add

very distinct; and

three balls or three circles

is to

The

triad in this figure is

that a trinity expressed by

be met with in the remotest

times and in most distant countries. Figs. 7, 8, 9 and 10 are copied from Cabrera's account of

an

ancient city discovered near Palenque, in Guatemala, Spanish America (London, 1822). Although they appear to have a sexual design, yet I doubt whether the similarity is

not accidental.

After a

given by Cabrera, I

am

close

ling-yoni

element prevailed

American

sculptors.

the plates

in

the

mind

of

the

ancient

All the males are carefully draped in

appropriate girdles, although in

ornament, such as a

examination of

inclined to think that nothing of the

human

some a grotesque

or other

or bestial head, a flower, etc., is

attached to the apron or "fall" of the girdle, resembling the sporran of the Highlander and the codpiece of mediaBval knights and others. I may, however, mention some very

remarkable sculptures copied

; one is a tree, whose trunk is surrounded by a serpent, and whose fruit is shaped like

the

vesica

piscis

;

in

another

is

unclothed, save by a cap and gaiters,

seen

who

a

youth wholly

kneels before a

similar tree, being ihreater.ed before and behind by fierce

animal.

rest in

This figure

is

peculiar, differing

from

some

all

the

having an European rather than an American head

PLATE

X.

PLATE

XI.

C^

13

and

Indeed, 'the features,

face.

remind me of the

etc.,

late

Mr. Cobden, and the cap is such as yachting sailors usually There is also another remarkable group, consisting wear.

man and woman

apparently of a

proportioned

like

standing before a cross,

conventional

the

ovm in

are ornaments or designs wholly unlikjC

The man appears

elsewhere.

human

tesque

figure,

with a turned-up

noiie,

and is

the top of the cross

mented by sculptures

only

be

to the cross a gro-

mucli unlike Punch,

shaped

is

*'fli2:)pers"

like a fig in

but the arms and

well formed,

Kcsting

or ''fins."

a bird, like a

game

cock, orna-

beardless,

guessed at by the inferior size of some of the It

figures.

nfot

The male in this and the other and that women are depicted, can

a necklace. is

any that I have seen

ofFer

a short pipe

thighs are rounded off like at

t0

with a head

The body

mouth.

his

amongst

use

Everything indicates American ideas, and there

Christians.

would be unprofitable

to carry the description

farther.

Figs. 11, 12 are from vol.

and

plates xix.

i.,

xxiii. of a

remarkably interesting work, RechercJies sur V originc, V esprit, et

progres

Ics

des Arts

Grece, said

de la

by D'Harcanville, published

to

be written

London, 1785.

at

The

first

represents a serpent, coiled so as to symbolise the male triad,

and the crescent, the emblem ^of the yoni. Fig. 12 accompanies the bull on certain the sexual elements,

bolises

baton

le

were used, as the horse-shoe

is

et

coins,

and sym-

V anneau. -They

now, as a charm

against

bad luck, or vicious demons or fairies. Fig. 13 is, like figure 5, from Sharpe's Egyptian Mythology, p. 14, and is said to represent Isis, Nepthys, and Osiris

;

it is

trinity is of

one of the

many

Miiraite triads.

Egyptian origin, and

is

The Christian

as surely a pagan doctrine

as the belief in heaven and hell, the existence of a devil, of archangels, angels, spirits and saints, martyrs and virgins,

and demigods, and other forms which deface the greater part of modern religions.

intercessors in heaven, gods of faith

14 Figure 14

but

appears

a symbol frequently seen in Greek churches,

is

be of pre-christian

to

we have elsewhere described

The

origin.*

cross

being a compound

male emblem, whilst the crescent symbolises the female element as

in creation.

Figure 15

from' D'Harcanville, Op, Cit, vol.

is

It resembles Figure 11, supra,

xxiii.

moon

introduction of the sun and

tail,

body,

instead of being curved

were straight,

the sun

it

plate

to verify the deduction

drawn from the arrangement of the serpent's snake's

i.,

and enables us by the coils.

above the

If the

8

like

would simply indicate the linga and

the bend in its neck, however, indicates the yoni and the moon. Figure 16 is copied from plate xvi., fig. 2, of Recueil de ;

Pierres Antiques Graves,

1786).

The gem

folio,

by

M. Eaponi (Rome,

J.

represents a sacrifice to Priapus, indicated

by the rock, pillar, figure, and branches given in our plate. nude male sacrifices a goat a draped female holds' a kid

A

;

ready for immolation pipe,

;

a second man, nude, plays the double

and a second woman, draped, bears a vessel on her

head, probably containing wine for a libation.

Figure 17 this

is

medal the

from

vol.

triad is

i.

Recherches,

formed by a

etc., plate xxii.

man and

In

two coiled

serpents on the one side of the medal, whilst on the reverse are seen a tree, surrounded by a snake, situated between two rounded stones, with a dog and a conch shell below. See

supra, Plate

ix..

Fig. 6.

PLATE XL

— With two emblems

exceptions. Figs. 4 and 9,

— exhibits

Christian

and the unity or yoni, alone or combined the whole being copied from Pugin's Glossary of Ecclesiastical Ornament (London, 1869). Fig. 1 is copied from Pugin, plate xvii., and indicates a of the trinity or linga, ;

• There is an able essay on this subject in No. 267 of the Edinburgh Bevieio— which almost exhaasts the subject but is too long for quotation here.



15 double union of the trinity with the unity, here represented as a ring, V anneau.

In figure

Figs. 2, 3, are from Pugin, plate xiv.

extremely

significant,

and

had not mystified

the artist

if

the

2,

limb of the cross are

balls at the base of each

two covered

the free end, the most obtuse worshipper must have recog-

We may

nised the symbol.

add here that in the two forms

of the Maltese cross, the position of the lingam is reversed,

and the egg-shaped bodies, with

their cover, are at the free

end of each limb, whilst the natural end of the organ is left This form of cross is unchanged. See figs. 35 and 36. Etruscan.

Fig. 3

same

essentially the

is

as the preceding,

The

balls in this and both may be compared with Fig. 4. cross are uncovered, and the free end of each limb of the

cross

is

but slightly modified.

Fig. 4 fig. 4,

of

1865).

is

copied in a conventional form from plate xxxv.,

Two Essays on

the Wo7'ship of

It is thus described (page 147)

found at

St.

:

Priapus (London, " The object was

Agati di Goti, near Naples

..It is

Vi

crux

ansata formed by four phalli, with a circle of female organs

and appears by the look

round the centre;

intended for suspension.

doubt been made ecclesiastic."

for

We

As

have been

to

this cross is of gold,

some personage

it

had no

of rank, possibly

an

see here very distinctly the design of the

egg- and sistrum-shaped bodies.

When we

unmistakable bi-sexual cross before our eyes, to ignore the signification

of Figs. 2 and

have such an

it is

3,

impossible

and Plate

xii.,

Figs. 4 and 7.

Figs. 5, 6 are from Pugin, plates xiv. and xv., and repre-

sent the trinity with the unity, the triune god and the virgin

united in one. Fig. 7 represents the a cross,

central lozenge

figured plate xiv. of Pugin.

Maltese cross essentially the

is

and one limb of

In this jnstance the

united with the symbol of the virgin, being

same

of the crux ansata.

as Fig. 9, infra.

It is a

modified form

16 Fig. 8

compound

a

is

trinity^

being the

finial of

each

Pugjin, plate xv.

limb of an ornamental cross. Fig. 9 is a well-known Egyptian symbol, borne in the hand of almost every divinity. It is a cross, with one limb

made name

to

that

represent the it

female element in creation.

with a handle."

A

The

"the cross

technically bears is crux ansata, or

reference to Fig. 4 serves to verify the

idea which it involves. In this figure Fig. 10 is from Pugin, plate xxxv. of two ovals, each intersectiqn the by the cross is made each Within limb a yoni. the of a vesica piscis, an emblem

symbol of the

trinity is seen,

each of which

is

associated

with the central ring. Fig. 11 is from Pugin, plate xix., and represents the arhor vitcB,

ring

the branch, or tree of is

life,

as a triad, with

which the

united.

It has

been said by some

critics that

the figures above

mere architectural fancies, which never had a mystery; and that any designer embody pretensions to would pitch upon such a style of ornamentation although profoundly ignorant of the doctrine of the trinity and unityreferred to are

But this assumption is not borne out by fact the ornaments ^n Buddhist topes have nothing in common with those of ;

Christian

sun

churches

;

whilst

in the

at Marttand, India, the trefoil

ruined temple of the

emblem

of the trinity is

common. Grecian temples were profusely ornamented therewith, and so are innumerable Etruscan sculptures, but they do not represent the trinity and unity.

It

has been reserved

Christian art to crowd our churches with the

emblems

for

of

Baalim and Ashtoreth, linga and yoni, and to elevate the phallus to the position of the Supreme deity, and assign to him a virgin as a companion, who can cajole him by her blandishment, weary him by wailing, or induce him to change his mind by her intercesChristianity certainly requires to be purged of its sions.

Bel

fa.nd

Astarte,

heathenisms.

PLATE

XII

PLATE

XIIJ

.

17

PLATE

XII.

Contains both pagan and Christian emblems. Fig. 1

from Pugin, plate

is

representing the trinity.

finial

xviii.,

require an explanation ; yet with such

churches abound, that the Trinity

man

the minds of Fig. 2

or

woman

common

very

is a

emblems our Christian

may

never be absent from

!

from Pugin, plate

is

and

Its shape is too significant to

It is a

xxi.

combination

of ideas concealing the union patent in Fig. 4, Plate xi., su2:)ra.

Fig. 3

is

from Moor's Hindu Pantheon.

ment borne by

an orna-

It is

Devi, and symbolises the union of the triad

with the unit. Fig.

4

from Pugin, plate

is

made up

cross

xxxii.

a conventionalised form of Fig. 4, Plate

eight-rayed figures,

made

like stars,

and to have been designed and female. male Fig. 5 is from Pugin, plate ancient,

trinity

is

double

a

seem

xi.,

to

It

is

Such

supra.

have been very

to indicate the junction of

and represents the

xvii.,

and the unity.

Fig.

6

is

a

Buddhist emblem from Birmah, Journal

of Royal Asiatic Society, vol. 52.

It

male and female emblems.

the

of

xviii.,

It represents the short sword, le

p.

392, plate

i.,

fig.

hracquemard, a male

symbol. Fig. 7.

is

from Pugin, plate

xvii.

See Plate

xi..

Fig. 3,

supra. Figs. 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 are Buddhist (see Fig. 6, supra),

and symbolise ^the Figs.

13,

14,

triad.

15,

16,

17 are from Pugin, and simply

represent the trinity.

common Grecian emblems. The Neptune and water, the second with Bacchus. With the one we see dolphins, emblems of the womb, the name of the two being assonant in Greek with the other, the saying, sine Baccho et Cerere friget Venus, must be coupled. Figs. 18 and

first is

19 are

associated with

;

B

18

PLATE emblems

Consists of various

almost

Exclusively

from

XIII.

of the triad and the unit,

Grecian,

drawn

Roman, and

Etruscan,

Indian gems, figures, coins, or sculptures, MafFei's

Antiche Figurate, Raponi's Recueil, and Moor's

Gemme

Hindu Pan-

theon , being the chief authorities.

PLATE Is a copy of a small tion in the Free

Hindoo

Museum,

XIV.

statuette in the

Liverpool.

It

Mayer

Collec-

probably repre-

Hindoo virgin, and her child. The right hand of the figure makes the symbol of the yoni with the forefinger and thumb, the rest of the fingers typifying tbe In the palm and on the navel is a lozenge, triad. The child, perhaps Crishna, equiemblematic of woman. valent to the Egyptian Horus and the Christian Jesus, bears in its hand one of the many emblems of the linga, and The monkey introduced into the group stands upon a lotus. plays the same^ part as the cat, cow, lioness, and ape in the sents Parvati, the

.

Egyptian mythology, being emblematic of that desire which eventuates in the production of offspring.

PLATE XV. Fig. 1, the cupola,

is

well

known

equally so in Hindostan, where

by

pillars of a peculiar shape.

it

is

in

modern Europe

;

it is

sometimes accompanied

In one such compound the

that of a cupola, supported by closely placed pillars, each of which has a '' capital," resembling *' the glans " of

design

is

physiologists

;

in the centre there is a door, wherein a

female stands, resembling in dress

by the

all

nude

respects Figure 61, except in

This was copied and the presence of the child. late Mr. Sellon, from a Buddhist Dagopa in the

Bombay Presidency, a tracing of his sketch me by William Simpson, Esq., London. The same emblem may be found amongst the ancient

Jumnar

Cave,

having been given to Italians.

Whilst I was staying in Malta during the carnival

PLATE

XIV.

PLATE

XV.

19 time in 1872, 1 saw in

all

directions

men and women

cakes shaped like the yoni shown in Fig.

selling

These sweet-

1.

meats had no special name, but they came in and went out with the carnival. Fig. 2 represents

Venus standing on

a tortoise,

whose

symbolic import will be seen by referring to Fig. 74, infra. It is copied

and

fig. 5,

from Lajard, Sur

is

him

stated by

le

Culte de Venus, plate

to be a

candelabrum, existing in the Koyal

iiia.,

drawing of an Etruscan

Museum

In

at Berlin.

his account of Greece, Pausanias mentions that he saw one figure of

Venus standing on

a tortoise,

and another upon

a ram, but he declines to give the reason of the conjunction*

PLATE

XVI.

Is a representation of Siva, taken from Moor's

theony plate

Indian

Siva

xiii.

deities,

and

to

is

Hindu Pan-

supposed to be the oldest of the

have been worshipped by the abori-

gines of Hindostan, before the Aryans invaded that country. It is

thought that the Vedic religion opposed this degrading

conception at the

Though he

is

first,

but was powerless to eradicate

yet the most popular of

venerated, I understand, chiefly by the vulgar. personifies the male principle, there in pictorial representations is

seen the trident, one of the

triad

whilst in another

;

is to

is

Though he

not anything indecent

In one of his hands

emblems

of the masculine

be seen an oval sistrum-shapcd

symbol of the feminine

loop, a

is

of him.

it.

the gods, Siva

all

unit.

On

his forehead he

bears an eye, symbolic of the Omniscient, the sun, and the

union of the sexes.

As

it

justified

has been doubted by some readers, whether I in

regarding the

si

am

strum as a female emblem, I

append here a quotation from Socrates' Ecclesiastical History, Bohn's translation, of Theodosius, .

.

.

''

p. 281, seq.

when

a

In Rome, in the early time

woman was

detected in adultery

they shut her up in a narrow brothel, and obliged

her to prostitute herself in a most disgusting manner

;

causing

20

...

As soon as the bells to be rung at tbe time emperor was apprised of this indecent usage, he would by no means tolerate it; but having ordered the Sistra (for so these places of penal prostitution were denominated) to be

little

pulled down," &c.

emblem should mark did at Pompeii.

One can

as easily see

a brothel in

Rome

why

a female

as a male symbol

PLATE

XVI.

J

Fignre

This Figure

represents

presence of what tive of the

Assyrian

supposed

is

tail,

is

in

most clothed with

;

The

unit.

it

verger de

le

on the

left

a fish's skin, the

by

symbolic of

eye,

with the

emblematic of the same.

itself

grove represents mystically right stands the king

the

in

first is typified

which make

male triad and the female

central pupil,

offering

— or the representa-

The

sun god and of the grove.

the eye, with wings and a

the

priests

Baal

to be

Cypris.

The

On

the

are two priests, the fore-

head forming the mitre

thus showing the origin of modern Christian bishops' peculiar

head-dress.

Arranged about the figures

a bird, perhaps the sacred dove, in

the

amorous

Shemitic,

some

gratification

of the yoni

;

;

are, the

whose note, coa or

resemblance to

in Latin cot, coite

sun

;

coo, has,

an invitation to ;

the oval, symbol

the basket, or bag, emblematic of the scrotum,

and apparently the lotus. by the second priest.

The

trinity

and unity are carried

Figure 2 is copied from an ancient copper, vase, covered with Egyptian hieroglyphic chara-eters, found at Cvavo, and

22 figured in a book entitled Explication des divers

vwnumens

out rapport a la religion des plus anciens

singuliers, qui

Figure

peuples, par le R. P.

Dom

2.

a Paris, 1739.

The group

and Horus in an unusual attitude. They are enclosed in a framework of the flowers of the Egyptian bean, or of the lotus. This framework may be compared to the Assyrian " grove," and another in which the The bell was of old a symbol of Virgin Mary stands.

of figures represents Isis

(see Isa.

Eastern maidens wore them until marriage

for

virginity,

iii.

16).

The

origin of this

custom was the desire

that every maiden should have at her marriage, or sale, that

which

spoken of in the Pentateuch as ^ the token of

is

was supposed that this membrane, technically the hymen,'' might be broken by too long a stride in

virginity."

called

*'

It

walking or running, or by clambering over a stile or wall. To prevent such a catastrophe, a light chain or cord was worn, under or over the dress, at the level of the knees Its length only permitted a short step and a or just above.

mincing

gait.

Slight bells were used as a sort of ornament,

when the bearer was walking their tinkling was a sort of proclamation that the lady who bore them was in the market

.and

as a virgin.

After ''the tlower" had been plucked, the bells

23

They were analogous snood worn on the iiead of Scotch maidens.

were no longer of use.

'

horns of a cow, because that animal propensity to seek the male and offspring.

As

the bull with a

being with cow's horns, was

equally noted for

is

its

its

care to preserve the

human

made

to the virgin

Isis bears the

head, so a

human

to represent a deity.

The

between the horns, and the serpent round the body, indicate the union with the male an incongruous conjuncsolar orb

;

tion with the

very

common

emblem one.

of the sacred Virgin, nevertheless a

In some of the coins pictured by R. P.

Knight, in Worship of Priapus, etc., a cow caressing her sucking calf replaces Isis and Horus, just as a bull on other coins replaces Dionysus.

The group

Ancient Faiths, second edition, Vol.

i.,

is

described in full in

pp. 53, 54.

8 Tin Spleudour

Fii!U10

i

24 Figures

3, 4, are

taken from Ginsburg's Kahhalah, and

arrangement of "potencies" two unite, Sometimes we see also how like parents, to form a third. and ,three such male attributes as splendour, firmness, trinity arha, the soHdity join with beauty to form the mystic illustrate that in the

and unity.

Figure

Figures

and in

Figure

5.

from figures found in Carthage Leslie's Early Races of

5, 6, are copies

Scotland,

Scotland, vol.

i.,

6.

from Forbes plate

vi.,

p.

46 (London, 1866).

This

book is one to which the reader's attention should be directed. The amount of valuable information which it contains is very large,

add,

and

it

a philosophical, and,

is classified in

attractive

The

manner.

we may

figures represent the arbor

vita.

Figure 7 Palaces

is

from Bonomi, page 292, Nineveh and

(London,

mystic yoni,

door,

1865). or

It

delta;

apparently

and

it

may

an earlier form of the framework in Plate

represents

be regarded iv.

its

the as

It will be

— 25 remarked, by those learned in of the hand-s of the priests

symbols, that the

who

Figure

are

outline

nearest to the figure

7.

is a

suggestive one, being analogous to the figure of a key

and

its

officers

shank, whilst those

who stand behind

these

present the pine cone and bag, symbolic of

Anu, Hea, and

their residence.

It

is

to be noticed,

and

our beUef, that every detail in a sculpture relating to religion has a signification that the

once for

all

us assert

let

;

first

right

hand

figure carries a peculiarly shaped

staft';

and

that the winged symbol above the yoni consists of a male

archer in a winged circle, analagous to the symbolic bow,

The bow was an emblem amongst the Romans, and avcuin tcndere was equivalent to arr'igere. In the Golden Ass o. Apuleius we find the- metaphor used in his account of his dealings with amorous frolicsome Fotis, " Ubi primam sagittam scevi cupidinis in ima proecordia mea arrow, and target.

delapsam excepi, arciun

meum

et ipse vigore tetendi.''

Again, we find in Petronius Astra igitur mea mens arcum dimi

Ex

imo ad

summum

te'udit

iu

ilia.

viva sagitta volat.

Figures 8 to 14 are representations of the goddess mother, the virgin and child, Ishtar or Astarte, Mylitta, Ceres, Rhea, Venus, Sacti, Mary, Yoni, Juno,

Mama

Ocello,

26 etc.

Fig. 8

is

copy of the deified

a

mother, from Idalium, in Cyprus.

Figure

and

is

is

or

celestial

from Egypt,

Figure

8.

remarkable

woman

Fig. 9

for the cow's

horns

(for

whose

signification

Ancient Faiths, second edition), which here replace the lunar crescent, in conjunction with the sun, the two being symbolic of hermaphroditism, whilst above is a see Vol.

I.,

p. 54,

seat or throne, emblematic of royajjiy.

The two

figures are

copied from Rawlinson's Her&dotus, vol. ii., p. 447, in an essay by Sir Gardiner Wilkinson, wherein other illustrations of Fig. 10 is a copy of plate 59, " Crishna Moor's Hindu Pantheon, wherein it is entitled, nursed by Devaki, from a highly finished picture." In the account of Crishna's birth and early history, as given by

the celestial virgin are given.

Moor (Op. at.,

pp. 197,

et

seq.),

there

is

as

strong a

resemblance to the story of Christ as the picture here Fig. described has to papal paintings of Mary and Jesus. is Fig. 12 Devaki. of representation enlarged an is 11 copied

from

Rawlinson's

Ancient

Monarchies,

vol.

iii.,

:

27 p. 399.

Fig. 13

is

a figure of the mother and child found

in ancient Etruria at VolaterrjB

;

it

is

depicted in Fabretti's

Figure 10.

Italian Glossary, plate xxvi., figure 349.

It is described as

The marble statue, now in the Guarnacci Museum. letters, which are Etruscan, and read from right to left, may-

a

be thus rendered into the ordinary Latin characters from

MI GANA LARTHIAS Z ANL VELKINEI ME the translation I take to be, " the votive offering of Larthias (a female) of Zanal, = Zancle = Messana in left to right,

- SE.

:

:

:

;

(

Sicily),

(wife)

of

Velcinius,

in

the

sixth

month."

It

is

uncertain whether we are to regard the statue as an effigy of celestia mother and child, or as the representation some devor lady who has been spared during her pregnancy, her parturition, or from some disease affecting herself

the of

;;

28 and

child.

Heaven

is

Bahylons

Analogy would lead us to infer that the Queen of Figure 14 is copied from Hislop's Tivo the wife jof Indra or it represents Indranee,

intended.

;

be found in Indur Subba, the south front of the Caves of EUora, Asiatic Researches, vol. vi., p. 393. Indur, and

is to

Figure

Figure 12.

11.

is equivalent to Jupiter Tonans, and is represented as seated on an elephant; " the waterspout is the trunk of this

Indra

elephant, and the to point out,"

very

much

as

but his wife propriety.

is

iris

is

his bow, which

Moor's Pantheon, if

he were a

p. 260.

satyr,

it is

He

not auspicious is

represented

Moor's Pantheon,

p.

264

always spoken of as personified chastity and

Indranee

is

seated on a lioness, which replaces

the cow of Isis, the former resembling the latter in her

feminine and maternal instincts.

the

Figures 15, 16, are copies of Diana of the Ephesians who quotes Kitto's Illustrated first is from Hisslop,

29

Commentary, Anacalypsis,

vol.

who

v.,

250;

p.

second from

the

quotes Montfau^on, plate 47.

I

Higgins'

remember

to have seen a figure similar to these in the Koyal

Fignrc

at Naples.

(see

Figure

13.

The tower upon

Museum

14.

the head represents virginity

Ancient Faiths, second edition, Vol.

i.,

p.

144)

;

the

hand forms a cross with the body: the numerous breasts indicate abundance the black colour of position of the

;

Figure 16 indicates the ordinary tint of the feminine lanugo, the almost

universal

being black

about the yoni

colour of the as well

as some mythologists imagine, " Night,"

one

of

the

mothers

second edition, Vol.

of

ii.,

creation.

p. 382.)

of the Orientals

hair as

on the head

who

(See

is

;

or,

said to be

Ancient Faiths,

The emblems upon

the

30 body indicate the attributes or symbols of the male and female creators.

Figure 15.

Figure 17 or door of

Nineveh,

is

life.

p. 809,

Figure

a

complicated sign

It is

of

16.

the yoni,

delta,

copied from Bonomi's Palaces of

31

Figure 17.

Figure 18 signifies the same thing the priests adoring present the pine cone and basket, symbolic of Anu, Hea, ;

it

Figure

and their residence.

18.

Compare the

priest's adoration with that adored

Ancient Faiths, second

subsequent figure.

(See

Vol.

and Vol.

I.,

p. 83, et seq.,

Figure 19 fig. 5.

sents a

"is

ii.,

isdition,

p. 648.)

copied from Lajard

It is the impression of

man

object of the Assyrian

by a Christian divine, in a

{O}). Cit.), plate xxii.,

an ancient gem, and repre-

clothed with a fish, the head being the mitre

priests thus clothed, often bearing in their

;

hand the mystic

bag, are

common

in

Mesopotamian sculptures; two such In almost every instance

are figured on Figs. 63, 64, infra.

it

Figure 19.

represented as be recognised that the fish's head is mitre. bishop's of the same form as the modern infolded so "Figure 20 represents two equilateral triangles,

will

as to

make

a six-rayed star, the idea embodied being the

androgyne nature of the

deity,

the pyramid with

its

apex



— 33

upwards signifying the male, that with the apex downwards

The

the female. seen, in

line at the central junction is not always

but the shape of the three parallel bars reappears

Hindoo

shaped

frontlet signs in conjunction with a delta or door,

like the

"grove"

in Fig. 17; thus showing that th6

The two

lines serve also to indicate the masculine triad.

triangles

are

understood as representing

also

fire,

which

mounts upwards, and water, which flows downwards. Fire again is an emble^n of the sun, and water of the passive or yielding element in nature. Fire also typifies Eros or Cupid.

Hymen

is

always represented carrying a torch.

It is also

symbolic of love; e,g,, Southey writes But love

**

is indestructible,

Its holy flame for ever burneth

;

From heaven it came, To heaven returneth."

And

again, Scott writes " It

is

not phantasy's hot

Whose

fire

wishes, soon as granted,

fly,"

&c.

Figures 21, 22, are other indications of the same funda-

mental

idea.

The

first

represents Nebo, the Nahbi, or the

Figure 21.

navel, characterised

Figure 22.

by a ring with a central mound.

second represents the circular and upright stone so

The

common

The two indicate^he male and female and a medical friend resident in India l;ias told me, that he has seen women mount upon the lower stone and seat them-

in Oriental villages.

;

selves reverently

upon the upright one, having

their dress so as to prevent

it

first

adjusted

interfering with their perfect

84 contact with the

During the

miniature obelise.

sitting,

lips, but a short prayer seemed flitting over the worshippers'

the whole

affair

was soon

o\er.^

^^ilst upon this subject, it is right to call attention to the fact that animate as well as inorganic representatives of the Creator have been used by women with the same The dominant idea is that contact with definite purpose. the emblem, a

mundane

representative of the deity, of itself

Just as

gives a blessing.

benefaction by placing their

many Hindoo own yoni upon

females seek a

linga, so a few regard intercourse with certain

the consecrated

high priests of

the Maharajah sect as incarnations of Vishnu, and pay for In Egypt, where the privilege of being spouses of the god.

the goat was a sacred animal, there were some religious women who sought good luck by uniting themselves therewith.

We

have heard of

of

British professors

religion

endeavouring to persuade their penitents to procure purity by And the what others would call defilement and disgrace.

Francis" replaces the stone "linga." Some" times with this " cord the rod is associated ; and those who have read the trial of Father Gerard, for his seduction of

"cord of

St.

Miss Cadiere under a saintly guise, will know that Christianity does not always go hand in hand^with propriety. With the Hindoo custom compare that which was done by Liber on the grave of Prosumnus (Arnohius adversus Gentes, translated by Bryce and Campbell, T. and T. Clark, Edinburgh, pp'. 252, 253), which is far too gross to be described here

;

and as regards the sanctity of a stone whose

top had been anointed with oil, see first sentence of paraThe whole book will well repay graph 39, iUd, page 31. perusal.

Figures 23, 24, are discs, represent the sun. is

Sometimes the emblem of

associated with rays,

as

another Figure elsewhere. ancient temples in

circles, aureoles,

in

Plate

iii..

and wheels, this

Egypt discovered

luminary

Fig. 3, and

Occasionally, as in

to

some

in

of the

in 1854, the sun's rays

;

36 are represented by lines terminating in hands.

Sometimes one or more of these contain objects as if they were gifts sent by the god amongst other objects, the crux ansata is shown conspicuously. In a remarkable plate in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Literature (second series, ;

vol.

i.,

p. 140), the

sun

rays terminate in hands,

and before

is

identified with the serpent

some holding the handled

;

its

cross or

a queen, apparently, worships. She is what seems to be a lighted tobacco pipe, the bowl being of the same shape as that commonly used in Turkey from this a wavy pyramid of flame rises. Behind her, two tau,

it

offering

female slaves elevate the sistrum

;

whilst before her,

and

apparently between herself and her husband, are two altars

Figure 24.

Figure 23.

occupied by round cakes and one crescent-shaped emblem.

The

aureole was used in ancient days by Babylonian artists or

when they wished to represent a being, apparently The same plan has been adopted by the moderns, who have varied the symbol by representing it now as a golden disc, now as a terrestrial orb, again as a rayed A writer, when desc^-ibing a god as a man, can say sphere. sculptors,

human,

as a god.

that the object he sketches is divine

much woman is

too

;

but a painter thinks

of his art to put on any of his designs, " this

is a god"; he round the head of his subject, and thus converts a very ordinary man, woman, or child into a

a

goddess," or **this creature

therefore adds an aureole

86

modern artists thus proving themmore skilful in depicting the Almighty than the carpenters and goldsmiths of the time of Isaiah (xl. 18, 19, xli. 6, 7, xliv. 9-19), who used no such contrivance. deity to be reverenced

;

selves to be far

Figure 24

which in

it

the

is

is

another representation of the solar disc, in

marked with a

wheel of

a

cross.

chariot

This probably originated

having four spokes,

sun being likened to a charioteer.

The

and the

sun Kings xxiii. 11 as idolatrous emblems. Of these the wheel was symbolic. The identification of this chariots of the

are referred to in 2

emblem with the sun is very easy, for it has repeatedly been found in Mesopotamian gems in conjunction with the moon. In a very remarkable one figured in Rawlinson's Ancient Monarchies, circles.

vol.

It is

ii.,

p. 249,

the cross

remarkable that in

many

is

contrived as five

papal pictures the

wafer and the cup are depicted precisely as the sun and

moon plate

in conjunction.

See Pugin's Architectural Glossary,

iv., fig. 5.

Figures 25, 26, 27, are simply varieties of the solar

Figure 26.

Figure 27.

wheel, intended to represent the idea of the sun and moon,

the mystic triad and unit, the "arba>" or four.

In Figure

;

37 26, the mural ornament

is

introduced, that being symbolic of

For explanation of Figure

feminine virginity.

27,

see

Figures 35, 36.

Figure 28 is copied from Lajard, Op, Cit.y plate xiv. F. That author states that he has taken it from a drawing of an Egyptian stele, made by M. E. Prisse (Monum. Egypt., plate xxxvii.), and that the original is in the British

Figure 28.

Museum.

There

Herodotus,

vol.

an imperfect copy of

is

The

ii.

represented fully.

Isis,

original

it

too

is

the central figure,

in Rawlinson*s

indelicate is

to be

wholly nude,

with the exception of her head-dress, and neck and breast

In one hand she holds two blades of corn

ornaments.

apparently, whilst in the other she has three lotus flowers,

two being egg-shaped, but the central one fully expanded with these, which evidently symbolise the mystic triad, is

associated a circle emblematic of the yoni, thus indicating

the fourfold creator.

Isis

side of her stands a clothed

stands upon a lioness; on one

male

figure,

holding in one hand

the crux ansata, and in the other an upright spear. opposite side save

his

is

head-dress

and

collar,

arranged so as to form a cross. flagellum

;

On

the

a male figure wholly nude, like the goddess,

behind him

is

a covert

ends of which are His hand points to a

the

reference

to

the triad,

38 whilst in front Osiris offers undisguised

homage

to Isis.

The

head-dress of the goddess appears to bo a modified form of

Figure 32.

Figure 31.

the creso^nt

moon

inverted.

It is not exclusively Egyptian,

;

89 has been found in conjunction with other emblems on an Assyrian obelise of Phallic form. as

it

Figures 29, 30, 31, 32, represent the various triangles their union, which have been adopted in worship. Figure 29 i^said to represent fire, which amongst the ancient

and

Persians was depicted as a cone, whilst the figure inverted represents water.

Figure 33

is

an ancient Hindoo emblem, called

Sri

sw

lantra.

The

circle represents the world, in

which the living

the triangle pointing upwards shows the male creator and the triangle with the apex downwards the female distinct, yet united. These have a world within themselves, in which the male is uppermost. In the central circle the image

exist

;

;

to be

worshipped

is

placed.

on the ground, with Brahma

When

used, the figure

to the east,

is

and Laksmi

placed to the

40

Then a relic of any saint, or image of Buddha, like a west. modern papal crucifix, is added, and the shrine for worship is complete.

It

has now been adopted in Christian churches

and Freemasons' lodges.

emblem

be noticed that the male

It will

points to the

and the female triangle points to the setting sun, when the earth seems to receive the god into her couch. rising sun,

Figure 34

is

a very ancient

am

signification I

tion it is

A

Hindoo emblem, whose

unable to divine. it

;

It is

real

used in calcula-

forms the basis of some game, and

a sign of vast import in sacti worship.

coin,

bearing this

figure

upon

and

it,

having a central cavity with the Etruscan letters

SUPEN

of the angles, Figure 34.

at VolaterrsB,

Italian Glossary, plate xxvi.,

placed one between each two

was found in a fictile urn, and is depicted in Fabretti's

fig.

358, bis a.

round, the reader will see that these letters

A

Supen, Upens, Pensu, Ensup, or Nsupe. Fabretti's Lexicon affords

no clue

to

As the may be

coin is

read as

search through

any meaning except

for

There seems, indeed, strong reason to believe that pensu was the Etruscan form of the Pali panca, the the third.

Sanscrit pdnch, the Bengalli pdnch, and the Greek penta, i.e., five.

Five, certainly, would be an appropriate

the pentangle.

It is

upon the value of

word

for

almost impossible to avoid speculating

this fragment of archaeological evidence in

support of the idea that the Greeks, Aryans,

and Etruscans

common

it

had something

in

;

but into the question

would

be unprofitable to enter here. But, although declining to enter upon this wide inquiry, I

Glossary

would

my

eye

notice fell

triangle with the apex

2440

ter.

The

that

whilst

upon the

figure

territory of the Falisci.

of

an equilateral

upwards, depicted plate

triangle is of brass,

field of

searching Fabretti's

xliii.,

and was found

fig.

in the

It bears a rude representation of

the outlines of the soles of two

human

feet, in this

respect

41 resembling a Buddhist emblem inscription

KAVI

:

which may

;

and there

TEPtTINEI. POSTIKNU,

on

is

be rendered thus in

its

Roman

which probably

edge an letters,

signifies

" Gavia, the wife of Tertius, offered it." The occurrence of two Hindoo symbols in ancient Italy is very remarkable. It must, however, be noticed that similar symbols have been found on ancient sculptured stones in Ireland and Scotland. There may be no emblematic ideas whatever conveyed by the but when the marks appear on Gnostic gems, they

design

;

are supposed to indicate death,

by the

feet

of the individual as

the impressions

i. e.,

left

he springs from earth to

heaven.

In a large book of

Figures 35, 36, are Maltese crosses.

Fifjure 35.

Figure 36.

Etrurian antiquities, which came casually under

my

notice

about twenty years ago, when I was endeavouring to master the language, theology,

etc..

name, and other particulars ber I found depicted two ;

culine

triads,

whose

Of the Etruscans, but

of which, I

crosses,

each ashe?- being

cannot now remem-

made up

erect,

of four

and united

fellows by the gland, forming a central diamond,

masto

emblem

its

of

In one instance, the limbs of the cross were of in the other, one asher was three times as equal length

the yoni.

;

A somewhat similar cross, but one was found some time ago near Naples. made of gold, and has apparently been used as an

long as the others. united with the It is

circle,

amulet and suspended of

An

Essay on

the

to the neck.

Worship of

35 Powers

It is figured in plate

the

Generative

42 during the Middle Ages (London, privately printed, 1865). the centre of the circle is may be thus described occupied by four oblate spheres arranged like a square from the salient curves of each of these springs a yoni (shaped as

It

:

;

in Figure 59),

with the point

cross, each ray of which

is

thus

outwards,

an egg and

forming a

At each junction

fig.

of the ovoids a yoni is inserted with the apex inwards, whilst

from the broad end

arise four ashers,

which project beyond

the shield, each terminating in a few golden bead-like drops. The whole is a graphic natural representation of the intimate

union of the male and female, sun and moon, cross and circle,

Ouranos and Ge.

The same

idea

Figure 27, p. 36, but in that the mystery

is

is

embodied in

deeply veiled, in

that the long arms of the cross represent the sun, or male,

indicated by the triad; the short ones, the

female (see Plate

The Maltese

xi.

moon, or the

Fig. 4).

cross, a Phoenician

emblem, was discovered it takes its name.

cut on a rock in the island from which

Though

cruciform,

it

had nothing Christian about

like the Etruscan ones referred to above,

lingas united together by the heads, the

it

it

;

for,

consisted of four

"eggs" being

at the

It was an easy thing for an unscrupulous priesthood to represent this " invention " of the cross as a miracle, and to make it presentable to the eyes of the faithful by Someleaving the outlines of Anu and Hea incomplete. times this cross is figured as four triangles meeting at the

outside.

which has the same meaning. Generally, however, Church (as may be seen by a reference to Pugin's Glossary of Ecclesiastical Ornament) adopts the use of crosses where the inferior members of the trinity are more or less central, as in our Plate xi.. Figs. 2, 3, and as in the Figures When once a person knows the true 40, 41, 42, infra. one which is far too origin of the doctrine of the Trinity

points,

the



improper to have been adopted by' the writers of the



New

Testament it is impossible not to recognise in the signs which are symbolic of it the thing which is signified.

43 It

may

who have know-

readily be supposed that those

ledge of the heathenish origin

of

many

of the cherished

doctrines of the so-called Christian church, cannot remain enthusiastic

members

and

;

equally

it is

the enlightened philosopher to understand why such

easy for

persons are detested and

charged

with

Sciolism rally to

communion

of her

is

being

abused

by the

freethinkers,

ever intolerant,

ignorant,

sceptics,

and

atheists.

or*

and theological hatred

is

gene-

be measured by the mental incapacity of those who

indulge in the luxury.

But no amount of abuse can reduce Nor will the most fiery persecu-

the intrinsic value of facts.

tion demonstrate that the religion of Christ, as

our churches and cathedrals, especially

if

it

appears in

they are papal,

is

not tainted by a mass of paganism of disgusting origin.

Figure 37

is

copied

from the Journal of the Royal

o

^^-

Figure 37.

Asiatic Society, vol.

xviii.,

emblem, and represents aspects.

Each limb

p 393, plate the

same

4.

It is a

Buddhist

idea

under

different

of the cross represents the fascinum at

right angles with the body, and presented towards a barleycorn, one of the symbols of the yoni.

Each limb

is

marked

by the same female emblem, and terminates with the triad

44 beyond this again is seen the conjunction of the sun and moon. The whole therefore represents the mystic arha, the creative four, by some called Thor's hammer. Copies of a cross similar to this have been recently found by Dr. Schliemann in a very ancient city, buried under the

triangle

;

remains of two others, which he identifies as the Troy of

Homer's

Iliad.

Figures 38 to 42 are developments of the triad triangle, If the horizontal limb on the free end of the arm or trinity.

ff Figure 38.

Figure

Figure 40.

Figure 41.

Figure 42.

were to be prolonged to twice its length, the most obtuse would recognise Asher, and the inferior or lower members of the " triune." Figure 43

[^

^

\^—^

is

by Egyptold^sts called the * symbol of life.* * handled cross,' or crux It represents the male triad and ansata.

It is also called the

the female unit, under a decent form. more commonly met with in Egypsymbols There are few Figure 43.

Figure 44.

Figure

tian art than this.

4ft.

In some remarkable sculptures, where

45 tEe sun's rays are represented as terminating in hands, the offerings which these bring are many a crux ansata,

emblematic of the truth that a

fruitful

union

is

a gift from

the deity.

Figures 44, 45, are ancient designs, in which the male and female elements are more disguised than is usual. Ipr Fig. 44 the woman is indicated by the dolphin. Figures 46, 47, the

male

ancient

derns to symbolise

are representatives

^

JL

^>f^

J

v*

Figure 46.

i

^

/

triad,

of

adopted by mo-

the Trinity.

Figure 47.

Figures 48, 49, represent the

trefoil

which was used by

(] Figure 49.

Figure 48.

the ancient Hindoos as emblematic of the celestial triad, and

adopted by modern Christians.

It will

be seen that from

one stem arise three curiously- shaped

segments, each of which is supposed to resemble the male scrotum, " purse," " bag," or " basket."

Figure 50 fig.

2.

British

He

is

copied from Lajard, Culte de Venus, plate

states that

Museum.

It

it

is

from a

gem

i.,

cylinder in the

represents a male and female figure

dancing before the mystic palm-tree, into whose signification

we need not Asher.

enter beyond saying that

it

is

a symbol of

Opposite to a particular part of the figures

is to

be

46 seen a diamond, or oval, and a fleur de triad.

This

gem

is

peculiarly valuai)le, as

lys, it

or symbolic

illustrates in a

Figure 50.

graphic rnanner the meaning of the emblems in question,

and how " the

lilies

of France "

had a Pagan

origin.

Figure 59.

Figure 30,

47 Figitres 51 to

60 are various representations of the union

of the four, the arba, the androgyne, or the linga-yoni.

Figure 61.

symbol

is

In modern Christian

called vesica piscis,

surrounded with rays.

and

is

sometimes

commonly

It

art this

serves as

a sort of framework in which female saints are placed,

who

are generally the representatives of

the older Juno, Ceres, Diana, A'enus, or other

impersonations of the feminine element in creation.

We

should not

feel

Figure 61.

obliged to demon-

strate the truth of this assertion if

decency permitted us to

reproduce here designs which naughty youths so frequently chalk upon walls to the disgust of the proper part of the

community.

We

must, therefore, have resort to a religious

book, and in a subsequent figure demonstrate the meaning of the symbol unequivocally.

Figure 62 represents one of the forms assumed by the

Figure 62.

^istrum of

Isis.

Sometimes the instrument

is

oval,

and

48 occasionally

it

terminates below in a horizontal line, instead

of in an acute angle. nise in the

emblem

The

inquirer can very readily recog-

the symbol of the female creator.

If there

should be any doubt in his mind, he will be satisfied after a reference to Maffei's Gemme Antiche Figurate (Kome, 1707),

Diana of the Ephesians is depicted body of the exact shape of the sistrum figured in Payne Knight's work on the remains of the worship of Tol.

ii.,

plate 61, wherein

as having a

Priapus, etc.

The bars

across the

sistrum show that

it.

denotes a pure virgin (see Ancient Faiths, second edition, Vol.

II.,

a cat



pp. 743-746).

reason that Isis salacity

On

its

handle

is

seen the figure of

a sacred animal amongst the Egyptians, for the

and

its

was figured sometimes as a cow love for its ofi'spring.

Figure 64.



same

viz., for its

;

49 Fiprurcs

63

to

66 arc

all

drawn from Assyrian

Figure

The

sources.

6;").

central figure, which is probably the

biblical " grove," represents the delta, or

female genii

The

To

''door." offer

the

pine

signification

subsequently.

I

attendant

the

it

and

cone

of these

was unable

basket.

explained

is

at first

to

quote any authority to demonstrate that the pine cone was a distinct masculine

symbol,

but

now

referred to Mafi*ei,

8,

he

reader

may

be

Antiche Figu-

(Rome, 1708), where, in vol. iii., Venus Tirsigera. The goddess is her hand the tripliform arrow, emblem

rate

Figuro 66.

plate

the

Gemme

will

see a

nude, and carries in

of the male triad, whilst in the other she bears a thyrsus,

terminating in a pine or

fir

cone.

Now

this cone and stem and can be readily Sometimes the thyrsus is

are carried in the Bacchic festivities,

recognised as virga

cum

ovo.

replaced by ivy leaves, which, like the

the triple creator.

fig,

are symbolic of

Occasionally the thyrsus was a lance or

round which vine leaves and berries were clustered Bacchus cum vino being the companion of Venus cum cerere. pike,

But

a stronger confirmation of

my

views

may

remarkable group (see Fig. 124 infra). This fizio di Priapo,

The

and represents a female

figure of the

god stands upon

is

be found in a entitled Sacri-

ofifering to

Priapus.

a pillar of three stones.

50

The bears a thjrsus from which depend two ribbons. a pineor fircarries who boy, a by devotee is accompanied

and

it

cone in bis hand, and a basket on his head, in which may be In Figure 64 the position of the recognised a male effigy.

advanced hand of each of the priests nearest to the grove is It resembles one limb very suggestive to the physiologist. of the

Buddhist

cross. Fig. 37, supra.

is

Anu

finger or

thumb

are figurative of Asher, in a horizontal

whe4 thus pointed position, with

The

or

Hea hanging from one

explained similarly.

end.

Figure 65

It is to be noticed that a door is

adopted amongst modern Hindoos as an emblem of the

sacti

(see Figs. 162, 153, infra).

who has taken great interest in these "groves" as not regards symbolism, the subject of of the union of that but yoni, the being simply emblems of

My

friend Mr. Newton,

part with the lingam, or mystic palm tree.

As

extremely ingenious, 'and his theory perfect, I

him

to introduce

them

at the

end

his ideas are

have requested

of this work,

Figures 67, 68, 69, are fancy sketches intended to repre-

Figure 68.

FiRure 67.

Figure

spoken of in Jewish and other drawn from memory, and represents a

sent the "sacred shields" history.

The

last is

69.

51

Templar's shield. shield is viewed,

According to the method in which the

it

appears like the os

or the navel.

tincce

Figures 70, 71, represent the shape of the sistrum of

Figure

Isis,

the fruit of the

donned

alike

Roman

fig,

When a garment of becomes the " pallium "

and the yoni.

made and worn,

this shape is

to

Figure 71.

70.

it

by the male and female individuals consecrated

worship.

King, in his Ancient Gnostics, remarks the sun

womb

is

" The

:

circle of

the navel, which marks the natural position of the

— the

navel

being considered in

the microcosm as

corresponding to the sun in the universe, an idea more fully exemplified in the famous hallucination of the Greek anchorites

touching the mystical

Light of Tabor,' which was

*

revealed to the devotee after a fast of staring

many

upon the region of the

days,

all

the time

whence at streamed as from a focus." Pages 153, 154.

fixedly

length this light

navel,

Figures 72, 73, represent an ancient Christian bishop,

and a modern nun wearing the emblem of the female sex. In the former, sajd (in Old England PictoriaUy Illustrated, by Knight) to be a drawing of St. Augustine, the amount of symbolism is great. The " nimbus " and the tonsure are solar

emblems

the pallium, the feminine sign,

;

with phallic crosses

mark finger

its

lower end

is

extended,

is

to the

like

grove,

the

Assyrian

and within

said to have tempted Eve.

studded

T,

hand has the

priests

it is

is

the ancient

of the masculine triad; the right

homage which

;

the

whilst

fruit,

When

the fore-

doing

tappuach,

a male dons

the pallium in worship, he becomes the representative of the trinity in the unity, the arba,

Faithsi second edition. Vol.

or mystic four.

ii.,

pp.

See Ancient

915-918.

I take this opportunity to quote here a pregnant page of

King's Gnostics and their Bemains, (Bell

&

Daldy. London,

62 " To this period belongs a beautiful sard in

1864).

collection representing Serapis,

.

whilst before

.

.

my him

stands Isis, holding in one hand the sistrum, in the other

Figure 78.

Figure 72.

a wheatsheaf, with the legend

our lady

Isis,'

the

very

.

.

personage who succeeded to her form (the so highly reverenced in certain

Immaculate

is

of Isis), her symbols, rites,

*

Black Virgins,*

French Cathedrals during the

middle ages, proved, when examined devotees carried into the

*

.

terms applied afterwards to that

critically, basalt figures

and ceremonies.

new priesthood

.

.

Her

.

the former badges of

their profession, the obligation to celibacy, the tonsure,

and

the surplice, omitting, unfortunately, the frequent ablutions prescribed by the ancient creed.

moves

in procession as

The sacred image

when Juvenal laughed

'Escorted by the tonsured surpliced title,

Domina, the exact translation

train.'

at

it, vi.

Her

still

530,

proper

of Sanscrit Isi, survives

with slight change in the modern Madonna, Mater Domina.

53

By

a singular permutation the flower borne by each, the

lotus

— ancient

re-named tbe

The

quality.

emblem

lily, is

and fecundity

sun

of the

...

tinkling sistrum

Female Principle

replaced by

is

the bell, taken from Buddhist usages. oval symbol of the

— now

ini^^preted as significant of the opposing

of

.

.

.

The erect Nature became the .

.

.

Vesica Piscis, and the Crux Ansata, testifying the union of the male and female in the most obvious manner,

formed into the orb surmounted by the

cross, as

is

trans-

an ensign of

Pp. 71, 72.

royalty."

a well known Christian emblem, The anchor, as a symbol, is of great

Figure 74

is

foul anchor."

called

"a

antiquity.

may be seen on an old Etruscan coin in the British Museum, depicted in Veternm Populorum et Regum Nummi, It

etc. is

(London, 1814), plate

The

a chariot wheel.

ii.,

yoni,

the reverse there

foul anchor i-epresents the crescent

Figure

moon, the

On

fig. 1.

74.

ark, navis, or boat

;

in this is placed the

emblem of life in the The cross beam completes the

mast, round which the serpent, the

"verge," entwines

itself.

mystic four, symbolic alike of the sun and of androgeneity.

The whole

is

a covert

emblem

of that union which results in

the soul,

by Christians to be the anchor of sure and steadfast. This it certainly cannot be,

for a foul

anchor will not hold the ground.

fecundity.

It

is

said

Figures 75 to 79 are Asiatic and Egyptian emblems in

use amongst

ourselves,

and receive

their

explanation

similarly to preceding ones.

A Figure 76.

+ +

Figure 76.

Figure 77.

m Figure 78.

54

Figure 79.

Figure 80 vol.

ii.,

fig.

is

27.

pi. cxxxii., fig. 6.

copied from Godfrey Higgins' Anacalypsis, It

is

In his

drawn from Montfaugon, vol. ii., text, Higgins refers to two similar

Figure 80.

groups, one which exists in the Egyptian temple of Ipsam-

-

55 bul in Nubia, and

described by Wilson,

is

On

Buddhists and

Jeynes, p. 127, another, found in a cave temple in the south India, described by Col.

of

pootanah. is

The group

Tod, in his History of Rajnot explained by Montfaugon. It

is

apparently Greek, and combines the story of Hercules with

the

of

seductiveness

The

Circe.

common emblems, and have

and

tree

serpent

are

even been found in Indian

temples in central- America, grouped as in the woodcut.

Figure 81

is

The

xix., fig. 11. is

copied from Lajard, Culte de Venus, plate origin of this, which

a silver statuette in that author's pos-

unknown. The female repreVenus bearing in one hand an apple her arm rests upon what seems to session, is

sents

;

be a representative of the mystic triad

two additions to the upright stem

(the

not being seen in

a

front view)

round

which a dolphin

(SsA^^tj,

h\<^6s 'womb')

entwined, from whose

mouth comes

is

the stream

'dolphin,'

of

life.

for

The

apple plays a strange part in Greek and The story of " the Hebrew mythology.

apple of discord," awarded by Paris to

Venus, seems

Figure 8i.

where beauty contends against

to indicate that

majesty and wisdom for the love of youth,

We

the day.

it

is

sure to win

learn from Arnobius that a certain

ceived a son by an apple {Op.

another place the prolific fruit

is

Cit.,

p.

Nana

con-

236), although in

said to have been a ponif

Mythologically, that writer sees no difficulty in the story, for those who affirm that rocks and hard stones have granate.

In-'t,he Song of Solomon, apples and the tree them" are often referred to; and we have in 5 the curious expression, " Comfort me with apples,

brought forth. that bears

Ch.

ii.

for I

am

sick of love."

We

are familiar with the account of

Eve being tempted by the same as

the apple

in

Palestine

is

fruit.

Critics

imagine that

not good eating, the quince

66 is

meant;

be seen in

we know that a leaf of that tree is to every amorous picture found in Pompeii, the

if

so,

Others

plant having been supposed to increase virile power.

imagine that the citron

emblem

of the testis.

is

makes

it

an

be decided,

it

is

intended, whose shape

However

this

tolerably clear, from all the tales

may

and pictures

in

which a

emblem symbolised a The reader will doubtless remember how, in Genesis xxx, Leah is represented as purchasing her husband's company for a night by means of mandrakes, the result being the birth of Issachar and in the well-known story of the Creation we find the apple figures, that the

fruit like

desire for an intimate union between the sexes.

;

that the apple gives birth to desire, as

shown

in the recogni-

tion for the first time of the respective nudity of the couple,

which was followed immediately, or as soon as

it

was possible

afterwards, by sexual intercourse and the conception of Cain.

Figure 82

is

from Lajard {Op.

Cit.), plate xiv!>,

fig.

3.

Figure 82.

The gem

is

nish;

represents

it

of

unknown

origin, but is apparently Babylo-

the male and female in conjunction;

each appears to be holding the symbol of the triad in respect, whilst to

the

curious

cross

suggests a

much

new reading

an ancient symbol. it asserted, by a man of considerable though of a very narrow mind in everything which

I have of late heard learning,

57 is no proof that the or the moon as a male, regarded as a commonly was sun solely upon the assertion female and he based his strange ground that in German and some other languages the sun was

bears upon religious subjects, that there

;

moon by

represented by a feminine, and the

a niasculine

The argument is of no value, for a-a^vTTog, x°*P°^» and other Greek and Latin names of the yoni, are masculine nouns, and Virga and Mentula, the Roman words In Hindostan, the sun is for the Linga, are feminine.

noun.

l^vxos,

always represented as a God; the male, and sometimes a female

and Scandinavian the

moon

Figure 113

is

occasionally a

In ancient Gaulish

sun was always a male, and Their identification will be seen in

figures, the

a female.



moon

deity.

as their conjunction is in the one before us

in the -position of the individuals,

and

in the fleur-de-lys



and

oval symbol.

Figure 83

tumum

may

be found in Fabretti's Corpus Inscrip-

Italicarum (Turin, 1867), plate xxv.,

fig.

303

f.

The

Figure 83.

coins which bear the figures are of brass,

and were found

at

In one the double head is associated with a dolphin and crescent moon on the reverse, and the letters A similar .inscription exists on the Velathri, in Etruscan.

Volaterrse.

The club, formed as in Figure 83, one containing the club. For example, two coins. Etruscan occurs frequently on Tudertine coin, having clubs are joined with four balls on a on the reverse a hand apparently gauntleted

for fighting,

and

68

On other coins are to arranged in a square. be seen a bee, a trident, a spear head, and other tripliform figures, associated with three balls in a triangle sometimes two, find sometimes one... The double head with four balls

;

two balls

is

on a Telamonian coin, having on the be a leg with the foot turned

seen

reverse what appears to

In a coin of Populonia the club is associated with a spear and two balls, whilst on the reverse is a single head. I must notice, too, that on other coins a hammer and pincers, upwards.

or tongs, appear, as fabiicator,

What

if

the idea was to show that a maker,

or heavy hitter

that was

is

was intended

be symbolised.

to

further indicated by other coins, on which a

At Cortona two head appears thrusting out the tongue. a doublerepresenting have been silver found, statuettes of and coUar, a cap, a lion's head for A faced individual. buskins are the

articles

sole

of

dress

worn.

One

face

appears to be feminine, and the other masculine, but neither The pectorals and the general form indicate is bearded.

On these the male, but the usual marks of sex are absent. have been found Etruscan inscriptions (1) v. cvinti arntias CULPIANSI ALPAN TURCE

;

(2) V.

Which may be

ALPAN TURCE.

OVINTE ARNTIAS SELANSE TE2 "V. Quintus of

rendered (1)

Aruntia, to Culpian pleasing, a gift"; (2) "V. QuintuS of Aruntia to Vulcan pleasing gave a gift," evidently showing that they were ex voto offerings.

Figure 84.

The

figure here represented

form or another, extremely common amongst the sculptured stones in Scotland.

Four

varie-

/""""""^^v

(

\

\^_^

is,

under one

'^ i

\ \

~-\^_^^

figure 84. 48 of In plate 49 Col. Forbes Leslie's Early Races of Scotland.

ties

it

is

may be

seen

,in

plate

associated with a serpent, apparently the cobra.

The

design is spoken of as " the spectacle ornament," and it is very commonly associated with another figure closely resembling the letter Z-

It is very natural for the inquirer to

associate the twin circles with the sun

and

earth, or the

sun

59

On

and moon.

one Scottish monument the

circles represent

and they probably indicate the solar chariot. As yet I have only been able to meet with the Z and ** spectacle ornament " once out of Scotland it is figured on apparently a Gnostic ^em {The Gnostics and their Remains, by C. W. wheels,

;

King, London, 1864, plate serpent cartouche two Z

ii.,

fig. 5).

figures,

In that we see in a

each having the down

stroke crossed by a horizontal line, both ends terminating in a circle

;

nating in a

besides

them

is

circle, precisely

Fig. 3, supra.

I can

ofi'er

a six-rayed star, each ray

terniii-

resembling the star in Plate

no

iii.,

satisfactory explanation of the

emblem. Figures 85, 86, represent a Yorkshire and an

Indian

Figure H5.

Fijruro

stone

circle.

The

first

is

H<;

copied

from

Descriptions

of

Cairns, Cromlechs, Kistvaens, and other Celtic, Druidical,

60

Monuments

or Scythian

in the

Dekkan, by Col. Meadows

Taylor, Transactions of the Royal Irish

The mound

exists at Twizell, Yorkshire,

y

vol. xxiv.

an ancient tomb, very similar to those found

circle indicates

by Taylor in the Dekkan urn, but

Academy

and the centre of the

many

;

this contained

of the Indian ones

skeleton of the great

man

only one single

contained, besides the

buried therein, skeletons of other

individuals who had been slaughtered over his tomb, and

buried above

the kistvaen

containing

his

bones

;

in

one

and three heads were found in the principal grave, and twenty other skeletons above and beside

instance two bodies

it.

A

perusal of this very interesting paper will well repay

the study bestowed upon

it. Figure 86 is copied from Forbes book mentioned above, plate 59. It represents a modern stone circle in the Dekkan, of very recent conThe dots upon the stones represent dabs of red struction.

Leslie's

which again represent blood. The circles are similar some which have been found in Palestine, and give evidence

paint, to

of

the

presence

of

the

same

religious ideas existing in

ancient England and Hindostan, as well as in modern India. The name of the god wors:hipped in these recent shrines is Vetal, or Betal.

It

is

worth mentioning, in passing, that

there is a celebrated monolith in Scotland called the

Newton

Stone, on which are inscribed, evidently -with a graving tool,

an inscription in the Ogham, and another in some ancient Aryan character (see Moore's Ancient Pillar Stones of Scotland).

Figure 87.

61 Figure 87 indicates the solar wheel,

This sign

chariot of Apollo.

ancient coins

a very

is

of the

sometimes the rays or spokes are

;

others they are more numerous. the wheel

emblem

common one upon four, at

Occasionally the tire of

absent, and

amongst the Etruscans the nave is solar cross is very common in Ireland, and amongst the Romanists generally as a head dress for male omitted.

is

The

saints.

Figure 88

copied from Hyslop,

is

who

gives

it

on the

Fifure 88.

authority of Col. Hamilton Smith, original collection

tute of Cairo.

doubtful.

the figure.

made by

said to represent Osiris,

It is

There

much

is

who copied

The whip,

it

from the

the artists of the French Insti-

that

is

but this

is

intensely mystical about

or flagellum, placed over the

tail,

and

the head passing through the yoni, the circular spots with their central dot, the horns with solar disc,

shaped feathers

(?),

and two curiously

the calf reclining upon a plinth, wherein

a division into three

is

conspicuous,

all

have a meaning in

reference to the mystic four. I have long

had a doubt respecting the s3Tnbolic mean-

ing of the scourge.

Some

inquirers have asserted that

it

is

simply an emblem of power or superiority, inasmuch as he

who can castigate must be in a higher position than the one who is punished. But of this view I can find no proof. On

62 the other hand, any one

who

familiar with the effect

is

the male produced by flagellation, and

who

upon

notices that the

representations of Osiris and the scourge show evidence that

the deity

in the

is

same condition

subjected to the rod,

flagellum

man

will be

as

one who has been

disposed to believe that the

an indication or symbol of the god who gives to

is

the power to reproduce his like, or

faculty after

it

has faded.

who can restore the moment to be

not for a

It is

supposed that a deity who was to be worshipped would be depicted as a task-master, whose hands are more familiar

with punishment than blessing.

Figure 89

is

taken from Lajard's Culte de Venus, plate

i.,

Figure 89.

fig.

14,

figure

and

is

to

is

be

found

Worship of Pruqms. with male emblems. a dolphin,

bearded.

A

an enlarged impression of a gem. in

similar

Payne Knight's work On

In both instances the female

In the one before us a

the

fringed

apparently

fish,

In the other the

is borne in one hand. These are representations of Ashtaroth

is

woman

is

—the andro-

gyne deity in which the female predominates. Fig. 90 represents an ancient Italian form of tho Indian Ling Yoni. It is copied from a part of the Frontispiece of Faber's Dissertation on the Cahirif where it is stated that the plate

is

nymphceum found when Kome. round mound of masonry

a copy of a picture of a

excavating a foundation for the Barbarini Palace at It deserves notice, because

surmounted similar

by the

erections

short

the

pillars

is

found in Hindostan

precisely

on

the

similar

East

to

and

63

America on the West, as well as in various parts of Europe. The oval in the pediment and the solitary pillar have the the upright stone same meaning as the Caaba and hole time the Mahomet's and pit revered at Mecca long before



tree serves to identify the pillar,

were

common

in ancient

and



Apertures

vice versa.

monuments,

sepulchral

alike

in

Figure 90.

Hindostan and England

;

one perforated stone

a relic in the precincts of an old church in

The

aperture

is

preserved as

is

modern Kome.

blackish with the grease of

many

hands,

which have been put therein whilst their owners took a We have already remarked how ancient Abrasacred oath. ham and a modern Arab have sworn by the Linga it is ;

therefore by no

form of

faith

means remarkable

that

some

of a different

should swear -by the Yoni.

Figure 91

is

stated by Higgins, Anacalypsis, p. 217, to

be a mark on the breast of an Egyptian

^A, Figure 91.

mummy

in

the

64

London. It is essentially and is emblematic of ansata, crux the as symbol the same unit. female the and the male triad Figure 92 is simply introduced to show that the papal a tiara has not about it anything particularly Christian,

Museum

of University College,

Figure 92.

\

similar

head-dress having been

in ancient Assyi-ia,

where

it

worn by gods or angels

appeared crowned by an emblem

"the trinity." We may mention, Romanists adopted the mitre and the of

in passing, that as the tiara

from " the cursed

brood of Ham," so they adopted the episcopalian crook from the augurs of Etruria, and the artistic form with which they clothe their angels from the painters and urn-makers of Magna Grecia and Central Italy.

Figure 93 is the Mithraic lion. It may be seen in Hyde's Religion of the Ancient Persians, second edition, It may also be seen in vol. ii., plates 10 and 11, of plate i.

Gemme Antiche Figurate (Rome, 1707). In plate 10 the Mithraic lion has seven stars above it, around which are placed respectively, words written in Greek, Etruscan Maffei's

65

ZEDCH. TELKAN. TELKON. TELKON. QIDEKH. UNEULK. LNKELLP., apparently and Phoenician characters,

showing that the emblem was adopted by the Gnostics, It would be unprofitable to dwell upon the meaning of these After puzzling over them. I fancy that **Bad letters. spirits, pity us," " Just one, I call on thee," may be made

66 out by considering the words to be very bad Greek, and the

much

letters to be

Figure 94

is

transposed.

copied by Higgins, Anacalypsis, on the

who

authority of Dubois,

been kept

religi ^usly for six

wholly astrological,

as

it

states, vol.

a church

found on a stone in

the story told in Genesis. the di-aped figures

We

in

France, where

it

Dubois regards reference to no and as having It is unprofitable to speculate on of

Adam and

show how such

to

it

hundred years.

as representatives

have introduced

was had

p. 33, that it

iii.,

Eve.

tales are inter-

mingled with Sabeanism. Figure 95

is

and Babylon,

a lotus, adoring the

mundane

mother of creation.

gem

ancient

the

yoni

gem figured by Layard (Nineveh and represents Harpocrates seated on

a copy of a

p. 156),

representative of the

I have not yet

or sculpture

completely" with

so

Compare emblem is even more

met with any

which seems various

to identify

goddesses.

this with Figure 138, infra, wherein the

Fignre95.

woman, and Those who are familiar with the rude designs too often chalked on hoardings, will see that learned ancients and boorish moderns represent certain ideas in precisely similar fashion, and will understand the mystic strikingly identified with

with the virgin Mary.

meaning

of

Q ^^^l "]

.

I have elsewhere called attention to

the idea that a sight of the yoni a

charm against

be, •

it

evil spirits

has existed in

nations alike.

A

all

;

is

a source of health, and-

however grotesque the idea

ages,

rude image of a

may

civilised

and savage

woman who

shamelessly

and ia

exhibits herself has been found over the doors of churches in

Ireland, and at ^ervatos, in Spain, where she

is

standing on

one side of the doorway, and an equally conspicuous the other. in

^

man on

The same' has been found in Mexico, Peru, and Nor must we forget how Baubo cured

North America.

the intense grief of Ceres by ^exposing herself in a strange fashion

to

the

pp. 249, 250.

distressed

goddess.

Arnobius,

Op,

Cit.,

67

As

have

I

already

modern

noticed

notions

on

the

influence produced by the exhibition of the yoni on those

who

the legend referred to

are suffering,

The goddess,

described.

may

be shortly

was miserable

the story,

in

in

consequence of her daughter, Proserpine, having been stolen

away by Pluto.

In her agony, snatching two Etna-lighted

round the earth and in due course visits Eleusis.

torches, she wanders

one,

hospitably

;

search of the lost

in

Baubo

guest to depose her grief for a moment.

In -despair the

mort"! bethinks her of a scheme, shaves in Isaiah

receives her

but nothing that the hostess does induces the

off

what

is

called

"the hair of the feet" and then exposes herself

to

Ceres fixes her eyes upon the denuded spot,

is

the goddess.

pleased with the strange form of consolation, consents to take food and

is

Figure 96 Culte de

restored to comfort.

is

Venus.

copied from plate

He

states

that

Figure

22,

it

is

fig.

3, of

Lajard's

an impression of

96.

a cornelian cylinder, in the collection of the late Sir William

Ouseley, and

two

fish

that

is

gods,

Dagon

supposed to represent Oannes, or Bel and authors of fecundity. .It is thought

the

of the

Philistines

resembled the two figures

supporting the central one.

Figure 97 a female.

is

a side view of plate 1.

Dagon, the

fish god,

The

idol represents

male above, piscine below, was

68 In the one of the many symbols of an androgyne creator. first of the Avatars of Vishnu, he is represented as emerging from the mouth of a fish, and being a fish himself the ;

Figure 97.

legend being that he was to be the saviour of the world in See Moor's Hindu Pantheon, a deluge which was to follow.

and Coleman's Mythology of the Hindus. Figure 98 is a fancy sketch of the fleur-de-lys, the lily of It symbolises the male triad, whilst the ring France. around of this Fig. 98.

it

represents the female.

emblem

The

identification

of the trinity with the tripliform

(jeva, and of the ring with his sacti,

may

Maha-

be seen in

the next figure.

Figure 99, which we have already given on page 46,

one of great value to the inquirer into the signification of It has been reintroduced here to show the certain symbols. identification of the eye, fish, or oval shape, with the yoni,

is

and of the fleur-de-lys with the lingam, which is recognised by the respective positions of the emblems in front of parti-

69 cular

parts

part,

adore the

stamens.

the

of

mystic

animals,

symboUc palm

The rayed branches

who with

tree,

both,

on

its

pistil

their

and

of the upper part of the tree,

Figure 99.

and the nearness to that the

The

palm was a

it

moon, seem to indicate emblem. the palm tree to the ancient

of the crescent

solar as well rs a sexual

great similarity of

round towers in Ireland and elsewhere the observer.

He will

occasions dancing,

will naturally strike

perhaps remember also that on certain

feasting,

and debauchery were practised

about a round tower in Wicklow, such as were practised round

modern substitute of the mystic We have now humanised our practice, but palm tree,. we have not purified our land of all its veiled symbols. In some parts, where probably the palm tree does not It was flourish, the pine takes its place as an emblem. sacred to the mother of the gods, whose names, Rhoea, the English may-pole, the

Ceres, Cybele, are paraphrastic of the yoni.

Arnobius, Op.

Git., p.

We

learn from

239, that on fixed days that tree was

introduced into the sanctuary of that august personage, being decorated by fleeces and violets.

It

does not require any

recondite knowledge to understand the signification of the entrance of the pine into the temple of the divine mother,

nor what the tree when buried in the midst of a fleece Those who have heard of the origin of the Spanish depicts.

70 Royal Order of the Golden Fleece know that the word is an euphemism for the lanugo of the Romans. Parsley round a

modern symbol, and the violet is as good an emblem of the lingam as the modern pistol. It has long been known that the ancient custom of erecting a may-pole, surrounding it with wreaths of flowers, and carrot root is a

then dancing round

it in wild orgy, was a relic of the ancient custom of reverencing the symbol of creation, invigorated by

the returning spring time, without whose powers the flocks

and herds would the

being

fail

my

notice of offered

to

It will not fail to attract

to increase.

readers, that a

the

sacred

pine cone

"grove" by

is

constantly

the priests

of

Assyria.

Figures 100, 101, represent the Buddhist cross and one

The

of its arms.

first

shows the union of four

phalli.

The

3 c Figure 100,

Figure 101.

single one being a conventional form of a well-known organ.

This form of cross does not essentially

differ from the Asher stands perpendicularly to Anu and Hea; in the former it is at right angles to them. " The pistol " is a well-known name amongst our soldiery, and four such joined together by the muzzle would form the

Maltese cross.

Buddhist

cross.

In the

latter,

Compare Figure

Figures 102, 103,

37, ante.

104, indicate the union of the four

creators, the trinity and the unity. Not having at hand any copy of an ancient key, I have used a modern one but this makes no essential difference in the symbol. ;

r Figure 102.

Figure 103.

Figure 104.

71 Figures 105, 106, are copied from Lajard, Sur le Cull ii. They represent ornaments held in th

de VenuSy plate

hands of a great female

figure, sculptured in has relief

rock at Yazili Kaia, near to Boghaz Keni, in Anatolia, described by

M. C. Texier

The goddess

in 1834.

with a tower, to indicate virginity

;

in her right

is

on au'

crowne<

hand sh

106 ; in the other, that givei in Figure 105, she stands upon a lioness, and is attendee by an antelope. Figure 105 is a complicated emblem of th< holds a

staff,

shown

in Figure

'four.'

^;

Fipure 1U6.

Figure 105.

Figures 107, 108, 109, are copied from Moor's Hindu They represent the lingam and the Ixxxiii.

Pantheon, plate

Figure 107.

72

Figure 108.

Figure 109.

73 yoni,

which amongst

emblems, much in certain

modern

the

Indians

the same way

Christians.

regarded

are

as

holy

as a crucifix is esteemed by

In worship,

c/hee,

or

oil,

or

off by the water, is poured over the pillar, and allowed to run and necklace, Sometimes the pillar is adorned by a spout. is

associated with the serpent

emblem.

In Lucian's account

condensed in of Alexander, the false prophet, which we have to one of reference is a there edition, second Faiths, Ancient so very but officer, Roman distinguished a his dupes, who was superstitious,

or,

as

he would say of himself,

so

deeply

imbued with reHgion, that at the sight of a stone he would offering prostrate and adore it for a considerable time, fall

prayers and vows thereto.

This

may by some

be thought

in Christian quite as reasonable as the practice once enforced to kneel in street the in persons all obliged Rome, which

reverence a bit of

when an ugly black doll, called " the bambino," or had been bread, over which some cabalistic words

Arnomuttered, was being carried in procession past them. produced " images I worshipped bius. Op. at., p. 31, says, hammers, from the furnace, gods made on anvils and by on aged trees; the bones of elephants, paintings, wreaths with whenever I espied an anointed stone, and one bedaubed olive oil, as if

some person resided

in

it,

I worshipped

it,

from a I addressed myself to it, and begged blessings we find wherein xxviii. 18, Compare Gen. senseless stock." and oil, with it that Jacob set up a stone and anointed

and Is. xxvii. 19, xl. 20, xliv. 10-20. paper by Mr. I copy the following remarks from a Society, Sellon, in Memoirs of the London Anthropological

called the place Bethel,

" As Speaking of Hindostau, he remarks, Lingam, its has temple every every village has its temple so to three and these parochial Lingams are usually from two

for

feet

1863-4.

in height,

and rather broad

at the

base.

Here the

husbands, repair village girls, who are anxious for lovers or They make a lustration by sprinlding early in the morning. they deck the the god with water brought from the Ganges ;

74 with garlands of the

Liiiga

they perform the

mudm,

sweet-smelling bilwa

flower

;

or gesticulation with the fingers,

and, reciting the prescribed mantras, or incantations, they rub themselves against the emblem, and entreat the deity to

make them

fruitful

mothers of pulee-pullum

{i.e.,

child

fruit). '•

This

is

the celebrated Linga puja, during the perform-

ance of which the panchaty, or

five

lamps, must be lighted,

and U\e gantha, or bell, be frequently rung to scare away the The mala, or rosary of a hundred and eight evil demons. round beads,

is

also used in this puja."

Sec also Moor's Huif'ii Pantheon, plate xxii, pp. 68, 69, Again, in the Dahlstan, a "work written in the Persian 70. language, by a travelled Mahometan,' about a. d. 1660, and translated by David Shea, for the Oriental Translation

Fund

and Co., of Great Britain and Ireland (3 148-160, ii., vol. pp. Leadenhali Street, London), we read, " The belief of the Saktian is that Siva, that is, Mahadeva, who with little exception is the highest of deities and the vols.,

greatest of the spirits, has a spouse

With them

Sakti wife,

who

is

8vo., Allen

whom

the power

they of

call

Maya

Mahadeva's

The

Bhavani, surpasses that of the husband.

zealous of this sect worship the Siva Linga, although other

Hindoos

also venerate

it.

Linga

is

called the virile organ,

and they say, on behalf of this worship, that as men and all living beings derive their existence from it, adoration is duly bestowed upon

As the

it.

venerate the hhaga, that familiar with

is,

linga of

Mahadeva, so do they

the female organ.

them gave the information

A man

that, according to

their belief, the high altar, or principal place in a

the Mussulmans,

is

very

an emblem of the hhaga.

mosque

Another

of

man

said that as the just-named place emblems the or turret of the mosque represents the minar the bhaga, then goes on to describe the practices author The linga."

among them

of the sect,

which may be summed up in the words

most absolute freedom

of love.

— the

75

Apropos of the Mahometan minaret and Christian church may mention that Lucian describes the magnificent temple of the Syrian goddess as having two vast towers and spires, I

main entrance, and how at certain seasons men ascended to their summit, and remained there some

phalli before its

days, so as to utter from thence the prayers of the faithful.

Figures

110,

111,

both from Moor, plate Ixxxvi., are

forms of the argha, or sacred

sacrificial cup,

bowl, or basin

which represent the yoni, and some other things besides. See Moor, Hindu Pantheon, pp. 393, 394.

Figure 110.

Figure 111.

^'gare li2.

Copied from Rawlinson's Ancient

Fig-are 112.

Monar

76 chies, vol.

p. 176,

i.,

The

symbolises Ishtar, the Assyrian repre-

Parvati, Isis, Astarte, Venus,

sentative of Devi,

and child are

virgin

to be

and Mary.

found everywhere, even in

ancient Mexico.

Figure 113

is

copied from Lajard, Sur

Ic

Cidte de Venus,

Fif^uro 113.

plate xix.,

fig. 6,

and represents the male and female as the

sun and moon, thus identifying the symbolic sex of those The legend in the Pehlevi characters has not

luminaries.

been interpreted. Figure 114

by

my

the sight

In

it

of,

is

taken from a mediaeval woodcut, lent to

Mr. John Newton,

friend,

and the privilege

the virgin

Mary

is

to

whom

to copy,

seen as the

I

am

many

me

indebted for

other figures.

Queen

of Heaven,

nursing her infant, and identified with the crescent moon, the

emblem

Being before the sun, she almost eclipses Than this, nothing could more completely identify its light. the Christian mother and child with Isis and Horus, Ishtar, of virginity.

Venus, Juno, and a host of other pagan goddesses, who have Queen of Heaven,' Queen of the Universe,' been called '

'

*

'

Mother of God,' Spouse Heavenly Peace Maker,' '

Figures 115, 116, are

of God,' the

'

Celestial Virgin,' the

etc.

common

devices in papal churches

They are intended to indicate the and pagan symbolism. sun and moon in conjunction, the union of the triad with

77 the unit.

showed

to

I

may

notice,

me some

in

passing, that Mr.

Newton has

mcdiooval woodcuts, in which the young

fkmtm \^ N \:\W.^Na-

>

"^

'

"^

^^'

V

b'i-m'c 111.

unmarried women wearing upon

in a

mixed assemhlagc were indicated hy

their foreheads a crescent

Figure 115.

moon.

Fmme

lie.

78 Figure 117

ia

a

Buddhist symbol, or rather a copy of

Figure 117.

Maityna Bodhisatwa, from the monastery of Gopach, in the It is taken from Journal of Royal Asiatic

valley of Nepaul.

Society, vol. xviii., p. 394. piscis of the

Eoman

The

horse-shoe, like the vesica

church, indicates the yoni; the

last,

taken from some cow, mare, or donkey, being used in eastern parts where

we now use

their shoes, to keep off the evil eye.

remarkable that some nations should use the female

It is

organ, or an effigy thereof, as a charm against others adopt the male symbol.

In

ill

Ireland,

luck, whilst

as

we have

previously remarked, a female shamelessly exhibiting herself,

and

called Shelah-na-gig,

was

to be seen in stone over

the door of certain churches, within the last century.

From

the resemblance in the shape of the horse-shoe to

grove" of the Assyrian worshippers, and from the man standing within it as the symbolic pine tree stands in the

the

'*

Mesopotamian, '^Asherah," I think we may

fairly

conclude

79 that the Indian,

the Shemitic emblem, androgyne creator.

like,

of the sexes^-the

typifies the

union

That some Buddhists have mingled sexuality with their ideas of religion,

may be

seen in plate

ii.

of

Emil Schlagin-

BuddJiism in Tibet, wherein Vajarsattva, " The God above all," is represented as a male and female Rays, as of the sun, pass from the group conjoined. and tweit's Atlas of

;

all

are enclosed in an ornate oval, or horse-shoe, like that in

this figure.

Few, however, but the

the nature of the group at

may

I (a.d.

initiated

would recognise

first sight.

also notice, in passing, that the goddess

617-98) has the stigmata

in her

hands and

Doljang feet, like

those assigned to Jesus of Nazareth and Francis of Assisi.

Figure 118

is

a copy of the medal issued to pilgrims at

the shrine of the virgin at Loretto.

It

was lent

to

me

by

Figure 118.

Mr. Newton, but the engraver has omitted to make the face mother and child black, as the most ancient and renowned ones usually are. of the

Instead Vol.

II.,

of the

explanation

p. 262, of the

given in Ancient Faiths, adoption of a black skin for Mary and

her son, D'Harcanville suggests that it represents night, the period during which the feminine creator is most propitious or attentive to her duties.

It is

unnecessary to contest the

80 point,

almost every symbol has more

for

than one.

given to

it

plausible

reason

for

I

the

blackness

children, in certain papal shrines,

decency and Christianity.

interpretations

have sought in vain for even a of sacred virgins

which

is

and

compatible with

clear that the matter will

It is

not bear the light.

Figure 119

is

from Lajard, Op.

the sun, moon,

It represents

and a

Cit.f

plate

star,

probably Venus.

iii., fig.

8.

Figure 119.

The legend

is

in Phoenician,

Levy, in Slegel und legend ynins"?,

Figure 120

LKBRBO, is

also

and may be read

Gemmen,

1869,

Breslau,

LNBRB. reads

the

but does not attempt to explain

from Lajard, plate

i., fig.

8.

it.

It repre-

sents an act of worship before the symbols of the male and

Figure

12^;

Above arc the Below are the male

female creators, arranged in throe pairs.

heavenly symbols of the sun and moon.

81

palm

tree,

sistrum,

and the barred htsk,

identical in

meaning with the

Next come the male emblem,

virgo intacta.

i. e.,

the cone, and the female symbol, the lozenge or yoni.

Figure 121 represents also a worshipper before the barred star,

emblem

male potency, and of the sun or the heavens.

It will

female symbol, surmounted by the seven-rayed

Figure 121.

of the

be noticed

which

is

— and

the matter

is

significant

— that

the hand

raised in adoration is exactly opposite the conjunc-

tion of the two.

female alone

is

Compare

this

with Fig. 95, where the

the object of reverence.

Lajard and others state that homage, such as

is

here

some parts of Palestine and the worshipper on bended knees

depicted, is actually paid in

India to the living symbol ofi'ering to it,

;

la louche inferieure, with or without a silent

prayer, his food before he eats is

it.

A

corresponding homage

paid by female devotees to the masculine

emblem

very peculiarly holy fakir, one of whose peculiarities

of

any

is,

that

no amount of excitement stimulates the organ into what

may how

be called creative energy.

spch a state of apathy Mo'i ^n,'»"h

has proved that

homage

is

is it

It

has long been a problem

brought about, but modern observais

by the habitual use of weights. Religious Ceremonies

depicted in Picart's

F

,

82 of

all

the

People in

the

World, original French edition,

plate 71.

Figure 122

is

copied from Bryant's Ancient Mythology

third edition, vol.

iii.,

p. 193.

That author

states that

he

Figure 122.

copied is

it

from Spanheim, but gives no other reference. It from a Greek medal, and has the word

apparently

CAMII2N

as an inscription.

It is said to represent

Juno,

Sami, or Selenitis, with the sacred peplum. The figure is remarkable for showing the identity of the moon, the lozenge, and the female.

It is doubtful

whether the attitude

of the goddess is intended to represent the cross.

Symbolism every detail has a signification, upon the meaning of the beads which We fringe the lower part of the diamond-shaped garment. have noticed in a previous article that the Linga when

As

we

in religious

naturally speculate

83 worshipped was sometimes adorned with beads, which were the fruit of a tree sacred to Mahadeva fig. 4,

plate xi. siqra, the four

;

On

of beads depending from them.

arranged round a liorse-shoe form

;

ornaments on Hi:idoo Divinities. have the

last

p.

286.

The

has been found

and beads are common

They may only be used

without religious signification

I have not been able to discover

Figure 123

is

series

a very ancient coin of

Citium, a rosary of beads, with a cross,

for decoration 9iid

in the original of

arms of the cross have a

;

if

they

it.

a composition taken from Bryant, vol.

rock, the water, the crescent

moon

iv.,

as an ark.

Figure 123.

and the dove hovering over though the author of it is not aware of

it,

are

all

symbolical;

is right in his grouping,

that he

its full

signification.

it is

but clear

The reader

meaning from our articles upon the Akk and Water, and from our remarks upon the Dove will readily gather their true

in Ancient Faiths, second edition.

84 124

Figure

Flnurntc, vol.

is

copied

3, plate xl.

from

Figure

the pillar

is

light as

St.

1

what was associated with the worship

St.

Cosmo and

vSt.

bolus,

much

Damian were

Foutin in Christian France.

And

it

surprising that a church, which has deified or a spear

Antlche

24.

This so-called god was regarded

Priapus.

same

Gcmme

very conspicuously phallic, and the whole com-

position indicates

and

Mallei's

In the original, the figure upon

is

in

of

the

at Isernia,

not at

made

all

saints of

and cloak, under the names Longinus and Amphishould also adopt the " god of the gardens," and

consecrate

him

as an object for Christian worship,

and give

him an appropriate name and emblem. But the patron saint of Lampsacus was not really a deity, only a sort of saint, whose business it was to attend to certain parts. The idea of guardian angels was once common, see Matt, xviii. 10, where

;

86

we

who looks As the pagan Hymen and Lucina

read, that each child has a guardian in heaven,

after his infantile charge.

attended upon weddings and parturitions, so the Christian

Cosmo and Damian attended to spouses, and To the last two were making them fruitful. wax

sterile wives,

effigies of

figure in our plate.

votary

oflfer

To

the part

left

the heathen saint,

also

;

whilst her attendant offers a pine cone.

Greeks was sacred to Cybele, as or Ishtar, the

name

The basket

contains

gem

it

given there to apples

have been made of pastry. This

offered,

by

out from the nude

we

see a female

quince leaves, equivalent to la feuille de sage,

egg-shaped bread, apparently a cake

69.

assisted in

is valuable,

an

was in Assyria

to Astarte

the niother of

all saints.*

*

and

phalli,

le

may

which

See Martial's Epigrams^ b. xiv.

inasmuch as

it

assists us to under-

stand the signification of the pine cone offered to the the equivalent of

head

ass's

This amongst the

base are curiously significant,

The

*

grove,'

and its how comand demonstrate

Verger de Cypris.

pillar

pletely an artist can appear innocent, whilst to the he unveils a mystery.

initiated

Figures 125, 126, 127, are various contrivances for indicating decently that which to conceal, la hequilU,

ou

it

les

was generally thought

religious

instrumens.

(f^

Figure 125.

Figure 126.

Figure 127.

Figure 128 represents the same subject; the cuts are

grouped so as\to show how the knobbed

stick,

le

baton,

becomes converted either into a bent rod, la verge, or a priestly crook, le baton pastoral. There is no doubt that the episcopal crozier

is

a presentable effigy of a very private

and once highly venerated portion of the human frame,

86 which was used

in long

by-gone days by Etruscan augurs,

when they mapped out the

sky, prior to noticing the flight of

Figure 128.

Perhaps we ought

birds.

consecrated to

to

be grateful to Popery for having

Christ what was so long used in that which

divines call the service of the devil.

Figures

130,

129,

131,

like the

are,

from various antique gems

copied

;

Fig.

preceding four,

129 represents

Figure 131.

Fipure 130.

Figure 129.

a steering oar,

le

timon, and

is

usually held in the

hand

" Saint Luck," or of good fortune, or as moderns would say bonnes fortunes ; Fig. 130 is emblematic of Cupid, or Saint Desire

;

it

is

synonymous with

le

dard, or la pique

form less common in gems; hammer, le martcau qui frappe V cnclume

131

The

is

a

ancients had as

many

pictorial

it

et

;

represents

forge

les

euphemisms

Fig.

the

enfans. as

our-

and when these are understood they enable us to comprehend many a legend otherwise dim; e. g., when Fortuna, or luck, always depicted as a woman, has for her characteristic le iimon, and for her motto the proverb, "Forselves,

87 tune favours the bold," we readily understand the double

The

entente. skill,

steering

oar

indicates

and bravery in him who wields

power, knovvledge, it

;

without such a

guide, few boats would attain a prosperous haven.

Figure 132

is

copied from plate xxix. of Pugin's Glossary

of Ecclesiastical Ornament (Lond., 1868).

The

plate repre-

is,

I

Fignre 132.

sents

"a

pattern

thoroughly orthodox.

for

diapering,"

and

presume,

It consists of the double triangle, see

Figures 20, 30, 31, 32, pp. 32, 38, the emblems of Siva and Parvati, the male and female; of Bimmon the pomegranate,

'88 emblem of the womb, which is seen to be full of seed through the ** vesica piscis,'' la fente, or la porte de la vie. There are also two new moons, emblems of Venus, or la the

nature,

The crown above the pomegranate number four; whilst in the the group which we copy is surrounded by various

introduced.

represents the triad, and the original

forms of the as

Rimmon

the

triad,

triad, all of is

of

woman.

which are as characteristic of man There are also circles enclosing

analogous to other symbols

common

in Hindo-

stan.

Figure 183 fig.

8.

It

is

copied from Moor's

Hindu Pantheon,

pi. ix.,

represents Bhavhani, Maia, Devi, Lakshmi, or

Figure 133.

Kamala, one of the many forms given to female nature. She bears in one hand the lotus, emblem of self-fructification,

— in

placed,

other similar figures an effigy of the phallus

— whilst

is

in the other she holds her infant Krishna,

Crishna, or Vishnu.

Such groups are as common

in India

89 as

in

The

Italy,

in

pagan temples as in Christian churches.

idea of the mother and child

is

pictured in every ancient

country of whose art any remains exist.

Figure 134

is

Hindu Pantheon,

taken from plate xxiv.,

fig.

1,

of Moor's

it represents a subject often depicted

by

Figure 134.

the Hindoos and the Greeks,

viz.,

androgynism, the union

The technical word is of the male and female creators. side bears the emblems right the male on Arddha-Nari. The

90 of Siva or Mahadeva, the female on the left those of Parvati The bull and lioness are emblematic of the masor Sacti.

and feminine powers. indicates the union of the two

The mark on the temple

culine

the head, as in

modern

an aureole

;

is

seen around

In this drawing

pictures of saints.

the Ganges rises from the male, the idea being that the stream from Mahadeva is as copious and fertilising as that

The metaphor here depicted is common in the East, and is precisely the same as that quoted in Num. xxiv. 7, and also from some lost Hebrew book in John vii.

mighty

river.

It will be noticed, that the

38.

Hindoos express androgyneity

quite as conspicuously, but generally

than the Grecian Figure 135

much

less indelicately,

artists. is

a

common' Egyptian emblem,

signify eternity, but in truth

it

said

to

The

has another meaning.

Figure 135.

serpent and the ring indicate V andouille and V anneau. The tail of the animal, which the mouth appears to swallow,

The symbol resembles the crux and imports that life upon the earth is rendered perpetual by means of the union of the A ring, or circle, is one of the symbols of' Venus, sexes.

is la

queue dans la houche.

ansata in

who male.

its

signification,

carries indifferently this,

See Maffei's Gemme,

Figure 136

is

or the triad

vol.

iii.,

page

emblem

of the

1, plate viii.

the vesica piscis, or fish's bladder; the

Figure 136.

91

emblem of woman and of the virgin, as may be seen in the two following woodcuts. Figm-es 137, 138, are copied from an ancient Kosary of the Blessed Virgin Mary, printed at Venice, 1524, with a

Figure 137.

the book being lent to me by The first represents the same part Mr. Newton. It may appropriately be called as the Assyrian " grove." The book in question contains numerous the Holy Yoni. license from ih& Inquisition

my

;

friend,

figures, all

Ishtar.

resembling closely the Mesopotamian emblem of

The presence

two as symbolic of

down

of the

Isis,

woman

in adoration thereof shows the

and a man bowing same idea as is depicted

in Assyrian sculptures,

where males

symbols of themselves.

Compare

pp. 48 seq.

therein identifies the

or la nature;

ofi'er

Figs.

to

63,

the goddess 64,

65,

66,

92 If

I

brated

had been able Alexandrian

could have found trative

of the

to

library,

any

is

is

it

the once

of

certain

A

Figure 138.

cele-

whether

doubtful

more

pictorial representation

relationship

each other than

search through

symbolic

I

illus-

forms to

circle of angelic heads,

Figure 138.

forming a sort of sun, having luminous rays outside, and a dove, the emblem of Venus, dart a spear (la pique) down upon the earth (la terre), or the virgin. This being received, In Grecian story, Ouranos and Ge, or follows. heaven and earth, were the parents of creation and Jupiter The same came from heaven to impregnate Alcmena.

fertility

;

mythos prevailed throughout ity

adopted the idea,

respective

all civilised

merel.y

altering

nations.

the

Christian-

names

of the

parents, and attributed the regeneration of the

world to "holy breath" and Mary. extraordinarily

Every individual,.indeed,

conspicuous for wisdom,

power,

goodness,

93 etc., is said to

have been begotten on a

Within the vesica

father.

piscis,

woman by

the virgin herself, with or without the child before us the child takes her place.

the publication of such

a print could have been as ignorant as is

modern

equally difficult to believe that the latter,

meaning

real

of the symbols

in the figure

;

It is difficult to believe

who sanctioned

that the ecclesiastics

a celestial

artists usually represent

ritualists.

they

if

commonly used by

It

knew the

the

Roman

church, would adopt them.

The

two figures, symbolic of adoration before divine me the opportunity to give a descrip-

last

sexual emblems, afford

tion of a similrx worship existent in

My

time.

authority

Hindostan

H. H. Wilson,

at the present

Essays on the " The Religion of the Hindoos, Triibner and Co., London. " worshippers," he remarks, vol. i., p. 240, of the Sakti, the is

in

power or ene.-gy of the divine nature in action, are exceedingly numerous amongst all classes of Hindoos about three-



fourths are of this sect, while only a fifth are Vaishnavas and a sixteenth Saivas. This active eiiergy is personified, and the

form with which

it

is

invested depends

The most

individuals.

upon the

favourite form is

that

bias of the

of Parvati,

Bhavani, or Durga, the wife of Siva, or Mahadeva." " The worship of the female principle, as distinct from the divinity, appears to have originated in the literal interpretation of the metaphorical language of the Vedas, in which the

or purpose to create the universe

is

ivill

represented as originating

from the creator, and consistent with him as his bride." " The Sama-veda, for example, says, the creator felt not delight being alone

;

he wished another, and caused his own

twain, and thus

became husband and

self to fall in

He

approached and thus were human beings produced." A sentiment or statement which we may notice in passing is very similar t6 wife.

her,

that propounded in Genesis, ch.

Elohim



image,

i.e.,

viz.,

androgyne.

th&;t

as male

he created

i.

27,

and

v. 1, 2,

man and woman

respecting in his

own

and female, bisexual but united

— an

94 *'

This female principle goes by innumerable cognomens,

inasmuch as every goddess, every nymph, and all women are it. She the principle personified is the mother of all, as Mahadeva, the male principle, is the father



identified with



of all." ''

The homage rendered

image of any goddess

Maya,

max



Parvati, or Devi

may be done before an Lakshmi, Bhavani, Durga,

to the Sakti

Prakriti,

—just

in the

same way as Romanists But in accordance

pray to a local Mary, or any other.

wuth the weakness of consider

human

rather than to an 'abstraction.

elements are required, lations

nature, there are

many who

right to pay their devotions to the thing itself

it

flesh,

In this form of worship six wine,

fisb,

women,

gesticu-

and mantras which consist of various unmeaning

monosyllabic

combinations of

letters

of

imaginary

great

efficacy."

" The ceremonies are mostly gone through in a mixed society, the Sakti

being personified by a naked female, to

whom meat and

wine are offered and then distributed amongst the company. These eat and drink alternately with gesticulations and mantras and when the religious part of



males and females rush together and indulge in a wild orgy. This ceremony is entitled the Sri

the business

Chakra

is over, th:e

or Purnabhisheka, the

Ring

or Full Initiation."

In a note apparently by the editor. Dr. Rost, a account

is

full

given in Sanscrit of the Sakti Sodhana, as they

Devi Rakasya, a section of the Rudra Ydmala, so as to prove to his readers that the Sri Chakra is performed under a religious prescription.

are prescribed in the

We girl,

learn that the

a courtesan,

woman

should be an actress, dancing

washerwoman,

milk- maid, or a female

devotee.

barber's wife,

flower-girl,

The ceremony

is to

take

place at midnight with eight, nine, or eleven couples.

At

sundry

mantras said, then the female is disrobed, but richly ornamented, and is placed on the left

first

there are

of a circle

(Chakra) described for the purpose, and after

96 sundry gesticulations, mantras, and formulas she

by being sprinkled over with wine.

is purified

If a novice, the girl has

the radical mantra whispered thrice in her

ear.'

Feasting

then follows, lest Venus should languish in the absence of Ceres and Bacchus, and now, when the veins are full of rich blood, the actors are urged to do

what desire

dictates,

but

never to be so carried away by their zeal as to neglect the holy mantras appropriate to every act and to every stage thereof.* It

natural that

is

such a religion should be popular,

amongst the young of both sexes. Figures 139 to 153 are copied from Moor's Hindu Pantheon ; they are sectarial marks in India, and are usually

especially

<>

V

o

Fig. 147.

Fig. 146.

Fig. 145.

Fig.'l44.

Fig. 142.

Fig. 141.

Fig. 140.

Fig. 139.

^^

Fig. 149.

"mason's marks," L

e,,

Fig. 143.

Fig. 148.

Fig. 151.

Fig- 150.

^^

Fig. 153.

Fig." 152.

traced on the forehead.

S

Many

resemble what are known as

designs

found on tooled stones,

are selections from bis and liis pages, and In tbe original tbe obsei-vations extend over eighteen are of no consequence. omitted parts the entirety their in given be to long are too *

The above quotations from Wilson's work

Editor's account.

:

;

96 ancient edifices,

various

in

They

arc introduced

employed

our own, "trade marks."

like

here to illustrate the various designs the union of the

to indicate

"unity," and the numerous forms

A

'nature."

priori,

it

**

trinity" with the

representative

of

"la

appears absurd to suppose that the

eye could ever have been symbolical of anything but sight

but the mythos of Indra, given in Ancient Faiths, second edition. Vol.

649, and p. 7 supra, proves that

p.

ii.,

it

has

These figures are alike emblematic of the "trinity," "the virgin," and the "four." Figure 154 is from Pugin, plate v., figure 3. It is the outline of a pectoral ornament worn by some Roman eccleanother and a hidden

meaning.

ED Figure 154.

siastic in Italy, a. d.

1400

;

it

represents the Egyptian crux

f

ansata under another form, the

O

signifying the triad, the

the unit.

Figures 155, 156, are of the

emblems

one signification, which

forms of the sistrum, one

difi*erent

In the

of Isis.

will

latter,

the triple bars have

readily suggest itself to these

who know the meaning of the triad. In emblem of the trinity, which we have been ventionalise, is

indicate

shown

that Isis

is

obliged to con-

The

manner.

in a distinct

a virgin.

the former, the

The

cat

cross bars

at the top

of the

instrument indicates " desire," Cupid, or Eros. Fig. 155 plate ix., from R. P. Knight's copied Worship is of Priapus. Figure 157 represents the cup and wafer, to be found in

the

are

alike

symbolic

elements in 5, 6.

many

hands of the

of

effigies

the

Eucharist.

of

papal

bishops

sun and moon, See

Pugin,

and

plate

;

of iv.,

they the figs.

97 Figure 158

is

copied from Lajard, plate xv.,

tig. 6.

It

.

98 represents a temple in a conventional form

;

whilst below,

Ceres appears seated within a horse-shoe shaped ornament.

Figure 157.

Fignve 156.

This,

amongst other symbols, tends

frequently before observed,

to

show what we have so

that the female in creation

is

Figure 158.

characterised by a great variety of designs,

of

which the

succeeding woodcuts give us additional evidence.

Figure Juno,

Isis,

159 represents the various forms symbolic of Parvati,

Mary,

Ishtar,

or

woman,

or

the

virgin

^oo^OV Figure

l.')9.

Figures 160, 161, 162, are copied from Audsley's Christian

SymhoUsm (London,

1868).

They

are

ornaments worn

by the Virgin Mary, and represent her as the crescent moon.

\)9

with

conjoined

the

cross

(in

Isis

(in

160),

with

Fig.

161), and

with the

the

collar

Figure 162.

Figure 161:

Figure 160.

of

Fig.

double triangle

(in

Fig. 162).

Figure

163 represents a

tortoise.

When

one sees a

Figure 163.

resemblance between this creature's head and neck and the linga, one can understand why both in India and in Greece the animal should be regarded as sacred to the goddess personifying the female creator,

and why

in

Hindoo myths

it

is

said to support the world.

In the British

Museum

there are three Assyrian obelises,

which represent, in the most conspicuous way, the The phallus, one of which has been apparently circumcised. all

of

sale of land, is occupied with an inscription recording the and also a figure of the reigning king, whilst upon the part known as the glans penis are a number of symbols, which

body

powers are intended apparently to designate the generative spear a serpent, a by indicated is male The in creation. head, a hare, a tiara, a cock, and a tortoise.

The female

100 appeai^s

under precisely the same

forin as is seen

The

of the Egyptian Isis, Fig. 28.

on the head day a

tortoise is to this

masculine emblem in Japan.

See Figs. 174, 175. no necessity for the animal itself always to be depicted, inasmuch as I have discovered that both in Assyrian and Greek art the tortoise is pourtrayed under the

But there

figure

is

which resembles somewhat the markings upon

\E

the segments into which the shell it is

a very

common

thus an egg

made

is

is

In symbolism

divided.

thing for a part to stand for the whole to

do duty

for the triad

;

;

and a man

sometimes represented by a spade. A woman is in like and a golden a comb, or a mirror '' grove," which it overfleece typifies in the first place the is

manner represented by

;

shadows, and the female who possesses both. It has been stated on page 19 supra, that Pausanias mentions having seen at some place in Greece one figure of Venus standing on a tortoise, and another upon a ram,

but he leaves to the ingenious to discover why the association takes place. It

was

tortoise

as

intimation

which led

male symbol.

Any

this

a

mo

person

to identify the

who has

ever

watched this creature in repose, and seen the action of the head and neck when the quadruped is excited, will recognise

why

the animal

and that which

who

is

it

dear to the goddess of amorous delight,

may remind

her

of.

ram

will

know

are familiar with the

In like manner, those that

it is

remarkable

Like the cat, whose and excessive vigour. salacity caused it to be honoured in Egypt, the ram was in that country also sacred, as the bull was in Assyria and for

persistent

Hindostan. fact, everything which in shape, habits, or sound mankind of the creators and of the first part of remind could Thus tall stones or with reverence. regarded creation was and oak trees, the pine, palm, rock, the natural pinnacles of

In

fig

tree

and

the

ivy,

with

their

tripliform

leaves,

the

— 101

mandrake,

with

its

strange

human

form,

the

thumb

symbolised Bel, Baal, Asher, or Mahadeva. In like manner a hole in the ground, a crevice in a rock, a deep cave, the myrtle from the shape of its leaf, the fish from its

and

finger,

scent, the dolphin

dove from

its note,

and the mullet from their names, the and any umbrageous retreat surrounded

with thick bushes, were symbolic of woman. So also the sword and sheath, the arrow and target, the spear and shield, the plough trench,

and furrow, the spade and

the pillar by a well, the

thumb

thrust between the

two fore-fingers or grasped by the hand, and a host of other things were typical of the union which brings about the

new

formation of a

being.

I cannot help regarding the sexual

element as the key

which opens almost every lock of symbolism, and however much we may dislike the idea that modern religionists have adopted emblems of an obscene worship, we cannot deny the fact that it is so, and we may hope that with a knowledge of their impurity trinity

we

and virgin

shall cease to

—a

have a faith based upon a

Some may

lingam and a yoni.

to such a doctrine, but blasphemous and heathenish.

still

to

me

it is

cling

simply horrible

Figures 164, 165, represent a pagan and Christian cross

and

trinity.

The

first is

copied from R. P. Knight (plate x.

Figure 164.

fig. 1),

land represents a figure

ApoUonia.

Figure 165.

found on an ancient coin of in any of our churches

The second may be seen

to-day.

Figure 166 is from an old papal book lent to me by Mr. Newton, Missale Romanum, illustrated by a monk (Venice,

102 1509).

of the It represents a confessor

Roman

who

church,

Egyptian symbol of wears* the crux ansata, the

iife,

the

Figure 166.

emblem pallium.

of

the

It is

have adopted so

Figure 167

four

creators,

in

the place of the

usual

remarkable that a Christian church should

many pagan symbols is

copied

from

a

Figure 167.

as

Rome

small

has done.

bronze figure in

103 the

Mayer

collection

in

the Free

Museum,

Liverpool.

It

represents the feminine creator hoidinpj a well marked lingam in her hand, trinity

and the

and

is

thus emblematic of the four, or the

virgin.

Figure 168 represents two Egyptian deities in worship before

an emblem of the male, which closely resembles

an Irish round tower.

Figure 108.

Figure 169 represents

Roman

priests.

modern pallium worn by

the

It represents

the ancient sistrum of Isis,

and the yoni of the Hindoos. It is symbolic of the celestial virgin, and the unit in the creative four. When donned by a Christian priest, he resembles the pagan male worshippers, before

who wore

the

or

altar

Hebrew ephod was

a female

shrine

dress

a

of

of this form

is

Possibly the

and nature.

Figure 169.

Figure 170

when they ministered

goddess.

a copy of an

Figure 170.

ancient pallium, worn by

papal ecclesiastics three or four centuries ago.

Egyptian symbol described above. Its crux ansata, or the cross with a handle.

It is the old

common name

is

104 171

Figure

is

when

ecclesiastics

the

albe

officiating

worn at

by

mass,

Roman and etc.

It

is

other

simply

FiLUue 171.

a copy of the chemise ordinarily worn by

women

as an under

garment.

Figure 172 represents the chasuble worn by papal hierarchs.

It is copied

from Pugin's Glossary

that of the vesica piscis, one of the of the yoni.

It is

y

etc.

Its

form

is

most common emblems When worn by

adorned by the triad.

the priest, he forms the male element, and with the vhasuble

When

completes the sacred four.

whom Mary

goddesses,

worshipping the ancient

has displaced, the officiating ministers

Hence the use of the Even the tonsured head, adopted "^om the

clothed themselves iu feminine attire.

chemise,

etc.

represents '* V anneau; " o that and body, we may see on ChriL^an on head, shoulders, breast ilics of the worship of Venas, and the adoration priests the priests of the

of

woman

1

Egyptian

Isis,

.ow horrible

all this

.

would sound

if,

instead of

using veiled language, we had employed vulgar words.

The

105

God adorning himself, when ministering before nature and the people, with the effigies of those parts which

idea of a

man

Figure 172.

as well as civilisation teaches uo

j

conceal,

would be simply

be mysterious and condisgusting, but when everybody tolerates almost nected with hidden signification, all is said to

and many eulogise or admire

it

;

107

APPENDIX. THE ASSYRIAN GROVE" AND OTHER EMBLEMS, *'

BY

JOHN NEWTON, The study

of sacred

symbols

M. R. C.

is

S.

It

as yet in its infancy.

historians has hitherto been almost ignored by sacerdotal interesting most the on knowledge of mine rich and thus a of all subjects

— the history of the Religious Idea in man —

remains comparatively unexplored. interest, for it

The

topic has a two-fold

equally applies to the present

and the

past.

we more is which us amongst have still a world of symbolism existing articles, and far older than our sects and books, our creeds

As nothing on

earth

is

conservative than religion,

Untold ages before a relic of a forgotten, pre-historic past. writing was invented, it is believed that men attempted to express their

savage,

who

is

ideas in visible

forms.

Yet how can a five, and has

unable to count his fingers up to

habits no idea of abstract number, apart from things, whose of conception a form earthy, and thoughts are of the earth, Even eternity? inhabiteth the high and holy One who under the highest forms of ancient civilisation, abundant

brooding over proofs exist that the imagination of men, by the idea of the Unseen and the Infinite, were bounded the things which were presented in their daily experience, and which most moved their passions, hopes and fears.

embody such reliteach others withnot could They gious ideas as they felt. and emblems conceptions their out visible symbols to assist Through

these, then, they attempted to

;

were rather crutches for the halting than wings to help the Mankind in all ages has clung to the healthy to soar. visible

and

tangible.

The people

care

little

for the abstract

;

108

The

and unseen. invisible

Jehovah

Israelites preferred

a calf of gold to the

and sensuous forms of worship

;

still fasci-

nate the multitude.

Whilst studying a collection of symbols, gathered from, climes and ages, such as this volume presents, I feel

many

sure that every intelligent student will have asked himself



more than once Is there not some key which unlocks these enigmas, some grand idea which runs through them all, connecting them like a string of beads ? I believe that there is,

and that

not far to seek.

it is

long for most ?

hath will he give for his the days of Job.

you

*'

Life.

**

Give

life,"

me

What

Skin for skin is

back

men

do ;

all

now

a saying as true

my

desire

and

man

that a

as in

youth, and I will give

I possess," was said by the aged Voltaire to his physician. And our poet laureate has sUng, all

whereof our nerves are scant, not death, for which we pant

'T is Life,

O

life,

More

life,

But we must add, Life in its highest

and fuller, that I want. as necessarily contained in the idea of sense,

those

things which

make Life

summum

honum, the

desirable.

This fulness of highest good, which

and cHme.

For

life

has been the

mankind has sighed

for in

every age

this the

alchemists toiled, not to advance chemistry, but to discover the Elixir of Life and the Philo-

But what nature refused to science, the was believed, would surely give to the pious and the glorious prize referred to has been promised by every " I am come that they might have Life, religion. and that sopher's Stone.

gods,

it

!

they might have

it more abundantly." Life is the reward which has been promised under every system, including that

A Tree of Life stood in the midst of that Paradise which is described in the book of Genesis and when the first human couple disobeyed their

of the founder of Christianity.

;

Maker's command, they were punished by being cut

off

from

;

109 the perennial fount of vitality, lest thoy should eat

and thus

and

its fruit

second Pamdi-e, which is promised to the blessed by the author of the book of Revelation, a tree of life shall stand once more " for the healing of live for ever

To

the nations."

Scriptures, long

"

Thy youth

is

;

man

the good

life,

in a

prosperity,

renewed

promised, in

is

like the eagle's."*

Ps.

Hebrew

llie

and a numerous

oil'spring.

ciii. 5.

In the wondrous theology of Ancient Egypt, which at length is open to us, the " Ritual of the Dead " celebrates mystical reconstruction

the

whose parts are Isis

to be

of

body of the deceased,

the

reunited, as those of Osiris were

the trials are recorded through which

;

passes,

and by which

all

the

remaining stains of corruption are

wiped away; und the record ends when the defunct again glorious, like that

by

deceased

Sun which

is

born

Egyptian

typified the

rehurreetion.f

In the ancient mythology of India,

it

is

recounted that

of old the gods in council united together to procure, by one

supreme

effort,

the success

the Amrita cup of immortality, which, after

of

scheme,

their

Even

worshippers.

for the

they partake

of

creed promises a Nirvana, an escape from the

metempsychosis, shall be

a

with their

Buddhist, his cold, atheistical

haven of eternal calm,

horrors of " there

where

no more death, neither sorrow nor crying, neither any more pain, for the former things are passed

shall there be

away " " there the weary be ;

heaven promised by

^the

is

in

religion

which was the one most congenial was in conquest and

Rev. xxi. 4, Job

at rest."

This idea of tranquillity

battle.

iii.

17.

striking contrast to the of the

north of Europe,

whose delight Those who had led a life of

heroism, or perished bravely in

to a people

fight,

ascended to Valhalla

and the eternal manhood which awaited .them there was *

St.

Paul points out (Eph.

promise added. (Exod. XX. 12.)

life

2) that to

only one of the ten

to

commandments

is a "That thy days may be long." the promise? See also Psalm cxxxiii. 3, " the blessing, even life for evermore."

And what

is

who had been initiated into the mysteries of Isis, informs us that was the reward promised to her votaries. [Metam. cap. xi.)

f Apnleius,

long

vi.

110 be passed in scenes that were rapture to the imagination of a Dane or a Saxon. Every day in that abode of bliss was to be spent in furious

conflict, in the. struggle

cease

;

of armies and

but at evening the conflict was to every wound to be suddenly healed. Then the can-

the cleaving of shields

;

tending warriors were to

sit

down

a

to

banquet, where,

attended by lovely maidens, they could feast on the exhaustless flesh of the

mead from the

boar Saehrimnir, and drink huge draughts of

skulls of those enemies

who had not

attained

to the glories of Valhalla.

The paradise promised to the faithful by Mahomet is full The Arabian prophet dwells with

of sensuous delights.

rapture on

its

gardens and palaces,

Seventy-two houris, or black-eyed

its

rivers

and bowers.

rejoicing in beauty

girls,

and ever-blooming youth, will be created for the use of the meanest believer a moment of pleasure will be prolonged to a thousand years, and his powers will be increased a ;

hundred-fold to render

Thus we

him

w^orthy of his felicity.

see that in all these great historical faiths

prize held out to the true believer has this in

common,

the viz.,

Life, overfloiving, ever-renewed, with the addition of those

things which

make

life

desirable for

men

;

whether they are

sensuous pleasures, or those which, under the Christianity, are

summed up

eternal, in the light of

Such being the

in

Life,

loftier ideal of

both temporal

and

that

the

God.

case,

we

might

anticipate

symbols of every religion would reproduce, in some shape or other, the ideal

which

is

common

to all.

The

rudest faiths were content with gross and simple

earliest

and

emblems

of

and more refined forms of worship, the ruder types were highly conventionalised, and replaced by a more intricate and less obvious symbolism. We proceed now to investigate the more primitive emblems. The origin of life is, even to us, with all our lights, as great a mystery as it was to the ancients. To the primitive races of mankind the formation of a new being life.

In the

later

Ill appeared to be a constant miracle, and

used as tokens of

life,,

men

very naturally

and even worshipped, those objects

or organs by which the miracle appeared to be wrought.

Thus, the glorious sun, that " god of this world," the source life and light to our earth, was early adored, and an effigy

of

Mankind watched with rapture

thereof used as a symbol. its

rays gain strength daily in the Spring, until the golden

Midsummer had

of

glories

when

arrived,

the

was

earth

bathed during the longest days in his beams, which ripened the fruits that his returning course had started into life. When the sun once more began its course downwards to the

Winter

solstice,

his

votaries

sorrowed, for

he

seemed

to

when his benumbed

sicken and grow paler at the advent of December,

rays scarcely reached the earth, and

and

sunk into a death-like

cold,

all

sleep.

nature,

Hence

feasts

and

were instituted to mark the commencement of the

fasts

various phases of the solar year, which have continued from

the earliest

known

period, under various names, to our ov/n

times.

The

daily

disappearance

the sun, appeared to rection

;

many

and the

subsequent

rise

of

of the ancients as a true resur-

thus, while the east

came

to be regarded as the

source of light and warmth, happiness and glory, the west

was associated with darkness and chill, decay and death. This led to the common custom of burying the dead so as to face the east when they rose again, and of building temples

&

opening towards the east. To and shrines with this, Vitruvius, two thousand years ago, gave precise

effect

rules,

which are still followed by Christian architects. Sun-worship was spread all over the ancient world. It mingled with other faiths and assumed many forms.* Of the elements, fire was naturally chosen as its earthly symbol. A sacred fire, at first miraculously kindled, and subsequently *

We may

sunset,

break.

point out that, according to all the Go3pels, Christ expired towards He rose again exactly at day-

and the sun became eclipsed as he was dying.

112 kept up by the sedulous care of priests or priestesses, formed

au important part of the religions of Judea, Babylonia,

Eome, and

Greece and

Persia,

amongst us

So

still.

late as the

the

superstition

lingers

advent of the Reformation,

was kept ever burning on a shrine at Kildare, and attended by virgins of high rank, called " hujhcan au dagha,'' or daughters of fire. Every year is

a sacred fire in

Ireland,

the ceremony repeated at Jerusalem of the miraculous kin-

men and which they

dling of the Holy Fire at the reputed sepulchre, and

women crowd

to light tapers at the sacred flame,

pass through

with

a

naked body.

Indeed,

solar

myths

Thus form no unimportant part of ancient mythology. the death of nature in the winter time, through the withdrawal of the sun, was supposed to be caused by the mourning of the earth-goddess over the sickness and disappearance into the realms of darkness of her

husband and mate, the

sun.

Mr. Fox Talbot has Egyptian poem, more having

the translation of an

than three thousand years old, and

for its subject the

this region of darkness

lately given

of her beloved Osiris, or

To

descent of Ishtar into Hades.

and death the goddess goes

Tammuz.

This Ishtar

in search

is identical

with the Assyrian female in the celestial quartette, the later Phoenician Ast^rte, " The Queen of Heaven with crescent

horns," the moon-goddess, also with the Greek Aphrodite

and Roman Venus

and the Egyptian legend reappears in mourning of Venus for the loss of Adonis. Again, the fable of Ceres mourning the death of her The Roman daughter Proserpine is another sun-myth. Ceres was the Greek Ayj/xyjrrjp, or y>j iJ-rjTYip, Mother Earth, ;

the west as the

who through

the winter time wanders inconsolable.

sephone, her daughter, or

roots

winter.

lie

concealed

These,

is

Per-

the vegetable world, whose seeds

underground in

the

when Spring comes with

its

darkness

of

brightness,

bud forth and dwell in the realms of light during a part of the year, and provide ample nourishment for men and

113 animals with their

The

fruits.

sun, being the active fructi-

fying cause in nature, was generally regarded as male. in the

Jewish scriptures, he

coming out

of his

compared

is

chamber"

to

(Ps. xix. 5), i.e., as a

The moon and

of generative, procreative vigour.

Thus,

" a bridegroom

man

full

the earth,

being receptive only, were naturally regarded as female.

At the vernal equinox, the ancients celebrated the bridal Yet, inasmuch as the orbs of heaven and the face of nature remain the same from year- to year, and perpetually renew light and life, themselves remaining fresh in vigour and unharmed by age, the ancients conceived the bride and mate of the sun-god as continuing ever virgin. Again, as the ancient month was always reckoned by the interval between one new moon and the next, an interval which also marks *a certain recurring event in women, of the sun and the earth.



that ceases at once on

the occurrence of pregnancy,

lunar crescent became a symbol

of virginity,

adorns the brow of the Greek Artemis and

— the

and as such

Roman

Diana.

This was used as a talisman at a very remote period, and

was fixed over the doors of the early lake-dwellers in Switzerland, like the horse-shoe is to

modern

forming a sacred seven,

With

side-posts.

sun and moon were often associated the

— a figure which

the

five visible planets, is

continually crop-

ping up in religious emblems.

So much

But the mankind found others nearer home, and

for the great

primitive races of

cosmic symbols of Life.



the generative parts in the two sexes, more suggestive by the union of which all animated life, and mankind, the most interesting of all to human beings, appeared to be still

created.

This reverence

generation,

for,

or worship of, the organs of

has been traced to a very early period in the

history of the

human

race.

In a bone-cave recently exca-

vated near Venice, and beneath

its

were found bones of animals,

flint

needle,

those

and a phallus savage

tribes

in

who

baked still

H

ten feet of stalagmite,

clay.

implements,

And

reproduce

for

if

a

bone

we turn

us

the

to

pre-

114 this form of religious syrabolism meets us In Dahomej^, beyond the Ashantees, it is,

historic past,

everywhere.

according to Captain Burton, most uncomfortably prominent.

In every **

The

street of their settlements are priapic figures.

Tree of Life "

is

anointed with palm

a pot or shard placed below

it,

oil,

which drips into

and the would-be mother of Legba

children prays before the image that the great god

would make her

Burton

*

tells

fertile.

us that he peeped into an

or lodge, and found

it

Egba temple

a building with three courts, of which

the innermost was a sort of holy of holies.

Its doors had them of a leopard, a fish, a serpent, and a land tortoise. The first two of these are female symbols, the two latter emblems of the male. There were also two rude figures representing their god Obatala, the deity of life, who

carvings on

is

worshipped under two forms, a male and a female.

Oppowas the male symbol or phallus, conjoined

these

to

site

in coitu with the female emblem.

some

tribes in Afi-ica

who adore

Du

Chaillu met with

the female only.

His guide,

he informs us, carried a hideous little image of wood with him, and at every meal he would take the little fetish out of his pocket,

and pour a

libation over its feet before he

would

drink himself.

We

know

that a similar superstition prevailed in Ireland

long after the

There a female,

advent of Christianity.

pointing to her symbol, was placed over the portal of a church as a protector from evil spirits

;

many

and the elaborate

though rude manner

in which these figures were sculptured shows that they were considered as objects of great importIt was the universal practice among the Arabs of ance. Northern Africa to stick up over the door of their house or

tent the genital parts of a cow, mare, or female camel, as a

talisman to avert the influence of the

evil eye.

The

figure of

this organ being less definite than that of the male,

assumed

in

symbolism very various forms.

it

has

The commonest

substitution for the part itself has been a horse-shoe, which

115 is to this daj^

many

fastened over

of the doors of stables and

shippons in the country, and was formerly supposed to protect the cattle from witchcraft. From a lively story by Beroalde de Verville, we learn that in France a sight of the female organ was believed, as late as the sixteenth century, to be a powerful

prolonging the

charm

life of,

in curing

any disease

in,

and

for

the fortunate beholder.

As civilisation advanced, the gross symbols of creative power were cast aside, and priestly ingenuity was taxed to the utmost in inventing a crowd of less obvious emblems, which should represent the ancient ideas in a decorous The old belief was retained, but in a mysterious or

manner.

sublimated form. in creation, linga,

the

As symbols sun, light,

an erect serpent, a

of the male, or active element

fire,

tall

a

torch,

the

phallus

or

straight tree, especially the

palm and the fir or pine, were adopted. Equally useful tall upright symbolism were stone a (menhir), a cone, a for pyramid, a thumb or finger pointed straight, a mast, a rod, a trident, a narrow bottle or amphora, a bow, an arrow, a lance, a horse, a bull, a lion,

ous for masculine power. passive

though

moon, the

fruitful

and many other animals conspicuAs symbols of the female, the

element in creation, the crescent

earth, darkness, water,

and

its

emblem

a triangle

with the apex downwards, " the yoni," a shallow vessel or

cup

for

pouring fluid into (cratera), a ring or oval, a lozenge,

any narrow

cleft,

either natural or artificial, an arch or door-

In the same category of symbols way, were employed. came a ship or boat, the female date-palm bearing fruit, a cow with her calf by her side, the fish, fruits having many .

seeds, such as the pomegranate, a shell (concha), a cavern,

a garden, a fountain, a bower, a rose, a

fig,

and- other things

of suggestive form, etc.

These two great classes of conventional symbols were often represented in conjunction tvith each other, and thus symbolised in, the highest degree the great source of life,

ever originating, ever renewed.

The Egyptian temple

;

116 at Deiiderah

has lately been explored by M. Mariette.

In a

niche of the Holy of Holies he discovered the sacred secret.

This was simply a golden sistrum (see ante, pp. 44 and with the 70), an emblem formed by uniting the female oval

male sacred Tau T coarse

and thus identical in meaning with the emblem seen by Captain Burton in the African idol

A

temple. centre

and

is

in

emblem

similar

of a yoni,

characteristic

There

;

of

the the

leading

standing in the

the linga

is

adoration

of

dogma

which

this

to

is

Hindu

of

day

religion.

scarcely a temple in India which has not its lingam

numerous instances

symbol

this

under which the great god Siva

is

is

the

worshipped.

only form (See antey

pp. 72, 73.)

The

linga

is

generally a

tall,

polished, cylindrical, black

stone, apparently inserted into another stone formed like an

elongated saucer, though in reality the whole

The

out of one block of basalt.

is

sculptured

outline of the frame, which

reminds us of a Jew's harp (the conventional form female member),

is

termed argha or

yon'i.

The

of the

former, or

round perpendicular stone, the type of the virile organ, is The entire symbol, to which the name lingyoni the linga. is

given, is also occasionally called

tive

Ungam.

This representa-

of the union of the sexes typifies the divine sacti, or

productive energy, in union with the procreative, generative

power seen throughout nature. The earth was the primitive pudendum, or yoni, which is fecundated by the solar heat, the sun, the primitive linga, to whose vivifying rays

man and

animals, plants and the fruits of the earth, owe their being and continued existence. These " lingas " vary in size from the tiny amulets worn about the neck, to the great monoliths of the

temples.

Thus the lingam is an emblem of the all life, who is represented in Hindu

Creator, the fountain of

mythology as uniting

in

Himself the two sexes.

Another symbol, the caduceus, older than Greek and

Roman

art,

in which

Hermes, the gods

it

is

of health

associated with Esculapius and

and

fertility,

has precisely the

117 This

is

in the following extract from a letter

by

same

signification as the sistrum

made

clear

enough

and the lingam.

Dr. C. E. Balfour, published in Fergusson's Tree and Serpent Worshij), 1873. " I have only once seen living snakes in the form of the Esculapian It was at Ahmednuggar, in 1841, on a clear rod.

They dropped

moonlight night.

into the garden

f^k- 1^3.

from the thatched roof of my house, and stood erect. They were all cobras, and no one could have seen them without at Natives of once recognising that they were in congress. India consider that it is most fortunate to witness serpents so engaged,

and believe that

if

a person can throw a cloth at

them with

the pair so as to touch

it,

the material becomes

a representative form of Lakshmi,* of the highest virtue, The serpent, which casts its and is preserved as such." skin and seems to renew its youth every year, has been

used from remotest times as a living symbol of generative indeed, in the most ancient energy, and of immortality ;

Eastern languages, the It

life, f

name

for the

serpent also signifies

has been usually worshipped as the Agathodcemon,

though in the life, and health; and elsewhere, we meet with a good and The Kakodoemon, howOriental dualism.

the god of good fortune,

Hebrew

scriptures,

a bad serpent



ever, is usually represented as

winged

—the

Dragon, as in

the following example.

In the remarkable Babylonian

seal, Plate iv., Fig. 3, the

deity is represented as uniting in himself the

female.

On

each side

is

a serpent, as the

flowing from the Creator;

male and the

emblem

of the life

that on the male side, having

compared to the sun -god, that on the female side, to the moon- and crescent, lunar over whose head is the Both are creation. in principle earth-goddess, the passive

round his head the

solar glory, is

as the active principle in creation

t

;

The consort, or life- giving energy of Vishun. As in French, the name for the male organ and

sound, though not in

spelling" or gender.

for life is the

same

in

118 attacked by a winged dragon, the kakodoemon, or the evil

This

principle.

is

according to the ancient Chaldeari doctrine

of two creations of living beings, the one good

The Chinese

malign.

by the

moon

efforts

Even

St.

George

caused

sun and

destroying the

Python, has reappeared on our coin as dragon.

is

of a furious dragon to- destroy the

and Apollo, the sun-god,

;

and the other

think that an eclipse

still

serpent

killing the

^.Dollyon appears in old paintings with

huge

wings, like those of a bat.

Having thus explained what appears a wide range of religious symbolism, and cation in

many

cases,

we

to be the

shown

shall further apply

it

famous object of Assyrian worship. Soon coveries of Botta and Layard were published,

key to

its appli-

to unlock the

after the it

dis-

was conjec-

tured that this strange object, so continually represented as

being adored, might be the asherah of the Hebrew scrip-

" grove

^'

tures,

translated

far the

view was correct we shall

The to have

religion of the

in

East

the

How

English version.

now proceed

at a very

to

examine.

remote period appears

been the worship of one God, under several names.

The most

primitive was El, II, or Al, —- the strong, the mighty one ; or its plural Elohim, as expressing His many powers and manifestations. Another name was. Baal or Bel, — the lord, which also had a plural form, Baalim. The first

word

is

continually used in the

applied both to the true

Baal

is

God and

Hebrew

scriptures,

and

the gods of the nations.

only once thus applied, Hcsea

ii.

16 ; yet Balaam,

inspired by God, prophesies from the high places of Baal.

This name, though so appropriate to the Almighty, became abhorrent to the Jews when

it was so frequently associated and a new cognomen,, or **the Supreme," was adopted by them, viz., Jehovah, = the Eternal, the " Baal" Ever-Living One, the Creator; see Exod. iii. 14.

with idolatry,

was the supreme god of

all

the

great

Syro-Phcenician

nations, with the insignificant exception of the

when

the latter migrated into

Jews and Canaan they were surrounded ;'

;

:

119 on

by his worshippers.

sides

all

Towns, temples, men,

including even a son of Saul, of David and of Jonathan,

viz.,

Eshbaal, Meribbaal, and Beelida, were called after him.

As

Baal-Hammon, Song

the sun-god,

of Sol.

11

viii.

;

2 Kings

5 he was worshipped on high places, Num. xxii. 41 and an image of the sun appeared over his altars, 2 Chron. xxxiv. 4. As the generative and productive power, he was worshipped under the form of the phallus, Baal-Peor ; and youths and maidens, even of high birth, prostituted themxxiii.

;

selves in his

As

honour or

Num.

service;

xxv.; 2

Kings

xxiii, 7.

the creator, he was represented to be of either or of both

sexes

;



and Arnobius

tells

us that his worshippers invoked

him thus "

Hear

Though he

us, is

Baal

whether thou be a god or a goddess."

!

masculine gender in the Hebrew,

of the

the lord, yet Baal

''i^,?'!',

Septuagint

ment,

Hos.

;

Romans

ii.

xi.

8

4.

;

is

B«aA,

called ^

Zeph.

4

i.

At the

;

=

androgyne, or two-sexed god, the

New

Testa-

worship of this

licentious

wore female garments, whilst the

the lady, in the

and in the

men on certain occasions women appeared in male

Each of this god's names had and the feminine form of Baal was Beltis, IshtaVj and Ashtarte. As he was the sun-god, she was the moon-goddess. Now, whilst the masculine name attire,

brandishing weapons.

a female counterpart;

(as

Bel or Bal, Baal, Baalim,) appears

times in the is

Hebrew Old Testament,

nearlj^

one hundred

the feminine equivalent

only found three times in the singular Ashtoreth, and six

times in the plural Ashtaroth Baal-worship.

her

worship

Knowing, as we

amongst

the

always in association with

;

do, the

immense

Babylonians,

Phoenicians, this appears strange.

diffusion of

and word of the

Assyrians,

There

is

a

feminine gender occurring in the Hebrew twenty-four times, viz.,

^1^^:,

Asherah or Asharah

;

plural,

^""""'ef^^*,

Asharoth

;

translated in the Septuagint and Latin vulgate, a tree, or

" grove," in which they have been followed by most modern versions, including the English.

This supplies the void, for

:;

120

Asharah may be regarded as another name

for the

goddess

passages

is plainly seen by " They forsook Jehovah and served Baal and Ashtoreth

the following

Ashtoreth, as

" ;

Judges ii. 13; whilst in the following chapter we read, " They forgot Jehovah their God, and served the Baalim and What, then, was the Asharah ? It the Asharoth " iii. 7. was of wood, and of large size the Jews were ordered to ;

;

Exod. xxxiv. 13, etc. and Gideon offered a iMllock as a burnt sacrifice with the wood of the Asherah. It was carved or graven as Occasionally it was of stone.

cut

it

down

an image

;

;

;

It often stood close to the altar

2 Kings xxi. 7.

25 and 30; 1 Kings xvi. 32, 33; Usually on high places and undei 2 Chron. xxxiii. 3. but '^•ne was Jer. xvii. 2 shady trees 1 Kings xiv. 23 2 Kings erected in the temple of Jehovah by Manasseh Judges

of Baal;

vi.

;

;

;

;

xxi. 7.

It

had

priests

;

1

Kings

xviii.

19

;

and

its

worshi]

for whilst the priests of was as popular as that of Baal '' the Baal " were four hundred and fifty, those of " the ;

Asherah" were four hundred, who

ate at the table of

Jezebel, daughter of Ethbaal, king of Sidon.

Queen

was some-

It

times surrounded with hangings, and was worshipped b} both sexes with licentious rites xvi. 16.

As Baal was

;

2 Kings

Asherah with that of the moon

the

2 Chron. xxxiv.

xxiii.

7

;

Ezek.

associated with sun-worship, so was ;

2

Kings

xx".

3

4.

Besides these Asheroth, female' emblems of Baal, there

male emblems

were Asherim,

^\"}^?,

his generative

power"

(Fiirst,

of Baal,

''

symbolising

Hebrew Lexicon), which

are

mentioned sixteen times in the Hebrew scriptures. It is only found in the plural, and must have been a multiple representation of the singular, Asher, "'^^, which nleans

"to be

firm,

strong,

straight,

cognate with the Phoenician *

The lupanars

at

happy,"* and "husband," "Ic^d,"

prosperous,

"^D^ (Osir),

Pompeii were distingnished by a sign over the

street door,

representing the erect phallus, painted or carved, and having the words underne&th, " Hie habitat felicitas."

121 Doubtless this was also identical with

an epithet of Baal. the Egyptian Osiris,

=

=

the sun,

to

tells

us that

Isis,

unable to discover

He was

the phallus.

sun

have suffered death like the

said

all

and Plutarch

;

the remains of her

Thus husband, consecrated the phallus as his representative. " the Asharim " were male symbols used in Baal-worship, and sometimes consisted of Multiple phalli, of which the branch carried by an Assyrian priest, in Plate iii. Fig. 4, is a They were then counterparts of the conventional form. This is of Greek and Roman worship.* ** multimammia'' confirmed by a curious passage, 1 Kings xv. 13 (repeated We learn (xiv. 23) that the Jews, under 2 Chron. xv. 16). Rehoboam, son of Solomon, having lapsed into idolatry, had "built them high places, images, and Asharim ("groves,"

A. V.) on every high

hill,

and under every green

that there were also consecrated ones

But Asa, his

in the land*."

throne, \\iQ

swept away

all

('*

tree

;

and

sodomites," A. V.)

brother, on succeeding to the

these things, and (xv. 13) deposed

queen mother, Maachah, because she had made a miphlet-

zeth to an Asherah

("an

idol in a grove," A. V.)

miphletzeth, is rendered by the Vulgate

^.JfJpP,

"simulacrum Priapi."

is

derived from Y^^^palatz, "to be broken," "terri-

fied," 01 the

cognate ^^^, phalash, palash, "to break or go

The word

through," "to open up a way; " a word or root found in the

Doubtless the Hebrew, Phoenician, Syriac, and Ethiopic. Greek ^aXhog, phallus, was hence derived, since it has no and Herodotus and Dioindependent meaning in .Greek ;

dorus expressly assert that the chief gods of Greece and their mysteries,

especially

Dionysiac

the

which the phallus was carried from the pale,

east.

pole,

ponding

=

Compare

A

Ms-ypole.

meaning, exists

in

also

or

Bacchic revels, in

procession,

the Latin

similar

word,

the

Sanscrit.

in

were derived

16.

a

corres-

Thus, then,

accordipg to the Hebrew scriptures, there were

See Figs. 15,

English

pales,

with

two chief

— 122 symbols used in the worship of Baal, one male, the other female.

We

can

now

look upon the very symbols themselves,

which were so used It is well

ence.

— perhaps the tnost

known

remarkable in exist-

that the Chaldeans, from

whom

all

other nations derived their religion, astronomy, and science,

name of Bel or Baal to their chief god. In the most ancient inscription yet deciphered, written in the Babylonian and Arcadian languages, a king rules by " the favour Another name for Baal is Assur, or Asher, from of Bel." whom Assyria is named. In the cuneiform inscriptions of gave the

Sennacherib, the great king of Assyria, Nineveh city of Bel," and " the city beloved by

" the

is

called

Ishtar."



In another inscription he says of the king of Egypt " the terror of Ashur and Ishtar overcame him and he fled." :

Assurbanipal thus commences his warrior, the delight of

annals:

— "The

great

Assur and Ishtar, the royal offspring

am I."

In a cuneiform inscription of Nebobelzitri, we read " Nineveh the city, the delight of Ishtar, wife of Bel." " Assur and Beltis, the Again, " Beltis, the consort of Bel." :

gods of Assyria."

Thus we

identical with Assur,

and Ashur.

is

the last

name with

see that

Baal and Bel were

" Doubtless, then, " Asherah

the feminine termination (as Ish

=

man, Ishah = woman), and is identical with Ishtar, Ashteroth, " Astarte and Beltis. The Septuagint has rendered "Asherah by " Astarte," in 2 Chron. xv. 16, and the Vulgate by "Astaroth," in Judges

iii.

7.

Herodotus described

the great temple of Belus at Babylon, and

its

(b.c.

450)

seven stages

dedicated to the sun, moon, and planets, on the top of which was the shrine. This contained no statue, but there was a golden couch, upon which a chosen female lay, and was

nightly visited by the god. of the Assyrian kings,

and

Now, their

therefore, that the palaces

" chambers of imagery,"

have been by great good fortune laid open to us, we might expect to discover the long-lost symbolism of Baal-worship!

And

so

we have.

123

To commence with the is

The

simplest.

seen as the mystic palm-tree, the tree of

D^"*ti>K

life,

{Asherim)

Fig. 99

phallic pillar putting forth branches like flames, Fig. 65

the tree with seven phalloid branches, so rian

and Babylonian

xvii

Or,

Assy-

See also the

Fig. 2, on which

,

is

and

phalli.

conventional of

least

and

holding the bow,

represented Baal as the sun-god,

surrounded by

common on

seals, Plate xvii., Fig. 4.

remarkable Syrian medals, Plate

the

;

;

simple phallus,

the

all,

of

which there are two remarkable specimens in the British Museum. Each of these is about two and a half feet high, and once guarded the bounds of an estate.

the

Greeks and

by

a

phallic

Romans,

statue

of

were

boundaries

Hermes,

the

also

god

of

Among marked fertility.

These Assyrian emblems have doubtless often been honoured Themselves the most expressive symsacrifice.

with rural bol

of

life,

emblems.

A

they are also

covered

with

its

conventional

The

back view of oneis given. Figure 174.

body is mainly occupied with a

full

length portrait of the great

For as the Assyrians represented the Deity, the source of all life, by the phallus, so the monarch was the god of this lower world, the incarnation of God on earth. He was the " source of life to the .empire, and as such was addressed king, live for ever " (Dan. v. 10). He, like the gods, never dies. " Le Roi est mort ; Vive le RoiJ" The ensigns of royalty king.



were also those of the creator-god.

Accordingly, his gar-

emblem, the Asherah. He bears the strung-bow and arrows, emblems of virile power, borne afterwards by the sun-god Apollo, and

ments and crown are embroidered

the western son of Venus.

An

vrith that sacred

erect serpent occupies the

other side, and ends with forky tongue near the orifice.

glans ,sun 'the

is

covered with symbols.

emblems; beneath are three

On

the

summit

altars, over

glans-shaped caps, covered with

is

The

a triad of

two of which are

bulls*

horns,

always

worn by the Assyrian guardian angels, and intense emblems the male potency. For in ancient symbolism, a part of

ipf

Figtire 174.

125 a symhcl stands for the whole

;

as here, the horns represent

Above the

the bull, and the glans the phallus. is

third altar

a tortoise, whose protruded head and neck reminded the

initiated of the

phallus

;

and the

altars are covered with a

pattern drawn from the tortoise scales.

a vase with a rod inserted, cock, with wings

amorous

heat.

emblem

and plumage

ruffled,

The glans only

We

have, besides,

of sexual union,

of

running the

and a

after a hfen in

other

copied.

is

Figure 175.

Fig.

175.

Beneath are

is

At the top are the sun-symbols, as

two altars marked with the tortoise-emblem

Over both rises the erect serpent, and upon one of an arrow

before.

the horse- shoe-like head-dress of Isis, and there

or a dart,

both male symbols.

lies

in front.

the head

The miphletzeth

which Queen Maachah placed in or near the Asherah, probably resembled these Assyrian phalli, or the Asherim.

126

And now we come and

to the

Asherah, a

much more complex

symbol than any other which we have named.

difficult

This object has long puzzled antiquarians, and though

it

continually recurring in the sculptures from Nineveh,

it

is

has not yet been fully explained.

In Fig. 176 we see

it

Fitnire 176.

worshipped by

who present

= the

human

to

scrotum

it

(?),

figures, with eagles'

the pine-cone, intense

= the

emblems

heads and wings,

testis,

and the basket,

of the male creator.

In

Figure 177.

Fig. 177

it

is

adored by the king and his son or successor.

127

The kings present towards

with their attendant genii.

it

a

and good fortune, the fist with the Here, then, forefinger extended, or ** the phallic hand." we have evidently the Asherah, or Ashtaroth-symhol, the female Baal, the Hfe-producer, " the door " whence Hfe issues As such the goddess is here symbolised as an to the world. well-known symbol of

life

In the Phoenician alphabet, the fourth a door, has the shape of a tent-door, as letter, daleth, ^(^^ But on the Moabite stone, A, and also in the Greek AeAra

arched door -way.

=

another form, perhaps as ancient, in

proper position, would be

its

is

D, which, when placed

Q,

the very form of the

In the plural, this word stands for the labia pudciidl, ^^p^ ''nb'n ")3D iib *3, " because it shut not up the We infer from Numbers doors of the womb," Job iii. lO.t Asherah.*

XXV. 6-8, that in the rites of Baal-peor, the Kadeshoth, or

devoted to the god, ofered themselves to his worshippers each in a peculiar bower or small arched tent, called

women a

part also through which Phinehas drove

The

quhhah, "?R.

his spear (see

Num.

qohhah,

the one word being derived from the

^"^P,

xxv. 8), the

woman's

vulva,

is

also called other,

Quhhah means, " hollow and something Lex,, Ileb. according to Fiirst, Kuhha, El. whence Arabic arched, an arched tent, like the according to

Onkelos, Aquila, and others.

the Spanish Al-cova, and our Alcove.'' the word fornix, a vault, an arch, it

was

dei'iYcd fornicatw.

xcctxivoc,

kam'nios,

Soott)

but

92

V.

;

(7).

it

is

also,

and

from,

brothel,

translated by the

LXX.

oven or arched furnace" (Liddell and

"an

meant

Quhhah

meant a

In the Latin

See Herodotus

also the female parts.

Thus, then, the Alcove was

itself a

symbol

of

woman, as though a place of entrance and emergence, and whence new life issues to the world. And when the male *

ancl

The

'Ihc fir>t letter, Aleph,

r=

has hetomc the modern A.

an ox,

]:f(yptian hieroglyph for ten is fiI

The

first of

the Ori>hic

(Prothnniia) or the

niana Lurina.

is,

even on the Moabite

In the earlier hieroglyph

Hymns is

Door-keeper,

it

stoi'e, written thus. <, must have hcen thus V-

Compare the (ircelc A«a anil Latiu Decern. addressed to the goddess Artemisias UpoOvoaia,

who

jiresided

over

cliildhirth-;,

like the

Ifoman

128 Baal entered to the

worshipper of

kadeshah,

the

living

embodiment of the goddess, the analogy to the Asherah became complete, as we shall now show. The central object in the 'Assyrian " grove " is a male date-palm, which was well known as an emblem of Baal, phallus,

the

sun,

the

and

This

life.

remarkable

tree,

and Hebrew, the phoenix (o ^otvi^) in Greek, was formerly abundant in Palestine and The word Phoenicia (Acts xi. 19, the jieighbouring regions.

Tamar,

m.,

"^1?9,

in Phoenician

from

3) is derived

XV.

palms

**

like the

;

city of the sun,

Judaea

The

phoinix,

as the country

Idumece palmce " of Virgil. coin,

*^

of.

Palmyra, the

was called in the Hebrew Tamar

In Vespasian*s famous

18).

ix.

<^o/wf,

(1

Jtidtsa

Kings capta"

represented as a female sitting under a palm-tree.

is

can at once be identified by

tree

its

straight,

tall,

branchless stem, of equal thickness throughout, crowned at the top with a cluster of long, curved, feather-like branches,

and by

singularly wrinkled bark.

its

All these characteristics

are readily recognised in the highly conventional forms of the religious fig.

174.

emblem, even in the ornament on the king's

The date-palm

is dioecious,

the female trees,

robe,

which

emblems, being always distinguished by the clusters of date fruit. *'Thy stature is like to a palm" The righteous tree, thy breasts to clusters " (Cant. vii. 7). are sometimes used as

shall flourish like the palm-tree " (Ps. xcii. 12), fruitful

ever green.

not " (Jer. x. 3-5).

making bable,

The prophet

of an Asherah.

Baal-Tamar,

and

" They are upright as the palm-tree, but speak

=

is

evidently describing the

There was a Canaanite

city called

Baal, the palm-tree, designated so,

from the worship of Baal there

**

it is

pro-

under the form of a

priapus-column," says Fiirst, Heb. Lex,

The

real

form was

Asherim," a modified palm-tree, as we have Palm-branches have been used in all ages already shown. They were strewn as emblems of life, peace, and victory. doubtless an

before Christ. kept.

*'

Palm-Sunday, the

Even within

feast

of palms,

is

still

the present century, on this festival, in

PLATE

XVII.

4#^4

PLATE

XVIII

nmmm beatr matte m

tt MilaKTimig wntUgts mtrabtlib'tt

tritgi^

pfatotum

amons rcfmie nouit «d ?ci>mwi3$ pf«f ii

129

many towns

of France,

women and

children carried in pro-

cession at the end of their palm-branches a phallus

bread, which they called, undisguisedly,

the festival was called "

La

having been blest by the served

it

of

The " pine

Fete des Pinnes." priest, the

made

"la pine," whence

women

"

carefully pre-

during the following year as an amulet.

(Dulaure,

Hist, des differens Cultes.)

name

Again, the Greek

name

also the

for the palm-tree, jylicenix,

of that mythi6al

Egyptian

was

sacred

bird,

to

and a symbol of the resurrection. With some early Christian writers, Christ was **the Phoenix." The date-palm is figured as a tree of life on an Egyptian sepulchral tablet, older than the Exodus, now preserved in the museum at Osiris,

Two arms issue from the top of the tree one of which presents a tray of dates to the deceased, whilst the other gives him water, " the water of life." The tree of Berlin.

life

is

;

represented by a date-palm on some of the earliest

Christian mosaics at

Eome. Something very like the Assyemblem, was sculptured on the great

rian Asherah, or sacred

doors of Solomon's temple, by Hiram, the Tyrian (1 Kings vii.

13-21).

We

read " he carved upon

them carvings

of

cherubims and palm-trees and open flowers, and spread gold upon the cherubims and palm-trees " (1 Kings vi. 32-35).

He

also erected

Jachin

two phallic

and Boaz,

Solomon

fell

to

=

It

pillars in front of the

stands

-

In

Temple,

No wonder

strength.

worship Astarte, Chemosh, and Milcom.

Al'though to our modern ideas the mystical tree, symbol of life and immortality, seems out of place in Judaism, 3'et

no sooner did the

Jews possess a

national

coinage

under the Maccabees than the palm-tree reappears, always iclth seven branches (like, the golden candlestick, Ex. xxv.), as on the shekel represented Plate xvii., Fig. 4. The Assyrian tree has

always the same number, and the tufts of foliage

(symbolising the entire female tree) which deck the margins apt emblems of. fertihty of the mystic have also

Q—

invariably

seven

branches.



This I

may remind

us

of the

130

move around our

seven visible spheres that

earth " in mystic

dance," and of Balak's offering, upon seven altars, seven bulls

and seven rams (Num. door

is also

xxiii.

1

;

Rev.

barred, like the Egyptian

priestesses of Isis,

to

ii.

represent the

The mystic

1)

si strum

carried by the

purity and

inviolable

eternal perfection which were associated

with the idea of

When Mary, the mother of Jesus, took the place Christendom of '* the great goddess," the dogmas which propounded her immaculate conception and perpetual virdivinity.

in

ginity

followed as

matter of course.

a

Thus, then, we explain the greatest symbol in Eastern worship, it is the " Tree of Life in the midst of the Garden,"



which has remained so long a mystery. belongs the distinguished merit of having

To Dr. Inman

first

broken ground

In his Ancient Faiths,

in the right direction.

he identified the Assyrian

*'

Asherah

vol. 1,

1868,

" with the female " door

of life," and pointed out its analogy to the barred sistrum.

We

have seen that

it

precisely analogous in

is

really

meaning

much more

complex, being

famous crux ansata (Fig. 170), the central mystery of Egyptian worship ; to the lingam or lingyoni of India (Fig. 109), the great emblem of Siva-worship

As

;

represented

to the

and to the caduceus of Greece and Rome. on the Assyrian sculptures, it is always

substantially the same.

Probably this stereotyped form was

the result of a gradual refinement upon

some rude

type, perhaps as coarse as that seen by Captain

primitive

Burton in

the African idol-temple.

To which

exhibit all the strange developments and modifications this idea

has assumed in the religious symbolism of

Eastern and Western nations would require a large volume.

But the

subject is so rich in varied interest that

conclude without taking a glance at

it.

we cannot

First, the simple

Q,

barred, is reproduced with a contraction towards the base, as in the Indian '\yoni,"

worship of

Isis.

and the Egyptian sistrum, used in the was represented the

Second, within the

Q

goddess herself, as revealed within her own symbol.

This

1:31

illustrated in Plate xvii., Fig. 5, where Demeter or Ceres is thus depicted, with her cornucopia, from a bronze coin of

is

Damascus.

much more commonly,

Thirdly, but

the goddess

holds in her hands emblems of the male potency in creation,

and thus completes the symbol.

As

of her temple, holds in her right

ancient

emblem

Greek coin

of the

hand the

male and of

of Sidon next figured,

ship^ the mystic

Argha

cross, that

the goddess

See Plate

Psalter of the

xviii.,

hand

a

God

male child

as) a

printed

Virfi'in,

Queen

of

pictured beneath

is

copied from the woodcut

Blessed

— stands

(Plate xvii.. Fig. 7.)

Christianity, the Virgin Mary, who, as

the mystic doorway, with (the

most

— evidently

Heaven

of

Heaven, stands on the crescent moon, arms.

the portico

or Ark, holding in one

crozier, in the other the cross.

Under

Q,

In the beautiful

life.

Queen

Astarte, the moon-goddess, the

on a

in the coin figured Plate

Fig. 8, the goddess, standing within the

xvii.,

in her

title to

the

Czenna, in old

at

1492. Like Isis, she is the mother and yet the spouse of God, " clothed with the sun, and having the moon

Prussia,

under her is

feet " (Rex. xii. 1).

The upper

On

very like the Assyrian scenes.

half of the picture

either side

is

a king,

Frederick III, and his son the Emperor Maximilian, at their

The alcove The famous Medijcval

devotions.

this.

Among

the

of roses, an

is '

lu>maunt de

many

titles

her hand.

Dante writes

Hence

AVlicrein

In Plate

xviii.,

tlie

it

''

dellii

is

o.f

virginity.

Rose " turns upon

given to

Mediaeval times, we. find Sivitd Mar'ui

being consecrated to her.

emblem la

the Virgin "

in

Rosa, that fiower

often represented in

:-

Word

" Here is the Rose, Divine was made incarnate."

the Virgin goddess,

in a bower, exactly the

is seated with the God -child shape of the Assyrian, composed of

fruits highly significant of sex, as

has already been explained.

In some Hindoo pictures, the child

is

naked, having the

132

member

erect, and* also

making the

phallic hand, with the

(Plate xiv.. Fig. 14.)

right forefinger erected.

In other conventional forms we have male symbols onl} Q. This is a very numerous class. In the Fig. 3, Plate xvii., we see the fir-tree orpine take the place

within the female

and in Fig. remarkable medal of Cyprus

of the palm-tree,

of

Venus

{Odyss.

Plate

is

a representation of the temple

xvii,,

the cone.

The worship

362.)

of that divinity is said to

have been imported into Cyprus from the East.

own

united both sexes in her

We

castrated priests.

tum

is

The goddess

person, and was served by

see here, within the innermost sanc-

of the temple, a cone as

meaning

this

Paphos, famous even in the days of Homer.

at

viii.

On

6,

emblem

further pointed by the

of the male and the sun-emblem above, inserted ;

within the crescent moon.

Let us next examine how the cone came to be used emblem. If we turn to Figs. 174 and 175, it will be seen that the '' glans " was particularly honoured as as a masculine

the head of the phallus;

God by " acorn

efi'usion of *'

blood

is conical o^-

it

m

was

also the part dedicated to

the rite of circumcision

dome-shaped, and thus

— a part

This being

taken for the whole -the cone or pyramid was used as conventional symbol of the male creator.

y^^'Tjr?^

/^

'^

^^ ^^

\

sp

Placed on a stem

frequently represented as worshipped

on Assyrian has

reliefs. See Fig. 177 It symbol of fire, the sun, and life Tv^ as such it formed a fitting monument fo) the Egyptian kings Our word pyramid is from the Greek Trvpafclg, pui^amis, itself

yV was \

also a

,

derived ivonn'Kup, pur, fire andTrupo^, puros, ^

wheat,

because pyramid-shaped cakes

of

wheat and honey were used in the Bacchic Fig. 177. ritgg^ It played an important part in sunworship. The emperor Heliogabalus (who, as his name implies,

had been a

priest of Baal, the sun-god, in Syria,)

established the Syrian worship at

Rome.

He

himself drove

133 the golden chariot of the sun, drawn by six white horses, through the streets of Rome to d splendid new temple on the Palatine mount, the god being represented by a conical and which the black stone, said to have fallen from heaven ;

emperor removed from a temple of the sun, at Emesa, in At a subsequent period, an image of the moonSyria. goddess, or Astarte, was brought by his orders from a celebrated fane at Carthage to Rome, and there solemnly rites to the

married with licentious

sun-god, amidst general

rejoicing.*

curious parallel to these mystic nuptials of the Assyrian god and goddess may be found in some of the rehgious ceremonies of the modern Hindoos. Fergusson tells us that

A

"the most extraordinary buildings connected with Hindu

By far temples are the vast pillared colonnades or choultries. nuptial when used as is application important their most which the mystic union of a male and female

in

halls,

divinity is celebrated once a year."

Again,

in

Indian

important part. phallus,

=

mythology, the

belongs to Siva,

It

By one complex

life.

=

pyramid the sun,

symbol,

Hindoo monuments in China on and Thibet, the universe was thus represented. Notice the upward gradation. Earth The creator-god, + water = this globe. whose emblem, flame, mounts upwards, is the author and representative of all life upon ancient

it

;

he

moon with

heaven.

The arrow-

spear-head inserted within the crescent

emblem

of Siva

;

like the

the divine source of

life,

wisdom was

that perfect *

fire,

=

an the

very

common

/\

B^c!len.

the connecting link, united by the

is

crescent

plays

=

lingam

it

is

or

an

typified

and also the doctrine

Fig. 178.

to be found only in the combination

In Astrology, the conjunction of Jupiter and Venus ^vas considered the mos* Buch as kings and princes should he born under. all

fortunate of

;

134 of the

It decorates

male and female principles in nature.

the roofs of the Buddhist monasteries in Thibet, and like

became

the sacred lotus flower and the linga, both of which

emblems

of

Buddha, was derived from older

interpretations to

may

faiths.

Other

This will enable us

suggest themselves.

understand the remarkable sculptures of the second or

third century, from the Amravati

many points

present so

in

Tope, Plate

common with

xix.,

which

the religious symbols

In Fig. 2 we see a congregation of males

of the Chaldeans.

and females, the sexes being separated, worshipping a linga, or stone conical pillar, on the front of which is sculptured three symbols of the sacred tree, with branches like flames ;

It rises from a throne, on the seat of which are

in one.

life

emblems

placed the two figure,

of earth

and water.

the sacred tree takes the place of the linga, rising

above the- throne,

emblems

of Siva.

as

fr.om

if

Winged

the

figures,

trisiil

newer

Buddha

faith

is

also

to

or trident,

Garudas, attend

floating over the heads of the worshippers.

the

In the other

An

it

male above,

intrusion of

be recognised, as the feet

of

are sculptured before the throne.

In the mysteries of Mithra, the symbols in Fig. 178 were They represented the elements to which the

also employed.

soul ought to be successively united in passing through the

new

birth.

We will

add but two more

emblems, culled from mediasval heraldry. Figs. 179 and 180, in both of

which the Asherah,

grove" of Baal-worship,

the

**

will

be at once recognised

;

the

arrow and the cross, symbols of the

male

place

of

creator, taking the

the

mystic

palm-

tree.

In

all

these,

from

the

Fig. 180.

PLATE XIX.

S8I B soB-d oi itdgiJ fli

bnB

aqorf

&udl

aldfi oil J.

q'ib

ew

edi 8b ^boO

nommoo

b Basiqxa

,x9lqfnoo

-lad^B

oc^

iaom 9di

oi

^arlasl b ^.siy ^Bsbi

Jasbui

nomraoo

dqmodiB hb Bab (9879viaU

9ffi

lo

INDEX. Abraham,

xxviii., 63.

Abricot fendu, 7.

Abuse does not change

facts, 43.

Arab swearing, xxviii., 63. Arabs and yoni. 114. Arba, the fom, 6, 9, 11, 13,

Acorn, 132.

Adam and

Eve, 66.

Adonis, 112. Adultery,

how

Arbor

vitce, 3, 8,

130.

Arcana, 11. punished, 19.

Architecture, 111.

Aerolite, 6, 133.

Arddha-nari,

African and fetish, xv.

Argha, 75, 116.

Agathodsemon, 117.

Arita cup, 109.

Ahriman,

Ark,

6.

Al, 118.

9, 89.

xiii., xiv., 8,

83.

Arnobius, 34, 65, 66, 69, 73, 119.

Albe, 104.

Alcmena,

Arrectation, 4,

5.

Arrow, 49.

92.

Alcove, 127.

Art Christian, 16.

Aleph, 127.

Artemis, 113.

Alexander false prophet, 73, Alexandrian library, 92.

Aryans,

Allah, prophet of, ix.

xvii., 19.

Asherah, 119 sq., 126. Asher, Anu and Hea, 4, 10, 41, 42,

Altar, 74.

and

14, 24,

51.

50, 70, 120,

Ashtaroth,

fire, 9.

Amphibolus, saint, a cloak, 84. Amravati tope, 133.

Ass, 84.

Anacalypsis, Higgins', 54, 66.

Assur, 122.

,

4, 11, 62, 119.

the golden, 25. *

Anatolia, 70.

Assurbanipal, 122.

Anchor, a symbol, 53.

Assyrian, 21, 31, 49. 99. Astarte, 11, 25, 112, 129.

Ancient faiths and names, xi., 130. Androgyne, xxii., 9, 89, 93.

Athanasius, xxxii.

Angels, 84.

Atheists, 43.

Animals

Athor, 12.

live peaceably, xvii.

Antelope,

3, 71.

Anu and Hea,

4, 10, 50, 70.

Augurs, 86. Aureole, 34, 35, 36.

Aphrodite, 112.

Avatars, 68.

Apollo, 61.

Aztec ruins,

x.

Apollyon, 118.

Appendix, 167. Apple, 55.

Baal, 10, 119 sq.

Apuleius, 25.

Baal-Peor, 119.

Arabian paradise, 110.

Baal-Tamar, 128.

Baalim,

4, 11, 118,

138

INDEX.

Baby, where from, xi., Babylonia, 4, 12, 117. Babylons, two,

Bacchus,

Bohen,

xii.

4.

Bonnes fortunes, 86. Bonomi, 24.

3.

Botta, 118.

3, 34, 49, 95.

Bag, 25, 45, 126.

Bouche inferieure, la, Boundary stones, 123.

festivities of, 49, 121.

Balaam, 118, 130.

Bow,

Balak, 130.

Bowls, sacred, 75.

Balfour, Dr., 116.

Box, or ark,

Bambino,

Boy, a brave,

73.

Barberini palace, 63.

Barleycorn, 43.

Barred symbols,

80, 81.

See

Sis-

trum.

25.

xiii.

xiv.

Brahma, 7Brahmin, ix. and microscope, Branch,

Basket, 49, 50, 84.

81.

xi.

3, 16.

Bravery routs imposture, Brazen serpent, xiii.

Bat, 118.

Bathsheba and Lucretia, xxxiv.

Breasts, multiple, 29, 30.

Baubo and

Breath, holy, 92.

Ceres, 66, 67.

Beads, 82, 83.

British

Being, the Great,

xvii.

Bel, 4, 5, 67, 118.

Bell

8, 9,

Buddka and

53.

Bells, 20, 22.

Buddhist

Beltis, 122.

82.

Jesus, xxix.

bells, 53.

cross, 43.

Belus' temple, 122.

grove, 78.

Bene nasatus, 6. Bengal and Palestine, famine in, xx.

heaven, 109. xxvii.

Museum,

129.

Burton on Dahomey, 114, 116, 13

10.

Beroalde de Verville, 115.

Hindoo god,

60.

Bethel, 73.

Bethshemesh, Bhaga, 74. Bhavani,

xiv.

Bull, xxiii.

Berne Cathedral, Betal, a

Buddhists and Jeynes, 55. Bugbears,

Bequille, la, 85.

Berlin

Caaba, 63. Cabiri, Faber's, 62.

Cabrera, 12. xiii.

Cadiere, Miss, 34.

Caduceus, 116.

9, 74, 88, 94.

Cairo, 21.

Bifrons, 67.

Cakes, round, 35.

Bigotry,

Calf, golden, 108.

viii.

Bishop, ancient, 51, 52. blessing, 6.

divinities, 28, 29, 30, 52, 79,

xii, 70.

Carthage, 24. Cat, 18, 48, 96, 100.

Cave near Venice, 113.

80.

Blessing,

Candlestick, golden, 129. Carrot,

Bishop's Crook, 64.

Black

123.

Brothels, called sistra, 20.

Bryant,

and Sistrum,

Museum,

xiv.

Celestial Virgin, 76, 113.

6, 7.

Boaz and Jachin,

xzxiii., 129.

Celibacy of priests, 52.

139

INDEX.

Community

Central America, 55. Ceres,

of ideas, viii.

Comparisons,

25, 69, 112, 131.

7,

Cone and Venus,

and Bacchus, 95. and Baubo, 66, 67.

,

ix.

xxxi., xxxiv. 6.

Coniculstone, 133.

Chaldeans, 122.

Conjunction of sun and moon,

Chariot of sun, 36.

Consecrated ones,

Chasuble, 104.

Conventional emblems,

Chemosh,

CJord of St. Francis, 34.

129.

Cherubim,

18,

11,

1,

26,

Coronation orb, 53.

Cosmo, a

27, 28, 75, 131. fruit, 74.

saint, 84.

Creation, xx.

Children and secrets,

Chinese and

xi.

Creator, xvii., 6.

eclipse, 118.

Crescent,

ix., xx., 11, 35, 38, 69.

Xoipos choiros, 57-

Crook of bishop,

Choultries, 133.

Cross,

2, 26, 88.

Christianity,

43, 53, 61, 70, 101.

Crux ansata,

16, 102.

wants a scavenger,

9, 15,

Culte de Venus,

and Child,

35, 37, 44, 45,

53, 64, 102, 103.

xvi.

Christians, xxviii. their Virgin

83.

Crozier, episcopal, 64, 85.

vii.

and heathenism,

64.

14, 15, 36, 41, 42,

XX.,

ix.,

and rosary,

Christendom, xv.

1, 11, 18,

in, 16.

on, 114

2, 4,

19, 45, 55,

62, 71.

Cup and Wafer,

26, 27, 28, 75.

Churches, sexual ornaments Cibotus,

xxiii.

Corinth, xxxii.

xiii.

Child and Virgin,

Chrishua,

6.

xxxiii.

Cupid,

96.

5, 96.

Cupok,, 18.

Curse on a nation, xxxiv.

8.

Ham,

Circles, 34, 35, 36.

Circumcision, xxvi, 99, 132.

64.

Cybele, 69, 85.

Verger de, 21.

Citron, 56.

Cypris,

Classification at symbols, x.

Cyprus, 26, 132.

le

and Venus,

Clitoris, 6.

Club on coin, 57.

6.

Czenna, 131.

Clusters, 128.

Cobden,

Q,

13.

127,

.129,

130, 132.

Cock, 99, 125.

Dabistan, the, 74.

Cognomens,

Dagon,

xix.

containing Baal, 119.

Cohen,

6.

57, 58 129. Coleman's Mythology,

Coins,

X.,

Collation of facts,

Comana,

68.

67.

xiv.

Dard, le, ^^C. Date palm, 128. David and ark, xiv.

x.

xxxii.

Comb, 100 see Kveis. Combined symbols, 46. Commandment, second,

2,

Dahomey, 114. Damian, a saint, 84. Dancing before a box, Danes, llC

;

and Tare iiin, xxxiv. xiii.

dances ol.scenely, xxvii..

xxxiii.

140

INDEX.

Death and

feet

marks, 41.

Early races of Scotland, 58.

Earth and sun,

of the year, 111.

Deities, 4, 11, 62.

xix.

mother, 112.

Dekkan, monuments

East, 111.

in, 60.

Delphi, 11.

Ecclesiastical

Delta, the, 8, 127.

Eclipse, 118.

Demeter, 112, 131.

emblems,

Edinburgh Review,

Demon and Vampire,

Egba temples,

xvi.

Denderah, 116.

Egg, xxiv. Egypt, ark in, xiv.

Devi,

Devil,

14.

114.

Desire, 5, 18.

ritual of the dead in, 109. Egyptian crosses, 53.

9, 94.

Devices symboli,

xi.

trinity, 11-13.

vii.

a Fetish, xv,

Deuteronomy,

El, 118.

Elixir of

viii.

life,

108.

D'Harcanville, 79.

Elohim,

Dhurga, 94.

Emblems and language, how selected, 100.

Diana

of Ephesians, 28, 30, 48.

Roman,

113.

of

Diet, fish, 2.

Digger and trench,

xxiii.

Mary,

revels, 121.

85.

Equinox, 113.

Dirty statue cleaned, xvi.

Erection of serpents, xxiv.

Discs, 34, 36.

Eros,

5, 96.

Error pleasanter than truth,

viii.

Doljang and Francis of Assisi,

79.

entente, 2, 87.

xii.

Esoteric,

xii., xiv.

Etruscans, 58, 64.

Euphemisms,

xxiv., xxvii., xxxi.

Eve, 10, 11, 66.

face, 58.

Exoteric,

triangle, 87.

Explanations,

Dove, 83.

Eyes,

xi., xii.

xi.

7.

Ezekiel and Jerusalem,

sacred, 21.

-xxviii.

Dragon, 117. Dress, spotted, 3.

Faber's Cabiri, 62.

Drink, intoxicating, divine, xvix.

Fables,

Drunkenness in England, Dualism in nature, xix.

Fabretti, 27, 40, 57.

xxix.

xiii.

Facts, collation of, x.

Dubois, 66.

Faith, a, not necessary, xvii.

Du

Famine

ChaiUu, 114.

Dulaure, xxv., 129.

xi.

Esculapius, 116.

Esdras,

8.

and womb, 55. Door and yoni, 66, 49, 127. Double deities, 4, 11, 62.

why

ix.

7, 8.

Ephod, the, 103. Epigrams of Martial,

Dionysus, 23.

Divine revelation,

4, 93, 118.

English writers, xxv., xxxi. Enjoyment, 110.

Diodorus, 121.

Dolphin,

10.

in Bengal, xx.

Fascinum, 43. Feasts and fasts. 111.

'

'

141

INDEX.

Giant, uncircumoised, weak, xxvii.

Feet and death, 41.

Giants and

hair of, xxxi., 67, 114. of

Buddab,

Gerard, Father,

soles of, 40.

water

of,

1, 2, 8, 68.

Gnostics, 58, 65.

56.

Goat,

xxii:

Goats and sheep,

symbols, 98, 115.

/O.

.

Goddesses, 47.

la, 18.

black, 79.

Ferguson, 117, 133.

Gods,

Fete des Pinnes, 129.

xvii. fleece, 70, :00.

Golden

Fetish, XV.

Graven image,

Feuille, la, de sage, 85.

Great Being,

Finger in worship, 3, 4, 50. Fire and altar,

9.

love, 33.

sacred. 111.

names

xiii.

the,

>

vii.

Greece, the ark in, xiv.

Greeks and Venus,

xxiii.

Grove, the, 22, 49,

5i',

118

Fish, 1-4, 32, 68. Five,

14.

vii.,

and Venus,

for Bel, 122.

and

J4.

Glans penis, 99.

xxxi.

Female and fish, and male, xix.,

Fente,

shax.i?, xv.

Ginsburg, 24.

134.

Guardian augels,

of, 40.

70, 91, 100,

sq. 126.

84.

Flagellation, 61.

Hades, 112.

Flagellum, 37, 61. Fleece, what, 69-70.

Hair

of feet, xxxi., 67.

Fleur de lys, 46, 53, 68.

Ham,

Flood, the,

Hammer

8.

xxvi., 64.

Hand,

Flower, the, 22. Forefinger and thumb,

3.



Hare,

of Thor, 44.

6, 7,

25, 81.

ix., 99.

Foreskins and Philistines, xxvii.

Harpocrates, 66.

Fornication, 127.

Hatred, theological, 43. Hea, Anu and Asher, 4. 10.

Fornix, 127.

Foul anchor, 53.

Heathendom,

Foundation

Heathenism,

of religion, vii.

Four, the, 103.

See Area.

Foutin, a French saint, 84.

Fox

Talbot, 112.

Free

St.,

cord

of,

love, 74.

fish, 1-4.

34,79.

Hercules and Solomon,

Higgins' Anacahjpsis, 54. xx., xxi., xxviii., 89.

Hindostan,

x., xxiii., 73, 9i>.

Garudas, 134.

Hiram, 129. Hole and pillar, 63

Gaulish

Holy breath,

of, 84.

figures, 57.

Ge, 92, 112.

x>.viii

Herodotus, 121, 122, 127. Hindoos,

Ganges, ix., 73, 90. Gardens, god

7'».

Hermes, 116.

Freethinkers, 43.

Friday and

in Christianity, 43.

Heavenly peace maker, Hebrews, xxviii. Heliogabalus, 132.

France and yoni, 115. Francis,

xv. xv., xvi.

fire,

112.

92.

142

INDEX.

Holy Virgin,

Homage

xxi.

Jtidaa cnpta, 128-

to yoni, 81.

Horseshoe, 13, 78, 98, 134.

Judaism, vii, Jnno, xxii., 25.

Horus and

Jupiter, xxii,, 4

Isis, 1, 22, 23, G8.

Hosea, 118.

Juvenal, 52.

Houris, 110.

How

Ivy leaves, 49-

make impropriety

to

proper,

Kabbalah, 23, 24

xxi.

Hyde,

Kadesh,

G4.

Hymeu,

128

xxxii,,

Kakodiemon, 117

22, 85.

Hyslop 61.

Kd/xij/os,

Key,

127.

101

4, 25, 70,

and Boaz, xxxiii., 129. Jacob and pillar, 73. sw;ears by " thigh," xxvii., xxxiii

Kildare, 112,

IdnmciC ixdmcc, 128.

Kistvaens, 60.

ix^vi, ichtJius, 2.

Kneeling in modern Rome, 73

Jacliin

Jehovah,

name

King, a God, xx. 123. King's " Gnostics," 51, 58, 65

Knight, R. Payne, xxv.. 23

of, xii., xiii.

Jerusalem, 112,

Krishna, 88.

Jesus,

KTfis, kteis, xxiv., 10, 81

xxix., 3.

vii.,

Jews, XXV.,

3.

Jew's harp, 116. II,

~

118.

Image, graven,

made

Improprieties

xvi.

Lamps

proper, xxi.

7,

of,

109.

28.

Indranee, 28.

Inman,

in worship, 74

Leah, 56 Lebanon,

Dr., 130. viii.

xiii

81

xxviii.

Legba, 114

Insti-uvienst, les, 85.

Leprosy and

Interpretation, x.

Invention of religion,

sin, viii,

Leslie's Scotland, 24, 58.

ix.

Letters and Symbols,

54,

and yoni, 114,

;

Isaiah on images, 73,

'

Isernia, 84.

j

Life, ideas of, 108

s
Light of Tabor, 51.

and

life,

134

Likeness not to

Isbtar, 5, 25, 112. [

23,

xi.

Liber and Prosumnus, 34.

Ireland and Spain, 06.

Isis, 1, 10, 12, 22,

ix

Layard, 66, 118

Inquiry forbidden by priests,

Ipsambul,

55

Language and emblems, Lanugo, 70, Laws made and broken

India, lingams in, 73.

mythology

2, 4, 5,

Lake dwellings, 113 Lakshmi, 94, 117. Lamp'acus and St. Foutm 84

Immortality, 109.

Impaled vampires,

Labia pudencU, 127 Lais and fish, 2. Lajard,

xiii.

Images, Isaiah on, 73.

Indra,

()2

See Chrishna

l>e

mude,

xiii.

Lily, 46, 53, 68.

37, 52, 91, I

96, 97, 109, 125,

I

Issachar, 56,

Linga, xxviii.,

9, 10, 33, 34, 63, 68,

73, 74, 116, 133. j

14?

INDEX. Masons' marks, 95.

62, 71, 72, 116.

Ling Yoni, 33, Lingam, 116. Lion Mithraic,

Mater Creatoris, Mecca, 63.

LionesB, 18.

Men and

Loins, what, xxvii.

Longinus,

Milcom, 129. Minarets and spires, xxii., Ministers of God, xvii.



12, 18, 81

Lucian's dea Syria, 75.

Mirror, 100.

Ludina, 85.

Miss Cadiere, 34. Misunderstanding,

Luck and

yoni, 78,

Hi.

74.

ix.

Lucretia and Bathsheba, xxxiv.

Mitre, 21, 31.

Lucretius,

Modern nun, Monkey, 18.

51, 52.

Lustration for Linga, 73.

Lycian coins,

MontfauQon,

54.

6.

10.

Moon and Maaclia, 121, 125.

Isis, 97.

and months, and sun, 6.

:

Maccabees, 129.

113.

female, xix., 57, 76, 77.

Maffei, 49, 64, 84.

Mahadcva, 4, 10, Maharajabs, sect Mahomet, 110. Mahometans, ix.

Moore on 08, 74. 90,

of.

'.)!.

pillar stones, 60.

Moor's Hindu Pantheon,

34. 12,

19,

7, 9, 11,

26, 28, 08, 71, 70, 88,

89, 95.

Morocco Jews,

Maia, 94.

3.

Mosaics, Christian, 129.

Maidens, Scotch, 23.

Male and female,

-



Mother

xix., 56.

18, 19.

Mylitta, 4, 25.

Ocello, 25.

Myrtle

56.

leaf, xxii.

Mysteries, 104, 105.

Mantras, 74, 95.

in religion,

Mariette, 116.

le,

121.

Mutilation, sacred, xxvi., xxviii.

cross, 41, 42, 70.

Marriage of

76.

Multimammia, 28, 30, Mumbo Jumbo, xv.

Malignancy, 16.

Mandrakes,

God,

Mudras, 74.

Venus, 62.

Malta cakes,

of

fivxos, muchos, 57.

symbols, 2-19, 115.

Marteau,

xi.

Mithraic lion, 64, 65.

Saint, 86.

Mama

in, 70.

Microscope and Brahmin,

3, 21, 53, 66, 88.

Love and fire, 33. Lozenge and yoni,

animals, xvii.

Mexico, Virgin and Child

a spear, 84.

St.,

Loretto Virgin, 79.

Lotus,

xx..

Maypole, 69, 70, 121.

64, 65.

xii., xiv.

Myth and meaning,

deities, 133.

xii.

Mythology, Coleman's, 68.

86.

Martial's epigrams, 85.

Marttand, 16.

Mary,

1,

7,

8,

Nabhi, 33. 22, 26, 52, 76,

104, 131.

Masonic appropriations, 40.

91,

Names

of sexual parts, xi., 10, 57.

Nana, 55. Naples museum, 29.

INDEX.

144

Paschal lamb, viii. Pausanias, 100.

Narratives, fictitious, xv.

Nations and religions, Nature,

viii.

Penn,

la, 88, 91.

Nebo, 33.

Persephone, 112.

Nepthys, 12, 13.

Personal vice, xxiv.

Newton, Mr.,

Newton

50, 76, 77, 107.

6,

towers, 75.

Phallus, xxii., 16, 121.

tonsure, 51.

found in ancient cave, 113. Phantoms, xiv. Philistines and foreskins, xxvii.

Nirvana, 109.

Noah,

XXV., xxvi., 8.

Nouns and

genders, 57.

Nun, modern, 51, Nuns and priests,

Nymphfeum,

4.

hand, 127.

Night and creation, 29.

Nimbus and

Pesth,

Phallic emblems, 15, 16.

stone, the, 60.

Niceties in symbolism, xxiv.

'

2.

Pentangle, 40.

Navel, 32, 51.

52.

Philosopher,

xxi.

Philosopher's stone, 108. Phoenicia, 128.

62.

Phoenicians,

and T, Cannes, Oath,

xx.

,

Phryne,

sworn,

xxviii., 62, 63.

Roman,

Ogham,

and hole,

Pine cone, 5C, 84. tree, 78.

love, xxi.

and

improprieties, xxi.

10,

13,

12,

61,

109,

112,

Pique,

la,

86, 92

Pistol, 70.

121.

Ouranos,

fleece, 69.

Pipe in worship, 35

Osir, 120. Osiris,

63.

phallic, 122 sq.

pious, 73.

60.

Orthodox

2.

Picart, 81. Pillar, 73.

Obatala, 114. Obelises, 34, 99, 124, 125. Officer,

ix.

Phoenix, 129.

96.

2, 67.

how

viii.

5,

Pluto, 67.

42, 92.

Ouseley, Sir W., 67.

Porte de la

Power,

vie, 88.

the, xvii.

Palenque, 12, 13.

Prakriti, 94.

Palestine, 55.

Prayers, x.

and Bengal,

xxvii.

Palm Sunday, tree, 45, 69,

Prejudices,

xi.

Priapus, 14, 23, 49, 84.

Pallium, 102.

Priests,

1"28.

123

sq.

Prophet of Allah,

Palmyra, 128.

Paphian Venus,

viii., xiv., xxi.,

6, 132.

9.

Proserpine, 67, 112.

Paradise, 110.

Prostitution, xxxii., 19.

Paris and apple, 55.

Prosumnus and Liber,

Parsley,

xii,

70.

Part for whole, 100, 124. Parvati, 90-94.

52, 91.

Profane, the, xiv.

Psalter of Virgin, 131.

Pudendum,

116.

Pugin, 87, 96.

34,

145

INDEX. shields, 50.

pyramid, 32, 33, 133.

Sacrifice to Priapus, 49.

Quartette, Assyrian, 112.

Scehrimnir, 110.

Quhbah, 127.

St. Croix, xxv.

Queen

St. George, 118.

of heaven, 76, 131.

Queue,

Saintly impropriety, 34.

la, 90.

Quince, 56, 84.

Sakti, 4,8, 25,50,90, 93. 116.

Ka, 12. Rain, xix.

Sakya muni, Sami, 82.

Ram,

Sanctified sins, xxi.

Bodhana,

100.

xxi., 94.

xxii.

Rawlinson's Monarchies^ 26.

Savages and religion, 107.

Rehoboam, 121, Relics and ark, xiv.

Saxons, 110.

Religion, conservative, 107.

Scavenger wanted,

Scandinavian figures, 57.

symbols

in, vii., xvi., xvii.

unnecessary to man,

xvii.

Schliemann, Dr., 44. Sciolism

is intolerant, 43.

Scourge, 61.

Reptile, mistaken, xiv.

Research in symbolism,

Resemblance,

xvi.

Sceptics, 43.

supernatural, xviii.

Scrotum, 45.

x.

Scythian burials, 60.

xi.

Resurrection, 109.

Seal, 117.

Reticence of English authors, xxv.,

Second commandment, Secrets

xxxi.

Rimmon,

Sectarial symbols, 95. Sectarians,

50.

viii.

Sects, rival, xx.

7.

Rishi, 7.

Selenitis, 82.

Ritual and symbolism, xvii.

Sellon, Mr., 18, 73.

Sennacherib, 122.

ef the dead, 109.

Ritualists

ment,

xiii.

xi.

for the wise, xii.

Review, Edinburgh, xiv.

Rh»a, 25, 69. Ribbons and Thyrsus,

and children,

and second command-

Sensuality, Jewish, xxv.

xvii.

Septuagint, 119.

Rod, 34.

Serapis, 52.

Roman

Serpent,

Catholic priests, 52, 102.

Romance of Rose, 131. Romans, early, virtue of,

xiii.,

xxiv., 4,

14, 35, 90, 123.

priests of Isis, 52.

Serpents in coitu, 117. xxviii.

Servatos, 66.

Rosary, ancient, 83.

Seven, sacred, 113, 130.

Rose, the, 131.

Sex in

Round

Sexual Christianity, 16.

towers, Irish, 69.

religion, xx.-xxii.

Shams, xv. Sabeanism, 66.

Sharpe, Mr., 11, 13.

a-a^vTTOs, sabuttos, 57.

Sheep and goats, 10. Shelah na gig, 66, 78.

Sacred

fire,

111.

prostitution, xxxii.

Shields, sacred, 50.

5,

10,

13.

146

INDEX.

Silence of English authors, xxv.

Surgeons and

Simpson, Mr.,

Surplice, 52.

9.

secrets, xi.

Swearing by sexual organ, 62,

Sin, vii.

when a saint, vii. how punished, 10, 11.

Sinner,

Switzerland, 113.

Sins,

SymboUsm,

82, 100, 107.

Symbols, vii.-xxxiv., 1-19,

Sistra, 19, 20.

63.

6,

S

114, 115, 123.

Sistrum,. 51, 53, 81, 96, 97, 116,

Syro Phoenicians, 118.

130. Siva, 4, 19, 74, 116, 130, 134.

Smith, Ccl. H., 61.

Snwls,

T. and O., xx., ^6.

Tabor, light

1, 8.

Snakes, thanatoid,

xiii.

of, 51.

Talbot, Fox, 112

Snood, the Virgin, 23.

Tamar, 128.

Socrates'' Ecclesiastical Hisrory, 19.

Tammuz,

Sodomites, 121.

Tarquin and David, xxxiv. Taylor, Col. Meadows, 60.

Solar symbols, 61.

Solomon, 129,

and Hercules,

Templar's shield, 51. xxviii.

Solstice, 111.

Song

of

112.

Temple, 98. door and yoni, 66

Solomon, 55.

'^-rra, 5.

Spain, curious church iu, G6,

Terre,

Spanish order of Golden Fleece,

Thalaba, xvi.

70.

92.

la,

Theodosius, 19.

Spartans and Christians, xxix.

Thespius, xxviii.

Spear, 99.

Thigh, meaning

Spectacle ornament, 58.

when symboUc, Thor's hammer, 44.

Spectres, xiv.

of, xxvii.

Things,

xxiii.

Spires and minarets, xxii., 75.

Three heads, two bodies,

Spots, 3, 7.

Thumb,

Spouse of

Grod, 76.

Thyrsus, 49, 50.

sun, xix.

Tiara, papal, 64, 99.

Spring, 111.

Timon,

Sri-chakra, 94.

Tod's Eajpootanah, 55.

Token

-jantra, 39.

Statue, a

dii-ty,

cleaned, xvi.

Statuette of Venus, 55.

60.

3, 4.

le,

86.

of virginity, 22.

Tombs

in the Dekkan, 60. Tonsure and Nimbus, 51.

Stigmata, 79.

Tortoise, xxiii., 19, 99, 100.

Stone

Towers, 69, 75. Tree and serpent, 10, 55.

circles, 59.

Stories, xiv., xv., 115.

Strabo, xxxii.

of

Summary, 101. Summer, 111.

stump,

Sun,

xviii., xix., 6,

109

35, 36, 57, 76,

sq.

108

sq., 130, 133.

10.

Trefoil ornament, 16, 45. Trench and digger, xxiii.

Triad or Trinity, xx., xxvi,

Supernatural religion

Supreme, The,

life,

xviii.

xvii., xix.

4, 5, 9,

16, 64. 101.

Triangles, xxiii., 32, 38, 39, 40, 87.

INDEX. Trident,

147

Vishnu, 68, 88.

8.

Tripliform arrow, 49.

Vitruvius, 111.

Irisul, 134.

Vive

Troy,

Vulgate, 119.

ix.

Truth, test

of, x., xi., xiv,, xv.

Wafer and cup,

Turks, xxxiii.

Turnip lantern, Types,

Eoi, 123.

le

5, 96.

of hfe, 129.

xiv.

Water

vii., xxii., xxiii.

of feet, xxxi.

West, 111. Unintelligible prayer, x.

Wheel,

Unknown emblems, x. Urim and Thummim, viii.

Whip

5,

34, 61.

in symbolism, 61.

Wicklow, feasts Wilderness,

in, 69.

vii.

Wilson, H. H., on Hindoo religion,

Vajarsvatta, 79. Valhalla, 109,

55, 93.

Vampires, xv.-xvii.

Winter, 111.

Veiled language, 104.

Womb and dolphin, 8, 55, Women in Hindostan and

Venice, 113.

Venus,

1, 4,

6, 11, 19,

25, 49, 55,

in worship, xxxii., 94.

62, 88, 100, 112.

Verge, la, 85.

Verger de Cypris, Vesica piscis,

le,

linga,

33, 81.

21, 85.

naked on church doors, Worship of images, 73.

66, 114.

sun. 111 sq.

xxii., 8, 12, 16, 47, 53,

90, 91, 93.

Vespasian, 128.

Yazili Kaia, sculpture at, 71.

Vetal or Betal, a Hindoo deity, 60.

Yoni,

Vine leaves, 49. Violets

and Cybele,

4,

7,

11-30, 62-73, 78. 91,

115.

on Irish churches, Yorkshire, fish in,

Virga, 49, 57. Virgin, XX., xxi., 1-28, 52, 75, 77,

2.

stone circles in.

131. black, 28, 29, 79, 80.

Virginity, 22,

71..

Virgo intactn, 81.

Z ornament,

58, 59.

Zipporah, xxvi.

114.

Date Due

BL85 1573

Ancient pagan and modern Christian Library Princeton Theological Seminary-Speer

1

1012 00107 3255

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