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BY-PATHS IN

HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

BY

ISRAEL ABRAHAMS,

D. D.,

M.

A.

Author of "Jewish Life in the Middle Ages," "Chapters on Jewish Literature," etc.

PHILADELPHIA

THE JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY 1920

OF AMERICA

BY

THE JEWISH PUBLICATION

SOCIETY OF AMERICA

PREFACE Wayfarers sometimes use by-paths because the highways are closed. In the days of Jael, so the author of Deborah's Song tells us, circuitous sidetracks were the only accessible routes. In the unof Israel those

settled condition

who journeyed

were forced to seek their goal by roundabout ways. But, at other times, though the open road is clear,

mon

and there

is

no obstacle on the way of com-

may of choice turn to the Not that he hates the wider

trade, the traveller

by-ways and hedges. track, but he may also love the

less

frequented,

narrower paths, which carry him into nooks and glades, whence, after shorter or longer detours, he reaches the highway again. Not only has he been refreshed, but he has won, by forsaking the

road, a fuller appreciation of

its

main

worth.

Originally writtermn 1913 for serial publication, the papers collected in this

volume were designed Branching off the main

with some unity of plan. line of Hebraic development, there are many bypaths of the kind referred to above by-paths leading to pleasant places, where

it is

a delight to linger

5

2093288

PREFACE

Some of

for a while.

Jewish

the lesser expressions of the

disport themselves

spirit

in

those out-of-the-

way places. Though oft neglected, they do not deserve to be treated as negligible. None can surely guide another to these places. But the which

qualification of a guide, a qualification

first

may

atone for serious defects,

is

that he him-

In the present instance be claimed. For the writer

self enjoys the adventure.

this qualification

may

has turned his attention chiefly to his own favorites, choosing books or parts of books which ap-

pealed to him

in

a long course of reading,

and

which came back to him with fragrant memories as he set about reviewing some of the former intimates of

hours.

his leisure

formal; the the essay.

method

Some

curiosities rather

is

is

not

of the books are of minor value,

than masterpieces; but slight. Yet in

Jewish interest is object has been to avoid details help

The review

that of the causerie, not of

in all

others the cases the

details, except in so far as

even the superficial observer to get to him in the history of

the author's heart, to place literature or culture.

Not

quite

all

the authors

volume were Jews the past tense is used because it was felt best to include no writers It seemed, living when the volume was compiled. noted

in this

6

PREFACE however, right that certain types of non-Jewish workers in the Hebraic field ought to find a place, partly

from

a sense of gratitude, partly because,

without laboring the point, the writer conceives that as all cultures

have many points

well to bear in

mind

tributed

share

their

that to

many

common,

cultures

Complex

so

it is

have con-

that

produce

the Jewish spirit.

entity

in

complex

yet harmoni-

from without yet dominated by a strong inner and original power, the Jewish spirit reveals itself in these by-paths as clearly as on the

ous, influenced

main

line.

But, though

the volume,

it

some such general idea runs through was the author's intention to interest

rather than instruct, to suggest the importance of certain authors

and books, perhaps to rouse the

probe deeper than the writer himself has done into subjects of which here the mere surface is reader to

touched.

The

writer could have added indefinitely

to these papers, but this selection

argueAgainst extending

it,

is

long enough to

at all events for the

present.

Having decided

to stray into the by-paths,

sometimes became necessary to tion to turn to the

main road.

resist the

it

tempta-

This necessity acFewer books are treated

counts for another fact. 7

PREFACE of the older period. For the older period is dominated by Bible and Talmud, and these were ex hypothesi outside the range.

So, too, the scho-

masterpieces and the greater products of mysticism and law are passed over. Yet, though lastic

the writer did not consciously start with such a design,

it

will be seen that accidentally a great fact

or two betray themselves.

One

ish variety, technical learning

is

that, in the

Jew-

can never be wholly

dissociated

from what we more commonly name

literature.

Some books which,

at first sight, are

merely the expression of scholarly specialism are seen, on investigation, to belong to culture in the aesthetic no less than in the rational or legal sense. Again, there becomes apparent the vital truth that Jewish thought, dependent as it always has been

on environment,

is

also independent.

For we

see

how Jews in the midst of Hellenistic absolutism remained pragmatical, how under the medieval devotion to a stock-taking of the past

certain extent creative,

dency to disintegration

and how

was

Jews were

to a

the modernist ten-

resisted

by an impulse

towards constructiveness.

what has already been indicated, had no such grave intentions as these.

But, to repeat the author

Many

of the papers appeared in a popular weekly, 8

PREFACE

London Jewish World,

the

the editor of which

kindly conceded to the writer the privilege of collecting

them

into a book.

specially written for this

Some, however, were volume. All have been

make them

considerably revised, in the effort to more worthy of the reader's attention.

The

writer

feels that this effort, despite the valuable help ren-

dered by Dr. Halper while the proofs were under The correction, has been imperfectly successful. papers can have little in them to deserve attention. Nevertheless there is this to be urged. Some of the topics raised are apt to be ignored.

Yet

it is

not

only from the outstanding masterpieces of literature that we may learn wisdom and derive pleasure. "

A

its

limits

and rightly

fulfils its

"

keeps within task, may reach the

small talent," said Joubert,

if it

goal just as well as a greater one."

may

be applied to what

may seem

This remark to

many

the

minor products of genius or talent. Hence, be they termed minor or major, the books discussed in this

volume were worthy of consideration. Beyond doubt most of them belong to the category of the significant

and some of them even

rank of the epoch-making. ther preface,

these papers

And

so,

attain

the

without fur-

are offered to

those

familiar as well as to those unfamiliar with the 9

PREFACE works themselves.

For

to both classes "

plied the Latin poet's invocation: to love that loved never;

love anew."

10

may

Now

be ap-

learn ye

and ye that have loved,

CONTENTS PREFACE

5

PART THE

PAGE

I

STORY OF AHIKAR "

PHILO ON THE

17

CONTEMPLATIVE LIFE

"

24

JOSEPHUS AGAINST APION

32

CAECILIUS ON THE SUBLIME

39

THE PHOENIX OF EZEKIELOS THE LETTER OF SHERIRA

46

NATHAN

60

53

OF ROME'S DICTIONARY

THE SORROWS

OF

TATNU

67

PART IBN GEBIROL'S " ROYAL

BAR

HISDAI'S

"

CROWN

II

"

77

PRINCE AND DERVISH

"

THE SARAJEVO HAGGADAH A PIYYUT BY BAR ABUN ISAAC'S LAMP AND JACOB'S WELL "

LETTERS OF OBSCURE

DE

Rossi's

"

MEN

91

97 102

"

LIGHT OF THE EYES

84

108 "

116

GUARINl4f&D LUZZATTO

122

HAHN'S NOTE BOOK

129

LEON MODENA'S

"

RITES

"

136

PART

III

MENASSEH AND REMBRANDT

147

LANCELOT ADDISON ON THE BARBARY JEWS THE BODENSCHATZ PICTURES

153

11

160

CONTENTS PAGE FIRST JEWISH

PLAY

166

ISAAC PINTO'S PRAYER-BOOK

171

MENDELSSOHN'S " JERUSALEM

"

178

HERDER'S ANTHOLOGY

WALKER'S

"

184

THEODORE CYPHON

HORACE SMITH or THE

"

"

191

REJECTED ADDRESSES

PART BYRON'S "

HEBREW MELODIES TABLE TALK "

"

199

IV

"

207

COLERIDGE'S "

214

BLANCO WHITE'S SONNET

230

DISRAELI'S

"

ALROY "

226

ROBERT GRANT'S " SACRED POEMS

GUTZKOW'S " URIEL ACOSTA

GRACE AGUILAR'S

"

"

233

"

240

SPIRIT OF JUDAISM

"

247

ISAAC LBESER'S BIBLE

254

LANDOR'S " ALFIERI AND SALOMON "

260

PART V BROWNING'S

"

BEN KARSHOOK

LONGFELLOW'S

269

JEWS OF BARNOW FAMILY PAPERS "

K. E. FRANZOS' HERZBERG'S "

"

"

"

"

JUDAS MACCABJEUS

276 283 "

ARTOM'S SERMONS

297

SALKINSON'S " OTHELLO " "

LIFE

THOUGHTS

290

"

OF MICHAEL

303

HENRY

THE POEMS OF EMMA LAZARUS CONDER'S " TENT WORK IN PALESTINE " 12

311

319 325

CONTENTS PAGE KALISCH'S

"PATH AND GOAL"

FRANZ DELITZSCH'S "

A

THE PRONAOS "

"

OF

I.

IRIS

333

"

340

M. WISE

347

BAEDEKER LITANY

353

IMBER'S SONG

359

INDEX

365

13

ILLUSTRATIONS PAGE

MENASSEH BEN ISRAEL TITLE-PAGE OF THE FIRST EDITION OF BYRON'S MELODIES

"

148 "

HEBREW 208

GRACE AGUILAR

248

ISAAC LEESER

254

EMMA ISAAC

LAZARUS

MAYER WISE

NAPHTALI HERZ IMBF.R

320 348

360

PART

I

PART

I

THE STORY OF AHIKAR We

are happily passing out of the critical ob-

session,

under which

was

it

a sign of ignorance to

attribute a venerable age to the records of the past.

All the old books were written yesterday, or at earliest the day before Facts, however, are stub!

born; and

facts, as

they come to light, justify and

re-affirm our fathers' faith in the antiquity of the

The

world's literature.

story of Ahikar

is

a

good

illustration.

Book of Tobit more than once Achiachar or Ahikar is mentioned. These In the course of the

allusions are verbal only, but in one scene the refer-

ence

is

more

precise.

"

The

pious Tobit on his death-

what Nadab (Nadan) " did to Achiachar, who brought him up ( 14. 10). What did Nadan do, and who was Ahikar? It

bed bids

hi^son

consider

only withhi recent years that a complete answer has become possible to these questions. The older

is

commentators on the Apocrypha were much worried by the allusion, and had to be content with the a

17

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

Some versions of Tobit had, in of the words place quoted above, the following: " Consider how Aman treated Achiachar, who

blindest guesses.

Hence

brought him up." the reference the

had

the suggestion arose that

Haman

was to

Book of Esther does not "

"

and Mordecai. hint that

Haman, and was

brought up

But

Mordecai

then repaid

by the latter's ingratitude.

But

He

in

1880, G.

Hoffmann discovered

the clue.

recognized that Tobit's references were paral-

leled in a story

found

in

Aesop's Fables and

in the

Arabian Nights, but much more fully recorded in the Story of Ahikar preserved in several versions, such as Syriac, Arabic, and Armenian. The story, briefly told in those fuller records, is as follows :

The hero

is

Ahikar.

The name

probably means

Brother is Precious, or A something like Brother of Preciousness, or possibly (as Dr. Hal-

My

per suggests)

A Man

of Honor.

-He was grand Noted

vizier of Sennacherib, the king of Assyria.

wisdom

as for statesmanship, he rose to a of the But position highest dignity and wealth. he had no son. He, accordingly, adopted his infant

for

nephew Nadan, and reared him with loving care. He furnished him with eight nurses, fed him on honey, clothed him in fine linen and silk, and 18

THE STORY OF AHIKAR made him big,

lie

on choice carpets.

whereupon Ahikar Nateach him book-lore and wisdom.

and shot up

started to

like a cedar;

dan was introduced agreed to regard the

made

The boy grew

the

to

king,

tive then

was

breaks

readily

youth as his minister's son,

promise of future favors to one

faithful vizier

who

so

off to

much

interested.

in

whom

The

give in detail the wise

and his

narra-

maxims

which Ahikar sought to instil into Nadan; maxims which have parallels in many literatures, including the

rabbinic.

taken

in

seemed to

the

Now, Ahikar was

grievously mis-

nephew. Nadan wisdom, but all the monitor a dotard and a bore.

character

of his

listen to his uncle's

while considered his

The young man began to reveal his true disposition; his cruelties to man and beast were such that Ahikar protested, and offended Nadan by preferring a brother of the latter.

Nadan, in revenge, downfall. Ahikadfs By means of forged plotted letters, the old vizier was condemned for treachery, though the executioner, mindful of

a similar act of

mercy previously shown to himself, secretly spared Ahikar's life. Nor was the day distant when Sennacherib bewailed the loss of Ahikar's services.

Menacing messages came from Egypt of which it needed an Ahikar to deal with. 19

a kind

To

the

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND Ahikar was brought out from his hiding-place; he was again taken to court, and

king's

joy,

despatched to Egypt. Here, once more, the narrative is interrupted to tell the details of these Egyptian experiences; how

Ahikar

"

Pharaoh's plan of raising a " betwixt heaven and earth by placing boys

castle

satisfied the

on the backs of eaglets, and how he countered the puzzling questions of the Egyptian sages. Thus, bidden to weave a rope out of sand, he bored five holes in the eastern wall of the palace,

and when

the sun entered the holes he sprinkled sand in them, " and the sun's furrow (path) began to appear as if

the sand were twined in the holes."

Egypt ordered

again, the king of

Then,

that a broken "

Ahikar," upper millstone should be brought in. " sew up for us this broken millsaid the king, stone." the

Ahikar,

first

brought

who throughout

of

my

from

am

"

was not daunted.

person,

a nether millstone,

and

him

fore the king, and said to since I

tells his

a stranger here,

:

I

cast

My

it

story in

went and

down

be-

lord the king,

and have not the

tools

me, bid the cobblers cut me strips lower millstone which is the fellow of

craft with this

the upper millstone

gether."

The

;

and forthwith

king laughed. 20

I will

sew

it

to-

Ahikar scored

all

THE STORY OF AHIKAR round, and returned home to Assyria laden with the revenues of Egypt.

The

third part of the story relates

how Nadan

was given over to Ahikar. His uncle bound him " struck him a thousand blows with iron chains, and on the shoulders and a thousand and one on his and while Nadan was thus imprisoned in " the porch of the palace door, living on bread by and water weight by measure," being compelled

loins ";

willy-nilly to listen,

lessons in

Ahikar proceeded with further "

wisdom.

My

son," he says,

"

he

who

does not hear with his ears, they make him to hear scruff of his neck." Then there follow

with the

many wonderful

parables,

which

(as

with the

maxims) are similar to those in many literatures. " " Nadan swelled up like Thereat," ends the tale,

And to him that

doeth good, what is good shall be recompensed; and to him that doeth evil, wtat is evil shall be rewarded. But he a bag,

and

died.

that diggeth a pit for his neighbor, filleth his

own

stature.

And

to

God

mercy be upon us. Amen." What was the original of in the

romance of

the spread of

it

its

and

it

with

be glory, and His

this story?

Nothing

incidents, or in the

marvel of

its

maxims and

its

incorporated

fables throughout the folk-lore of humanity, ex21

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND cceds the dramatic fact that a large fragment of the tale, in Aramaic, has been found in Egypt

other Jewish papyri of the fifth century before the Christian era The discovery proves many

among

!

things,

among them two being most the Ahikar story

First,

is

significant.

far older than people

used to think, and thus the theory that the story of

Ahikar was invented to explain the reference Tobit is once for all disproved. Second,, it is

in

at

least tenable that the original language was Aramaic and the story Jewish. Here, at all events, we have unquestionable evidence that there must have

been

among

the Jews, nearly 2,400 years ago, an

impulse towards that species of popular tale which so deeply affected the literature and poetry of the has even been suggested, is the ultimate source of at least one of the New Testaworld.

Ahikar,

ment parables.

know

it

But,

more

that the story of

date current

among

Ahikar was

JCAVS,

now

generally,

we

that

we

at so early a

shall be

more

plausi-

bly able to justify the belief, long ago held by some,

Aesop and other similar collections of fables do truly come from Jewish originals. At any rate, ancient Jewish parallels must have been in circu-

that

lation. 22

THE STORY OF AHIKAR So much for the main

results of the discovery.

Small details of interest abound. son

" :

Tobit bade

his

Pour out thy bread and thy wine on the

graves of the righteous (4. 17)." changes have been suggested in the

found

in the

All sorts of text.

But the

versions of Ahikar, and

saying may be accepted as genuine. It is not necessarily a pagan rite; it has analogy with the funeral meal is

which long prevailed (and ish custom.

Even more

still

prevails) as a Jew-

interesting seems another

(of the Syriac Version), which the writers on the books of Ahikar and Tobit have overlooked. detail

When

Tobit's son starts on his quest, his

This

with him.

else in ancient

is

a remarkable touch.

dog goes Nowhere

Jewish literature does the dog ap-

pear as man's companion. Nowhere else? Yes, in " one other place in the story of Ahikar. " strike with stones son," says the vizier to Nadan,

My

the

dog

that has left his

after thee."

comrade,

jftere

to be

see the

dog regarded

forcibly discouraged

signs of infidelity.

when

we

own master and followed if

There must have been

as a

he show a period,

therefore, Jews considered the dog in a light quite other than that which afterwards

became

the olden

usual.

23

PHILO ON THE "CONTEMPLATIVE LIFE Much

depends in

Maimonides,

opening section

though excess

on

the

"

mood

of

the

hour.

Eight Chapters and in the of his Code, acutely remarks that his

in

any moral direction

is

vicious,

be necessary for a man to in order to bring himself an extreme practise back from the other extreme into the middle path

nevertheless

may

it

Or, to use another phrase of the same philosopher, it is with the soul as with the body.

of virtue.

To

proper to apply force on the side opposite to that which is overadjust the equilibrium

it

is

balanced.

Hence

it is

not surprising to find Philo speaking,

were, with two voices on the subject of the In the Alexandria of his day there ascetic life. as

it

was

at

tion.

one time prevalent a cult of self-renunciaThis cult had special attraction for the

young and fashionable. ties,

and, in the

participation in

these

boyish

They

joined ascetic socie-

name

of religion, abandoned all worldly affairs. Philo denounced

millionaire 24

recluses

in

fine

style.

PHILO ON THE

"

CONTEMPLATIVE LIFE "

Wealth was not to be abused, true it was, however, " to be used. Shun not the world, but live well in ;

it,"

Do

he cried.

behave

not avoid the festive board, but

gentlemen over your wine. It is all beautifully said, though I have modernized Philo's " " terms somewhat. Be drunk with sobriety is, like

however, one of Philo's very

But there dria

is

own

phrases.

this other side to consider.

Alexan-

was the very hotbed of luxury and extrava-

gance.

People

speak

about the

inequalities

of

modern civilization, and seem to imagine that it is a new thing for a slum and a palace to exist side by side. But this was exactly the condition in Alexandria at about the beginning of the Christian era.

busy and gorgeous bazaars, as Mr. F. C. Conybeare has said, blazed with products and wares Its

imported and designed to tickle the palates and adorn the persons of the aristocracy. The same marts had another aspect, narrow and noisy, foul with misery ama disease. Wealth and vice rubbed Passing through such scenes, Philo might well be driven to see the superiority of asceticism over indulgence. Religion after all is renunshoulders.

ciation.

Idolatry, said Philo,

dwarfs a man's

soul,

be compatible

Idolatry may Judaism enlarges " wine and dainty dishes," Judaism strong it.

with

25

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND prefers a meal of bread and hyssop. In speaking thus, Philo reminds us of the Pharisaic saying: "

A

morsel with

salt

shalt thou

and water

eat,

drink by measure, thou shalt sleep upon the ground, and live a life of painfulness, the while thou toilest in the

Torah

"

(Pirke

"

Abot

6.

The

4.).

"

"

asso"

with ciation of high thinking plain living could not be more emphatically expressed. Few scholars nowadays doubt the Philonean " On the Contemplative authorship of the treatise Life." Conybeare, Cohn and Wendland have convinced us

all,

really Philo's.

or nearly

all,

first sight,

no doubt,

At

to suppose that the

cordial in

its

book was not

praise of seclusion,

the monastic spirit.

that the

his.

it

It

work

was

easier

seems too

and comes too near

But the Essenes were Jewish

enough, and Philo's Therapeutae are essentially the Essenes.

which denote

literally

"

"

"

Therapeutae

means

is

"

is

a

like

Greek word

Servants," and was used to

Worshippers of God."

The community

of Therapeutae, according to Philo's description,

was

upon a low hill overlooking Lake Mareotis, not far from Alexandria. We need not go into details. These people adopted a severely settled

simple in

his

each dwelling alone, spending the day " private holy room," passing the hours

life,

26

PHILO ON THE without food,

"

CONTEMPLATIVE

LIFE

"

occupied with the Law, the Prophets, and the Psalms. On the Sabbath, howbut

abandoned

ever, they

their isolation,

common assembly, to listen " common sanctuary " was

and met

to discourses. a

in

The

double enclosure,

divided by a wall of three or four cubits, so as to separate

the

women from

the

men.

Women

"

formed part of the audience, having the same zeal and following the same mode of life," all practising celibacy.

Men

and

women

alike,

or at least the

most zealous of them, well-nigh fasted throughout " the week, having accustomed themselves, as they say the grasshoppers do, to live upon air; for the song of these, I suppose, assuages the feeling of

Their Sabbath meal was held

want."

in

common,

"

the seventh day as in a manner " deem it worall holy and festal," and, therefore, " comthy of peculiar dignity." The diet, however,

for they regarded

prises nothing expensive, but only cheap bread;

and

which the dainty among them prepare with hyssop; and for drink they have water " from the spring." For, continues Philo, they

its

relish

is sajf,

propitiate the mistresses

Hunger and

Thirst, which

nature has set over mortal creatures, offering nothing that can flatter them, but merely such useful

food as

life

cannot be supported without. 27

For

this

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND reason they eat only so as not to be hungry, and drink only so as not to thirst, avoiding all surfeit as

dangerous and inimical to body and soul." There No wine is is only one relaxation of this severity. but such of the more aged as are " of a delicate habit of life are permitted to drink

brought to "

their

table,

water hot.

Of been

main tendency of Judaism has another direction. Fascinating though

course, the in

Philo's picture of the is,

yet

it

cannot be

community of Therapeutae be a model for ordinary

felt to

From

men and women.

time to time, indeed, Jews

(like the disciples of Isaac Luria) followed

the

same course of

much

But most have been un-

life.

willing or unable to accept such an ideal as worthy of imitation. It is not at all certain that Philo

meant

it

to be a

model; anyhow, as we have seen,

he was not always in the same mood. Judah ha-Levi opens the third part of his Khazari with just this distinction

under which the

between the ideal circumstances, may be admirable, and

ascetic life

the normal conditions, under which it is culpable. " When the Divine Presence was still in the Holy

Land among

the people capable of prophecy,

"

some

with few persons lived an ascetic life in deserts good results. But nowadays, continues Judah 28

PHILO ON THE " ha-Levi,

he

who

in

"

CONTEMPLATIVE

LIFE

"

our time and place and people,

'whilst no open vision exists'

(I

Samuel

3.

i),

the desire for study being small, and persons with a natural talent for

it

would

absent,

like to retire

into ascetic solitude, only courts distress

and

sick-

The real pietist, he conman who cludes, ignores his senses, but the man who rules over them. And this was really the view of Philo also, as we find it in his other " works. The bad man," he says, " treats pleasure as the summum bonum, the good man as a necesness for soul and body." is

sity,

not the

for without pleasure nothing happens

mortals."

And

so he counsels

men

among

to follow the

avocations of ordinary life, and not to disdain am" In fine, it is necessary that they who would bition.

concern themselves with things divine should, of all, have discharged the duties of man. It

first is

a

we can reach a comprehension of the greater when we are unable to overcome the less. Be first known by your excellence in things great folly to thinlf

human,

in

order that you

may

excellence in things divine." tions

from C. G. Montefiore's

apply yourselves to (I take these quota-

brilliant

Philonis, which he ought to reprint.)

Florilegium Philo un-

doubtedly thought more highly of the contemplathan of the practical life. But in this last

tive

29

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND passage he gets very near the truth when he treats the former as only noble when it is based on the latter.

that

"

another aspect of the rabbinic truth " not study but conduct is the end of virtue. It

is

Philo does not contradict this truth he offers to our ;

inspection the reverse side of the

same

shield.

other point remains. The reader of Philo's eulogy of the Contemplative Life must be struck by the gaiety of these ascetics. Again and again

One

Philo speaks of their joyousness.

songs and hymns to

There

ures."

build up

is

"

all

many

in

"

compose

divers strains and meas-

nothing morose about them.

They

the edifice of virtue on a foundation of

continence, but

Above

God

They

is

it

is

a cheerful devotion after all.

the music, the singing. They have " to which they sing old songs or

melodies

newly written poems.

One

sings in solo,

and then

"

give out their voices in unison, all the they " " men and all the women together joining in the all

catches and refrains," and

"

a full

and harmonious

" Noble Philo grows ecstatic. are the thoughts, and noble the words of their hymn, yea, and noble the choristers. But the end

symphony

results."

and aim of thought and words and choristers

alike

And this summary ought to be appliis holiness." cable to every form of Jewish life, to those phases 30

PHILO ON THE particularly " Serve the

Psalm.

which

"

CONTEMPLATIVE

LIFE

"

reject the excesses of asceticism.

Lord with

joy," says the hundredth

True we must have

also not omit the service.

31

the joy; but

we must

JOSEPHUS AGAINST APION "

Buffon, the great French naturalist," as "

Mat-

thew Arnold reminds

us, imposed on himself the rule of steadily abstaining from all answer to attacks made upon him." This attitude of digni-

fied silence

has often been commended.

of

counsels, Epictetus recommended not to defend themselves when at-

his

his

friends

tacked.

In one

wisest

man

If a

speaks

you should only reply

of you, said the Stoic, Good sir, you must be

ill

" :

ignorant of many others of my faults, or you would not have mentioned only these."- An older than Epictetus gave similar advice. Sennacherib's emissary, the Rabshakeh, had insolently assailed Hezekiah; "but the people held their peace, for the king's

commandment was

:

Answer him not

"

36). On this last text a fine homily may be found in a printed volume of the late Simeon Singer's Sermons. Mr. Singer illustrated (II Kings

1

8.

his counsel of restraint

by a reference to Josephus.

Apion more than 1,800 years ago had traduced the Jews, and Josephus demolished his slanders in powerful a piece of controversial literature as

be found."

"

But," continued the preacher, 32

"

"

is

as

to

note

JOSEPHUS AGAINST APION But for Josephus'

the irony of the situation.

reply,

"

not his Apion would long have been forgotten name, but certainly the details of his typical anti;

Semitism.

This fact, however, does not carry with it the conclusion that Josephus rendered his people an illservice. There are two orders of Apologetics

and the constructive.

the

destructive

was

originally a legal term

Apologia which denoted the speech

of the defendant against the

As we know abundantly

plaintiff's

giants of the classical oratory

thenes and Cicero

made up

charges.

well from the forensic

such as Demos-

these defences were

largely

Josephus was His abuse of Apion

of abuse of the other side.

an apt pupil of these masters.

leaves nothing to the imagination; everything

is

formulated, and with scathing particularity. Josephus, it is true, does not seem to have been unjust. Rarely, if ever, has an out-and-out anti-Semite possessed a pleasing personality.

Apion was a gram-

marian of note, but there is much evidence as to The emperor Tibehis unamiable characteristics. rius, who knew a braggart when he saw one, called "

Apion

cymbalum mundi

"

a

world-drum, mak-

ing the universe ring with his ostentatious garrulity.

Aulus Gellius records 3

33

his vanity

;

Pliny accuses

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

him of falsehood and charlatanism.

Josephus was,

therefore, not going beyond the facts scribes

him

as a scurrilous

when he

mountebank.

It

de-

cannot

be denied, moreover, that Josephus scores heavily against his opponent, in solid argument as well as in verbal invective.

Apion immortal,

it

If the

Jewish historian made

was a deathless infamy that he

secured for him. Certainly,

Apion's

too,

Josephus

specific libels

ever, antedated

:

the

rebuts

successfully

most

silly

of them, how-

Apion and survived him.

Tacitus,

indeed, seems to have gathered his own weapons out of Apion's armory, and the Roman repeats the

Alexandrian's

libel

that in Jerusalem an ass

was

adored. Those who are interested in this legend of ass-worship may turn to a learned article by Dr. S. Krauss in the Jewish Encyclopedia (vol. ii, has been suggested that the charge arose from a confusion between the Jews and cerp.

222).

It

Egyptian or Dionysian sects. Others believe that at bottom there lies a misunderstanding of the

tain

"

foundation-stone," which, according to talmudic tradition, was placed in the ark during the second

The upper

temple.

Greeks an

ass's

"

millstone

the ass," for

burdensome

its

was

called

by the

tedious turning resembled

activity.

34

But, be the explana-

JOSEPHUS AGAINST APION

what it may, the ignorance of a professed expert such as Apion was inexcusable. Yet, most grimly amusing of all Apion's charges is his repetition of

tion

Jews were haters Never was there a more per-

the ever-recurrent libel that the

of their fellow-men.

Aesop's fable of the wolf and the hated transformed into the haters

fect illustration of

lamb

the

:

!

Apion was

a fine type of lover.

he, leading the

Rome went

Off to

Alexandrian deputation against the

Jews (who were championed by Philo) denouncing them to the Caesar, and using every artifice to incite ,

the imperial animosity.

Apion would be

hostility,

"

With

haters of mankind."

a heart bitter

with

a fitting assailant of the

It

is

one of the curiosities

of fate that, apart from what Josephus has told of him, Apion is best remembered as the author or transmitter of the story of Androcles and the lion. Apion was neither the first nor the last to have a kindlier feeling for a wild beast than for a fellow-

man.

To

all

makes

a

the points adduced by

triumphant answer.

But

Apion Josephus his book,

termed

rather inaptly Against Apion, would not deserve its

repute merely because

it

demolished a particu-

The book

really be-

longs to Apologetic of the second of the

two orders

larly

malignant opponent. 35

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND distinguished above. tive

is

Higher

far than the destruc-

the constructive,

Apologetic falsehood, not by denouncing the "

senting the truth. vail,"

is

the

(I Esdras

4.

Great

is

which rebuts a but by pre-

liar,

truth,

and

it

will pre-

maxim of an ancient Jewish book 41 ) a maxim well known in substance ,

to Josephus himself

(Antiquities,

xi.

3).

"Who

knew

truth put to the worse in a free and open " encounter? asks Milton. If we once give up con-

ever

fidence in the unconquerable in the end,

hope. itself

power of truth

to

win

we have already made an end of human

Apologetic, then, of the better type attaches to this belief in the inherent virtue of truth.

meets the enemy not with weapons similar to his own, but with a shield impervious to all weapons. It

Josephus can sustain

this test.

Judged by the

constructive standard, the treatise Against

Apion Jews were an ancient people with an age-long record of honor, and not a race of recent and disreputable upstarts, Josephus is

a masterpiece.

That

the

proves by citations from older writers who, but for these citations, would be even less known than they

now

ments

are.

It

is

not,

however, on such argu-

that Josephus chiefly rests his case.

The

external history of the Jews, their glorious participation in the world's affairs 36

these are much.

JOSEPHUS AGAINST APION But there

somthing which

is

ourselves,

we

As

for

neither inhabit a maritime country,

commerce, nor with other men as arises from nor delight

"

far more.

is

in

in it;

such intercourse but the

a fruitful country to dwell in,

we

we we have

cities

dwell in are remote from the sea, and as

take pains in cul-

But our principal care of all is to edutivating cate our children well, and to observe the laws, and we think it to be the most necessary business of our whole life to keep that religion that has been handed it.

down

"

12). This passage is famous both for its denial of the supposed natural bent of Jews to commerce and for its assertion that education is

to us

( i.

the principal purpose of Jewish endeavor.

Jo-

second book of his Apology, expounds Judaism as life and creed in glowing terms. This exposition is one of our main sources

sephus, especially in the

of information for the Judaism of the first century of the Christian era. His picture of life under the

Jewish law

a panegyric, but praise

is not always an exaggerated claim that Josephus makes on behalf of Judaism? Surely not. "I is

partiality.

Is

make bold

to say," exclaims

" tion,

men the

that

it

we

in his

peroraare become the teachers of other

in the greatest

most

Josephus

excellent.

number of For what 37

things, is

more

and those excellent

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND than unshakable piety ? What is more just than obedience to the laws? And what is more advantageous than mutual love and concord, and neither to be divided by calamities, nor to become injurious and seditious in prosperity, but to despise death when

we

are in war, and to apply ourselves in peace to

arts

God

and agriculture, while we are persuaded that surveys and directs everything everywhere.

If these precepts

had

either been written before

by

others, or more exactly observed, we should have owed them thanks as their disciples, but if it is plain

we have made more use of them than other men, and if we have proved that the original inventhat

tion of

them

and

others

all

is

our own,

who

Apions and Molos, lies and abuse, stand

let the

delight in

confuted."

There were grounds on which contemporary Jews had just cause for complaint against Josephus.

He

lacked patriotism.

sense.

firm in

But only

in

the political

When

Judea was invaded, he did not stand resistance to Rome. But when Judaism was

calumniated, he was a true patriot. He stands high in the honorable list of those who championed the Jewish cause without thought of self. Or, rather,

such self-consciousness as he displays is communal, When he pleads his people's cause,

not personal.

his pettinesses vanish, he

is

38

every inch a Jew.

CAECILIUS

ON THE SUBLIME

Hebrew literature are Greek writers. One of the most

Favorable remarks on very rare in the significant

is

contained

in

the

ninth

Longinus' famous treatise on the Sublime. This Greek author it will soon be seen

name

Caecilius

of

section

why

and not Longinus appears

in

the

the

of this article

analyses sublimity of style into five sources: i) grandeur of thought; 2) spirited treatment of the passions; 3) figures of thought title

and speech; 4) dignified expression; 5) majesty of structure. Longinus points out that the first two conditions of sublimity depend mainly on natural

endowments, whereas the ance from art. It is

when

last three derive assist-

illustrating the first of the five ele-

ments that our author refers to the Bible.

most important of "

all

The

conditions of the Sublime

a certain lofty cast of

mind."

Such sublimity

is is

"

the image of greatness of soul." As he beauti" It is only natural that their words fully says:

should be full of sublimity, whose thoughts are full of majesty." Longinus, accordingly, refuses to 39

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND praise without " Battle of the

A Rang Then

trumpet sound

and shook the Olympian

terror seized the

monarch

height,

of the dead,

his throne, he cried aloud

fearful voice, lest the earth, rent asunder

By Neptune's mighty arm, forthwith

To

of the

picture

:

through the air,

And, springing from

With

Homer's

reserve "

Gods

reveal

mortal and immortal eyes those halls

So drear and dank, which e'en the gods abhor.

An

impious medley, Longinus terms

fect hurly-burly,

in

terrible

its

this, a per-

force fulness, but

overstepping the bounds of decency. (I take these and other phrases from Mr. H. L. Havell's fine translation).

Far

be

to

Homeric passages which in its true light as

pure."

He

"

something

instances

the

are

preferred

those

exhibit the divine nature spotless, great,

lines

the

in

Iliad

and on

Poseidon, though there does not seem much to choose between them and the passage condemned above. But then follows the remarkable para-

graph which

is

the

Longinus for a place

reason

why

I

in this gallery:

have chosen "

And

thus

also the lawgiver of the Jews, no ordinary man, having formed an adequate conception of the

Supreme Being, gave

it

adequate expression 40

in the

CAECILIUS ON

THE SUBLIME

opening words of his Laws: be light, and there was light; there

God

said: Let there

there be earth, and

let

was earth."

Few

will dispute that this passage in Genesis be-

longs to the sublimest order of literature.

It is

of

(whoever he

the utmost interest that Longinus

was) should have recognized this fact. Whoever he was whether the true Longinus, or an unknown rhetorician of the

first

century.

Whether

it

be-

longs to the age of Augustus or Aurelian, it is equally noteworthy that the Greek writer should

have admitted that the sublime might be exhibited by Moses as well as by Homer.

It

is

quite clear,

however, that Longinus did not take his quotation

from the Hebrew Bible translation.

Had

have made much

he

itself

known

fuller use of

of the sublime quoted above.

Greek he must

or from the the Bible,

it.

He

Read

his analysis

could,

and would,

have illustrated every one of his five conditions from the Bible, had he been acquainted with it.

Moreover, the quotation from Genesis is inexact. There is no text: God said: Let there be earth, and there was earth. Obviously, as Theodore Reinach points

out, the reference

is

taken from the 9 and

sense, not the words, of Genesis

I.

Longinus, therefore, either knew

from hearsay,

41

it

10.

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND or he had found the quotation

in the

course of his

reading.

This

latter suggestion

was made

as long

ago as Arnold

1711 by Schurzfleisch how Matthew would have jibed at a man with such a name com-

menting on the Sublime! Longinus quotes a previous treatise on the Sublime by a certain Caecilius.

His predecessor, says Longinus, wasted "

his efforts

thousand illustrations of the nature of the

in a

Sublime," while he failed to define the subject. that as

it

Be

may, Longinus quotes Caecilius several

times, especially for these very illustrations.

It

is

by no means improbable, then, that Longinus' reference to Genesis was derived from Caecilius,

who may have paraphrased from memory

rather

than have quoted with the Bible before him. Now, Suidas informs us that Caecilius was reported to be a Jew.

Reinach (Revue des Etudes Juices,

vol.

xxvi, pp. 36-46) has provided full ground for accepting the information of Suidas, which is now

generally adopted as true. Caecilius belonged to the

first

century of the

current era, and, born in Sicily, the offspring of a slave,

he betook himself as a freedman to Rome, as a writer on

where he won considerable note rhetoric.

The Characters of 42

the

Ten Orators was

CAECILIUS ON

THE SUBLIME

one of his most important books; several histories are ascribed to him and, as we have seen, he wrote ;

a formal treatise on the Sublime, which gave rise to the better-known work attributed to Longinus. It is

not clear whether Caecilius was a born

Probably the theory that best

a proselyte. facts

is

Jew or

We

that of Schurer.

may

suppose that the

father was brought to

rhetorician's

the

fits

Rome

a

as

Jewish slave by Pompey, and was then sold to a In Sicily, the son, who bore the name Sicilian. Archagathos, received a Greek education, and was freed by a

Roman

freedman would drop family name

mon

practice.

The

of the Caecilius clan. his

own name, and adopt

the

of his benefactor, according to com-

Schurer offers a very acute, and

I

think conclusive, argument against the view that Caecilius

was

a convert to Judaism.

A

proselyte

would have exhibited much more zeal for faith.

In the works of Caecilius, I

may

his

new

add, his

Judaism seems more a reminiscence than a vital factor. It is, on the whole, more likely that he

came of Jewish ancestry than that he was himself Reinach contends that because a new-made Jew. he was a proselyte, Caecilius knew the Bible only superficially, and hence arose his misquotation of Genesis.

Is that a

probable view to take? 43

If

we

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND conceive, with Schiirer, that the father of Caecilius, a born Jew,

had passed through such vicissitudes, being carried a slave from Syria to Rome, transferred into an alien environment in Sicily,

memory

superficial

we

can

would possess but

well understand that the son

of the Bible.

On

a

the other

hand, a proselyte would have become a devotee to the Scriptures, the beauties of which had burst

upon

his

mind for

misquote. into

The

Greek

the

time.

first

He

would not

chief Jewish translators of the Bible

(apart, of course,

from the oldest Alex-

andrian version) were, curiously enough, proselytes to Judaism. Perhaps it would be too far-fetched to suggest that Caecilius had a particular reason to remember the first chapter of Genesis. His original

the

name, Archagathos,

Hebrew

"

is

very good

not a bad translation of

"

(fob

meod) which

oc-

curs prominently in the story of the Creation.

Unfortunately, none of the works of Caecilius

We

know him only by

a

is

few frag-

preserved. " eminent in ments. Plutarch described him as

all

things," yet neither Schiirer in his earlier editions,

nor Graetz

ought

to be

in

any edition, placed him where he

to use Reinach's phraseology

in the

phalanx of the great Jewish Hellenists, with Aristobulus, Philo,

and Josephus. 44

Caecilius

was

the

CAECILIUS ON

THE SUBLIME

restorer of Atticism in literature, a piquant role for a

Jew

often

filled.

to play.

An

Yet

it

is

a part the

Jew has

instructive essay could be written

on the services rendered by Hebrews to the spread of Hellenism, not merely in the ancient world, but also in the medieval

and modern

45

civilizations.

THE PHOENIX OF EZEKIELOS "

The plumage,"

Herodotus

writes

" (ii.

partly red, partly golden, while the general

and

size are

almost exactly

is

73),

form

like the eagle."

The

Greek historian was describing the phoenix, the fabled bird which lived for five hundred years. According to another version, she then consumed herself in in

fire,

youthful

and from the ashes emerged again freshness. Herodotus likens the

phoenix to the eagle, and the reader of some of the Jewish commentaries on the last verse of Isaiah 40

and the

fifth verse

of

ences to similar ideas.

Psalm 103

will find refer-

In particular to be noted

is

Kimhi's citation of Sa'adya's reference to the belief that the eagle acquired new wings every twelve years,

and lived a

full century.

Such fancies easily

attached themselves to Isaiah's phrase and to the psalmist's words:

eagle."

The

"

Thy

biblical

youth

is

renewed

metaphors,

merely allude to the fullness of vigor of the eagle; there is mythical about them.

is

46

life,

in

like the

sober

high

flight,

fact,

and

nothing whatever that

THE PHOENIX OF EZEKIELOS

What

passes for one of the

most famous

de-

scriptions of the phoenix is contained in the wellknown Greek drama of the Exodus (or rather Exagoge) written by the Jewish poet, Ezekielos.

This writer probably flourished rather more than a century before the Christian era.

supposed that he lived

in the capital

Palestine, in

his

home

Samaria.

able

phenomenon.

Jew

in

biblical

commonly

of the Ptole-

has been suggested by was not in Egypt, but in

mies, in Alexandria; but

Kuiper that

It is

it

If that be so,

We

it is

a remark-

should not wonder that a

Alexandria composed Greek dramas on themes, with the twofold object of present-

ing the history of Israel in attractive form and of providing a substitute for the heathen plays which

But that such monopolized the ancient theatre. dramas should be produced soon after the Maccabean age in Palestine would imply an unexpected continuity of the influences of the homeland of the Jews.

Greek manners

in

Ere we could accept

the theory of a Palestinian origin for Ezekielos,

we should need adduces

far stronger arguments than Kuiper

(Revue des Etudes

Juives,

vol.

xlvi,

p. 48, seq.).

The drama

Exodus

which was appar-

ently written to be performed-

follows the biblical

of the

47

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

We

are now, however,

interested in a single episode,

preserved for us

story with

some

closeness.

among the fragments of Ezekielos as quoted by Eusebius (Prep. Evangel, ix. 30). beautiful

A

picture of the twelve springs of Elim and of its seventy palms is followed by a description of the

extraordinary bird that appeared there. the passage from Gifford's Eusebius (iii,

A character of the play, reporting to

Moses

after the

I

take

p. 475). Greek manner, is

:

Another living thing we saw, more strange

And marvellous than man e'er saw The noblest eagle scarce was half

before,

as large;

His outspread wings with varying colors shone;

The breast was bright with purple, and the legs With crimson glowed, and on the shapely neck The golden plumage shone The head was like a gentle

in graceful curves;

nestling's

formed;

Bright shone the yellow circlet of the eye

On

all

around, and wondrous sweet the voice.

The king he seemed As soon was proved Hovered

While

in fear

of all the ;

winged

tribe,

for birds of every kind

behind his stately form;

like a bull,

proud leader of the herd,

Foremost he marched with swift and haughty

step.

Gifford has no hesitation in accepting the comidentification of this bird with the phoenix. Obviously, however, Ezekielos says nothing of the

mon

48

THE PHOENIX OF EZEKIELOS mythical properties of the bird; he merely presents to us a super-eagle of gorgeous plumage and splendid stature, unnatural but not supernatural. Even the magnificence of the superb bird pictured

by Ezekielos

less

is

bizarre than

we

find

it

in

other

Ezekielos' figures sink into insignificance who tells us that the

authors.

beside those of Lactantius, bird's

monstrous eyes resembled twin hyacinths, flashed and quivered a

from the midst of which

If Ezekielos really refers to the

bright flame.

how does

phoenix,

Gifford has this

come into the drama at all? " note There is no mention in it

:

Exodus of the phoenix or any such bird, but the twelve palm-trees (phoenix) at Elim may have suggested the story of the phoenix to the poet, just as Phoenix 70, the tree The said to have been named from the bird."

in the is

poem

of Lactantius.

word phoenix It

means,

add, a romantic history. Phoenician. Now, certain of

has, I

literally,

may

the Phoenician race were the reputed discoverers

and

first

Hence

users

these

of

purple-red

colors

Phoenix or Phoenician.

were

or

named

The Greek

crimson dyes. after

them,

translation, in

renders "scarlet" by Phoenician. The epithet was applied equally to red cattle, to It the bay horse, to the date-palm and its fruit. Isaiah

4

I.

18,

49

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

was

also used of the fabulous bird because of

its

Gifford supposes, then, that Ezekielos colorings. knowing of the palms reached at Elim in the early

wanderings of Israel, introduced the bird into his drama. The palms at Elim are indeed described very word (Phoenician) in the Greek translation of the Bible which Ezekielos used (Exodus

by

this

The

15. 27).

lulab

is

also

termed phoenix

in the

Greek of Leviticus 23. 40.

The as

explanation seems at first sight as plausible clever. But it involves a serious difficulty.

it is

For Ezekielos

previous passage has already described the Phoenician palm-trees at consider-

The

able length.

above, but as a

whole

it is

passage has been partly noted musical enough to be worth citing

:

my Lord

See,

in a

Moses, what a spot

Fanned by sweet

airs

For as thyself mayest

And Its

is

found,

from yonder shady grov; see, there lies the

welcome guiding

light.

A meadow

Beside the stream in grateful shadow

And From

stream,

thence at night the fiery pillar shed there

lies,

a deep glen in rich abundance pours

out a single rock twelve sparkling springs.

There,

tall

and strong, and laden all with fruit, and plenteous grass,

Stand palms threescore and ten

;

Well watered, gives sweet pasture 50

to

our

flocks.

THE PHOENIX OF EZEKIELOS seems incredible that the poet who thus describes the palms could then have proceeded to conIt

fuse the

palms with a

bird.

Ezekielos does not use

the epithet Phoenician in his account of the latter.

Thus

How

the theory breaks down.

passage to be explained? another and simpler way. "

There

is

no mention

As in

it

then

is

seems to me,

Exodus of

the in

the phoenix

or any such bird," says Gifford. He is right as to " the phoenix, but is he right as to any such bird "? readers will at once remember the forceful

My

metaphor "

in

the nineteenth chapter of Exodus:

And Moses went up

unto God, and the Lord '

him out of the mountain, saying Thus shalt thou say to the house of Jacob, and tell the children of Israel: Ye have seen what I did unto

called unto

the Egyptians,

:

and how

I

bore you on eagles' wings, '

and brought you unto Myself.' The Mekilta inthe words to refer to the terprets rapidity with which Israel was assembled for the departure from Egypt, and to the powerful protection which it afterwards enjoyed. But we may also find in the "

I bore same words the clue to the poet's fancy. you on eagles' wings," says the Pentateuch. No

doubt the phrases of Herodotus, as well as those of Hesiod, were familiar to Ezekielos. With these 51

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND mind, he introduced a super-eagle, figuratively mentioned in the book of Exodus, and gave to it substance and life. He personified the metaphor. in

It

would be a perfectly legitimate

ical license.

The

description

not mythological, and phoenix of fable.

it

has

52

is

exercise of poet-

bizarre.

little

to

But

it is

do with the

THE LETTER OF SHERIRA Though "

Of good genealogy

cordingly,

" is

the

the proudest boast of the

was of the talmudic, Jew. not wonderful that we find our

as

modern,

members of

all

do not same family.

are brothers, they

all Israelites

admit that they are it

from Hillel

It

is,

ac-

notabili-

Abarbanel claiming, or having assigned to them, descent from the Davidic line. Of Sherira the same was said. He ruled over the

ties

in

academy

to

Pumbeditha during the

the tenth century.

A

last third of

scion of the royal house of

Judah, he was rightful heir to the exilarchy, yet preferred the socially lower, but academically higher,

office

religious political.

and

The Gaon's sway was

of Gaon.

scholastic; the exilarch's secular and

Sherira's ancestry

might have given him it was intrinsic,

the latter post, but for the former

personal worth which qualified him and his famous shall deny that he made a worthy son Hai.

Who

choice

?

Sherira's as

fame

Gaon than on

rests less

on

the Letter 53

his general activities

which he wrote about

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND the year 980, in response to questions formulated

by Jacob ben Nissim, of Kairuwan. One of these questions retains, and will ever retain, its fascinaalthough the answer has now no vital interest. Historically the Letter has other claims to contion,

tinued study. " i,

p.

169)

lies in

:

To The

quote Dr. L. Ginzberg ( Geonica, lasting value of his epistle for us

the information Rabbi Sherira gives about

the post-Talmudic scholars. practically the only source

On we

period he is have." Without this

Sherira, the course of the traditional development

would be a blank for a long interval after the close " of the Talmud. But," continues Dr. Ginzberg, "

we

shall be

doing Rabbi Sherira injustice

thought of him merely as a chronologist."

if

we

And

same competent scholar launches out into the following eulogy of the Gaon: "The theories

this

.... regarding the origin of the Mishnah .... and many other points imporwhich he unfolds

tant in the history of the

Talmud and

its

problems,

stamp Rabbi Sherira as one of the most

distin-

not an exaggeration guished to say, the most distinguished historian of literahistorians, in fact,

ture

among

in the

it is

the Jews, not only of antiquity, but also

middle ages, and during a large part of mod-

ern times." 54

THE LETTER OF SHERIRA This must

suffice

Sherira's work. is

just the

not

much

for the general estimate of

What

is

of

more

striking interest

one question, the answer to which does As Dr. Neubauer formulated

matter.

the question put to Sherira,

it

ran thus

" :

Was

the

Mishnah transmitted orally to the doctors of the Mishnah, or was it written down by the compiler "

Judah the Prince, we know, compiled the Mishnah, but did he leave it in an oral or a documentary form? Was it memorized or set himself?

down

in script?

ter, as I

have

The answer

does not

much matMishnah

said, for sooner or later the

was written out, and it is not of great consequence whether it was later or sooner. And it is as well

we do not know for certain what Sherira's answer was Most authorities nowadays believe that the Gaon prothat Sherira's answer matters

little,

for

!

nounced

in

favor of the written compilation; but

was not always the case. For Sherira's Letter was current in two versions which recorded oppoIn the French form the oral altersite opinions. this

native

was accepted, but the Spanish text adopted Which was the genuine view

the written theory.

There are many reasons for preferAs Dr. Neubauer points books, letters, and responsa coming from the

of Sherira?

ring the Spanish version. " out,

55

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND East, reached Spain and Italy before they came to France and Germany." Hence the Spanish text is

more

likely to be primitive

;

was carried further, it might

when

while, easily

the Letter

have been altered

so as to fall in with the talmudic prohibition against It will, putting the traditional laws into writing. a come as some note another to to again, surprise

argument used by Dr. Neubauer Spanish the

Aramaic

which,

"

text.

as

From

in

favor of the

the greater consistency of

dialect in the Spanish text, a dialect

we know from

the

Responsa of the

Geonim, they used in their writings, it may be concluded that this (the Spanish) composition is the genuine one." The Gaonate was able to maintain a pretty thorough Jewish spirit without insisting on the use of Hebrew as the only medium of salva-

Actually Dr. Neubauer saw in the more consistent Aramaic of the Spanish text an indication of its superior authenticity over what may be called tion.

the French text

But

all

!

these points are secondary.

The

real in-

whole conception of an oral book. Tradition necessarily must be largely oral; ideas, terest lies in this

maxims, and even defined rules of conduct not only can be, they must be, transmitted by word of mouth.

But

is

there any possibility that a whole, 56

THE LETTER OF SHERIRA elaborate book, or rather series of six books, should

A

be put together and then trusted to memory? new turn to the discussion was given by Prof. Gil" bert Murray's Harvard Lectures on The Rise of the

To him

Greek Epic."

pears

of a

in the guise

"

the Iliad of

Homer

ap-

No

traditional book."

doubt the Mishnah belongs to a period separated from Homer by well-nigh a millennium. But the

A

book can be the outcome of traphrase holds. can be carried on by it, expanded and elabodition, rated, just as much as an oral code or history or book,

we speak of a traditional does not necessarily mean that the book

When,

poem. it

then,

The

was not written down. precious,

of

and the

written words become

fact that they are written does not

itself spell finality

or stagnation.

was any danger of such an

There never

evil result until the

of printing and stereotyping. of a traditional book as the

age

Nor can we conceive work of one mind.

Judah the Prince neither began nor ended the chain of tradition because he wrote the Mishnah. There had been Mishnahs before him,

just as there

were

developments of law after him. Yet, on the other hand, it is not incredible that

Judah the Prince's unwritten book.

traditional

It is

book remained an

improbable, but not at 57

all

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND impossible.

must hold principles

A in his

as

modern lawyer of the first rank mind quite as many decisions and

are

contained

the

in

Mishnah.

Macaulay could repeat by heart the whole of the Paradise Lost and much else. Many a Talmudist of the present day must remember vast masses of the traditional Halakah. Before the age of print-

before copies of books became common and easily accessible, scholars must have been compelled

ing,

to trust to their

we can

for

memory

many

things for which

turn to our reference libraries.

When

Maimonides compiled his great Code, he must have done a good deal of it from memory. Not that men's memories are worse now than they were. But we are now able to spare ourselves. a

good

thing to use the

memory

It is

not

unnecessarily.

It

What we

can

should be reserved for essentials.

always get from books we need not keep in mind. Besides, in olden times men remembered better not because they had better memories, but because they had less to remember.

On that

the whole, however,

Judah the Prince made

ten literature, that he set

moment (about 200

it

is

safer to conclude

a contribution to writ-

down

at

a

particular C. E.) the traditional book

which had been writing

itself

58

for

many

decades,

THE LETTER OF SHERIRA partly by the minds of the Rabbis, partly by their pens.

He

new career of Sherira and the Geonim were

started the

book on

a

humane activity. what they were because Judah the Prince was what This

he was.

The more we chance

is

is

the essential fact about tradition.

give of our best to our age, the

more

there for all future ages to transmit of

their best to posterity.

59

NATHAN OF ROME'S DICTIONARY A lery. is

dictionary

The

may seem

an intruder

in this gal-

present scries of cursory studies clearly

not concerned with works of technical scholar-

But the dictionary by Nathan, son of Jehiel, earns inclusion for two reasons. First, because ship.

when one surveys spirit, it is

the expressions of the Jewish

impossible to

draw

a line

between learn-

Secondly, quite apart from this intimate general connection between the scholar and the man of letters, the dictionary of Nathan being and literature.

Among longs specially to the course of culture. the Christian Humanists who, at the period of the Reformation, promoted the enlightenment Europe, were not lacking appreciators of the vices rendered to enlightenment

(to give

it its

Hebrew

ser-

by Nathan's Aruk

title).

Nathan (born about 1035 and died was an itinerant vendor of linen wares in

He

of

in

1106)

his youth.

belonged to the family Degli Mansi, an Italian

rendering of the latter

is

still

Legend has

it

Hebrew Anaw

or

Meek.

The

a rare but familiar Jewish surname.

that the founder of the Degli 60

Mansi

NATHAN OF ROME'S DICTIONARY house was one of the original settlers introduced into

Rome by

had

a long record of literary fame.

Titus.

At

all

events, the family

Like many

another merchant-traveller of the Middle Ages, Nathan made use of his earlier wanderings (as he did of his later journeys), to the Gamaliels of his age. his teachers.

Rome

turned to us

He

sit at

Many

the feet of all

and various were

abandoned business when he

after his father's death.

He

re-

tells

how he made

the arrangements for the interand here ment, straightway we perceive that his Aruk is no ordinary dictionary. For in the poem,

which he appends as a kind of retrospective preface, he records how sternly he had ever disapproved of the expenses incurred at Jewish funerals in his time. Protests were vain, but example was

more

In place of the double cerements in use, he laid his father in his tomb with a

fruitful.

common

single shroud.

This, he records, became the model

for others to imitate. in his

abode.

Of

his

Death was a frequent visitor four sons, none survived the

Grief eighth year, one not even his eighth day. " I found sorrow and trouble, did not crush him. then

I

called on the

name of

the Lord," he quotes.

He

proceeded to erect a house of another kind.

Not

of flesh and blood, but vital with the spirit of 61

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND Judaism, his Aruk

is

a

monument more

lasting than

ten children.

In what, then, does the importance of the dicIt is, of course, primarily, what tionary consist? " Graetz terms it, a key to the Talmud." No

doubt there were earlier compilations of a similar nature, but Nathan's book was the most renowned

own

and became the basis of every subsequent lexicon to the Talmud. Gentile and Jew, from Buxtorf to Dalman and from Musafia to of

its

age,

Jastrow, employed

own

it

as the

ground-work of

lexicographical research.

Moreover,

their

it

was

again and again edited and enlarged; but we are not dealing here with bibliographical details. Suffice it to mention the final edition by Alexander

Kohut. a

Kohut began

European Rabbi

in

Aruch Completum while 1878, and finished it in New remarkable that two of the his

York in 1892. It is best modern lexicons to the Talmud (Kohut's in Hebrew and Jastrow's in English) both emanate from America.

value for understanding the text of the Talmud, Nathan's Aruk has earned other claims Besides

its

Nathan's dictionary marks an epoch, says Consider the situation. The centre Vogelstein. to fame.

of Jewish authority was leaving Babylon. 62

The

last

NATHAN OF ROME'S DICTIONARY Geonim

of the great literary

or Excellencies, as

the heads of the Babylonian schools were called

Europe was replacing Asia

died in the year 1038. as the scene of

At

die ?

Jewish

Was the old tradition to

life.

moment of

the very

the

crisis,

three

men

They were almost contemporaries, and their works supple-

arose to prevent the chain snapping.

There was the Frenchman

mented each other. Rashi the

the commentator; the Spaniard al-Fasi

and the Italian Nathan

codifier;

lexi-

Between them they re-established

cographer.

Europe

the

the tradition of the Gaonate.

in

The Baby-

lonian schools might come and go; they might for a time enjoy hegemony, and then fall into decay; but the Torah must go on forever !

The manner the tradition

which

in

is

this dictionary carried

easily told.

Much

of the lore

on it

contains, explanations of words and of things, must have been orally acquired in direct conversations

with those

who were

older regime. decisions schools.

out

its

It

is

personally linked with the

again

full

of quotations of the

and customary lore of the Babylonian If on this side the Aruk has almost played

part for us,

and customs are to our fathers.

it is

not because those decisions

less interesting to us

But we are now 68

than they were

in possession

of very

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

many of

We

the gaonic writings in their original.

have recovered several of the sources from which

Nathan drew.

The Egyptian Genizah

that won-

derfully preserved mass of the relics of literature this field.

has yielded

We

are getting to

thought and manner of

life

we

eleventh centuries than

Hebrew

richest harvest just in

its

know more about

the

of the eighth to the know about our own

But for a long interval men's knowledge of those centuries was largely derived from the Aruk. time.

As

a source of information

seded.

There

still

it is

not even

now

super-

remain authors whose names

and works would be

lost but for

Rabbi Nathan's

quotations.

Another aspect of the book which makes

it

so

valuable for the history of culture among the Jews is the number of languages which Nathan uses.

What

an array

it is!

Kohut enumerates (besides

Hebrew and Aramaic)

Latin,

Greek,

Arabic,

Slavonic dialects, Persian, and Italian and allied

Nathan cannot have known all these languages well. He certainly had little Latin and less Greek, but he repeated what he had heard from others or read in their books. It is remarkable, indeed, how well the sense of Greek words speeches.

was transmitted by Jewish 64

writers

who were

igno-

NATHAN OF ROME'S DICTIONARY rant of Greek.

the

They

words are Greek

often are not even aware that

most

at all; they suggest the

impossible Semitic derivations; but they very rarely give the meanings incorrectly. to the Italian than to the I

mean

This applies

German Jewish

less

scholars.

that the former had, on the whole, a

more

intimate acquaintance with the classical idioms. In the case of Nathan's Aruk the languages cited do

imply a wide and varied culture. is Nathan's free use of Italian.

from the

glosses in Rashi's

Most

interesting

Just as

we

learn

commentaries that the

France spoke French, so we gather from Nathan's dictionary that the Jews of Rome must have used Italian as the medium of

Jews of northern

ordinary intercourse.

a

Nathan's Aruk, while, as we have seen, it was link between the past and his present, was also

part of the chain binding his present to the future. Nathan records the tradition as he received it, but

he also points forward.

Take one of

his remarks, Giidemann. There is much in quoted by the Talmud on the subject of magic, and Nathan

which

is

But he says: duly explains the terms employed. " All these statements about magic and amulets, I

know

Does

neither their

meaning nor

their origin."

the reader appreciate the extraordinary sig<

65

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND nificance of the statement? tradition, yet sees that the

also has

Tradition does not consist

claims.

its

Nathan, the bearer of newer order of things

the denial of science.

And

so,

though

a

Gaon

in

like

Hai had a pretty considerable belief in demonology, Nathan cautiously expresses his scepticism. Even more emphatically, a little later, Ibn Ezra frankly asserted that he had no belief in demons. It may be questioned whether this enfranchisement

from demonological conceptions could be matched non-Jewish thought of so early a date. The Aruk assuredly points forwards as well as backin

wards.

And all this we derive from a dictionary Aruk obviously belongs to culture as well

The

!

philology rated.

civilization.

two things really can be sepastudy of words is often the study of

if

The

as to

the

Max

Miiller maintained that

if

you

could only tell the real history of words you would He thereby be telling the real history of men. carried the idea absurdly far; but Nathan's is

Aruk

a striking instance of at least the partial truth of

the great Sanskrit scholar's contention.

THE SORROWS OF TATNU Tatnu has of a fetich a it

word

at

;

all. is

But

It

is,

it is

name

not a personal

it is

stands for

pose the

a weird sound.

not the

it is

;

indeed, a figure; but the figure

The

numerical.

letters

which com-

Hebrew combination Tatnu amount

(taw = 400;

f*ra>

= 4OO;

It represents a date.

title

not even

To

nun

= $o;

transpose

anno mundi to the current

it

to

waw =

856 6)

.

from the era

necessary to add 240. This brings us to 1096, the year of the First Crusade. If

form

Tatnu

is

a book.

era,

it

is

no person, neither do

They

its

sorrows

constitute rather a library of

narratives, small in size but great in substance.

are hardly literary, yet they belong to the masterpieces of literature. Their story is recorded

They

with few ornaments of

but their simple, effective than rhetoric.

style,

poignant directness is more Martyrdom needs no tricks of the word-artist; tells its

own

it

tale.

The the it

Historical Commission for the History of Jews in Germany had but a brief career, though

has revived under the newer 67

title

of the Gesamt-

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND archiv.

The Commission aimed

two ends:

at

to

introduce to Jewish notice information about the

Jews scattered

in Christian sources,

and to make

accessible to Christians facts about themselves con-

From 1887

tained in Jewish authorities. the

Commission was

the books

actively at work,

to 1898,

and among

published were two valuable volumes For dealing with the martyrologies of the Jews. the first time, these narratives were adequately

edited. in the

it

The

pathetic records of sufferings endured

Rhine-lands and elsewhere stand, for

time, ready to the

The ords

is

first

hand of the

all

historian.

moral to be extracted from these

rec-

No

one

war

the certainty that

is

an

evil.

can dispute the noble motives of the crusaders. The unquenchable enthusiasm which led high and low to forsake their

homes and engage

in eastern ad-

ventures, the unflinching courage with which the

dangers of battle and the hardships and privations of wearisome campaigns were borne, the transparent singleness of purpose which animated many a soldier of the cross

all

these factors tend to

cover the sordid truth with a glamor of idealism and chivalry. But the wars of the Crusades were tainted with savagery, and

clean?

The

if

so

what wars can be

barbarities inflicted in 68

Europe on

the

THE SORROWS OF TATNU Jews color with

and gruesome haze the hero-

a red

Mohammedans

isms performed against

War,

human

qualities of

man

in Asia.

some of the finest Exactly, but the war of

said, brings to the fore

it is

nature.

against nature calls for the exercise of the

same

qualities.

The heroism

of the battlefield* to last

is

of the coal-mine

from every point of view

as great

And

the scene of

well as at

whole of

Nor highest. Those war. who

that war, though an evil,

is

nature at is

first

lowest as

the battlefield the

persuade themselves not an unmixed evil,

Sorrows of Tatnu and

a rather useful corrective to their

When

its

is

heroism

from

the battlefield

human

its

will find in the

as the

allied

books

complacency.

1913 I re-read Neubauer and Stern's volume (1892) and Dr. Salfeld's magnificent ediin

tion of the Nuremberg Martyrology (1898) it was not long before the outbreak of the European war I was so moved that I sent a donation to the Peace Society. Quite a nice thing to do, some will

urge, but

up

is it

worth while, for such an end, to rake The whole of this class

these miserable tales?

of literature was long neglected because of a similar Stobbe, who rendered such conspicuous feeling. service to the Jewish cause, was actuated by the identical sentiment,

when he wrote 69

that

it

would be

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND "

a grim and a thankless task

"

to enter fully into

the sufferings of the Jews in the medieval period. But the Commission above referred to took another

printed the texts and circulated them in the completest detail. Now it depends entirely on the

view

;

it

purpose with which such remorseless crimes are as If the remorselessly dragged to the light of day. a foul desire desire is to revive bitterness, then it is

And not only if this be the consequence, if prove to

which ought to be crushed. be the desire,

if it

as a result of such re-publication animosity

is

re-

kindled, then the re-publication is to be condemned. But in the case of the Sorrows of Tatnu, neither

the motive nor the consequence

is

of this character.

Salfeld gave us his edition of these "

monuments of

den Toten zur Ehre, den Lebenden zur Lehre"; to honor the dead, to inNeither he nor any other Jewish spire the living.

the Jewish tribulations,

writer wishes to play the part of Virgil's Misenus,

who was

skilled in

" setting

Mars

song" (Martem accendere cantu)

alight with his .

The heroism

of the sufferers, not the brutality of the aggressors, is the theme of the Jewish historian who deals with

Tatnu and of many another year; glow of the bloodshed, but the white

the Sorrows of

not the lurid light of the

martyrdom; not the 70

pain, but the

tri-

THE SORROWS OF TATNU

umph

over

it;

not the

infliction,

but the endurance

unto and beyond death. These aspects of the story " to honor the ought, indeed, to be told and retold dead, to inspire the living." Closely connected with this thought is another. The Commission, be it remembered, was a Jewish

body,

appointed

by

the

Deutsch-Israelitische

Gemeindebund in 1885. But Graetz was not appointed a member. (Comp. the Memoir in the Index Volume of Graetz's History of the Jews, Philadelphia, 1898, p. 78).

Why

of Berlin Jewry ignore Graetz, the all others,

had

did the leaders

man who, above

stirred the conscience of

his vivid pictures of the

poignantly illustrated

in

Europe by medieval persecution so the Sorrows of Tatnu?

That was the very ground for excluding Graetz. There is no doubt but that Graetz's method of writing Jewish history was somewhat roughly handled at about the period named. This assault came from two sides. Treitschke, the German and Christian, attacked Graetz as anti-Christian and anti-German, and used citations from Graetz to support his propaganda of academic anti-Semitism. Certain Jews, on the other hand, felt that, though Treitschke was wrong, Graetz was too inclined to regard the world's history from a partisan and 71

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

Whether or not

sectarian point of view.

Commission, what that the

is

interesting to note

Commission, when

it

came

this

was

from the

the reason for the exclusion of Graetz

the fact

is

to grips with

the records, produced quite as emphatic an exposure of the medieval persecution as Graetz himself. It is, in brief, impossible for any student of the rec-

ords to do otherwise.

The Commission

included

among

its

members

some (conspicuously L. Geiger) who subsequently proved to be the strongest anti-Zionists. The duty and the desire to honor the dead for the inspiration of the living are not restricted to any one section of our community. There is nothing nationalistic or anti-nationalistic in our common sympathy with the Sorrows of Tatnu, in our

common

impulse to

turn those sorrows to vital account in the present. In a soft age it is well to be reminded that Judaism is

all synonymous with hardihood. Thus " memories are cherished because the blood

above

these

of the martyr

is

the seed of the church."

This

with Tertullian,

magnificent thought originated though the precise phrase is not his.

veyed by these oft-quoted weighed, truth.

lest

No

we make

institution

idea con-

a half-truth instead of a

of

it

is

founded on 72

The

words must be carefully its

dead,

it is

THE SORROWS OF TATNU its

living upholders

tell

who

alone can support

it.

We

these stories of the dead, because, in their day,

they, living, recognized that to save themselves

must sometimes the price of

sacrifice themselves.

life,

the very thing that

To

men

pay, as

makes

life

worth living is an ignoble and futile bargain. The Sorrows of Tatnu, regarded as the expression of this conviction, are

papan.

sing

and

it,

in

converted from an elegy into a is discordant unless we, who

But the song

are also prepared to act it, in our own way our own different circumstances. Den Toten

zur Ehre, den Lebenden zur Lehre.

PART

II

PART IBN GEBIROL'S

II

ROYAL CROWN "

"

Authors are not invariably the best critics of their own work. Was Solomon Ibn Gebirol, who was born

in

Andalusia,

in

perhaps

earlier part of the eleventh century, just

regarded as the

crown of

all his

"

the

in

Malaga,

when he

writings the long "

poem which he called the Royal Crown (Kcter Malkut) ? Some will always doubt his judgment. Plausibly enough, preference eral of his shorter

"

Seek Thee

Eye

in

poems, particularly

Mahzor)

these Things

or

At Dawn

I

line in the

Happy

the

(paraphrased by

her Jewish Year) "

"

" .

Ibn Gebirol was, however, sound

One

felt for sev-

(which Mrs. R. N. Salaman trans-

Saw

Mrs. Lucas

be

"

lated for the Routledge

that

may

Royal Crown

" is

in his opinion.

the finest that

he, or any other neo-Hebraic poet, ever wrote.

Should

God make

Ibn Gebirol, then Nieto interpreted

Thy

clemency."

tation.

visitation as to iniquity,

"

from Thee "

:

I will fly

But the

line

I will flee

from Thy needs no

to

cries

Thee."

justice to

interpre-

In his Confessions (4. 9) Augustine says: 77

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND "

Thee no man

And

he that

but he that lets Thee go. Thee go, whither goes he, or but from Thee well pleased back loses,

lets

whither runs he,

Thee offended ?

to

Gebirol's

is

"

A It

greater.

great passage, but Ibn a sublime thought,

is

He

author was inspired. when he named his poem. its

must have

and

felt this

For the title comes from Book of Esther, and the Midrash has it that, when the queen is described as donning the robes of royalty, the Scripture means to tell us that the the

holy It

spirit rested

on her.

has been said (among others, by Sachs and " "

Royal Crown

Steinschneider) that the

is

sub-

stantially a versification of Aristotle's short treatise

"

On

the "

World."

This

is

in a sense true

enough.

" is largely physical, and to Royal Crown modern readers is marred by its long paragraphs

The

of obsolete

astronomical conceptions, which go back, through the Ptolemaic system, to Aristotle.

Moreover,

Aristotle,

in his treatise

cited above,

anticipated Ibn Gebirol in the motive with which

he directed his ancient readers' attention to the "

elements and the planets. What the pilot is in a the driver in a chariot, the coryphaeus in a ship, choir, the general in city

that

is

God

an army, the lawgiver in a " world (De Mundo, 6).

in the

78

IBN GEBIROL'S

"

ROYAL CROWN "

This saying of Aristotle is indeed Ibn Gebirol's text. But the Hebrew poet owes nothing else than the skeleton to his

with

Greek exemplar.

The

style

superb application of biblical phrases, a method which in al-Harizi is used to raise a laugh, its

but in Ibn Gebirol at every turn rouses reverence is as un-Greek as are the spiritual intensity of

thought and the moral optimism of outlook. Our Sephardic brethren were wiser than the

Ashkenazim in their selections for the liturgy. Why the Ashkenazim have neglected Ibn Gebirol and ha-Levi in favor of Kalir will always remain a mystery.

The Sephardim

did not include

all

that

they might have done from the Spanish poets, but the Ashkenazic Mahzor has suffered by the loss of " Lord unto such masterpieces as Judah ha-Levi's Thee are ever manifest my inmost heart's de!

sires,

though unexpressed

most of "

all is

in

spoken words."

our loss apparent

Royal Crown

in the

But

omission of

"

from the Kol Nidre service. the In Germany, the Ashkenazim have been better advised. The Rodelheim Mahzor and the Michael Sachs edition both include the for the

Atonement Eve.

poem

in their

volumes

Sachs (unlike de Sola)

omits the astronomical sections rendering, and wisely, for the 79

German " Royal Crown

in his fine

"

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND " part may notably illustrates the Greek epigram be greater than the whole." On the other hand, in :

his

famous Religiose Poesie der Juden

There

Sachs includes the omitted cosmology. difference between our attitudes to a

work of

literature

in Spanien, is

a

as a

poem

and to the same poem as an

in-

Sachs the scholar refused to vocation or prayer. " mutilate the Royal Crown," but as a liturgist

(though he printed ties with it.

all

the

Hebrew) he took

liber-

Sachs and de Sola were not the only translators " of the Royal Crown." In fact, to name all who

have turned Ibn Gebirol's work into modern

lan-

guages would need more space than is here availIn her Jewish Year, Mrs. Lucas able. to name the most recent of Ibn Gebirol's translators

has

exquisitely rendered a large part of the poem. I do not propose to quote from it, as Mrs. Lucas' book is

available at a small cost.

And we

shall,

be hoped, not have too long to wait for

Mr.

it is

to

Israel

Zangwill's promised rendering.

What

is

it

that appeals to us in Ibn Gebirol's " his charm to the

Dr. Cowley attributes

poetry? " " of his verses, in which he youthful freshness be to the romantic school in France may compared

and England

in the early

nineteenth century." This 80

"

IBN GEBIROL'S

same

feature

was

ROYAL CROWN "

also detected

better critic than poet.

In fact,

it

by al-Harizi a was his apprecia"

"

tion of Ibn Gebirol's

that youthful freshness led him to assert that the poet died before his thir-

ties

had been completed.

Al-Harizi treats Ibn

There

Gebirol's successors as his imitators.

a

is

One fact only need Ibn Gebirol entitled his

large element of truth in this.

be quoted in evidence. longest

poem

"

the

Royal Crown

"

no

(partly,

God

doubt, because of the frequent comparison of

King in the Scriptures). Now, the title " Royal Crown passed over to designate a type of poem. We find several versifiers who later on

to the

"

wrote

"

Royal Crowns,"

orator uttering a

Heine, supreme

just as

"

"

Jeremiad

among

Germany, recognized

the

this

we speak

or a

of an

" Philippic."

modern Romantics

same freshness of

ration in this freshest of the Spanish

Hebrew

in

inspi-

poets

:

a pious nightingale singing in the Gothic medieval these night, a nightingale whose Rose was God are Heine's phrases.

Gustav Karpeles again and again claims that Ibn " that pecuGebirol was the first poet thrilled by liar

ferment characteristic of a modern school

Germans name Weltschmerz. Karpeles made a good point by showing

a ferment which the Clearly, 6

"

81

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND that Schopenhauer

whom

of

it

women

may

be doubted

Jews more the apostle of Weltschmerz, had as a

he

whether heartily

despised

or

predecessor, eight centuries before his time, the de" Faust of Saragossa." This is spised Jew, the another of Karpeles' epithets for Ibn Gebirol, who spent, little

indeed, some years in Saragossa, but had of the Faust in him. If, however, we at-

tribute to Ibn Gebirol the feeling of

Weltschmerz,

be cautious before we identify his sense " " of the with modern pessimism. world's misery

we must

Ibn Gebirol's was, no doubt, a lonely and even melancholy life. But though he often writes sadly,

though he would have sympathized with William Allingham's sentiment: Sin

we have

explained away,

Unluckily the sinners stay;

yet the final failings

And the

outcome of his realization of human

and human pain was hope and not despair. not because Ibn Gebirol appreciated of life as well as its miseries. It is not

this I say

humor

humorous verses on which I should base my belief in his optimism. For I regard as the epitome, his

or rather, essential motive of the " Royal Crown," the lines

:

82

IBN GEBIROL'S Thou God, That

art the Light

art hidden

Then

Thy

It

ROYAL CROWN "

shall shine in tke soul of the pure

Now Thou Now Thou And

"

shall

by

sin,

by sin with

art hidden, but then,

;

its

cloud of night.

as over the height,

glory break through the clouds that obscure,

be seen in the mount of the Lord.

is

not pessimism but hope that speaks of the won hereafter. One need not

clearer vision to be

love this world less because one loves the future

world more; belief in continuous growth of the soul is the most optimistic of thoughts. Critics who term Ibn Gebirol a pessimist make the common mistake of confounding despair with earnestness.

Your men,

may be sorrow may be at

truest optimist just as

est, in association

with hope.

the most serious of its

purest,

its

strong-

BAR HISDAFS The

"

moral

"

"

a tiresome feature about cer-

is

tain types of allegory; tell

us

its

own

tale.

AND DERVISH "

PRINCE we

prefer that a story should " "

Why end

off

moral

with a

As Dr. Joseph Jacobs wrote "It seems absurd Aesop (p. 148) in his edition

ton's

?

of Caxto give

:

your allegory, and then, in addition, the truth which you wish to convey. Either your fable makes its point or

does not.

it

peat your point;

your

To

fable.

if it

If

it

does, you need not re-

does not, you need not give

add your point

is

practically to

confess the fear that your fable has not put

it

with

sufficient force."

And

yet

it

world's stories

seems probable that some of the would never have been circulated

so widely but for their morals.

teenth century,

produced not to

tell

his

Abraham Bar

When,

in the thir-

Hisdai, of Barcelona,

Prince and Dervish, his motive was

a tale but to point a moral.

poor opinion of his age.

Little

He

wonder!

the delectable episodes which he witnessed

had a

Among was the

burning of some of the works of Maimonides by 84

BAR HISDAI'S

"

PRINCE AND DERVISH

"

monks, instigated thereto by anti-Maimonist Jews. He made his protest. But it was not this experience that predisposed him to castigate his contem-

His language,

poraries.

Prince and Dervish, thing

is

in

to

preface

his

The most definite His chance had come.

vague.

grim earnestness.

is its

the

An

Arabic book had happened to fall under his So he notice, and it seemed to him the very thing !

translated it is.

as

rhymed

prose; in

it

into

it is

form

as

prose.

a

beautiful

Hebrew

master of the style known

With him, however,

poetry. is

And

Hebrew.

Bar Hisdai was It

is

it is hardly not nearly so unmetrical

usual in this genre.

There

is

a

lilt

about his unrhythms, a regularity not so much of syllables as of stressed phrases; and these are marks of verse.

Still it is

prose, as one clearly perceives

when Bar Hisdai, following

the rules of the game,

introduces snatches which are professedly poetical. Bar Hisdai, perhaps unfortunately, did more than

He

considered his original badly arranged, he says; so he re-arranged the material. Possibly, then, he added to it stories taken from

translate.

stance,

is

A

rather piquant problem, for inpresented by the inclusion of a version of

other sources.

the parable of the sower, which in

Bar Hisdai's

original must have been drawn from the 85

New

Tes-

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND tament.

Assuredly Bar Hisdai did not derive

from the

latter source directly;

we

are quite uncer-

tain, however, as to the indirect route by which

reached him. because

it

This

I

is,

repeat, a

it

little

it

unfortunate,

complicates the problem as to the nature

The

of the Arabic on which he drew.

gain of the

with

as a collection of tales carries

it loss book from the point of view of literary history. Now what was the book which he called by the Bar title usually rendered Prince and Dervish?

" King's Son and Nazirite (Ben ha-Melek we-ha-N azir) By Nazirite he means

Hisdai names

"

it

.

ascetic,

and Dervish

we owe

to

W.

is

a fair reproduction which

A. Meisel (1847).

A

Dervish

is

not the same as the biblical Nazirite, inasmuch as the former devoted himself to a

of austerities than the

latter.

much wider range

But Bar Hisdai un-

doubtedly intends his Nazirite to be identical with How comes he to use the word

the Dervish type. in this

extended sense

?

The answer

is

easily found.

Bar Hisdai was a hero-worshipper, and the object of his cult was David Kimhi, the famous grammarian of Provence. Almost pathetic is Bar Hisdai's admiration for Kimhi. in his

Hebrew

Now

dictionary (included "

defines the verb

nazar as meaning 66

the latter,

in the

Miklol) from

to abstain

BAR HISDAI'S

"

PRINCE AND DERVISH

"

and drinking and pleasures" (compare Zechariah 7. 3). This was not a new idea, for the

eating

same interpretation is given by Rashi (loc. cit.), and is adumbrated in the talmudic use of the verb. But I doubt whether Bar Hisdai would have employed the noun but for Kimhi's emphatic

defini-

tion.

The Hebrew vention, well sist

title,

fits

which

is

Bar Hisdai's own

the contents.

in-

Briefly, these con-

of a framework into which are built a number

An

Indian king, fearing that his son will become a devotee of the ascetic life, places him of fables.

Johnson's Rasselas) in a beautiful palace, where he is kept ignorant of human miseries. But he comes under the influence of a hermit (the (like

Nazirite), v/ho impresses on the prince the vanity of life, and converts him (despite the king's active hostility) to the

new way

of thinking.

It is in the

course of this narrative that the fables and parables are introduced.

Obviously, however, Ibn Hisdai " No the narrative as such.

was much impressed by

king nor king's son, but a slave of slaves was I thou didst set me free to understand and obey

until

"

God's

Law

sum up

the moral at

prince,

and the one addressed the Nazirite.

thus does

Ibn Hisdai's romance

its close,

87

the speaker being the

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

A India

most is

point to be noted

significant

is

that

In 1850 Stein-

the scene of the story.

And a surprising The same story was known to medieval as the Romance of Earlaam and Josa-

schneider discovered the truth. truth

it is.

Christians

phat.

But the whole

an account of the

life

is

nothing more or

less

of Buddha, the great Indian

saint, the founder of a religion.

medans, and Christians revelled out having a notion as to

its

Moham-

Jews,

the story with-

in

original significance.

Nothing so brings races and creeds together

good

tale.

The

than

as a

common

folk are united by their

Mr. Zangwill,

interest in the

same

beautiful

prefixed to Dr. Jacobs' edition of

poem

lore.

Earlaam and Josaphat, looks deeper, and

in his

finds in

the general admiration for this legend a symbol of the universal identity of men's aspirations for the ideal.

Was Barlaam

truly Josaphat,

And Buddha truly each? What better parable than that The unity to preach The

simple brotherhood of souls

That

He who

seek the highest good

;

in kingly chariot rolls,

Or wears

the hermit's hood!

"

BAR HISDAI'S Bar Hisdai

"

nothing of this religious cosmoBut he realized that devotion to a

politanism.

felt

was a

ideal

spiritual

PRINCE AND DERVISH

lesson he

might profitably

present to his age in the guise of allegory.

however, Bar Hisdai chose the story for its moral, his readers we may be certain swallowed If,

the moral because of the story say, the stories.

version

much

is

It

is

fuller in its parables, containing,

as Dr. Jacobs estimates, in the all,

rather, one should

remarkable that the Hebrew

other versions.

no

less

than ten not found

Even Bar Hisdai must,

after

have been drawn to the parables as such,

why add

to their

number?

his readers went, the Prince

At all events, so far as and Dervish made its

stories rather than

appeal by

its

And what

stories they are

!

else

by

its

doctrines.

Several of the world's

classics are in Barlaam, the sources of more than one of the best known dramas of later ages, some

of the favorite parables of the world, immortal as life itself. Bar Hisdai omits the caskets,

human

which Shakespeare used in the Merchant of Venice, " " Three Friends and the (wealth, family, good deeds), the last of which alone accompanies a man to the grave, the plot of that famous morality play,

Everyman.

The

omission

is

curious, for both of

these tales are found in the Midrash.

But Bar

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND Hisdai gives us the original of King Cophetua the beggar-maid who weds the king. Bar Hisdai " The Robbers' alone gives us the story of " Nemesis the two who plot to rob the traveller, but, envying each the other his share in the spoil,

each poisons the other rascal's food, and the traveller escapes. He also alone tells of the " Greedy attend two wedding But we breakfasts on the same day, misses both. in his anxiety to

Dog," who,

Bar Hisdai,

A

is

One

found only thus summarized by Dr. Jacobs

cannot go through

all.

other,

:

king, hunting, invites a shepherd to eat

of the day

Shepherd:

in

with him in the heat

:

I

cannot eat with thee, for

I

have already promised

another greater than thee.

King:

Who

is

that?

Shepherd: God, who has invited

King: But why Shepherd:

fast

I fast

King: Eat to-day, Shepherd: Yes,

Such

if

me

to fast.

on such a hot day?

for a

day

still

hotter than this.

fast to-morrow.

you will guarantee that

stories are sure to see

I

shall see to-morrow.

many

a to-morrow.

And among

the best records of them, among the most notable repertoires of the world's wit and

wisdom, Bar Hisdai's Prince and Dervish has a sure place. 90

THE SARAJEVO HAGGADAH Sarajevo, scene of the crime which led to the

outbreak of the European War, has

The

ant associations.

place

is

its

more

pleas-

forever connected

with the history of Jewish art, and in particular with the illumination of the Passover HomeService or

Haggadah. Wonderful in the old sense of the word

is

to say, astonishing

Sarajevo

Haggadah was

that

the fact that, though the

is

printed a good

many years The

ago (in 1898), there have been no imitations.

splendid Russian publication of Stassof and Giinz-

burg certainly came more recently (1905), but

it

cannot be compared with the Hungarian work of " "

Von

L'Ornement Hebreu is scrappy; the Haggada von Sarajevo," though it includes many selections from other manuscripts, Miiller and

Schlossar.

"

is

a unity.

In one point, however, the Russians

Jewish illuminative art we must look rather to masoretic margins than to full-page The former must be characteristically pictures*

were

right.

For

a

Jewish, the latter, though found in Hebrew liturThis gies and scrolls, are often non- Jewish types. 91

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND is

clearly

shown by the famous

Sarajevo Haggadah wherein all that,

the Sarajevo

in

picture

the

probably depicted

work of

creation. But book must remain supreme

the Deity resting after the

for

is

as an introduction to Jewish art, so long as tinues to be the only completely reproduced

it

con-

Hebrew

illuminated manuscript of the Middle Ages. One would like to hope that it will not always retain this unique position.

gadah (now is

in the

The Crawford Hag-

Rylands Library, Manchester)

certainly older, and, in

my

judgment,

finer.

It

is

true that the editors of the Sarajevo manuscript

claim that theirs

is

the most ancient illuminated

They admit that the text of the Crawford Haggadah is older by at least half-a-

Haggadah

extant.

century, but assert that the full-page pictures be-

long to the fifteenth

century,

centuries after the text.

statement.

But even

if

theless the beauty of the sists just in

I

thus

falling

two

altogether contest this

it were conceded, neverCrawford Haggadah con-

the text, in the beautiful margins, full

of spirited grotesques and arabesques, no doubt (like the Sarajevo

manuscript itself) produced in Mr. under Spain strong North French influence.

Frank Haes executed the

a complete

Crawford manuscript, and

it

photograph of ought undoubt-

THE SARAJEVO HAGGADAH As I write, I have before Mr. Haes' reproduction the

edly to be published.

me two

pages of

dayyenu passage; nothing

work can approach inferior,

but

very

Jewish illuminated it be the rather

in

this, unless

British

beautiful,

Museum

same type. The editors of the Sarajevo Haggadah were ill-advised in omitting manuscript of the to repoduce the original.

whole of the

text of their precious

It is in the text that the

lence of the Jewish manuscripts

is

genuine excel-

to be found.

But the Sarajevo Haggadah gives us too much that

is

delightful for us to cavil over

not give.

Here we

what

it

does

have, in the full-page drawings,

depicted the history of Israel

from the days of the

Creation, the patriarchal story, Joseph in Egypt, coming of Moses, the Egyptian plagues, the

the

exodus, the revelation, the temple that

Very

interesting

is

is

yet to be.

the picture of a synagogue. This

(or early fourteenth) century sketch evidently knows nothing of the now most usual ornament of a synagogue the tablets of the decalate thirteenth

logue over the ark.

On

however, I remarks have

this subject,

have written elsewhere, and as my been published, I can pass over this point on the present occasion. I have mentioned above the striking attempt to depict the Deity, but 93

it

is

equally

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND noteworthy that attempt is made.

in the revelation picture

no such

Into Moses' ear a horn conveys the inspired message but the artist does not introAt least, one hopes not. duce God. pre;

We

fer to regard the figure at the top of the mountain

Moses, and

as

it is

not

difficult to

account in that

case for the figure standing rather lower up the hill,

also holding the tablets.

that this under figure

is

We

must assume

Aaron, though

it

is

not

recorded that he received the tablets from his brother.

There

is

another

medieval illuminations

it

was

possibility.

In

the

a frequent device to

express various parts of a continuous scene in the

Thus the Sarajevo artist may have intended to show us Moses in two positions, and though the method lacks perspective, the effect is not devoid of realistic power. That this is probsame drawing.

ably the true explanation of the Sinai scene

is

sug-

Jacob's dream. Here we see one Jacob asleep (with angel descending, another gested by another

the artist has not higher up ascending the ladder troubled himself with the problem as to how the

But we angels contrived to cross one another). also see Jacob awake, on the same picture, for he is

anointing the Beth-el stone and converting

an

altar.

94

it

into

THE SARAJEVO HAGGADAH Certainly the drawings, sadly though they lack proportion, are realistic. Especially is this true of the portrayal of Lot's wife transformed into a pillar of salt. taller

Disproportionate in size, for she is than Sodom's loftiest pinnacles, yet the artist

has succeeded in suggesting the gradual stiffening of her figure: we see her becoming rigid before

There

our eyes.

might learn

artists

towards

realism.

learned much.

It

is

clearly

from

Some is

much

that

modern

these medieval gropings artists

have

already

quite obvious, for instance,

must have steeped himself in the suggestive mysticism of the Middle Ages before he that Burne-Jones

painted his marvellous Creation series. The parallel between his series and the series in the Sarajevo

Haggadah

is

Though he never saw

undeniable.

Haggadah, he was well acquainted with similar work in the Missals. Just as Keats evolved his

this

theory as to the identity of truth and beauty from a Greek vase, so the pre-Raphaelites re-told on vases

what they read

in their

with the medieval

And on

this

latter

spirit.

this leads to

Hebrew

thus imitate,

has

moments of communion

what must be

my

last

word now

If a Burne-Jones can not a Solomon or a Lilien? The

masterpiece.

why now produced

a series of illustrations to 95

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND the Bible, but

we want something

less coldly classic,

It was indisomething more warmly symbolic. that Mr. Haes' cated above, with regret, photo-

of

graphs

Crawford Haggadah are still But over and above reproductions

the

unpublished. of extant works,

Jewish

artist

who

Now

we need new works. illustrates a Bible

the

ought not to

be content to illustrate anything but a Hebrew text. And if a Bible be for several reasons out of the question,

why

should

we not have

a

new Hagga-

dah, written by a living Jewish artist,

from

who

shall,

do for us what extract from the mys-

a close study of olden models,

Burne-Jones did?

that

is,

ticism of a by-gone age those abiding truths

our contemporary age demands of

its art.

which

A PIYYUT BY BAR ABUN Not every one named Solomon was Ibn Gebirol. The medieval poets often signed their verses by an acrostic. Now, when a poem has the signature of a particular name, the natural tendency has been to ascribe

Of

all

it

to the

most famous bearer of the name.

the poetical Solomons, Ibn Gebirol was, be-

yond question, the

who

clearly

greatest.

discriminated

Zunz was

the

first

between the various

authors called by the same personal name. hymn "Judge of all the Earth" (Shofet

The Kol

ha-Arez} was certainly by a Solomon; Zunz identifies him with the Frenchman Solomon, son of " " Abun. This Solomon is described as the youth (ha-Na'ar), perhaps "

"

in the sense that there

poet of the same name.

was

a

senior According Zunz, again, Solomon bar Abun's period of active authorship lay presumably between the years 1170

and 1190.

to

(Literaturgeschichte der synagogalen

Poesie, p. 311.)

Of

works the piyyut we are considering is by far the most popular. A spirited rendering of the poem, by Mrs. R. N. Salaman, may be found 7

all his

n?

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND in the Routledge Mahzor so ably edited in pait by her father. (See the Day of Atonement, morning

service,

Three stanzas had, however,

page 86.)

long before been published by Mrs. Henry Lucas Some years ago the in her Jewish Year (p. 44). same gifted translator completed the whole of the

hymn, and her version I

"

say

the

in full,"

poem

is

now

though there

printed here in is

a longer

containing six verses.

full.

form of

Zunz, however,

only assigns five verses to the original, and the sixth verse

probably an unauthorized addition. of the second verse, and also

is

It repeats the idea

disturbs the

acrostic

This piyyut or

signature.

hymn must have been designed for the True,

in the

"

only

many, the

German

"

New

Year.

Mahzor known

included

to

the Selihot for

poem among Day of Atonement. Though, however, Solomon bar Abun's masterpiece is fairly suitable for is

the

the Fast,

it is

not altogether appropriate for that

The " German " rite, accordingly, is well advised when it also employs the piyyut for the day before New Year. Even more to be comoccasion.

mended are those liturgies the Yemenite and " some of the Spanish " which appoint the poem for the New Year itself. That is obviously its true place.

With

its

"

opening phrase, 98

Judge of

all

the

A PIYYUT BY BAR ABUN

hymn declares its character. Day of Judgment that is,

earth," the

written for the

New

It

was

for the

Moreover, these initial words Abraham's intercession for the sinners of Sodom (Genesis 18. 25), and this is preYear's Day.

are taken from

ceded by the announcement of Isaac's birth, an incident which one form of the Jewish tradition connects with the New Year. It must be remembered

in

general that prayers intended originally

for one occasion were often transferred to others.

Thus

the 'Alenu prayer,

at first

composed

for the

now used every

New Year

Let us now turn to the poem is

reproduced already stated, hand of Mrs. Lucas.

day,

Musaf.

itself,

which, as

version from

in the

the

Judge of the earth, who wilt arraign

The With

nations at thy judgment seat, life

and favor bless again

Thy people prostrate at thy feet. And mayest Thou our morning prayer Receive,

The

O

Lord, as though

offering that

was wont

it

were

to be

Brought day by day continually.

Thou who

art clothed with righteousness,

Supreme, exalted over

How

oft soever

Do Thou

we

all

transgress,

with pardoning love recall 99

was

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND Those who

in

Hebron

Their memory

Even

sleep:

and

Thee

live before

let

yet,

Thee

as the offering unto

Offered of old continually.

O

Thou, whose mercy

To

us

Thy

faileth not,

heavenly grace accord;

Deal kindly with

Thy people's lot, And grant them life, our King and Let Thou the mark of life appear Upon their brow from year to As when were daily wont to be

The

Lord.

year,

offerings brought continually.

Restore to Zion once again

Thy favor and the ancient might And glory of her sacred fane, And let the son of Jesse's light Be

set

on high,

to shine

always,

Far shedding its perpetual Even as of old were wont

The

rays, to be

offerings brought continually.

Trust

My Then

in

God's strength, and be ye strong,

people, and His will

He pardon

Then mercy

law

obey,

and wrong, wrath outweigh;

sin

will his

Seek ye His presence, and implore

His countenance for evermore.

Then

As

shall

your prayers accepted be

offerings brought continually.

100

A PIYYUT BY BAR ABUN

When

sung or declaimed to the appropriate melody (on which the Rev. F. L. Cohen has much of interest to say in the Jewish Encyclopedia,

music

this

xi, is

is

306), the solemn

The

profound.

effect

refrain

of words and

(from Numbers

28. 23), recalls the close association which, even

while the sanctuary stood, subsisted between temple sacrifices and synagogue prayers. Since the loss of the shrine, prayer has fulfilled the double function.

There dation.

who

in

are only one or

two phrases that need eluci" Those

In the second stanza the words

Hebron

" sleep

refer to those of the patri-

archs

who were buried in Hebron, in the cave Machpelah. The appeal is made to the merits

of

of

the fathers, a subject on which the reader will

do

well to consult the Rev. S. Levy's essay in his vol" entitled Original Virtue." In the third " mark of life." This is stanza occurs the phrase

ume

those derived from the ninth chapter of Ezekiel " " mark are, in the prophet's vision, to bearing the Life the merlive amid the general destruction. ciful verdict of the itself

judgment This poem

liturgy.

is

Judge, quite as much as the the note of the New Year strikes both notes with undeni-

able power.

101

ISAAC'S

To

LAMP AND

JACOB'S

WELL

have one's Hebrew book turned into the cur-

rent speech, to have

it

in the

read part by part

synagogue by one's fellows as a substitute for ser-

mons,

not a

is

common

enjoyed this honor.

experience.

Isaac

Aboab

His Menorat ha-Maor, or

Candelabrum of the Light, written in Spain somewhere about the year 1300, according to Zunz, or in

France a

little

before 1400, according to Dr.

Efros, became one of the most popular books of the late Middle Ages.

Well

it

Talmud,

deserved the favor which

it

won.

The

Aboab, may be used by the learned of law. But for the masses, has also a message. Aboab was the first

said

in their investigations

he

felt, it

(unless Dr. Efros be right in claiming this

honor

for Israel Alnaqua) to pick out from the Talmud and Midrash, from the gaonic and even later rabbinic writings, passages of every-day morals, ethical principles,

secular

Aboab's work was collection

of

and

religious

wisdom.

not, however, a mere hap-hazard detached sentences and maxims. 102

ISAAC'S

LAMP AND

JACOB'S

WELL

Zedner (Catalogue, p. 381), does not hesitate to " term it a System of Moral Laws as explained in the Talmud." Indeed, the book is surprisingly

The

systematic. kind,

it is

first,

or

among

the

first,

of

its

also a most conspicuous example of the

due ordering of materials.

The

very

title,

from Numbers the idea of

"

also used

4. 9,

by Alnaqua, and derived

was an

inspiration.

It

conveys

illumination," than which no idea

Fancipenetrates deeper into the spiritual life. fully enough, Aboab continues the metaphor into the

main

divisions of his book.

The Menorah

(Candelabrum) of the Pentateuch branched out and so Aboab's book is divided

into seven lamps,

also into

"

Seven Lamps."

It

is

strange that he

He divides did not carry the metaphor further. " " each of his Lamps into Parts and Chapters, with a Prologue and an Epilogue to each Lamp. The fourth chapter of Zechariah might have given " " " " olive-trees for his Prologues, bowls him " " for his Parts, for his Epilogues, and pipes " " while wicks have served instead of might " " In point of fact, the Seven Wicks Chapters. was the title chosen by Aboab's epitomator, Moses Frankfurt,

when he

constructed a reduced copy of

Aboab's Candelabrum (Amsterdam, 1721). 103

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

To

return to Aboab's original work,

with

deals

and

Desire,

Retribution,

Lamp

I

Passion,

Honor, and High-place the motives and ends of moral conduct. In Lamp II is unfolded the rabbinic teaching

tion of the

the

Name,

impede

the largest

III

from Joy morality. Then,

Frivolity as distinct

which

causes

Lamp

on Irreverence, Hypocrisy, Profana-

Lamp

of

all

in

we

the seven

have morality at work practically, and are instructed as to the worth of religious exercises, charitable

life,

social

and domestic

virtue, justice

man's dealings with his fellows. Next, Lamp IV, is unfolded the duty and the great in

ward of studying

the

Law,

re-

as a beautiful corollary

and fear of God.

to the love

in

Far-reaching

in its

human soul is Lamp V, on RepenLamp VI may be described as presenting

analysis of the tance.

the good Rule for life

as

shown

better put

it

ideals of

Or perhaps one might how to be wholesome, considerate. Then

in character.

that this section shows us

gentlemen, clean,

Lamp VII

body and mind, the amenities of

completes the whole.

It sets

out the

Humility and Modesty, virtues which are

the end, nay, the beginning also, of the noblest

human

possibilities,

those wherein

for these virtues are

man may

imitate 104

God.

first

in

ISAAC'S

LAMP AND

JACOB'S

WELL

Appropriately, Aboab follows up his glorious eulogy of Humility with a full confession of his

own

imperfect. " I

Some

because

explains,

because I

He

shortcomings. "

is

I

knows

that his compilation

have omitted," he have never read them others things

I

;

have forgotten them." he goes on,

left out,"

"

"

Some

passages

as too abstruse for general

reading, others as alien to the purpose of

my

book,

others again because liable to misunderstanding,

and

man

do more harm than good."

liable to !

Unfortunately not every imitator of

Wise Aboab

has displayed the same excellent judgment. The olden Jewish literature is so abundantly full of beauties that it is an ill-service to repeat the few things of lesser value. the Light

is

in this

Aboab's Candelabrum of

respect superior to

its

great

rival, Ibn Habib's Well of Jacob. Up to half-acentury ago the two books must have run each

other very close as regards the number of editions more recently Ibn Habib's book (the 'En Ya'akob)

;

has probably surged ahead. Readers may be reminded of the difference in method. Ibn Habib takes the talmudic tractates one by one, and extracts

from each

no attempt

Talmud.

at

its

haggadic elements.

There

is

any other order than that of the

The Well

of Jacob, moreover, includes 105

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND everything, the folk-lore as well as the ethics.

To

was greater than reversed from the point of or woman in search of vital

the student, Ibn Habib's service

Aboab's the relation ;

view of the

man

is

religion.

The Well of Jacob, it must be allowed, is in itself almost as good a title as that which Aboab chose. Ibn Habib himself seems to have used the Hebrew " " or Substance word 'En rather in the sense of " " " " his work reproduced the Essence Essence Haggadah. But Jacob's Well, as the Midrash has it, was the source whence was drawn the Holy Spirit. Despite my personal prefof the talmudic

must be freely acknowledged that many generations have quaffed from Ibn Habib's reservoir fine spiritual draughts.

erence for Aboab's

And

still

quaff.

Menorah,

For

just as

it

Aboab's

Lamp

still

Well has not

yet run dry. Over and above the similarity of contents, with

shines, so Jacob's

all

the dissimilarity of method, there

reason

why

is

another

one thinks of the works of Aboab and

Ibn Habib together. Though Aboab wrote considerably before Ibn Habib, their books appeared for the first time in print almost simultaneously.

Ibn Habib's book came out as the author compiled

it;

in

point of fact 106

it

was the son who

ISAAC'S the

completed

LAMP AND

JACOB'S

publication,

Habib died while

WELL

because

the earlier sections of his

were passing through the

Lamp was

If, as

press.

Ibn

Jacob

work

seems prob-

kindled in 1511, or 1514, and the Well began to pour its fertilizing streams in 1516, Aboab had the start; but these dates are able, the

All that

uncertain.

first

we

can state with confidence

is

that both books appeared in print quite early in the sixteenth century, not later than 1516. earliest editions of

a simple cause.

The

both books are scarce, and from copies have survived because

Few

wore them out. Read and " the Jewish thumbed re-read, by many hands, by woman, the workman, the rank and file of Israel," the owners of the copies

the copies were used up by those as

something to hold

a shelf out of reach.

that

delabrum,

of

who

treated books

hand and not

in the

to keep

on

My own edition of the CanAmsterdam (1739), boasts

justly of the excellent paper on which it is printed. None the less does this copy, too, show signs of

frequent perusal.

because

preserved,

What

The

best books were the worst

they were

better treatment of a

to read

it

gether,

its

so often that

its

margins fray,

the

best

treated.

book can there be than

pages no longer hold

and

mutilation? 107

its

to-

title-page suffers

"

LETTERS OF OBSCURE

Does

ridicule kill?

always with of novelty.

If

it

MEN "

did, then, as fools are

us, folly would ever possess the flavor And yet to-day's fool looks and does

much the same as yesterday's, even though men laughed their fill at the latter. Folly, one Wise men come rather must admit, is immortal.

very wise

and

wise

Wisdom

men

go,

can at most

but

make

fools

on

go

forever.

the fool look foolish for

a while.

At

rare intervals, however, history offers an ex-

ample of the slaying power of

Idolatry was

satire.

Some people among them by Renan, who ought to have known better deny to

killed

ridicule.

ancient Israel a sense of humor.

But who can

doubt that the most effective of the attacks on idolatry were Elijah's sarcastic invective against the

Baal of the populace (I Kings 18. 27) and Isaiah's grim yet droll picture of the carpenter taking some timber and using part of it to bake his bread and the rest to

make

his

from our purpose

god (Isaiah 44. 15

)

?

to recite the success,

ages, of less inspired efforts by satirists. " been termed the chief refuge of the 108

It is far in

after

Satire has

weak

";

it

"

LETTERS OF OBSCURE MEN

"

has certainly been a weapon by which one, standing alone, has often equalized the odds against him. It

would be delightful

to give illustrations of the

methods by which the various warriors of the pen have used their sword to contrast a pagan Juvenal :

and

Hebrew Kalonymos

both writing in Rome, but with more than a millennium between them a

or to revel ( J

in

the feats of Rabelais' Gargantua

534)> Cervantes'

Don

Quixote (1605), Pascal's

Provincial Letters (1656), and Voltaire's eighteenth century Candide. are now concerned

We

with a work and a group of authors who first made Europe laugh in 1515. Ulrich von Hutten and his associates,

in

their

"

Letters of Obscure

Men

"

(Epistolae Obscurorum Virorum], did just the What they atright thing at the right moment. tempted, what they accomplished, will now be told.

Cervantes, tilting against the wearisome nonsense of the later romances of chivalry, Pascal exposing

even though he did casuistry, Voltaire

it

unfairly

the dangers of

plumbing the shallow optimism

But far higher of Leibnitz, served good ends. than these was the cause triumphantly upheld by

The cause was of Obscure Men. humanism, another name for intellectual freedom the Letters

and width of view. 109

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND Briefly put, at the crisis in the fortune of the

new at

learning in Europe,

its

when

the struggle

was

sharpest between ignorance and enlighten-

ment, the vindication of the Talmud became identified with the overthrow of intellectual bigotry.

He

Pfefferkorn wished to burn the Talmud.

was

a shady character,

and from

bad Jew became,

Erasmus' phrase, a worse Chris-

in

tian (" ex scclerato

his first

condition as a

Judaeo sceleratissimus Chris-

tianus"). Pfefferkorn hurled against his former coreligionists the usual missiles of abuse. Why is it

that the converted

ant of Judaism?

Jew is so often a Some answer that

bitter assailit

is

because

must prove that he forsook something execrable. Others would have it that intrinsic vileness of character is responsible. But is it the renegade

not more probable that apostate virulence

simply to ignorance ?

And

is

due

more obnoxform of an at-

this is the

when the animosity takes the " tack on literature. Ignorance, which in matters of morals extenuates the crime, is itself, in matters ious

of literature, a crime of the

first order." So said and the remark can be freely illustrated Joubert, from the Pfefferkorns. When a real scholar leaves

the synagogue, he

among

the anti-Semites.

Daniel Chwolson and Paul Cassel

in their career as

is

rarely

110

"LETTERS OF OBSCURE MEN" Judaeo-Christians were champions of the Jewish cause against such very libels as a Pf efferkorn would

At

circulate.

the beginning of the sixteenth century

the defence of Judaism

was

in equally scholarly

hands.

But ligion,

was not on Jews, whether by race or rethat reliance was then placed. Reuchlin it

as all the world

knows

saw no reason why the Talmud should be condemned, and he expressed Reuchlin, be

his opinion in clear terms.

bered, "

By

this

was the most learned German of

a singular combination of taste

remarkable

and a man of

man

remem-

it

his age.

and

talents

excelled at once as a humanist

affairs, as a jurist

and a mystic, and,

above it

all, as a pioneer among Orientalists, so that has been said of him, enthusiastically but not

unjustly,

that he

was the

'

first

gates of the East, unsealed the

unveiled

the

sanctuary

(This sentence

Mr. Francis

is

of

who opened

Word

of God, and "

Hebrew wisdom.'

quoted from the Introduction to admirable Latin and

Griffin Stokes'

English edition of the Letters, to which

commend my side the tion.

the

I

cordially

Pfefferkorn rallied to his

readers.)

whole force of the Dominican organiza-

The

issue

was long

uncertain.

Ill

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

Truth

usually unable to meet falsehood on

is

equal terms the genuine, for the most part, cannot soil its hands with the foul ammunition of impos;

Sometimes, however, truth

ture.

And

so,

slime at

squeamish.

when Pfefferkorn was engaged in slinging Reuchlin, there was suddenly hurled at his

own person an avalanche and

is less

of

mud, under which he

sank buried from heel to head.

his party

Letters are remorseless in their personalities. if it

The But

be impossible to deny their cruelty and even

less

fame depends on these scurrilous incidentals than on the essen-

tial

truth on which they are based.

their occasional coarseness, yet their

It

is

the highest merit of satire that

Many who

be too obvious.

it

shall not

read Gulliver's Travels

enjoy it as a tale, and may not even realize that Swift was lampooning the society and institutions of his day. So long as this element in satire is not too subtle,

it

adds enormously to the merit of the

One recalls such stories as the performance. Descent of Man, by Edith Wharton. The hero is an eminent zoologist, who is moved the of by popularity pseudo-scientific defences of But he is religion to publish an elaborate skit.

of that tale

so '

successful

Vital

Thing

in

"

concealing his object, that his is mistaken for a supreme example 112

"

LETTERS OF OBSCURE MEN "

of the very type of

work he

is

The

lashing.

Letters

They hit of Obscure Men avoided this danger. the happy mean. They purported to be written by one obscurantist to another, and while the educated saw through the dodge, the illiterate (inPfefferkorn himself) took them seriously. cluding Within a few months of the appearance of the first at once

Thomas More

series of the Letters, Sir

wrote to Erasmus:

"

(in

1616)

does one's heart good to see how delighted everybody is with the Epistolae the learned are tickled by Obscurorum Virorum It

'

'

;

their

ings of serious worth."

new learning

the

deem their teachThe foes of humanism

humor, while the unlearned

are left to expose themselves, in

the confidential correspondence which

the gang are

made

atingly funny dog-Latin.

put to

it,

they are

on

to carry

made

to

members of

most

in the

excruci-

As Bishop Creighton " tell their own story,

wander round the narrow

circle

of antiquated

prejudices which they mistook for ideas, display their grossness, their vulgarity, their absence of

aim, their laborious indolence, their lives unrelieved

by any touch of nobility." laughed, as

it

No

wonder Europe

did in the following century at the

self-revelation of obscuranists in Pascal's Provincial

Letters , obviously inspired by the s

113

work before

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND us.

(Compare It

xlix).

is

Stokes, Epistolae, etc., pp. xlvi,

not the least amusing feature in the

comedy that Richard Letters of Obscure "

Steele actually regarded the

Men

as the correspondence be-

"

some profound blockheads who wrote honor of each other, and for their mutual in-

tween "

in

formation

in

each other's absurdities."

(Stokes,

p. viii).

This fate

of being taken seriously

particularly

amusing way, what

amusing of

all

epistle

in

the

the Letters. first

is

befell, in a

perhaps the most second

1 refer to the

"

series.

Magister Johannes

"

"

sends his greeting to Magister Ortwin Gratius," and asks help on a matter which gives " him great searchings of heart." He tells Ortwin

Pelzer

how, being lately at a Frankfort fair, he took off his cap and saluted two men, who seemed reputable and looked like Doctors of Divinity. But his com"

panion then nudged him and cried: God-a-mercy, what doest thou? Those fellows are Jews." Magister Pelzer goes on to argue with delicious seriousness as to the nature of his sin, to

decide

and begs his it was

whether

correspondent's help " mortal or venial, episcopal or papal." Now when Schudt came to compile his farrago of attacks on the Jews, he actually included this Frankfort 114

inci-

"LETTERS OF OBSCURE MEN" " dent as an authentic example of Jewish insolence." It was indeed painful for such as Schudt to be unable to discern

any difference between

a

Jew

and a gentleman.

How

the authors of the Letters

chuckled over Steele and Schudt!

would have Reuchlin had

struck a decisive blow in behalf of the Jewish con-

European culture. The Letters drove blow home. But, after all, the fools were not

tribution to

the

No,

permanently suppressed. folly outright.

ridicule rarely slays

It scotches the snake,

and then

in a

favorable environment the reptile revives. Just as folly is perennial, so should the lash be kept in constant repair. Anti-Semitism ought not to be

allowed to go on

our age unscathed by ridicule. badly need a new Ulrich von Hutten to give us a modern series of Letters of Obscure its

way

in

We

Men.

115

DE

ROSSI'S

Towards

"

LIGHT OF THE EYES

dusk, on a

"

mid-November Friday

in

the year 1570, Azariah de Rossi descended from his own apartments to those of his married daughIt was in Ferrara, and for some hours past ter.

made people anxious. Within of his an hour lucky visit to his child De Rossi's

earth-tremblings had

abode was wrecked.

To

this

Zunz suggested p. 135), we owe

earthquake, as

(Kerem Hemed, attempt by a Jew

vol. v,

to investigate critically,

in

the

1841 first

and with

the aid of secular research, the history of Jewish literature.

De

fine command of Latin, home with Greek, he had

Rossi had a

and though he was

less at

good working knowledge of it. After the earthquake, he left his home, and took refuge in a village a

south of the Po. in the

new

A

Christian scholar, a neighbor

settlement,

was diverting

his rnind

from

the recent disturbing calamities, by perusing the Letter of Aristeas. There is a rare charm in the scene that followed.

Finding some

difficulties in

the Letter, the Christian turned to the Jew, sug-

gesting that they should consult the 116

Hebrew

text.

DE But

De

LIGHT OF THE EYES "

"

ROSSI'S

Rossi was, to his chagrin, compelled to ad-

mit that there was no

Hebrew

text

!

Such a lament-

able deficiency need not, however, continue. less

than three weeks

De

In

Rossi had translated the

Letter into Hebrew, and with that act the

modern

study of Jewish records by Jews opens. Chroniclers were once upon a time fond of contrasting

the

physique

and the

of

intellect

the

Those were the days, worthies of former ages. " one might almost say, of kakogenics," if our own So we read of De Rossi that is the era of eugenics. "

"

"

well-born illby ancestry, he was though " born in person. Graetz somewhat overcolors the

record

when he

writes of

De

Rossi thus

"

Feeble,

:

yellow, withered, and afflicted with fever, he crept

about thin

like a

and

At

dying man."

short,

all

and neglectful of

events, he

was

his bodily health.

Yet he was not quite the weakling Graetz presents, for he lived to the age of sixty- four (1514-1578). Moreover, he assures us, giving full details of the diet

and treatment, that he was thoroughly cured

of the malaria, of the ravages of which Italian "

Jews so frequently complain. As to his family," that was old enough. The legend ran that four of the families settled by Titus in

the

Middle Ages

;

the

stock 117

Rome of

survived into

the

De

Rossis

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND of the famous (min ha-adummim) belonged to one The other three were the Mansi, quartette.

de Pomis, and Adolescentoli groups. This was the man who created modern Jewish " " to use the term so beloved of our science

De

Continental brethren.

peared as a quarto

Rossi's great

work

ap-

November, 1573 (some date

in

was well printed in the pretty square Hebrew type for which Mantua is famous. The it

It

1574).

author called the Eyes."

summarily historical

It

"

Meor

Light of 'Enayim, that is, was, indeed, an illuminant. Graetz

it

"

asserts that

the actual results of this

for the

investigation,

most

part,

have

proved unsound." Assuredly many of De Rossi's statements are no longer accepted. He was the father of criticism, yet he was often himself uncritical.

Hebrew

In his chapter on the antiquity of the " I language, for instance, he remarks:

have seen among many ancient

David Finzi of Mantua,

coins,

belonging to

on which, on the obverse, is a man's head round which is inscribed King Solomon in Hebrew square letters, '

a silver coin

'

while the reverse bears a figure of the temple with " the Hebrew legend Temple of Solomon.' As *

Zunz

observes, this coin must have been a

fabrication.

In

many

other points 118

De

modern

Rossi erred.

DE

"

ROSSI'S

But some of the

"

LIGHT OF THE EYES

mistakes

"

for which he

"

is

blamed

critics'. Zunz, like Graetz, had with the Zohar. The literature of patience the Kabbalah was to both these great scholars

are not his but his

little

"

false

more

At

and corrupt."

inclined to treat the

this date

we

are

Kabbalah with

much

respect.

De

Rossi

De

Rossi's blunders his acceptance of the Letter of

has

been

later

research.

justified by Then, again, Zunz categorically includes among

Aristeas as genuine. St. J.

Thackeray,

But

in the

in

the year

1904 Mr. H.

preface to his

translation of the Letter, asserts

"

new English

recent criticism

of rehabilitating the story, or at any rate part of it." Here, one can have no hesitation in claiming, De Rossi was right, and his has set

critics

in the direction

wrong. be able to

It is pleasing to

make

this last asser-

The Letter of Aristeas purports to tell the how the Greek translation of the Pentateuch story was made in Alexandria. We are not now concerned with the story itself. But, as we have altion.

ready

De

seen,

it

was

this

Letter

Rossi to write his book.

The

which induced book, after a

short section on the Ferrara earthquake, in which

much Jewish and non-Jewish goes straight to Aristeas. Now,

the author collects

seismological lore,

119

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND it

would be a somewhat unfortunate

criticism

fact if

Jewish began with the acceptance of a forgery, if

our modern scholars (including Zunz himself) had started off with a bad critical the father of

We

mistake.

Aristeas

all

may

are spared this anomaly, for though not be as old as it claims (the third

century B. C. E.), assailants

its

made

it it

is

demonstrably older than

out to be.

nearer the truth than Graetz. not

now

ment.

De

turn to

Rossi for our critical nourish-

editions

Though

De Rossi is far Of course, we do

of the

Meor 'Enayim

continued to appear as late as 1866 (in fact one of first time in

the author's books appeared for the

London in 1854), his works are substantially obsoFor this reason I am not attempting any close

lete.

account of their contents.

But while

antiquated in this sense, it is a book of the class that can never become unimportant.

For

plished.

it

let

In

is

us realize

the

first

what De Rossi accom-

place

he

directed

Jewish

attention to the Jewish literature preserved or written in Greek. He re-introduced Philo to Jewish notice; not very accurately, it is true, yet he did re-introduce him. Secondly, he showed how much

was

to be derived

sources.

No one,

from a study of non-Jewish

after

De 120

Rossi, has for a

moment

"

DE

ROSSI'S

it

possible

thought

LIGHT OF THE EYES to

"

deal with Jewish history

Every available entirely from Jewish records. material must be drawn on if we are to construct a sound edifice. It is a just verdict of Graetz's that De Rossi's " power of reconstruction was small."

But he showed subsequent generations how to

De

Rossi, finally,

literature

He He

was was

build.

was not one who regarded Jewish

merely as the subject matter for research.

intensely interested in

it

for

a poet as well as a historian.

shows both by

his

whole

style

its

own

And

sake.

this

he

and outlook as well

by the Hebrew and Italian verses that he wrote. He was, indeed, known both as Azariah and as as

Bonajuto, the latter being the Italian equivalent. end with this fact: the same man, who in-

X-et us

augurated modern Jewish notable

hymns

to

tije

criticism,

added some

synagogue prayer-book.

121

GUARINI AND LUZZATTO An

aristocrat all his life,

Guarini was out of

of Ferrara.

place in the court life

He

spent his

vigor in a vain attempt to accommodate himself to the sixteenth century Italian conditions.

broken

in strength

Then, and fortune, he retired to pro-

duce his dramatic masterpiece. Not that the Pastor Fido can be truly termed dramatic. It is much

more of king,

a lyric.

But

just as

was the father of

Banquo, himself no

kings, so Guarini, of

little

consequence as a dramatist, begot famous dramas.

For

Shepherd deeply influenced European drama throughout the two centuries which the Faithful

followed

its

publication in 1590.

The Hebraic muse owed much

to

Guarini.

Moses Hayyim Luzzatto (1707-1747) has been the only writer of Hebrew plays whose work counts in the literary sense.

Luzzatto derived

dramatic inspiration from Guarini. question

this

more, the

style, are closely alike.

assertion

without

his

whole

Let no one

first

comparing La-Yesharim Tehillah and Migdal 'Oz with the Pastor Fido. The characters and scenes, and even 122

Nor

is

this latter

GUARINI AND LUZZATTO wonderful.

fact

John Addington Symonds " a masterpiece of work as

scribes Guarini's tion,

and

glittering

faultless,

like a

dedic-

bas-relief of

hard Corinthian bronze."

Luzzatto produces the

Hebrew

imitation, using a similar

same

effect in his

metre as well as similar dramatic conventions.

In

however, he re-interprets. Guarini's sometimes gross, it is never truly rustic.

imitating,

play

is

But a Hebrew poet, moved by such models as the

Song of Songs, better knew how to be sensuous with purity; grossness must be anti-pathetic to him.

On

the other hand,

rustic.

The

poetry

biblical shepherd,

tural history or

heroes.

Hebrew

Some

romance,

is

is

whether

genuinely in scrip-

the most beloved of

of the great characters of the Bible

are shepherds:

Abraham, Moses, David, Amos,

Shulammith

obvious that a

why pile up instances? Hebrew poet, adopting a

background for

a lyrical

but

write with sincerity.

He

Guarini,

but

is

drama, must inevitably could not, at the same

time, fail to write with delicacy.

much from

It

rural

he

Luzzatto took

both

and

refined

adorned what he borrowed. Yet, though

it is

because of Luzzatto that

I

am

writing of Guarini, nevertheless, Guarini, and not

Luzzatto,

is

my

present subject. 123

So

I will re-tell

BY-PATHS

IN

HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

Not

for the reader the story of the Pastor Fido. that

it is

an easy

task.

Guarini,

late Elizabethans, shared,

influenced the

with the best of the

lat-

inordinate fancy for complicated plots. entangled within plot, until we lose sight of

the

ter,

Plot the

who

is

main theme.

keep the

Hebrew

Luzzatto out

!

I find it

impossible to

here simplifies.

He hardly

gives us a story at all; he provides an allegory, eking out Guarini with Midrash. In the process of

disentangling Guarini's intricacies, he sacrifices

the

chief merit

somewhat

of his Italian model.

Luzzatto's dramatis personae are almost abstractions; they remind us of the figures in morality

A

Luzzatto drama more resembles Everyman than it does As You Like it. Of Guarini, on

plays.

means his characters to represent types, he draws them as individuals. Silvio, to adopt Mr. Symond's sum" " " cold and eager Mirtillo tender maries, is

the other hand,

it

may be said,

that though he

;

and romantic." Corisca's " meretricious arts " contrast

with and enhance Amarillis's

tion"; Dorinda

is

"shameless."

"

pure

The

affec-

dramatist,

however, be he Luzzatto or Guarini, writes with a distinct tendency. life

His aim

is

to set

up the country

and the country girl as essentially superior to This motive is as old as satire,

the city varieties.

124

GUARINI AND LUZZATTO "

and as young as the Dobson's Phyllida is she St.

is

verses of society."

all

that

is

Austin

sweet and natural, " ladies of

a foil to the artificiality of the

James's."

creating the

Guarini enjoys the honor not of mood, but of bringing it into new

vogue.

But scene

am

I

Yearly the inhabitants must

Arcadia.

is

sacrifice a

The

keeping from the story.

still

young maiden to Diana.

Diana had

suf-

fered through the perfidy of Lucrina; but the Oracle declares :

Your Woes, Arcadians! never shall have End, Till Love shall two conjoin of heavenly Race,

And

till

a faithful

By matchless

Montano,

Shepherd shall amend,

Zeal, Lucrina's old Disgrace.

the priest of Diana, seeks, therefore,

to join in marriage his only son, Silvio, to the noble

nymph,

descended

Amarillis,

from

Pan.

But

thought more of hunting than of love. The young shepherd, Mirtillo, becomes enamored of Silvio

The

Amarillis, and she of him.

artful Corisca,

desiring the shepherd for herself, charges Amarillis

with

infidelity

wedded, to

she

Silvio.

is

betrothed,

Amarillis

Mirtillo offers himself, and stitute.

Led

to the

is

is

though

sentenced to death.

accepted, as her sub-

fatal, not the bridal 125

not

altar,

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND Mirtillo's identity

Montano's

son.

"

is

discovered.

Let us read the

The shepherd rest in the

is

terms

"

(as given in the 1782 English argument " which On Occasion, the true Father, version)

of the

:

bewailing that

law on

his

it

should

own blood

fall to his lot to

(for to

execute the

Montano,

as priest,

the office of carrying out the sacrificial rite beis

longed) satisfied

that

it

by Tirenio, a blind soothsayer, clearly

by the interpretation of the Oracle

was not only opposite

itself,

to the will of the gods

moveover was come to now happy period (i.
that this victim should be sacrificed, but that the

the

the

now strongly corresponded, they concluded that Amarillis could not be, nor ought to be,

cumstance

the spouse of any other than Mirtillo. little

And

previous to this, Silvio, thinking to

wild beast, had pierced Dorinda,

who had

as a

wound

a

been ex-

had shown to her violent passion for him, but whose wonted savageness was changed by this accident and softceedingly distressed by the slight he

after her wound was was thought mortal, and after Amarillis was become the spouse of Mirtillo, he

ened

into

compassion

healed, which at

too became

first

now enamoured

of Dorinda, and mar-

GUARINI AND LUZZATTO by means of these events, so happy and so extraordinary, Corisca is at length convinced of and ried her;

confesses her guilt, and, having implored pardon and obtained it from the loving couple, her per-

turbed

now

spirit

Follies of the

pacified

and satiated with the

World, she determines

to

change her

Course of Life." The play ends with the wedding chorus for the hero and heroine (Luzzatto, too,

wrote

plays for marriage celebrations).

his

words very

like those

In

used by Luzzatto, Guarini's

shepherds sing to Mirtillo and Amarillis

:

O

happy pair! Who have in Sorrow sown, and reap'd

How Now

in Joy,

hath your bitter share of grief's alloy

sweetened and confirmed your present

And may

ye learn from

bliss

!

this,

Blind, feeble mortals! to distinguish right

What

are true

Not

all that

Not

all

ills,

and what

pleases

is

is

pure delight

substantial good;

which grieves, true ill, well understood all joys, must be pronounced the best,

That, of

Which

virtue's

arduous triumphs yield the breast.

be perceived the germs both of Fletcher's Faithful Shepherdess and of Luzzatto's Unto the Upright Praise. But while the former In this story

may

seized upon and elaborated the sensuous element in Guarini's plot, giving us a truly disgusting figure 127

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND in

Chloe, Luzzatto pounced on the finer aspects, his heroines outshine even Amarillis in purity

and

and beauty of mind,

just as his heroes surpass

Mir-

manhood.

That one and the same model should have produced two such varied copies says much for the genius of the To him, it is true, we owe the original author. of But to him also we are tragi-comedy intrigue. tillo in fidelity to

indebted for

the standards of

idylls,

as

full-blooded as those of

Theocritus, but far more spiritual.

128

HAHN'S NOTE BOOK The Hahn family came to Frankfort-on-theMain from Nordlingen (Bavaria), whence the Jews were expelled in 1507. Between that date and 1860 Nordlingen could not boast of a synagogue; such Jews as visited the place were admitted for a day at a time to the fairs, or were allowed temporarily to reside in war times. In each case a poll-tax was exacted (see Jewish EncyIn Frankfort, the family " dwelt in a house bearing the sign of The Red Cock" (Zum rothen Hahn}. Graetz fully declopedia, vol.

ix, p.

335 )

scribes the regulations

.

which compelled the Jews of

shields with various devices and " names on their houses. cites the garlic," " " " " red shield the ass," (Rothgreen shield,"

Frankfort to

fix

He

schild),

The Frankfort Jews were name themselves after these shields.

"dragon."

forced to

Jewish sources, the author with whom is sometimes called Joseph Nordlinger, from his original home, and some-

Hence,

in the

we

now concerned

are

times Joseph

Hahn, from

Frankfort. o

129

the family house-sign in

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

He in

himself was not permitted to live peaceably Born in the second half of the six-

Frankfort.

teenth century, he not only

had

able restrictions to which the

to endure the piti-

Jews were

at

normal

times subjected, but he suffered in 1614 under the

Fettmilch

riot, as

the result of which, after

many

of the whole Jewish community had been slain and more injured, the survivors left the town. In

March, 1616, the Jews Joseph Hahn among them were welcomed back amid public demonstrations of good-will, and the community instituted

Frankfort

the

Purim on Adar

anniversary of the return.

Though

20,

the

the trouble

we can understand how inseGerman Jews was at the beginseventeenth century. Hence we need

thus ended happily, cure the life of the

ning of the

not be surprised to find in Hahn's book Yosif Omez ( 483) a form of dying confession drawn up in Frankfort to be recited by those undergoing mar-

tyrdom.

It

is

a

moving composition, simple

pathos, yet too poignant in

be cited here in

Let

it

its

in its

note of sorrow to

full.

not be thought, however, that the book

a doleful one.

is

Joseph Hahn's is a warm-hearted and there was room in it for a manifold Judaism, 130

HAHN'S NOTE BOOK

human but

The work,

interest. is

it

in a sense,

is

learned,

written so crisply and epigrammatically

charm surpasses and even disguises its techIt was printed in 1723, but was written nicalities. that

a

its

good deal

we know

earlier, as

died in 1637.

have alluded

I

that the author

to the

manifold

in-

which occupied Hahn's mind. Questions of Jewish law and fundamental problems of morality terests

are considered; but so are matters of costume and

cookery.

How

to

wear

a special dress for syna-

gogue and how to keep a special overcoat for the benediction of the moon,

from

how

the fingers before meals,

to rub off ink-stains how " it is a truer

penance to eat moderately at ordinary meals than to endure an occasional fast,"

how

the children

should be encouraged to read good books at table, and how, when such a book is finished, there should be a jolly siyyum

these

and many another

inter-

esting view crowd Joseph Hahn's delightful pages.

He

enjoyed a cheerful meal, but he proceeds to denounce in unmeasured terms those who (" and such in our times," he adds) sing love-songs or tell indecent stories over their wine. " Do not esteem lightly," he cautions his readers

there are

many

83), "the advice of our sages," as to first putting on the right shoe and first removing the (

J

131

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND Joseph Hahn, in truth, is a remarkable mixture of the old and the new he loves old customs, left

;

new

yet constantly praises

ones, such as the intro-

duction of Psalms and of

Friday

hymn is

We

night service.

"

Come,

O

startling to be

friend, to

Lekah Dodi

into the

are so familiar with the

meet the bride," that it it dates from the

reminded that

sixteenth century.

Joseph

Hahn

thoroughly en-

tered into the spirit of such lively processions

from

place to place as accompanied Lekah Dodi, though he held them more suitable for Palestine than

He detested low songs, and objected to of chance, but he was no kill-joy. games Again Germany.

and again he refers to the synagogue tunes, and revels in hazzanut. His was a thoroughly Jewish synthesis of austerity

He

has

ment of wages desire.

vant

He

and

joviality.

many remarks

An

servants.

as to the proper treat-

employer

in trust for the servant,

He

must

first

shall not retain

even at the

pay the wages,

latter's

and the

ser-

then ask the employer to save it ( 361 ) had a very loving heart as well as a just mind.

may

.

is his custom of saying Sheheheyanu on seeing a friend or beloved relative after an in-

Delightful

terval of thirty days.

equal gravity,

tells

On the other hand, he, with (455) how his father,

us

132

HAHN'S NOTE BOOK

when he

left the city,

from the

took a

and fixed

gate,

it

little

splinter of

in his

wood

hat-band, as a

This

specific for his safety, or sure return.

is

a

wide-spread custom. The whole book is a wonderful union of sound sense and quaintness. The author, in the midst of deep ritual problems and of careful philological discussions of liturgical points, will turn aside to

bath

fish

us against buying the Sab-

on Thursday.

Fish, he says,

What you eat profits the God (that is, give to

for

He

soul."

poor

must be

In the same breath he has this fine remark

fresh. '

warn

to

officials

:

body; what you spare the poor)

profits the

( 547) against permitting the round to go beg from house to house; must be appointed to carry relief to the

protests

But do not forget to taste your shalet on Friday to test whether it be properly cooked One of the most characteristically Jewneedy

in their

homes.

!

ish

features of life under the traditional regime

was

the man's participation in the kitchen prepara-

tions.

But Joseph

woman's life.

Hahn

takes a high view of the part in the moralization of the domestic

Just as the husband was not excluded from

the kitchen, so the wife

Hahn would

not allow

was not limited

women

or table hymns. 133

to

to sing the

it.

Yet

Zemirot

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND I

have said that our author loves the old, yet has

no objection to the new. The latter feature is exemplified by a long song on the Sabbath Light, composed by Joseph

Hahn

verse

Hebrew

printed in

is

He

paraphrase.

for Friday nights. (

60 1

)

with a Yiddish

disliked setting the

There

non-Jewish tunes.

is

no

Each

Zemir&t to

sense, he adds, in

who

urge that these nonJewish tunes were stolen from the temple melodies The children, we learn, had a special Sabbath the argument of those

!

cake.

A

Jewish

he relates

child,

612), was

(

carried off by robbers, but cried so pitifully for his

cake on Friday night, that he was eventually dis-

covered

by Jews "

and

ransomed.

modern innovation

He

protests

"

of introducing a sermon in the morning service; this compels the old and ailing to wait too long for breakfast. The against the

sermon must, as of

old, be given after the

meal

( 625 ). Yet he did not mind himself introducing an innovation, for he instituted a simple haggadic discourse on the afternoons of festivals, so as to

and keep them from frivolous amusements (821). The greater Spinholz on

attract the people

the Saturday before a in the author's time.

who

wedding was

He

still

customary

complains of those people

drink better wine on Sundays than on Satur134

HAHN'S NOTE BOOK days

(

rich to

693). He objects to the practice of the have their daughters taught instrumental

music by male instructors must break off, though it is

(

890).

difficult to

But here

I

tear oneself

from the book, even the narrowness of which has a historical interest, and the prejudices of which entertain. life

As

a whole,

it

represents a phase of Jewish

which belongs to the

past,

yet

there

runs

through it a vein of homely sentiment which found also in our present.

135

is

LEON MODENA'S

"

RITES

"

Said to have been composed at the request of an English nobleman for the delectation of James I,

Leon Modena's account of Jewish ceremonial was Though certainly intended for Christian readers. written in Italian,

it first

appeared

in

France (Paris,

1637), through the good offices of the author's pupil and friend, J. Gaffarel. It was the source of a

whole library of similar books.

Not

translated into several languages, but

only was

it

onwards from

Modena's

time, writers, Jewish and Christian, and competent incompetent, devoted themselves to the task of presenting to the world in general the

and customs of Judaism. The recent of Oesterley and Box is a lineal descendant

teachings treatise

of Modena's Rites.

Of

the author

it

may

Admirable Crichton of

be said that he was the

his

age (1571-1648).

His

range of knowledge and power was extraordinary. As Dr. Johnson said of Oliver Goldsmith, he touched nothing which he did not adorn.

Besides

writing many books on many subjects, he filled the office of Rabbi at Venice with distinction, his ser136

LEON MODENA'S "RITES"

mons

in Italian attracting large audiences.

of his

Why? was

German

critics

him

call

"

Some

characterless."

Because he denounced gambling, and yet

a life-long victim to the vice.

In his boyhood

he produced a pamphlet against card-playing, and in 1631 successfully protested against the excom-

munication of card-players. But is there lack of character here ? Of many another great man could it be said that he saw and approved the better yet followed the worse.

And

there are things which

one dislikes without wishing to put the offenders under a ban. On another occasion, Modena severely attacked Rabbinism, and then published a reply to his own attack. He assuredly was not the

man impelled to refute his own Modena was, one might rather

only

arguments. say, a

man

of

moods, and therefore of singular openness and width of mind. He suffered not from lack of character, but

from an excess of impressionability.

bee has not the former

less

A

character than a caterpillar, because

flies

from flower

to flower, while the

adheres to the same cabbage leaf. Modena, to put the case in yet another way, lived at a transilatter

when Jews were only beginning to themselves to modern conditions, and

tional period,

acclimatize

when

settled views

on many subjects were not only 137

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND difficult is

Despite his vagaries, one There must have been

but undesirable.

rather attracted to him.

solidity as well as versatility in his disposition, or

he

could not possibly have retained the important rabbinic post

he

filled

for

more than

half-a-century.

Probably the secret was that he not only possessed personal charm, but the real to those who knew him best.

man was They

best

or

known

many

of

assuredly admired and loved him.

them

We

will

now

turn to another figure

English translator of

Modena's

the

Riti Ebraici.

first

This

was Edmund Chilmead, who was born in 1610 and died in 1654. He was a good scholar and an accomplished musician.

Up

1648 he resided

to

in

Oxford, but as a result of the troubles between Charles I and the Parliament, he was expelled from the University because

Two

of his royalist opinions. things, however, speak well for Cromwell's

toleration.

Chilmead was not only allowed

unmolested

in

had no tion of

London

hesitation,

Modena,

lain of Christ

to the day of his death, but on the title-page of his transla-

to describe himself

Rites, Customes,

"

still

as

"

The date The History

Church, Oxon."

translation gives the clue.

ent

to live

Chapof the

of the

and Manner of Life of the Pres-

" " Jews throughout the World was printed for 138

LEON MODENA'S "RITES" Martin and Jo. Ridley,

Jo.

Street,

Ram

by

Alley"

at the Castle in Fleet

in

that time

By

1650.

Cromwell was probably thinking of the Jewish question, and he must have welcomed this first-hand statement on the Jewish religion. Chilmead's edition, one must confess, is badly printed, and is not

very creditable to the printing capacity of the "

One might pardon

Castle in Fleet Street."

many

misprints in the

Hebrew, but

overlook the numerous faults not wonderful that, ley thought

it

gests, a history.

But

original It

was

new

It

is

version.

much

give sources it

is

mainly

For

value.

a

permanent document. It helps us it

hard to

English.

this circumstance, that

thus becomes a

is

not, as the title sug-

does not so

descriptive, confers on it

it

following century, Ock-

in the

necessary to issue a

Modena's own as facts.

in the

the

to realize

several aspects of the Jewish position at the begin-

ning of the seventeenth century. The author uses the term history in the sense of narrative; as he states in his Prefatory Epistle, he

the "

is

concerned with

what and not with the why (" Quod sunt," not

He Propter quod sunt," as he expresses it). deals with his present, not with the past, and for very limitation claims, too, that he

that

we may be is

a

"

139

He

grateful.

Relater," not a

"

De-

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

That being

fender."

what we do

to find

"

it

is

of peculiar interest

work, arranged

in five

according to the number of the Books of

books, the

so,

in his

Law."

Several forms of prayer appear for the Certainly Chilmead

in his pages.

is

first

time

the earliest to

give us in English the Prayer for the Government, or a translation of the Thirteen Articles drawn up

by Maimonides. his

day

it

Modena,

was customary

to

again, tells us that in " leave about a yard

square of the wall of the house unplaistered on which they write either the verse of Psalm 137, If '

O Jerusalem,' or the words Zecher Memorial of the Desolation." He knows only wooden Mezuzahs. Jews in Italy have I

forget thee,

Lahorban

pictures

a

and images

in their houses,

"

especially if

they be not with Relief, or Imbossed work, nor the Bodies at large." Few, he reports, take heed to the custom of placing the beds north and south;

many

attach significance to dreams.

Jewish men "

never paint their faces, for the custom is effemi" " nate in whatsoever country they are, they and (the men) usually affect the long garment, or ;

Gown." countries

The women

dress

"

in the habite

of the

where they inhabite "; but after marriage

wear a perruke

to cover their natural hair. 140

The

LEON MODENA'S "RITES" wherever they can, being impossible for them now to erect any

Jews build " it

their synagogues

or sumptuous Fabricks."

statelie

Things, as

know, soon after Modena's time became

we

different,

for by the middle of the seventeenth century, sev-

were

eral fine synagogues

The women

where.

"

built in

Rome and

whatever

see

is

done

else-

in the

School (thus Chilmead renders scuola or synagogue), though they are themselves unseen of any

man."

In the same city there will be places of " worship according to the different customes of

Dutch (German), and Italians." Dutch far exceed all Levantines and Spaniards use a cer-

the Levantines,

Then,

"

in their singing, the

the rest:

the

tain singing tone,

and the

much

Italians affect a

hand

the

"

Law

more

The

in their devotions."

a

after the Turkish

"

plain,

Favours

manner; and quiet way "

of

"

having connected with the reading of " are bought of the Chaunter, and he that in the acts

biddeth most, shall have a share Willingly, did space permit,

in

them."

we would follow

the

author through his account of the Judaism of his time. The majority of Jews, he says, are poor, yet

Tiberias,

"

Almes to Jerusalem, Safed, " and Hebron." The Jews never tor-

annually they send

ment, or abuse, or put to any cruel death, any Brute 141

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

Very few Jews are able

Beast"

to

speak

Hebrew

;

learn the language of the countries where they " are born. Onely those of the Morea still retain

all

the

Hebrew Tongue

"

also,

and use

it

in their

In Italy, he records, the

iar Letters."

Famil-

Talmud

continues utterly prohibited," and copies are not

to be "

found "

Vowes

in the country.

as

Jews do not regard

"commendable";

yet

"when

they

are made, they ought to be kept." Not many now " " " observe the tradition Fish and against eating

Flesh together." He tells us of an arrangement " so ordered the by which, for the Sabbath, some

matter aforehand, that the Fire should kindle itself at such and such a time." The Passover bread is

made in " flat cakes of divers forms and shapes." The " Ceremonie with a Cock," on the eve of the " Day of Atonement, is now left off both in the East and tious

"

in Italy, as

being a thing both Supersti-

and Groundlesse."

as often as

But they still, on Purim, they hear Haman named, beat the

and make a great murmuring noise." Bigamy is seldome or never used." Marriages are usually performed before full moon, and the ground,

"

favorite days are

Wednesdays and

Thursdays for widows.

"

Fridays, with

Little boyes, with lighted

torches in their hands," 142

sing before

the

bridal

LEON MODENA'S "RITES" couple,

who

Ketubah

is

The

are seated under the canopy.

read at the marriage.

Modena men-

Lilit, and name-changing in case of sickness. He describes how, in Ger" in of the case the Chaunter goeth many, girls,

tions the

home

charms against

to the Parents house,

cradle on high, he blesseth

Name."

Modena

ites

in his time,

were,

and it,

lifting the child's

and so giveth

it

the

also informs us that the Kara-

numerous

in Constantinople,

Cairo, and Russia.

Modena records that among the Jews " there are many women that are much more devout and pious than the men, and who not only endeavour to bring up their children in all manner of Vertuous Education; but are a means also of restraining their

husbands from their Vitious Courses, they would otherwise take, and of inclining them to a more

Godly way of Life." just

compliment we

With which handsome and

will take leave of

143

our author.

PART

10

III

PART

III

MENASSEH AND REMBRANDT On on

April 25, 1655,

his mission to

six

months before

starting

Cromwell, Menasseh ben Israel

visionary about to play the role of statesman pleted in the

Amsterdam

subject

(5^x 2^

of

this it

the Spanish

paper.

combook which forms

Duodecimo

in

size

consists of 12

-f- 259 pages, of the author's works published or projected, and on the last of the unpaginated leaves a Latin version of Psalm 126. In the catalogue of

with a

inches),

list

works appended to the Vindicia Judaorum " Piedra (London, 1656) Menasseh includes

his

Nebuchadnezzar's image, or the Monarchy." This was not, however, the real

pretiosa, of

fifth title.

Hebrew Eben Yekarah, " Precious Piedra Gloriosa, i. e., the Spanish Stone." The date given above for the completion

The and

title

was, in truth, in

in

of the book

dressed

to

by the dedication, which is adMenasseh's Christian friend, Isaac

is

fixed

Vossius. 147

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

On

a casual glance the

book seems

a hopeless

Nebuchadnezzar's image, Jacob's dream, the combat of David and Goliath, what have these in common, the vision of Ezekiel jumble of incongruities.

and what has the

title

to

do with them ?

The

an-

swer to these questions is soon found. The whole work is Messianic, and in his usual " " as Stone symbolic style, Menasseh seizes on a

There the central feature for his little treatise. " the stone, cut out without hands," which

was

smote the image seen by the king of Babylon.

There was the Beth-el,

when

stone, gathered

from the

field

of

on which Jacob laid his weary head to

rest

There was

the

from

fleeing

stone, picked

his brother.

smooth from the brook, with which Philistine. Perhaps the three were

David slew the

one and the same stone, Menasseh seems to imply. Anyhow, he saw in all these incidents a Messianic

Nebuchadnezzar's image, with its feet of clay, typified the Gentiles that were to rise and fall before the great day of the Lord. The ladder

reference.

ascending and descending angels, David's typified again the rise and fall of nations. over Goliath foreshadowed the victory triumph of of Jacob, with

its

the Messiah over the powers of earth.

whole

is

rounded

off

And

the

with Ezekiel's vision of the 148

MENASSEH BEN ISRAEL (From an etching by Rembrandt, in the possession of Mr. Felix Warburg, New York)

MENASSEH AND REMBRANDT chariot with

strange beasts and emblems

its

a

chariot which, in the view accepted by Menasseh, typified the

of the Messiah.

Kingdom

Following the dedication to Vossius is an ex" the Reader." In this note the planatory note to author explains that to make his meaning clear he has added four illustrations. He does not name

But we know that he was none other

the artist.

Rembrandt. Four etchings, signed by Rembrandt and dated 1654, are possessed by more than one library; than

Menasseh's neighbor and intimate,

probably the fullest sets are to be found in the Fitzwilliam and British Museums. They were originally etched on one plate,

wards cut

When

four.

into

formed one

which was all

after-

four etchings

plate, the arrangement

was

(as

Mr.

Middleton explains in his Descriptive Catalogue of Etched Work of Rembrandt, p. 240)

the

(I)

:

Upper

left:

Nebuchadnezzar's Image. Clothed only about

the loins; there

is

a

band or

fillet

and a short cloak hangs behind.

about the head,

The

stone

which

breaks the legs of the image (the feet are seen falling to the rock.

left)

The

the text

"

has been cast from a roughly shaped

stone

And

is

near part of a globe; illustrating

the stone that broke the

image became

a great mountain, and filled the whole *ar*A"(Daniel

149

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND 2.

The brow

35).

"

left arras

the legs

"

Persae

"

Romani

and

and

fifth

" "

"

only appear in the

"

inscribed

is

"

Babel," the right and

Medi," the waist

"

Graeci,"

Mahometani." These names

state

"

of the etching. There's

a proof of the fourth "state" in Paris, which beats

names written

the (II)

Upper

in

Rembrandt's own hand.

The lower

Piston of Ezekiel.

right:

part, in the

foreground, shows the four creatures of the chariot;

above

a

is

"

amid the rays of which

glory,"

is

seen

the Almighty, surrounded by adoring angels. (III)

Lower

Ladder.

Jacob's

left:

lies

others are bending is

The

bearded,

patriarch,

half-way up the ladder, tended by an angel,

down

in gaze,

while one figure

seen mounting the rungs immediately above.

(IV) Lower right:

Combat

of

drawing of

spirited

David and all;

in

a

Goliath.

The most

scene overhung

by

rocks with warriors looking on, the giant grasps his

lance in his left

hand and with shield advanced on

his right

arm

in action

over his right shoulder.

is

charging David,

who

has his sling

The Museum, of the

as already implied, possesses proof " " states the artist etchings in various

touched and retouched them, until they assumed the state reproduced the writer in 1906, in by present

commemoration brandt's birth.

of

The

the

tercentenary

of

Rem-

etchings are beautiful tokens

of sympathy between the Rabbi and the painter. " The various " states

show, as Mr. 150

I.

Solomons

MENASSEH AND JREMBRANDT has suggested, that Rembrandt took unremitting pains to obtain Menasseh's approval of his work.

Yet he

failed to

win

this

certain that the etchings

Fairfax

Murray

the etchings,

is

pretty

Mr.

approval.

possessed the Piedra Gloriosa with

and has now presented the volume

the University Library, is

It

were never used.

to be seen in the

to

Cambridge; another copy

Musee Carnavalet,

Paris, a copy

formerly owned by M. Dutuit of Rouen. But Mr. " Solomons seems right in asserting that the original etchings in the copies of Mr. Murray and M. Dutuit were no doubt inserted after by admirers of Rembrandt's work, but certainly not with the

knowledge and sanction of Menasseh." Why not? The etchings are good work; they really illustrate their subject, and must have added to the commercial, as

well as to the artistic value of Menasseh's

work.

The most

curious

fact

is

that,

though Rem-

brandt's etchings were never used, a set of copperplate engravings, based, as

by the

Mr. Solomons

Jewish engraver Salom

Italia

guesses,

on Rem-

brandt but not identical with his work, is found in some copies of Menasseh's book copies possessed

by Mr. Solomons, tion in

Hamburg.

M.

Didot, and the Levy Collec-

These engravings are 151

laterally

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND Rembrandt's etchings be-

inverted, the

right of

comes the

left

of Salom Italia's engravings.

are other

differences in detail, all calculated to ren-

There

der the pictures more fitted for book illustration, but of all the changes only one is of consequence,

and

it

was Mr. Solomons who detected the

real

significance of the change. The change referred to gives the clue to the whole mystery. On comparing the two versions of

the Vision of Ezekiel a striking variation

The

cernible.

is

dis-

figure of the Almighty has been

Here was the fatal defect in Remsuppressed! brandt's work. Menasseh could not possibly use a represented he was not the one to repeat the inadvertence of the artist of the Sarajevo Haggadah. Possibly he only de-

drawing

in

which the Deity

is

tected the fault at the last hour.

;

But a

fatality

clung to the second set of illustrations also.

Sev-

eral copies of the Pledra Gloriosa are extant with-

out any pictures at

all.

152

LANCELOT ADDISON ON THE BARBARY JEWS "

done to the private virtues of the Jews of Barbary." So Mr. Francis Espinasse remarks in his biography of Lancelot Addison. It is Justice

is

an accurate comment.

Lancelot, the father of the

more famous Joseph Addison who himself wrote so amiably of the Jews a generation later spent several years in Africa as English chaplain. Born in 1632, he showed an independent mind at Oxford. He roughly handled some of the University Puritans in 1658, and was promptly compelled to recant his speech on his knees in open Convocation. Tangier came into the possession of Charles II in 1662. Lancelot Addison had officiated in Dunkirk for the previous three years but when that port was given ;

to

the

up Morocco.

French, Addison was transferred to

Here he kept his eyes open. Several lively volumes came from him on Tangier life, on Mohammedanism, on Moorish politics. The most remarkable of these deals with the Jews. So popu" " that Present State lar was this volume on their 153

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

The

three editions were called for.

first

came out

Museum may 1675. copy, it lacked the awesome frontispiece which may be seen in the edition of 1676. Though superu The Present State of the Jews in Barscribed If one

in

judge by the British

bary," the almost naked figure is not meant to The personage derepresent a child of Israel. picted wears a gorgeously feathered hat

waist-covering, also of feathers.

Add

and a short

to this a spear

bigger than its wielder, and you have his full costume. It is less Addison's than his illustrator's idea of a typical

Moor.

From the very opening paragraph of the dediwe see that Lancelot possessed some of his

cation

son's gift of gentle

humor.

He

had inscribed

a

former book to Secretary Williamson, and he now u it faring with Scriblers, as with repeats the act,

who never forsake propitious." As for his

those Votaries

once finde

the Saint they

account of the " he claims that more his is Jews, particular and " " true than other descriptions, this being," he "

the result of Conversation and not of Reu port." ( Conversation," of course, he uses in the " old sense of direct intercourse "). Some of the says,

modern

assailants of the

aristocratic

names

Jews who appropriate

will hardly like 154

Addison's

justi-

LANCELOT ADDISON ON THE BARBARY JEWS fication of his interest.

It

is

because of their clear

genealogies and ancient lineage that he

And

instance admires the Jews.

was noble, they were not tive religion.

"

the channel of so

Now

less

in the first

if

their ancestry

happy

in their primi-

seeing that they have been

many

benefits to the rest of

man-

kind, they ought to be the matter of our thankful

and not of our obloquy and reproach." With fine indignation, he goes on to resent the

Reflection,

manner

"

which the Jews of Barbary were lorded over by the imperious and haughty Moor." The Moorish boys beat the Jewish children, and the in

"

latter dare not retaliate.

the

Jews

The Moors permit

not

the possession of any war-like weapons,

Addison adds that

unless in point of Trade."

gratifies the Jews, who are, he asserts, as tute of true courage as of good nature."

important to

remember

"

this

destiIt

is

these severe remarks on

the Jewish character, as

it

shows that when the

author praises he does so not from partiality but from conviction. Curiously enough, he has hardly

done calling them cowards, when he tells us that the " Christians and Moors use the Jews for sending " them upon hazardous messages," such as collecting the maritime imposts," an office which must

have needed more than a

little

155

hardihood.

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

Our author

contrasts the black caps of the

Jews

with the red of the Moors, and has other quaint He then calls attention to details as to costume. '

the religious unanimity of the Jews. They are as to avoid divisions, looking upon signally vigilant

those

among

Christian Professors, to be an argu-

ment against the truth of the things they profess." This is amusing, coming from a man who, throughout his life, was a rather sturdy opponent of union among the Christian bodies. And what would he think of the unity

"present state"?

among Jews

he could see our

if

Addison then enters

into

a

eulogy of the sobriety and temperance of the Jews; he terms their conduct " well civilised," and de" clares that they cannot be charged with any of those Debauches which are grown unto reputation

with whole nations of Christians."

Then he

speci-

"

Adultery, Drunkenness, Gluttony, Pride of Apparel, etc., are so far from being in request with fies.

them that they are scandalised

at their frequent

Again and again the author laments that he has to praise the Synagogue at the expense of the Church. But he takes it out

practice

in

Christians."

in firm abuse of the rabbinic theology,

information

on which he obtained from a local Rabbi, " Aaron " Ben-Netas a not unlearned man, he says, one 156

LANCELOT ADDISON ON THE BARBARY JEWS

who

only needed to be a Christian to be thoroughly worthy of esteem.

But we must pass over Addison's elaborate analysis of the Jewish creed, and of his many curious and mostly accurate details on rites and superThe notable thing is that as soon as he

stitions.

touches fundamental social questions, his eulogy of " " the Jews reappears. are Orderly and decent the adjectives he uses of the Jewish marriage cus-

am

unable to find space for Addison's allusion to the fashions of dressing the " brides for the canopies, or rather bowers and toms.

I

regret that

I

arbours," which in Barbary replaced the canopies used in other countries. Thus the custom in some

American homes of performing Jewish marriages under a floral bower rather than a canopy has its analogue in the past. Very significant is another statement about marriage. Theoretically he found polygamy defended, but monogamy was the rule of " life.

The Jews

of

whom

they greatly magnify and

I

now

write,

polygamy, yet they are not very fond of tice."

He

though

extol the concession of its

prac-

ascribes this abstinence to policy rather

than to religion, and there is more truth in this than Addison saw. For such social institutions are a matter for the social conscience, and entirely

157

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND "

"

So long as social institutions remain within the bounds of such sanctification as religion can approve, religion must be dictates them.

policy

content

to

follow

" policy."

Monogamy

is

so

clearly felt to be the best policy for mankind, under modern conditions, that religion in the West main" " " " are here at and tains it. policy Religion

one.

Addison

when he being not

have

gives his enthusiasm the

rein

The

care

'

very laudable in this particular, there many people in the world more watchful

of the Jews

to

fairly

discusses Jewish education. is

their children early tinctured with religion

than the present Hebrews." Though they usually " Moresco, the Language of their Nativity, speak and a sort of Spanish which enables them for Traf-

The children, he inthey learn Hebrew. us, are usually taught the Hebrew for the " domestic utensils and terms of Traffick Nego-

fick,"

forms

The method was quite in accord with modern ideas of teaching a language. " By this Order they furnish the Children with a Nomentiation."

clature of

Hebrew Words and

even

passages from Luria, to

before they admit them to Syntax and Construction." Addison pictures the Jewish Sabbath with some charm; he cites

;

158

all

this

whom

the

home

LANCELOT ADDISON ON THE BARBARY JEWS and synagogue no subject

On

rites

of the day of rest

owe

so much.

our author more interesting than

is

with regard to the Jewish charities. The Jews live " in a more mutual charity of alms than either the

Moor

or Christians

" ;

and Addison admits,

" it

cannot be denied that the Jews' manner of relieving the poor, is regular and commendable." In his

day

it

was, as

it is

in ours, the

Synagogue's ideal to

own

poor. There were no beggars in the " For though among the Jews of Barbary Jewry.

relieve

its

Barbary there

is

a great store of

needy persons, yet

they are supplied after a manner which much conceals (as to men of other religions) their poverty."

Obviously Addison would

come

like these

Why

people to berefuse? The

do they stiffness of their necks," on the one hand, and the " naughtiness of our lives," on the other, cries the Christians.

"

The

"

"

will, let us hope, be naughtiness " more easily removed than the stiffness." Lance-

author.

"

made some figure in Addison, says Macaulay, the world." He deserved to do so. His book on

lot

the

and

Jews was his

a credit to his

goodness of heart.

159

power of observation

THE BODENSCHATZ PICTURES Johann Christoph Georg Bodenschatz, a priest of Uttenreuth, underwent a triple training for his great

work on Jewish Ceremonial.

He

studied

literature, observed facts, and used his hands. The " is said to Jewish Encyclopedia remarks that he

have made elaborate models of the Ark of

and of the Tabernacle is

in the

Wilderness."

no reason for the qualifying words

" is

Noah There said."

In a dedicatory epistle to the Margrave Friederich of Brandenburg, Bodenschatz distinctly informs us " after that in 1739 he constructed these models, the records of Scripture and of Jewish Antiquities."

He

adds that the models were preserved in the I cannot say royal Kunst und Naturaliencabinet.

whether they

still

exist;

but at the beginning of last

century, the Tabernacle

Ark

at

was

at

Bayreuth and the

Nuremberg.

In 1748 Bodenschatz began to issue his work on the Jews; he completed the publication in the next year.

In

it

(Kirchliche lich derer in

he dealt with the Jewish religion

Verfas sung der heutigen Juden, somderHe had planned a conDeutschland) .

160

THE BODENSCHATZ PICTURES tinuation on the Civil

he

left

it

Laws

of the Synagogue. But unfinished, though he lived another half-

Perhaps he had exhausted

century.

all his

means,

for the thirty copper-plates must have been expensive.

The very title-page states he paid for them own pocket. These illustrations he in-

out of his

troduced with a double object: they were, in part, to serve as an ornament, but chiefly as an elucidation of the text.

Both

his

book and

his pictures be-

came very popular, and did much to secure for Judaism a favorable consideration in Germany. As we know that Bodenschatz possessed some artistic skill,

we may

safely

assume that he inspired

and assisted the artists whom he employed. He docs not appear, however, to have done any of the drawings with his own hand. Nearly all the pictures are signed.

of them were designed by

Erlangen, and engraved by G. Nusbiegel Nuremberg. Both of these belonged to artistic

Eichler in

Most

in

families; there were three generations of Eichlers, and a Nusbiegel engraved illustrations for Lavater's

works.

One

of the Bodenschatz pictures was

engraved by C. M. Roth; another, among the best the illustration of Shehitah of the whole series

was drawn by Johann Conrad Miiller. It would be Christian interesting to collect the names of those ii

161

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND and mechanics who, in the seventeenth and in illustrating eighteenth centuries, were engaged for There instance, the was, books on Judaism.

artists

Englishman R. Vaughan who worked at Josephus there was the Frenchman Bernard (Josippon)

;

Picart and there were very ;

exquisite medallions, all six

many others, though

which adorn the

the

title-pages of

volumes of Surrenhusius' Latin Mishnah,

were from

Jewish hand. Bodenschatz made use of his predecessor Picart, " whose twenty plates illustrative of the Ceremonies a

"

des Juifs appeared in Amsterdam in 1723. But what he chiefly owed to Picart was the composition of the groups; the details are mostly original. Similarly he derived his idea for the processions of the bride and the bridegroom, with their musical

performers, from Kirchner, but here, again, the details are his own, and the total effect is full of

do not wish, by any means, to depreKirchner, who in his Jiidisches Ceremoniel

charm. ciate

I

engravings. One of them, depicting the preparation of the Passover bread, is

(1726) has some

fine

as vigorous as anything in Bodenschatz,

think that the latter

is,

though

I

on the average, superior to

Kirchner.

Readers can easily judge the character both of the Bodenschatz and the Kirchner pictures 162

THE BODENSCHATZ PICTURES from the specimens so wisely reproduced

No

volumes of the Jewish Encyclopedia.

the

in

one need

complain that the Encyclopedia prints these illustrations too profusely. For to limit my remarks to

Bodenschatz

though copies of that worthy's

book are common enough, many of them are

From

the British

in-

Museum

six

complete. example, of the thirty plates are missing; the Cambridge copy also lacks some of the plates, in particular the

marriage ceremony under the canopy, which, however, may be seen in the Jewish Encyclopedia,

On

vol. vi, p. 504.

the other hand, the Encyclo-

432) somewhat exaggerates the glare of the eyes in the grim realism of Boden-

pedia (vol.

iii,

p.

schatz's picture of an interment.

What

is

assuredly one of the most interesting of

Bodenschatz's plates does not, so far as noticed,

appear

in the

Encyclopedia.

I

have

I refer to

the

Pentecost celebrations, where Bodenschatz shows us both the cut flowers and the growing plants in the synagogue decorations of the day.

border of

Very

this plate

in

bold

relief.

The

floral

particularly well conceived.

the picture of Blessing the the outlines of the houses stand out

attractive, too,

New Moon:

is

is

Bodenschatz

is

careful to inform

us that the favorite time for the ceremony 163

is

a

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND Saturday night, when the men are still dressed in Sabbath clothes, and thus make a good show.

their

The the

Priestly Benediction

Cohen with

More

his

is

also a notable success;

hands to

his eyes impresses.

than once Bodenschatz depicts a curious common now almost unknown. On the

scene, once

front of the synagogue after the marriage the

casting is

it

at the star.

retained,

is

is

now broken under

By the way, the author more familiar ceremony actual is

a star, cut in stone,

and

husband shatters a vessel by The glass, where the custom the

canopy.

also introduces us to the

of the same nature at the

wedding or betrothal.

Altogether ingenious

the plate on which are diagrammatically repre-

sented the various forms of boundaries connected

with the Sabbath law. Naturally a goodly number of the pictures deal with curiosities. The quainter side of Jewish ceremonial obviously appeals to an artist. Thus the

waving of the cock before the Day of Atonement, the Lilit inscriptions over the bed of the new-born infant, the

Mikweh,

due appearance.

the Halizah shoe,

make

their

But Bodenschatz does not show

these things to ridicule them.

He

most objective of those who, before

among the our own days, is

sought to reproduce synagogue scenes. 164

He

must

THE BODENSCHATZ PICTURES have had a very full experience of these scenes; he must have been an eye-witness. It would seem as though he meant us to gather this from one of his Sabbath pictures, of which he has several. I do not refer to the vividness of the touches in his representation of the Friday night at home though this

presupposes personal knowledge. Nor refer to his pictures of Sabbath ovens, for these

illustration

do

I

could have been examined in shops. But what I allude to is this. In his picture of the interior of the

synagogue,

progress.

we

the

see

Sabbath service

in

Standing on the right, looking on, is a Does Bodenschatz mean this for

hatless observer.

himself, thus suggesting that he

had often been

a

were participators? It may be so. Anyhow, most of those who have had to steep themselves in literature of this kind have spectator where the

a

warm

rest

feeling of regard for Bodenschatz.

was not invariably

just,

He

but he was never unkind

;

no mistakes that he made (and he is on the whole conspicuously accurate) were due to prejudice.

Any

scholar,

any

artist,

would be proud

such a verdict.

165

to deserve

PLAY

LESSING'S FIRST JEWISH There are bigger

virtues than consistency,

and

I

human chame-

a good word Leon Modena. But, undeniably, a great career is all the nobler when through it there runs

for that

have spared leon

Wordsworth,

a consistent purpose.

famous

in a

poem, asked:

Who is the happy warrior ? Who is he That every man in arms should wish

And

the

sentence of his answer runs

first

It is

the generous spirit,

Among Upon

his

life,

hath wrought

the plan that pleased his childish thought.

For

was

religious tolerance

combative

and of

his age.

was the

It

life.

It

is

is

a

happy warrior

interwoven with

ideal of his

to be seen in his

the masterpiece of his

Wise

is

boyhood Nathan,"

"

mature genius, and

underlay his youthful drama The Jews. the

:

who, when brought

the tasks of real

If this be so, then Lessing

indeed.

be?

to

it

equally

Nathan

Mendelssohn, and was drawn on the

basis of experience

;

hero of Die Juden

but the is

"

Traveller,"

who

is

the

no individual, having been

drawn by Lessing out of Thirty years separate the 166

his

own good

two plays

heart.

(written, re-

LESSING'S FIRST JEWISH spectively, in

1749 and 1779)

.

PLAY

But they are united

in spirit.

Die Juden

is

a short composition,

includes twenty-three scenes.

are very brief.

and

The

plot

is

Some

even though

quite simple.

A baron

daughter are saved by a traveller

his

it

of these scenes

from

robbers; the impression made by the rescuer is so great, that the baron is inclined to find in him a son-in-law.

that he

is

Then

a Jew.

the traveller reveals the fact

Baron and Jew part with mutual

Dramatically, the play is not of much " " is not so much a person Traveller as a personification. He is the type of virtue,

esteem. merit.

The

honor, magnanimity. He leaves one cold, not because, as Michaelis objected in 1754, he is impossi-

or at least improbably, perfect, but because he Mendelssohn crudely and mechanically drawn.

bly, is

completely rebutted the criticism of Michaelis; but, " " Traveller none the less, the possesses little

human, personal quality which makes " Nathan so convincing and interesting. On the

of "

that

admirably painted. He is not a bigoted Jew-hater; he is simply animated by a conventional dislike of Jews. Lessing, even in other hand, the baron

his student years,

on

is

was too good an

his colors too glaringly. 167

artist to

daub

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND of Die Juden

The importance

is

to be found, as

we have seen, in anticipation of Nathan der Weise. Sometimes the identity of thought is strikits

In the fourth act of

ingly close. this

occurs

dialogue:

Friar:

Nathan:

We

You

Nathan!

Nathan!

are a Christian

are a Christian!

There never was

!

Compare

(as

By God, you

a better Christian

!

For that which makes me,

are of one mind!

your eyes, a Christian,

in

Nathan

makes you,

in

my

eyes, a

Jew

in

!

Niemeyer has done) the exchanges

Die Juden:

Baron: like

How you

Traveller:

estimable

would

the

Jews be

if

they were

all

!

And how

admirable the Christians,

if

they

all

pos-

sessed your qualities!

A Tsar

is

said to

have repeated pretty much the

Moses Montefiore. It latter made the traveller's

baron's speech to Sir

recorded that the

Edmund

Burke,

in

one

of

his

is

not

reply.

speeches

on

America, protested that it was impossible to draw " an indictment against a whole people.'' He up forgot the frequency with which such indictments are drawn up against the Jews. if there was

Now

one thing that more than the rest roused Lessing's anger, it was just this tarring of all Jews with one brush.

One

can conceive the glee with which Lesin which the baron commits

sing wrote the passage

168

LESSING'S FIRST JEWISH

PLAY

very offence, unconscious of his peculiarly unfortunate faux pas, for he has no notion yet that

this

the traveller Baron:

It

a

is

seems

Jew me

to

one against them.

:

that the very faces of the

You can read

ciousness, deceit, perjury.

Traveller: afraid,

I see

do you turn away from me?

you are very learned

in

physiognomies

I

am

mine ....

that

sir,

Why

Jews prejudice

in their eyes their mali-

Baron: O, you wrong me! How could you entertain such a suspicion? Without being learned in physiognomies, I must tell

you

have never met with a more frank, generous,

I

and pleasing countenance than yours.

To

Traveller:

you the

tell

truth, I

do not approve of generali-

zations concerning a whole people

among

all

....

I

should think that

nations good and wicked are to be found.

These quotations will suffice to convey an idea of the aim of the dramatist and of the manner in which it is carried out. There is a certain amount of comic relief to the gravity of the main plot.

foot-pad and garroter, Martin Krumm,

amusing the Jews.

The

cuts

an

figure as an assailant of the honesty of " Christian would have given me a

A

kick in the ribs and not a snuff-box," says Christo-

pher,

Christopher is a his master cannot find him,

the traveller's servant.

funny rogue.

When

and naturally complains, the servant can only be in one place at one time. that you did not go to that place? 169

" replies: Is

it

You

my

I

fault

say you

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND have to search for

me where

I

me?

Surely you'll always find

am."

There were

few attempts prior to Lessing to present the Jew in a favorable light on the stage, as Sir Sidney Lee has shown. But between Shylock a

and Nathan there stretches a lurid only by the oasis of

Die Juden.

desert,

To some

broken it

may

occur that the battle of tolerance fought by Lessing did not end in a permanent victory.

Lessing him-

would not have been disquieted

at that result.

self

As he

expressed

it,

the search for truth rather than

is the highest human good. Viennese leading paper said some few years ago that if Nathan the Wise had been written now, it

the possession of truth

A

would have been hissed not unlikely.

off

the

German

stage.

It

is

Fortunately, Lessing wrote before

Nathan does not remain unacted. I saw Possart play the title-role in Munich in the nineties. His splendid elocution carried off Nathan's 1880!

long speeches with wonderful absence of monotony. thing of truth is a boon forever, because it

A

makes further progress

in

truth-seeking certain.

Because there has been one Lessing, there must be others. And if Nathan the Wise be thus a lasting inspiration, let us not forget that the poet was trying his hand, and maturing his powers, by writing the play which has served as the subject of this sketch.

170

ISAAC PINTO'S PRAYER-BOOK It

tion

was

America that the

in

of

first

English transla-

the

Synagogue Prayer-Book appeared (1761 and 1766). Often has attention been drawn to the curiosity that this latter volume was published not in

London but

in

New

The 1761

York.

has

only recently been discovered by Dr. Pool; with the 1766 work we have long been

edition

familiar.

According to the Bibliotheca Anglo-

Judaica (p. 174)

" ,

the

Mahamad would not

a translation to be printed in England."

allow

If such

last

was made, we must at least amend the words, and read in English for in England.

For

it

a refusal

was

in

London,

in

1740, that Isaac Nieto's

Spanish rendering of the prayers for New Year and Day of Atonement saw the light of publication. Indeed, in Isaac Pinto's preface the point is made " " In Europe," he says, the Spanish quite clear.

and Portuguese Jews have

a translation in Spanish,

which, as they generally understand,

may

be

suffi-

cient; but that not being the case in the British

Dominions

in

America, has induced

a translation, not without

hope that

171

me it

to attempt

may

tend to

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

improvement of many of

the

my

brethren in their

devotion." Admittedly, then, Pinto designed his work for American use at all events, the objection ;

of the

Mahamad

must have been

to the

language

We

know how resolutely Bevis Marks clung to Spanish, and how reluctantly it abandoned some of the quaint uses made of it in

used by Pinto.

announcements and otherwise. "

Some

crudities there are in this translation, but

few mistakes, and the tional ring," says

Mr.

genuine devoPinto could not

style has a

Singer.

go wrong, seeing that he made use of Haham " Nieto's elegant Spanish translation." Dr. Gaster easily

"

remarks that Pinto's rendering rests entirely," as the author declares, on Nieto's. Pinto's exact

words are:

"

In justice to the Learned and Rever-

end H. H. R. Ishac Nieto,

I

must acknowledge " from Nieto's

the very great advantage I derived

shares Mr. Singer's high " of Pinto's The translation," he opinion style. " seems to be totally free from foreign exasserts,

work.

Mr. G. A. Kohut

and

characterized throughout by a dignity and simplicity of diction which is on the

pressions,

is

whole admirable." all

With

this favorable

judgment

readers of Pinto will unhesitatingly concur.

A

remarkable feature which Pinto shares with Nieto 172

ISAAC PINTO'S PRAYER-BOOK is

this

:

the translation appears without the

Hebrew

Commenting on the absence of Hebrew, Mr. Singer observes: "This fact would seem to

text.

show that there must have been an appreciable number of persons, who, for purposes of private worship at

least,

and perhaps

also while in attend-

ance at synagogue, depended upon English alone in their devotions." On the other hand, it is possible that, as Hebrew printing must have been costly in London and New York in the eighteenth century,

Hebrew may be merely due to The translations may have been meant for use with copies of the Hebrew text printed in Amsterdam and elsewhere on the the absence of the

the desire to avoid expenses.

continent of Europe.

book was small quarto in shape; it contained 191 pages. There are some peculiarities on the title-page, of which a facsimile may be seen in Pinto's

the Jewish Encyclopedia, vol. x, page 55

" :

Pray-

Rosh-Hashanah, and Kippur, or the Sabbath, the Beginning of the Year, and the Day of Atonements; with the Amidzh and Musaph

ers for Shabbath,

of the Mofldim, or solemn seasons.

According

to

Order of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews. Translated by Isaac Pinto. And for him printed the

by John Holt,

in

New 173

York, A.

M. 5526

"

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

(=

It will

1766).

be noted that Pinto indicates

the ayin by the use of italics in the

words ^midah

Also, though he employs the ordinary Sephardic term for the Day of Atonement (Kippur without the prefix of Yom), he does not

and Motfdim.

translate the singular, but the plural, for he renders " it the Day of Atonements," which is not exactly a

(though the Hebrew Kippurim is, of course, really an abstract plural with a singular

blunder

sense).

But who was Isaac Pinto?

Same have were

hastily spoken of

identical with

It

is

him

not at as

all clear.

though he

Joseph Jesurun Pinto, who was

by the London Sephardim to New York in The home authorities, at the request of the 1758. New York Congregation Shearith Israel, elected a sent out

Hazan, but

the chosen candidate,

"

having since

unknown to us," writes London Mahamad, through its treasurer, H. Men. da Costa, " we this day (June 7, 1758) declined going for reasons the

proceeded to a second election, and our chois fell on Mr. Joseph Jesurun Pinto, who was examined by our direction and found very well versed in the reading of the Pentateuch and in the functions of a Hazan." This Hazan could do moj*e: he was able, as

Mr. Kohut shows, 174

to write

Hebrew,

for in

ISAAC PINTO'S PRAYER-BOOK October, 1760, he composed a prayer for recita"

tion

on the

General Thanksgiving for the Reduc-

ing of Canada to His Majesty's Dominions." The prayer was written in Hebrew, but printed in Eng" Friend of Truth." A lish, being translated by a

note at the end of the booklet runs thus:

"

N. B.

The foregoing prayer may be

seen in Hebrew, at

the "

Mr. Kohut adds:

Composer's Lodgings."

Apparently original

New York

curiosity in

Hebrew

scholarship

was

a

City in 1760."

A

year before, Joseph Jesurun Pinto instituted " the keeping of records as to those entitled to

Ashcaboth still

"

(memorial prayers), and drew up a

used table of the times for beginning the SabNew York; he must have

bath for the meridian of

man of various gifts and activities. What relation Isaac Pinto was to the Hazan we

been a

Joseph's father was telling. can but this Isaac, scarcely have been our An Isaac Pinto died in 1791, aged translator.

have no means of

named

seventy; he

may

be (as

Mr. Kohut

translator in question; in 1766 he in his forty-fifth year.

suggests) the

would have been

Steinschneider thought that

he was identical with the author of a work against Voltaire (Amsterdam, 1762) and other treatises. " " this versatile But," as Mr. Kohut argues, 175

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND author lived at Bordeaux, while our translator was Mr. in all probability a resident of New York." L. Hiihner accepts this identification, and adds the possibility that this same Isaac Pinto was settled in Connecticut as early as

that Isaac Pinto

it

earliest

the

is

1748.

More

certain

same who appears

minute-book of the

New York

is

in the

Congrega-

member and

tion Shearith Israel as a contributing

seat-holder (1740, 1747, and 1750).

was

Isaac Pinto in

1773.

1778

till

Ezra

certainly living in

Stiles

1795, and

American Jewish Historical

Under date June "

In

the

was president of Yale from diary he makes many is well known from the pub-

in his

references to Jews, as lications of the

New York

14,

forenoon

I

Society.

1773, Stiles has this entry:

went to

visit

the

Rabbi

discoursed on Ventriloquism and the (Carigal) Witch of Endor and the Reality of bringing up Samuel. He had not heard of Ventriloquism before and still doubted it. He showed me a Hebrew letter from Isaac Pinto to a Jew in New York, in which Mr. Pinto, who is now reading Aben Ezra, desires R. Carigal's thoughts

Aben Ezra." cite J

4

the last sentence, adds I

79

upon some Arabic

Prof. Jastrow, from whose essay " :

As

I

late as April

Stiles refers to a letter received 176

in

from

ISAAC PINTO'S PRAYER-BOOK Pinto,

New

whom

he speaks of as

'

a learned

York,' regarding a puzzling

Hebrew

Jew

inscrip-

tion found by Stiles in

Kent

Unfortunately there

no other reference to

is

in

in the fall of

1789. this

supposed Hebrew inscription, on which Pinto was unable to throw any light." Stiles does not seem to

have provided

sufficient data.

We

would

fain

know more of this Isaac Pinto. But the glimpses we get of him are enough to satisfy us that he was a man of uncommon personality.

177

"

MENDELSSOHN'S Of

hundred who

a

JERUSALEM

"

Moses Mendelssohn's

discuss

conception of Judaism, perhaps barely five have read Jerusalem, the book in which that conception is

most

It is a

lucidly expressed.

common

fate with

certain literary masterpieces that they are read in their

own day and

The

talked about by posterity.

fame of Mendelssohn, moreover, underwent something like an eclipse during the last generation. To paraphrase what Antony said of Caesar, but yester-

day his word might have stood against the world now, none so poor as to do him reverence.

The

depreciation of Mendelssohn

was due

to

;

two

For some time, though most of it, it was becoming obviunconscious were Jews ous that there were two, and only two, thoroughopposite reasons.

going solutions of the Jewish problem for the modern age. The one may be termed religious liberalism, the other territorial nationalism.

Mendelssohn's views are these tendencies. torialist

and

I

in

Now,

accord with neither of

He was so

far

from being a

terri-

use that term in the widest sense

that he has been acclaimed and denounced as the father of assimilation. liberalism,

He

was

so remote

that he has been acclaimed 178

from

and de-

"

MENDELSSOHN'S

JERUSALEM "

nounced as the founder of neo-orthodoxy.

His was that the emancipated Jew could and must go on obeying under the new environment the whole of the olden Jewish law. This is not possible cry both the liberal and the theory of

life

!

Hence

nationalist.

the liberal asserts one-half, the

Mendelssohnian would modify the law, the

nationalist the other half of the

The

theory.

nationalist

liberal

would change the environment.

In

other words, instead of holding Mendelssohn in

low esteem, both sides ought to recognize that they each derive half their inspiration from him.

And ture,

it

fortunate that Jews are, at this junc-

is

to appreciate

coming

again.

Mendelssohn

Our German brethren have

a capital series of

little

The

a shilling each.

books which cost

first

of these

all

over

just initiated

"

less

than

Monuments

" of the Jewish Spirit contains the Jerusalem, and much else of Mendelssohn's work. Here one reads

again the words in

penned by the Berlin Socrates

1783: Judaism knows nothing of

religion,

"

first

Israel

Thought

thundering

is

if

possessed

free,"

a

divine

legislation.

can hear Mendelssohn

so harsh a verb can be applied to "

so gentle a spirit

with men's

we

a revealed

mode

let

no Government interfere

of conceiving 179

God and

truth."

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND State and religion are separated as wide as the Israel has

poles. conflicts

its

own

with the State;

code, which in no

still

to impose that code on the State.

did not believe that

all

way

less does Israel seek

men were

Mendelssohn

destined to attain " Judaism boasts

by the road of Judaism. of no exclusive revelation of immutable truths to truth

dispensable to salvation." has no articles of faith."

Hence, too,

in-

"

Judaism

It follows that

not un-

was punished under the Jewish regime, but The Jew was never contumacious disobedience.

belief

commanded: this,

believe this, disbelieve that; but

and leave that undone.

Judaism

is

do

the Jew's

way of attaining goodness, other people can attain Not consonance but manifoldit in other ways. the design and end of Providence.

ness

is

ous

union

opposed to

is

it."

not

toleration,

it

is

" Religi-

diametrically

Toleration consists rather

in this:

"

Reward and punish no doctrine; hold out no allurement or bribe for the adoption of theological opinions." How far in advance of his age Mendelssohn was! It took a full century after his Jerusalem for England to abolish theological tests " at the universities, tests which indeed did reward "

and punish doctrines. Mendelssohn goes on " Let everyone who does not disturb public happi-

:

180

"

MENDELSSOHN'S

who

JERUSALEM "

government, who acts righteously towards his fellow-man, be allowed to speak as he thinks, to pray to God after his own

ness,

is

obedient to the

civil

fashion, or after the fashion of his fathers,

seek eternal salvation where he thinks he

No

it."

one, unless

may

so

find

be that earlier Jewish phil-

it

osopher Spinoza, had ever put the case for tion

and to

tolera-

Whether Mendelssohn's own

cogently.

principles are consistent with his further conclusion

that once a

Jew always a Jew, will ever be doubted. The Talmud (Sanhedrin 44a) had said: An MenIsraelite, though he sin, remains an Israelite. delssohn rather said: sin.

the

An

Israelite has

no right to

True, the world need not accept Judaism, but " I do not see," cries Jew may never reject it. "

how those who were born in the Mendelssohn, house of Jacob can, in any conscientious manner, disencumber themselves of the law. We are allowed to think about the law, spirit

....

but

our

all

onerate us from the I

am

not

now

To

reasoning cannot exobedience we owe to it."

Mendelssohn.

live

its

fine

strict

criticising

to expound him.

to inquire into

I

am

trying

under the law of the State

and at the same time to remain loyal to the law of Judaism is hard. But Mendelssohn went on:

Bear both burdens.

That assuredly 181

is

a counsel

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND in golden letters over the even though we may interportal of Judaism now, pret the' burdens differently in our different circum-

which should be inscribed

stances.

Mendelssohn's masterpiece includes much else. But what precedes ought to be enough to whet readers' appetites for the

when

whole meal.

On

an occa-

had William James, him of Mendelssohn, and he admitted that his own Pragmatic theories were paralleled by the Jerusalem. He promised to write on the subsion I

a long talk with

I

spoke to

ject,

but death claimed

him

all

too soon.

we

agree with Mendelssohn or not, agree in appreciation of his genius.

and what we do not do, discussion

sohn

is

of

is

let

Whether us at least

What

he did,

to face unflinchingly the

fundamentals.

Reading MendelsBut there's the How, if we know no

to breathe the fresh air.

Read Mendelssohn? German? It is deplorable

rub!

no longer accessible because once

it

was

that the Jerusalem

in English.

accessible.

I say

And

is

no longer,

not once only,

but twice.

In 1852, Isaac Leeser published an English version in Philadelphia. No wonder our American brothers

still

hold Leeser in such reverent esteem.

Hfe deserved well of the Jewry of his land. 182

But

"

MENDELSSOHN'S Leeser's

was not

the

first

JERUSALEM " English translation of

In 1838, M. Samuels issued in two volumes an English version in London it was dedi-

Jerusalem.

;

cated to Isaac

Lyon Goldsmid, and contained much

besides the Jerusalem.

know nothing

I

of the

was not, and another thing that he was. He was not a native Englishman, and he was a good scholar. About a dozen years earlier (1825) he had produced a " Memoirs of Moses Mendelvolume, entitled translator except one thing that he

sohn

"

(what a

pitfall that

Throughout M. ing in the

name

double

Samuels' earlier ;

in the later

s is

to printers!

book an

publication

it

s is

miss-

has been

Samuels asserts himself a "disciple recovered). " of the leading system of the work perhaps this ;

accounts for his enthusiasm, shown in his conscientious annotations,

which are fragrant with genuine

Jewish thought. With very slight furbishing up, Samuels' rendering could be re-printed to-day. One of the most urgent needs of our age in Englishspeaking lands is that Jews should once more be-

come familiar with

the thought of the eighteenth Like and particularly of Mendelssohn. century, many another of my generation, I was brought up

rather to decry him.

I

have learned better now,

and would fain urge others tion.

183

to a like reconsidera-

HERDER'S ANTHOLOGY Johann Gottfried von Herder belonged to the school of Rousseau. The latter, from whom the French Revolution derived

its

philosophy,

was

enamored of the primitive and the ancient. Nature began far better than she became after man mis-

Herder (1744-1803) plays on

handled her.

word

" simplicity."

because

was

it

ficiality.

loved the

Hebrew

Herder's work on the Spirit of

the

first

is it

Hebrew

fairly characterized by Graetz

Herder was

epoch-making.

of the moderns to rouse interest

the Bible as literature.

What

his

in

contemporary

Lessing did in Germany for Shakespeare, did for the Psalter.

Now

poetry

so spontaneous, so untainted by arti-

Poetry (1772-3) when he terms

among

He

the

Herder

Herder's treatment of ancient literature

rendered a lasting service despite his fundamental misconception. " excessive

human

What James

and sentimental

culture

Sully calls Herder's interest

in

"

prepared the " " theories of our time. genetic 184

way

He

primitive

for

the

thoroughly

HERDER'S

ANTHOLOGY

realized the natural element in national poetry.

He

explained genius in terms of race. To him is due some part of the conception of a " Jewish culture," as formulated by present-day Zionists of Ahad

ha-'Am's school.

It

is

rather curious that while,

on the one hand, Herder's theories helped national anti-Semitism, on the other hand, they gave suggestions to national Judaism. By laying undue stress

on the natural, Herder exaggerated the

national in the

human

spirit.

Herder had thought of

In his early

manhood

training as a physician.

But he abandoned the idea because he could not endure the dissecting-room. When he came to discuss the world's genius he used the scalpel freely

His gorge rose against cutting up the enough. body, but he felt no reluctance to dissect the spirit. Earlier writers had overlooked the national

ele-

ment in the Bible. Herder saw in the Old Testament nothing but national songs. The thought often led him right. He strongly opposed, for instance, the mystic

and allegorical interpretations of

Song of Songs. To him it was a love poem, the purest, most delicate love poem of antiquity (" den reinsten und zartesten Liebesdichtung des Altertums"). Hebrew literature was national, but it the

revealed

its

nationality under unique conditions, 185

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND "

was marked by the poetic consciousness of God." In all this Herder was magnificently right. for

it

In one of his

But he could not leave well alone. he

summed up

the

Hebrew

poetry as but also by simdistinguished indeed by religiosity, plicity (" kindliche Naivetat, Religiositat, Einlatest essays

falt

")

.

No term

could be worse chosen.

Hebrew

poetry shows consummate art. If it conveys the sense of simplicity, it is because the poet's art so

Herder made workings. aesthetically the same mistake as Wellhausen perthoroughly conceals

its

petrated theologically. According to Wellhausen, the prophets of the eighth century before the Chris-

appeared as an utterly new phenomenon on the Hebraic horizon, whereas, in truth, tian era suddenly

by the time we reach Amos we have got to a very advanced stage in the religious history of Israel. with the biblical poetry. It is, even in earliest fragments, such as the Song of Deb-

So, too, its

orah,

a

is it

highly cultivated

word

is

the last

is

sincere, but

who

to apply to

it is

form. it.

not naive.

It

"

"

Simplicity is

powerful,

The Greek

it

athlete

conquered at the Olympic games was robust,

but he had gone through a long process of train-

Vigor is not synonymous with artlessness. Trench wrote a charming book on the " use of ing.

186

HERDER'S

ANTHOLOGY

An

equally entertaining book could be " misuse of words." In such a compiled on the

words."

book, a front place would be assignable to Herder's " simplicity."

What

distinguished

Hebrew

poetry was not that

derived from the narrowing fetand epoch. Why is the Bible the most translatable book? Why has it been found

element which

it

ters of locality

the easiest of the great classics to re-express in the manifold tongues of man? Because it is so inde-

pendent of the very qualities by which Herder sought to explain "

natural

"

and

"

it!

The

national

"

poetry of Israel was in the sense that

it

cor-

responded to human nature, and was susceptible of interpretation in terms of every nationality. Over "

Herder's tomb was inscribed the legend Licht, have inscribed Herder these Leben." Liebe, might or similar words

Hebrew

over certain of the gems of " "

are a Light, love, life " truer characterization than naiveness, religiosity, literature.

simplicity."

Graetz thought the

that,

time when Jew and

though Herder dreamed of Gentile would understand

and appreciate each other, he was the Jews. fell

He

under the

was,

it is

spell of

ill-disposed to

true, not one of those

who

Moses Mendelssohn's

per-

187

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND sohality.

the spell.

He was When

disinclined to subject himself to

Mendelssohn sought Herder's

the

acquaintance,

latter

received

the

proposal

This was not necessarily due to unkindcoldly. It seems to me that Herder, who much adness.

mired Lessing, was rather resentful of the close intimacy between the hero and the author of

Nathan

Herder had no

the Wise.

one of a menage a

trois.

As Graetz

Herder did come

delssohn and

desire to

adds,

form

Men-

closely together

Herder,

in

one of his

says, dated 1781, the very year

in

which Lessing

after Lessing's death.

es-

passed away, pays Mendelssohn a pretty compliment, praising him as an exponent of Jewish ideals. " Herder's essay was prefixed to his Anthology from Eastern Poets " (Blumenlese aus morgenIdndische Dichtern] Few of us remember that .

word Anthology corresponds " collection Blumenlese; it means a the

exactly

with

of flowers."

Fore(Compare Graetz's Leket Shoshannim.) most among the floral graces of Herder's Oriental

garland are the

famous

binical legend

moreover, a

made from

selections

Talmud and Midrash. Here, Herder was rather too inclined to

the

as elsewhere, treat the rab-

and parable as " naive."

little

patronizing to the 188

He

was,

Haggadists

HERDER'S

when he declared

that

ANTHOLOGY "

they did not understand posed grotesqueness of

modes of

people laughed at what "

referring to the supsome of the rabbinic

But he was happier when he

expression.

described vandals like Eisenmenger as men who " rough-handled the butterfly, and who, mangling the beauteous creature between their coarse fingers,

wondered that

they found on their hands was a particle of dust." No one has ever translated raball

binic parables so successfully as

Herder.

His very

him in good stead. whence he derived his knowl-

love for the unfamiliar stood

He

does not

tell

us

edge of the originals. Probably it was in oral intercourse with Jews. Such a spelling of Lilit as Lilts looks as

though he heard

it

pronounced by a

German Jew. Be

that as

it

may, Herder enters

into the spirit of

the rabbinic apologues with rare understanding.

He

chose the subjects with judgment, and executed There could have felicity.

the renderings with

been nothing but love for Judaism in the man who thus selected and who thus translated. Graetz was

unduly hard on him. It was quite possible for a man to be fond of Jews and yet not drawn to Mendelssohn.

The

last-named fascinated so

he could afford to

find

many

one person antipathetic 189

that if

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND indeed he was

so.

Long

cult of the rabbinic wit

Emanuel Deutsch

before others took to a

and wisdom, long before world in

startled the English

October, 1867, by his question " view: What is the Talmud ?

duced the German world to

in the

Quarterly Re-

", Herder had introit, and had in part

answered Deutsch's question by anticipation. From several points of view, therefore,

Herder

is

of im-

port for the Jewish student of nineteenth century history.

190

"

WALKER'S

THEODORE CYPHON "

Cumberland's play, The Jew, appeared in 1794, two years later was published Theodore

and

Cyphon, seller of

The author was George Walker, London and a prolific writer of

His works are

a curious

a book-

novels.

compound of wild melo-

dramatic incident with comments, often shrewd enough, on social and political actualities.

Theodore

Cyphon well The main plot is

method.

in retrospect, of

He

Arabia.

a tiresome story, told

life,

from the Minories

to

ends on the scaffold for an offence

in truth his noblest act

between we

Walker's

Theodore's heroism and misfor-

tunes in several walks of

which was

represents

of chivalry.

In

have a quite able discussion on the

cruelty of inflicting capital punishment in cases of

The author

mere robbery.

concludes his Preface " with the fear that readers may exclaim Well, it :

was very

tragical; but I

tled at last."

modern

That,

am

at least,

glad the hero is setis the sentiment of a

reader.

This novel of Walker's, however, arrests tion

by being

set in a

Jewish frame. 191

atten-

The term

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND frame

is

used advisedly, since the main narrative

independent of the setting. The full title of the book

of

it.

1823.

is

Theodore Cyphon,

There were two

or the Benevolent Jew.

The first came out in Of the second edition

editions

1796, the second the British

possesses a complete copy; of the

imperfect example

is

edition an

first

consisting of the

in

Museum

first

of the

three volumes

has recently been presented to the " benevolent University Library, Cambridge. The " is one Shechem Bensadi, and he is drawn Jew with more than sympathy. at exorbitant rates to the

and devotes

Nay,

When

cute; he

improvident aristocracy,

his gains to the relief of

unfortunates. serving.

Shechem lends money

his clients are not

deserving always de-

robbed, Shechem refuses to prose-

showers favors on those

who

treat

him

His philanthropy is extended to Jew despitefully. and Gentile alike. There is one remarkable scene in the fifth chapter, in which Shechem is shown in a large storehouse, surrounded

by scores of poor

whom

he supplies goods, thus enabling them Jews to earn a livelihood. In equally striking chapters to

Shechem plays

the role of benefactor

to others than his

The

first

own

edition of

and friend

coreligionists.

Theodore Cyphon was 192

obvi-

WALKER'S

"

THEODORE CYPHON "

ously suggested by Cumberland's success.

ously enough, the sub-title, is

used

Curi-

The Benevolent Jew,

concerning Cumberland's play of the Transactions of the Jew-

in the sheet

printed in vol.

vii

ish Historical Society of

England, p. 177. It is not improbable that the second edition of Theodore Cyphon was due to the popularity of Scott's Ivan-

hoe, which was published in December, 1819. There are not wanting some superficial parallels between Scott's masterpiece and Walker's earlier and more moderate production. Eve, Shechem's

daughter, nurses Walker's hero, just as Isaac's daughter Rebecca nurses Scott's hero. The most

perhaps the only real one scenes, one in Ivanhoe, the other

interesting parallel

presented

in

two

is

in

Theodore Cyphon. The first is the occasion on which Rebecca sings her famous hymn. Scott describes his

poem

as a

which the evening

"

translation

ritual of the

"

of a

hymn

with

Synagogue con-

is really an original composition inspired various by scriptural texts, and in its turn may have suggested some great lines in Kipling's Recessional.

cluded. It

Is

it

possible that Scott's idea of Rebecca's

was suggested by Walker?

hymn

For, in the second

scene alluded to above, Eve, tco, is overheard " music wild, yet so soft." singing a song to 13

193

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND of Eve's gives us only the last stanza which runs thus (p. 46 of vol. i of the 1796

Walker song,

edition)

:

The wand'rers

of Israel, through nations dispers'd,

Shall again dwell in safety, again rest in peace;

And

the harp, that so plaintive our sorrows rehears'd,

Shall thrill with

The

new

pleasures, as pleasures increase;

sweet, spicy shrubs, that

wave over

the hills,

Untouch'd by the simoom, eternally blow, Frankincense and myrrh from their bosom

And

love shall attend on our path as

Scott, of course,

we

distils,

go.

had other models beside Walker.

Byron's Hebrew Melodies came out both with and without Nathan's musical accompaniment, in 1815, four years before Ivanhoe was written.

It is curi-

ous, by the way, to note that Rudolf Eric Raspe,

the original of the character

whom

Scott so merci-

lessly caricatures as Dousterswivel

in his

novel

The Antiquary, was not only the author of Baron Miinchausen, but was also the first translator into English of Lessing's Nathan der Weise (London, 1781).

Scott does not

seem

to

have been

ac-

quainted with Lessing's play, either in the original or in translation. Scott's indebtedness to Marlowe,

on the other hand, has already been pointed out by the present writer. 194

WALKER'S

"

THEODORE CYPHON "

Having drawn attention to the parallel between Walker and Scott, it will be useful to note an

On

equally striking contrast

pages 110-112 of

Theodore Cyphon occurs the passage " His chief concern was for Eve, whom he saw, notwithstanding Theodore's supposed engagements, and the restrictions of religion, still encour:

age sentiments which sapped the foundation of her happiness, and which no expedient offered to re-

move, but by parting with

its

object, or suffering

their marriage spite of religion and law. '

Though a Jew, skilled in the learning of the Talmud and Mosaic law, he was without those prejudices that attend on superstition. clearly that,

when

those precepts were

He

saw

first insti-

were designed as a prevention of communication between the Israelite and Heathen, lest tuted, they

by the influence and interchange of the softer

sex,

they might be led into the practice of idolatry.

Yet

now, taking up the argument

in a religious

way,

the danger existed no longer; both Jew and Christian agreeing in the chief article of worship, though

divided about what the understanding of neither can comprehend. In a civil light, man was created for the society of man.

dom and

The

distinction of king-

people were childish, and 195

fit

only to insult

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND the understanding. in these

But whilst he indulged himself

speculations, he avoided hinting to

that there

was

a possibility she should ever

Eve

become

the wife of Theodore, that the unattainability of

the object might blunt or destroy the ardour of hope for however he might have wished for such :

a character (so far as observation could judge) as

under the present circumstances he could not have allowed it, had even the affections

his son-in-law,

of Theodore been placed upon her, which he believed was far from the case, as the observation he

had made when he entered

chamber abruptly, which his daughter had his

and the words, O Eliza,' heard, led him to conclude some prior engagement '

retained him."

The

sequel shows that

ried to Eliza.

Theodore

With Walker's

is

already mar-

view, however, as to

such a marriage, it is fruitful to compare the noble passage, on the same subject, with which Scott concludes the preface to the 1830 edition of Ivanhoe: " The character of the fair Jewess found so

much favour

in

the eyes of

some

the writer was censured, because,

fair readers, that

when arranging

the fates of the characters of the drama, he

had

not assigned the hand of Wilfred to Rebecca, rather than to the less interesting Rowena. But, 196

WALKER'S

"

THEODORE CYPHON "

not to mention that the prejudices of the age rendered such an union almost impossible, the author may, in passing, observe that he thinks a character

of a highly virtuous and lofty stamp is degraded rather than exalted by an attempt to reward virtue with temporal prosperity. Such is not the recom-

pense which Providence has deemed worthy of suffering merit,

and

it

is

a

dangerous and

fatal

young persons, the most common readers of romance, that rectitude of conduct and

doctrine to teach

of principle are either naturally allied with, or adequately rewarded by, the gratification of our passions,

or attainment of our wishes.

virtuous and self-denied character

In a word, is

if

a

dismissed with

temporal wealth, greatness, rank, or the indulgence of such a rashly-formed or ill-assorted passion as that of Rebecca for Ivanhoe, the reader will be

apt to say, Verily, virtue has had glance on the great picture of

its

reward.

life will

But a

show, that

the duties of self-denial, or the sacrifice of passion to principle,

are seldom thus remunerated; and

that the internal consciousness of their high-minded

discharge of duty produces on their own reflections a more adequate recompense, in the form of that

peace which the world cannot give or take away." 197

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

From has

little

from the

the artistic point of view, Walker's novel merit.

But

it

deserves to be better

historical point of view.

expression of the

new

It

known

was another

attitude towards the Jew,

which began to distinguish English latter part of the eighteenth century.

198

letters in the

HORACE SMITH OF THE "REJECTED " ADDRESSES

Horace Smith and

his brother

James are famous most successful parody ever perpetrated. Drury Lane Theatre was reon October 10, 1812, having been rebuilt opened

as the joint authors of the

it some three years a advertised previously. competition for the best address to be spoken at the re-

after the fire

which destroyed

The Committee

opening. It is easy to imagine what occurred. Masses of poems were sent in, and in despair all of

them were

rejected,

write a prologue.

It

and Byron was invited

to

occurred to the Smiths to pro-

duce a series of parodies in the style of the poets of their day. They pretended that all, or most of

them, had been candidates for the prize, and on the very day of the re-opening was published the

volume of Rejected Addresses, which, conceived, executed, printed, and published within the space of six weeks, continues in the general judgment of critics the finest jeu d' esprit of its kind. Interesting enough it would be to linger over the must, neverthegeneral aspects of this book.

We

199

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND^ the temptation to recall the marvellous imitations of that genial friend of ours, the author

less, resist

of Ivanhoe

or of that crabbed foe of Jewish Capital, too, is emancipation, William Cobbett. the skit on

come

Thomas Moore.

into that effusion as a

Moore, Eve was

Eve and

the apple

matter of course.

as Charles'

head

to

To

Mr. Dick.

One

could compile a fair-sized volume out of the Irish sentimentalist's allusions to the first pair in Paradise.

Moore used

the allusion seriously and

humorously. In the Lives of the Angels, Adam is driven not from but into Paradise, for as Eve had to go,

him

it

would have been the reverse of

to be left

behind

Moore plays on the

Eden.

in

bliss for

In another poem,

rabbinic suggestion that

was made out of the man's

tail,

and

so,

woman

comments

man

ever after has followed the original and his wife behind him whenever he leaves plan,

the poet,

can.

Again and

again,

Moore

in his

poems claims

close acquaintance with rabbinic lore, of which, in fact,

he knew only a few scraps from second-hand

sources.

So we might continue to glean thoughts from It needs gleaning, because Rejected Addresses. the direct references to contemporary

few. This negative point

is

200

Jews are very not without interest.

A

HORACE SMITH OF THE

"

REJECTED ADDRESSES "

dramatic squib nowadays would almost certainly its hits against Jews. The Smiths only once

have

refer to a

Jew

Lyon Levi or

the unfortunate

Levy, who committed

suicide

by

flinging himself

He was a merchant and the newspapers of January Haydon Square, 19, 1810, record the event as having occurred on

over the London Monument. of

the previous day.

It

is

dent should be fresh

not surprising that the

it

the

For

later.

after an inter-

we

again find an allusion Ingoldsby Legends. Levi was neither nor the last to precipitate himself from the

val of thirty-seven years, to

men's minds when the

in

Smiths wrote three years

inci-

in the

first

summit of Wren's column eventually the top was encaged, to bar others from a similar temptation. ;

It

was remarked above

dresses

were

gibes.

Impossible would

that the Rejected

from

free

absolutely

it

Ad-

anti-Jewish

have been for the

Smiths to have acted otherwise.

Horace,

in par-

ticular, was an ardent admirer of Richard Cumberland, writer of The Jew, which at the end of the

eighteenth century did so

Jews

in

much

English good-will.

to rehabilitate the

We

can see Horace

Smith's tendency, negatively, in one of his other " poems. In the Culprit and the Judge," he deals with a case of coin-clipping in medieval France. 201

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

As with

all

points.

The judge denounced

of Horace's verses,

and ordered the offender This

capitation. "

As

to offending

The Yours I

Of

is

to be

good King Pepin, punished with de-

the clever reply of the culprit

:

powers divine," "

culprit cried, is

of good

as profanation the

filing the similitude of

crime of

full

is

it

be nothing said

:

a deeper guilt than mine.

took a portion from the head

image you, oh fearful odds ! whole head at once from God's!"

the King's

Strike the

;

One wonders whether

the author

had ever heard

of the closely parallel idea of the ancient Rabbi, the murderer as one who dimin-

who denounced

ished the divine image in which

man had

been

Observe, however, how Horace Smith refrom making cheap capital out of the joke by describing the offender as a Jew. Smith knew the truth too well. He knew that, though some were Jews given to coin-clipping, there were many

made. frains

offenders

who were

characteristic of

not Jews.

It

is

absolutely

Horace Smith that he should have

refrained from libelling

all

Jews for the

sins of

some.

Horace Smith was, as already suggested, actuated in his philo-Semitism by knowledge. And 202

HORACE SMITH OF THE

"

REJECTED ADDRESSES "

this is the reason

why, though his brother James wrote some of the best of the parodies in Rejected Addresses, this present article deals less with him than with Horace. For that the latter knew and

understood Judaism can be demonstrated by the In 1831 he published a prose clearest evidence.

volume, which ought to be better known to English " Festivals, Games, Jews than it is. The title is

and Amusements, Ancient and Modern."

The

second chapter deals with the ancient Jews. It reveals an almost perfect insight into the Jewish conception of

life.

amendment expound, "

It is

it

to

Only one or two passages require

make

it

quite perfect.

I

need not

will suffice to quote a single passage

:

worthy of remark that the government he

(Moses) established, the only one claiming a divine author, was founded on the most democratical and even levelling principles. It was a theocratical the commonwealth, having Deity Himself for its King.

Agriculture was the basis of the Mosaic the husbandsmen were on a footing of

polity; all

perfect equality; riches conferred no permanent preeminence; there was neither peasantry nor nobility,

unless the Levites

may

be considered a sort

of priestly aristocracy, for they were entitled by their birth to certain privileges. 203

But

this

is

foreign

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND to our purpose.

The most

distinguishing features

of the government were the vigilant, the most anxious provisions made for the interests, enjoyments, and festivals of the nation; and that enlarged wisdom and profound knowledge of human

which led the inspired founder of the Hebrew commonwealth to exalt and sanctify the nature,

pleasures of the people by uniting

them with

re-

he confirmed and endeared religion by combining with all the popular gratifications." ligion, while

it

When him

Sir

Walter Scott saw the verses attributed "

I Rejected Addresses, he exclaimed: certainly must have written this myself, though I forget on what occasion." Some of us might say

to

the

in

same of

certain of the phrases in the passage

The

joyousness of Judaism has not been asserted with more sureness of touch by any just quoted.

Jewish writer than it was by Horace Smith. another part of his book, he misconceived the

In atti-

tude of the Pentateuch to the non-Jew, but otherwise he well understood Moses and the Law.

204

PART

IV

PART IV BYRON'S

No

"

HEBREW MELODIES "

from Byron's poetry is complete " unless it contain some of the Hebrew Melodies." Matthew Arnold included five of the twenty-three selection

Bulwer Lytton adopted them all. Swinburne, it is true, gave us a volume of selections pieces;

without a

Hebrew melody

in

it,

but curiously "

enough he admits the verses beginning: They say that Hope is happiness," which, it would seem, were intended for the melodies, though they do not appear among them. Nathan duly adds the lines to his collection,

the fourth

and

"

Number."

last

The

item of

musician

"

Francesca," and, on the other hand, Song of Saul before his Last Battle." " " first came out with settings Melodies

also includes

omits the

The

where they form the final

"

by the Jewish musician, Isaac Nathan. The tunes, partly derived from the Synagogue, were not well chosen; hence, though the vived,

year

the settings are

poems have

sur-

forgotten.

In the same

also

published the

(1815), John Murray 207

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND Before consenting to

verses without the music.

this

step, Byron wrote to Nathan for permission to take He wished, he said, to oblige Mr. Murray, but it.

"

you know, Nathan, it to give and take back.

what

is

sented,

and the

this Preface

" :

I

against

all

good fashion

therefore cannot grant

Nathan readily convolume of poems was issued with

my

not at

is

disposal."

The

subsequent poems were writ-

ten at the request of the author's friend, the

Hon.

D. Kinnaird, for a selection of Hebrew melodies, and have been published with the music arranged by Mr. Braham and Mr. Nathan." In point of fact, Braham had nothing to do with the musical arrangement. Though his name is associated with Nathan's on the title page of the original edition, it is

removed

in the reprints.

has been said above that the musical setting has not retained its hold on public taste. The It

Rev. Francis L. Cohen (in the Jewish Encyclo" depedia, vol. ix, p. 179) speaks of it as having servedly sunk into oblivion." I have recently had several of them played over to me, and my verdict is

the

same

as

Mr. Cohen's.

In themselves the

good enough, Maoz Zur apBut the words and the airs pears among them. and lost chances by ignoring the Nathan rarely fit,

tunes are sometimes

208

yb hi IhJ'sSitw

J<

v JNirt Strert

(Pfwrt

TITLE-PAGE OF THE FIRST EDITION OF BYRON'S

"HEBREW MELODIES"

"

BYRON'S

HEBREW MELODIES "

Nathan's contemporaries had, however, a higher opinion of the work. Perhaps Sephardic music.

it

was because

the composer sang his songs so well;

Braham does not seem repertoire.

by

them

in his

Byron himself was most moved " to a modern ear Beauty a commonplace and inappropriate

his renderings.

"

She Walks

by Nathan's setting its

to have included

But Nathan's auditors were charmed

is

"

and

in

he would not unfrequently join

The

execution."

in

verses were really written for

the tunes, and the poet often consulted the musias to

cian

Nathan

the

style

and metre of the

(in his Fugitive Pieces,

stanzas.

1829), records

conversations during the progress of the joint He tells us, for instance, how Byron re" fused to alter the end of Jephtha's Daughter." As Nathan read the Scripture, and as many others

many

work.

also read

it,

Jephthah's daughter did not perish as

a consequence of her father's vow; but Byron ob" served: not seek to exhume the lady." On

Do

another occasion, Nathan was anxious to

know

what biblical passages were in when he wrote some of the

mind

"

O

snatch'd

away

vaguely answered:

own

reference." 14

such

verses,

as

"

bloom Byron make its must mind Every

in beauty's

"

the poet's

The

!

local color of the 209

poems,

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND besides their substance, is in fact sometimes at fault. " Each flower the dews have lightly wet," is not a

Palestinian touch; the

dews there are remarkable

for their heaviness.

At

this

point

let

us for a

moment

interrupt

Nathan's reminiscences of Byron himself, and cite what he tells us of another famous poet's appre"

ciation of the

melodies were

my

first

Mr.

Walter, then at

Melodies."

When

the

Hebrew

published," says Nathan, Scott,

late residence in

honoured

me

with a

"

Sir

visit

Poland

Street. I sang sevhe repeated his visit, would allow him to introduce

eral of the melodies to

him

and requested that I and his daughter.

They came

his lady

when 1

"

together,

had the pleasure of singing to them Jephtha's Daughter,' and one or two more of the I

favourite airs:

music with the

to

all

they entered into the spirit of the the true taste and feeling so peculiar

Scotch."

Another admirer of Nathan's

singing of the melodies was Lady Caroline Lamb, herself the author of what the conventions of the "

period would have termed elegant verses." Once " she wrote to Nathan: I am, and have been, very ill

;

it

would perhaps cure me

sing to

me Oh Mariamne '

treat you, the

'

if

you could come and

now will you? I enmoment you have this letter come and 210

BYRON'S

"HEBREW MELODIES"

The same

lady translated for him a

Hebrew wife.

elegy which he wrote on the death of his Nathan must obviously have been an ami-

companion and a charming Tenderer of his own music, or he would not have gained the apable

plause of these distinguished judges. As has been seen from the conversations re-

corded above, Byron and Nathan became very intimate in the course of their collaboration over the "

Hebrew Melodies."

It

was

this

work

that

brought them together, though they were contemporaries at Cambridge about 1805, Byron being

Nathan a pupil Solomon Lyon's Jewish school in Cambridge town. But they naturally did not become acquainted a student at Trinity College, and at

Douglas Kinnaird (according to Mr. Prothero) introduced them to one another. Kinnaird was Byron's banker and Cambridge friend. This then.

mention of Mr. Prothero reminds

me

that in his

edition of Byron's Letters, he cites a note written " by the poet to thank Nathan for a seasonable be" of a parcel of matsos. Byron must have quest grown very attached to Nathan. An officious friend

of the poet exhorted the musician to bring the melodies out in good style, so that his lordship's name " might not suffer from scantiness in their publica211

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

Byron overheard the remark, and on the " Do not suffer following evening said to Nathan: more into lead to fool that capricious expense you tion."

than

is

absolutely necessary; bring out the

your own

I

taste.

book

to

have no ambition to gratify, be-

yond that of proving useful to you." The poet was, indeed, so indignant that he generously offered to share in the cost of production, an offer

which Nathan

as generously declined.

Readers of the

"

Hebrew Melodies

"

must have

been struck by the appearance of two poems based " on Psalm 137. Byron first wrote We sate down and wept by the waters," and later on another ver:

"

sion

beginning:

In

the

valley

of

waters

we

Byron himself observed the duplication, and wished to suppress the former copy. It is well

wept."

that he yielded to Nathan's importunities, for the first

version

shows the

is

assuredly the

close connection

finer.

But the incident

between the verses and

For Byron ended the discussion with " I must confess I give a preference these words

the music.

:

to

my

music reason

second version of this elegy; and since your differs so

why

it

widely from the former,

should not also

pearance." 212

make

its

I see

no

public ap-

BYRON'S

"

HEBREW MELODIES "

Such being the close bond between poet and musician,

it is all

the

make

ter did not

a

more regrettable that the more competent use of

lat-

his

A

better fate befell the earlier colopportunity. laboration which (in 1807) resulted in Thomas " "

Moore's

Melodies

title

which sug-

gested that given to Byron's series.

Stevenson

Irish

served

Moore

Byron.

Yet

able to serve

it

and such others

Belshazzar," and the "

Nathan was

seems a pity to leave things in this Such poems as those already alluded

condition. to

better than

a

"

as

"

Saul," the

"

Vision of

Destruction of Sennach-

bear the clearest marks of their design; they were written to be sung, not merely to be read or recited. Jeffrey spoke of their sweetness; Lyt-

erib

all

ton of their depth of feeling; Nathan himself " " Oh! weep for those reaches the realized that

acme of emotional sympathy for persecuted Israel. Here, then, there is a chance for a modern Jewish in 1890, gave us a into the Hebrew of the verses spirited translation Let a better artist than Nathan now language.

musician.

translate

S.

Mandelkern,

them musically

into the

213

Hebrew

spirit.

COLERIDGE'S

"

TABLE TALK "

Coleridge was not master of his genius; his genius was master of him. In one place he speaks of the midrashic fancies about the state of our first " " Rabbinic dotages ; in another he parents as laments, with Schelling, that these same rabbinic stories are neglected,

The Friend,

and proceeds

in his periodical,

quote several with obvious aphe writes in one passage of the proval. Again, " " of Phariproverbial misanthropy and bigotry to

then, in another, he asserts, on the authority " " of Grotius, that the Lord's Prayer was a selec-

saism

tion

;

from the

The truth

liturgy of the Synagogue.

that a large part of Coleridge's work is of the nature of table talk. His relative indeed " the Table published Talk," but a good poet's is

deal else in Coleridge belongs to the same category. His thoughts are, for the most part, obiter dicta, stray jottings, often stating

profound

expressing sheer nonsense.

On

truths, often

the whole, he

was

not unkind to the Jews. He delivered many lectures on Shakespeare, but he never spoke on the Merchant of Venice. He alludes with contempt to 214

COLERIDGE'S the incident of the "

"

TABLE TALK "

pound of

flesh.

Jacob,

it, is

"

he regards as a regular Jew because of his trickiness; but he hastens to take the sting out of true,

the

remark by adding:

man who

"

No man

could be a bad

loved as he loved Rachel."

Throughout we find, in Coleridge's remarks on Jews and Judaism, the same mixture of conventional views and original judgments. He notes the

the theory that the

Jews were destined

to

"

remain

among the nations for the purpose of out the doctrine of the unity of God," pointing " The but spoils the compliment by the comment: a quiet light

religion of the light of the

Jew

is,

indeed, a light; but

glow-worm, which gives no

illumines nothing but itself."

He

it is

heat,

can see

in

the

and the

love of money, yet he always found Jews possessed of a strong national capacity for meta-

Jew only "

physical discussions."

The last remark points to his personal familiarity " I have with Jews. This was actually the case. " a good deal to do with Jews in the had," he says, although I never borrowed any money from them." He records several conversations with Jews, and does not hesitate to admit that course of

my

life,

he mostly got the worst of the argument. argued with one Jew about conversion, and he 215

He cites

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

ism

"

Let us convert Jews to Judaan epigram which has been a good

the Jew's answer: " first

deal repeated in other forms since 1830, when Coleridge first recorded it. On one occasion he ac" " costed an Old Clothes man, and in a hectoring " tone exclaimed: can't you pronounce your

Why

trade

cry

why must you utter The Jew answered: "Sir, I clearly,

grunt?" Old Clothes 1

to say

it

'

you can, but

as well as

if

such

you had

ten times a minute, for an hour, you

'

'

Ogh

Coleridge confesses that he

as I

would

do now," and so he marched

say, off.

clo'

a

can say

"

felt floored."

He

was so much confounded by the justice of his " I folretort, that, to cite his own words again: lowed, and gave him a shilling, the only one I had." Of one particular Jewish friend we know. Coleridge

whom

had

a deep affection for Hyman Hurwitz, " he terms pious, learned, strong-minded,

single-hearted." Afterwards Professor of

Hebrew

London, Hurwitz was, at the beginning of the nineteenth century, the head of the at University College,

"

Highgate Academy."

He

died in

1844, sur-

viving Coleridge by ten years; the latter died at Highgate in 1834. Thus the poet and the Hebraist

were neighbors

as well as friends.

Coleridge trans-

lated into poor English verse Hurwitz's feeble 216

He-

"

COLERIDGE'S

TABLE TALK "

He

brew elegy on the death of Princess Charlotte. also contracted to prepare for the publisher, " " Rabbinical Tales in this ray, a volume of ;

Murwork

Hurwitz was to collaborate with him. The fee was settled; it was to be two hundred guineas; but the arrangement came to nothing. Coleridge was rich in plans

instance, let

the

"

me

cite

what he says about an "

" is

the only subject

an epic poem."

Mark what

at twenty-five,

but,

alas

!

Perhaps another remark of

epic

on

That,"

he

now remaining

for

Destruction of Jerusalem."

declares,

it

As an

which he failed to accomplish.

follows

" :

I

schemed

venturum expectat." his explains

why he

The subject of the never attempted the task. destruction of Jerusalem, with great capabilities, "

No

genius or skill could possibly preserve the interest for the hero being " a profound merged in the interest for the event

has one great defect.

sentiment.

Perhaps in no direction was Coleridge more in advance of his age than in his treatment of the ethics of the Pharisees.

The

Pharisees were, he

contends truly, not a sect; they were, he puts it less By that he aptly, the Evangelicals of their day.

means those who made of

life; therein he

is

religion the

main concern

right, but the term

217

is

some-

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

what unhappily chosen.

Yet not from one point of

have already cited Coleridge's opinion as " to the Jewish sources of the Lord's Prayer."

view.

He

I

takes up a similar position with regard to

the ethics of the Gospels in general. Here is a very remarkable concession: "The Being and Provi-

dence of the Living God, holy, gracious, mercithe creator and preserver of all things, and a

ful,

father of the righteous; the

Moral Law

most height, breadth, and purity;

in its ut-

a state of retri-

bution after death, the Resurrection of the Dead,

and a Day of Judgment all these were known and received by the Jewish people, as established of national faith, at or before the proclaiming of Christ by the Baptist." This is taken, not " " from the collection of Table Talk so named, " " but from the Aids to Reflection (Aphorism articles

vii).

Coleridge

justifies his

Jews by

citing Leviticus 19. 2

ing the

acme of morality

claim in behalf of the

and Micah

in the

6. 8, find-

command

to be

holy and in the prophet's answer to the question, What doth the Lord require of thee? " Just so " did Huxley choose Micah's saying: To do justly, to love mercy, and walk humbly with thy God," as '

word of religion. To give the words of " which cannot be repeated too often: If Huxley the last

218

COLERIDGE'S

"

TABLE TALK "

any so-called religion takes away from this great saying of Micah, I think it wantonly mutilates, while if it adds thereto, I think it obscures, the perfect idea of religion."

No

two minds were more

unlike than Huxley's and Coleridge's scientist,

the one the

the other the metaphysician; the one the

agnostic, the other the mystic.

Yet they agreed

in

perceiving in the prophetic teaching a unique expression of basic moral truth.

219

BLANCO WHITE'S SONNET Fear

natural by night.

Man

in the

day-time is beset by foes; but while he can use his eyes, he has a sense of security. Something he can effect to-

wards

is

self-protection.

But

in

the dark he feels

helpless.

Hence it is natural that the Hebrew poets of the Midrash (on Psalm 92) have used as a theme Adam's first experience of the dark. There was first Friday after Creation. The which illumined the world from

no darkness on the

primeval light, end to end, was not quenched, though Adam had already sinned before night-fall of the day on

which he was born. the Friday's close,

But the Sabbath came with

and the

celestial rays

shone on

through the hours that should have been obscure. When, however, the Sabbath had passed, the heavenly light passed with it, and Adam, to his Would not the consternation, was unable to see. wily serpent choose this as a favorable insidious onslaught? in

Then

nature was kindled in man's 220

moment

for

the light that failed intellect.

Adam,

BLANCO WHITE'S SONNET friction of

by the

ficial light,

two

and so could

stones, cleverly

made

arti-

see again.

So runs one form of the Jewish legend. Another (I am summarizing both from Prof. Louis Ginz-

Legends of the Jews,

berg's

vol.

i,

pp. 86-89) ex-

The primeval

presses the thought differently.

light

does not figure in this version, but it is the normal sun that sinks before Adam's gaze on the Saturday

is

me

",

!

cause of it

"

with compunction. Woe " I have sinned, and behe exclaimed,

Adam was

night.

me

is

filled

the world darkened; because of

will again return to a condition of chaos."

me So

he passed the long vigil of the dark in tears, and Eve wept with him. But with the day he dried For he saw the sun rise once more, and his eyes. realized that the alternations of day and night

were part of the divine order of nature. In both these fancies

Adam

is

much

disturbed by

his first experience of the dark, a guilty conscience

made ists

a

coward of him. But not

the eighth in

all

rested in this attitude of fear.

its

Psalm

more

is

above

all

Hebrew homilThe author of

the poet of the night

uplifting aspects.

He

sees not the

terror, but the illumination of the dark.

The

poet

contemplates the heavens at night; he does not " " the moon and the stars mention the sun, but 221

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND which God has ordained. star-lit sky, especially in

"

Unquestionably, the

the transparent clearness

of an Eastern atmosphere,

is

more

suggestive of

and mystery of the uniSo writes Dr. Kirkpatrick on Psalm 8. 3,

the vastness and variety verse."

and he refers to an eloquent passage

in

Whewell's

Astronomy, Book III, Chapter 3. Certainly those who have beheld the heavens on an Oriental night can conceive nothing more glorious than the spec-

nor recall aught more wonderful than the

tacle,

Psalmist's description of It

was

left to the

it.

theologian Blanco

White

to

combine the two thoughts of fear and illumination, expressed in the Midrash quoted above and in

Psalm

name

8, into

an exquisite Sonnet.

The

author's

But though Joseph Blanco White (1775-1841) was born in Seville, he was an Irishman by descent. When the family settled is

queer enough.

in Spain,

they translated the patronymic

Blanco.

On

White

into

his

coming to England, the theologian simply retained both forms of the name. As the writer in the Dictionary of National Biography recalls,

Blanco White applied to himself the lines

which occur

in

Richard

II,

222

Act

i,

scene 3.

Nor-

BLANCO WHITE'S SONNET folk,

doomed

to

laments his fate

The language

My

exile

in

a

foreign land,

thus

:

I

have learn'd these forty years, now I must forgo;

native English,

And now my tongue's use is Than an unstringed viol or

to

me no more

a harp.

Strange that this passage, of which only a small part has been here quoted, has never been turned into

Hebrew, with

a change in one single

the second line, by a Zionist.

that Blanco White,

who

word

of

Yet more strange

thus deplored the fact that

English was not his native speech, has given us one of the greatest poems in the English

his paternal

language

!

Mysterious Night! when our

first

parent

knew

Thee, from report divine, and heard thy name,

Did he not tremble for this lovely Frame, This glorious canopy of Light and Blue? Yet 'neath a curtain of translucent dew, Bathed

in the rays of the great setting

Flame,

Hesperus with the Host of Heaven came, And lo! Creation widened in Man's view.

Who could

have thought such darkness lay concealed

Within thy beams, O sun or who could find, Whilst fly, and leaf, and insect stood revealed, !

That

Why

to such countless

do

If Light

we

Orbs thou mad'st us blind?

then shun Death with anxious strife?

can thus deceive, wherefore not Life?

223

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND It

is

indeed an exquisite thought.

Adam's

fears as night

falls.

First

we have

Then we have

the

The

sun really conceals. Day shows us indeed insect and plant, but not the vast reply, the antidote.

system of worlds which fill the heavens. It is night that brings to view the amazing extent of the stars,

and unfolds the universe which the day had hidden. So death may reveal much that life conceals. " the finest and most Coleridge pronounced this in our language." The grandly conceived Sonnet

was written by one whose native tongue was Spanish, and who, though his career was extraordinary enough, never praise

is

Yet

not exaggerated.

wrote another

line in

it

prose or verse that has lived. is joined in the realm of

Single-speech Hamilton

immortality by Single-Sonnet White. Written about a century ago, it lives and will go on living.

As

the writer

from

whom

I

drew the

allusion to

"

Shakespeare remarks: Probably Blanco White will continue to be known by this Sonnet, when his other works, in spite of the real interest of his views, have been forgotten."

Great as the Sonnet

however, to express the full significance of the eighth Psalm. The mazes and the wonders of the starry heaven above, unfolded as the sun

sets

is,

it fails,

by night, raise the question 224

BLANCO WHITE'S SONNET

"What

is

man?"

when compared nature. is

to

these

above the heavens

man,

whom He

to rule

stupendous

forces

of

Yet, crowned with glory and honor, man "

master of these forces.

set

is

The splendour

reflected in

of

God

His image,

has crowned as His representative Contrasted (Briggs).

over the earth"

though the glories is

that he should be of account

be, the glory of

related to the glory of

God

225

man

as creature

as Creator.

"ALROY'

DISRAELI'S

Benjamin Disraeli was one of the most truthful

To

authors of the nineteenth century.

confuse his

bombast with pose is to misunderstand him. When, therefore, he said of Alroy that it expressed his "

ideal ambition," there

sincerity.

is

no reason to doubt

Mr. Monypenny, whose judgment

his

can-

not be trusted in general, was right when he fully Mr. accepted Disraeli's statement on this point.

Lucien

Wolf had previously shown

(in the splendid

preface to his centenary edition of Vivian Grey) "

that

from

start

novels are so

to

many

Beaconsfield's

echoes and glimpses of the

Greater Romance of his

Mr. Wolf would

Lord

finish,

own

life."

Would

that

give us an equally fine edition of

Alroy.

For Alroy

is

a novel that deserves to live,

probably will live.

From

the

better liked by the public than

Soon after the book

first

it

and

has been

by the professional

appeared in 1833, Disraeli wrote to his sister that he heard good reports as to the popularity of Alroy, and with char" acteristic conceit," some may term it, though to critics.

226

first

DISRAELI'S

appears more like hear no complaints of its

others "

I

"ALROY"

it

critics."

"

insight," he

style,

except

Mr. Monypenny has repeated

added:

from the same

the

But such objections often falls into rhythms Alroy

critical objections to the style.

have no real

and even

basis.

into rhymes.

prose work? Dickens

method, and

in

Why

is

this a defect in a

frequently followed the same

sundry impressive passages his sen-

tences scan faultlessly.

absolutely divided

Are prose and verse

from one another?

so

If Moliere's

bourgeois gentleman found that he had been speaking prose all his life without knowing it, so do we

sometimes speak verse without being conscious of Do we not all " drop into poetry " on the fact.

moments of Oriental writers had

occasion, in our ordinary speech in

elevation?

Moreover, the

created a form in which prose and verse merge; treating an Eastern theme, might have justified his choice of this very form, easily beloved first of the medieval Arabs, and then

and

Disraeli,

adopted by Hebrew contemporaries. Then, as to the character of Alroy himself, " Disraeli's latest biographer says

Alroy appears to have been

:

little

The

real

David

better than a

vulgar impostor, but Disraeli has idealised him into a figure worthy to be compared with Judas 227

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

Mr. Monypenny borrowed

Maccabaeus."

this

judgment (without acknowledgment) from the Rev. Michael Adler's able article in the Jewish I

Encyclopedia. I

though

dict,

was reached.

cannot myself assent to

The whole

cation of the term characters.

this ver-

appreciate the grounds on which

Why

"

call

thing turns on the appli" to such

Pseudo-Messiah

them

There would

false ?

be sufficient reason for applying the epithet

had the

it

clearest evidence that they

if

we

were conscious

rogues, exploiting their people's faith,

and using

hope as a ladder towards personal ambition. do not know enough of Alroy to assert this of

their

We

Was Disraeli himself an impostor because he thought of himself as another redeemer of Israel? There is little doubt that Alroy is drawn

him.

from Disraeli himself, story

is

Miriam of

modelled on the author's own

bad psychology impostors.

Ghetto

just as the

to

to

dub men

sister.

the It is

of the Alroy type as

Mr. Zangwill, in his Dreamers of the my mind his most wonderful book

refuses to explain Sabbatai Zevi in this easy fash-

Graetz naturally so explained him, but it was precisely in such matters that Graetz was an unsafe ion.

guide.

same

Are we

to judge Messianic claims

principles as

on the

men judge political upheavals? 228

DISRAELI'S

"ALROY"

Treason never prospers, and for

That when

it

this reason:

prospers no one calls

it

treason.

Is an enthusiastic believer in himself, as the in" strument of a great emancipation, " bepseudo cause he fails ? Such explanations explain

nothing. be the truth as to the original Alroy and I repeat that the historical sources give us in-

Whatever

adequate information as to his inner personality there

no room for doubting the character of

is

Disraeli's fictitious hero.

the story

who

the

George

" "

never really grips us." us

"

Eliot's

Despite

a thoroughly

A

are.

It

that

depends on

good many readers

find

Daniel Deronda uninteresting. Yet

Daniel Deronda cess.

is

Alroy

Mr. Monypenny thought

sincere portraiture.

in

its

Hebrew had

a considerable suc-

queer mixture of ill-digested lore

and of genuine material derived from what Disraeli " " termed the erratic Talmud, Alroy has a good deal of Jewish spirit in

it.

In the

many

to the poetical elements of Jewish

ment

rings

Whence beautiful

true.

This

life,

references the senti-

works backward.

fact

did the novelist derive this feeling for the in

Judaism

except

from

his

father?

Isaac Disraeli presents himself to us as a rather un-

sympathetic student of Judaism. 229

In his books he

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND shows knowledge, but no feeling for the synagogue. It almost seems as though we do not see the real man in his books, and yet, after all, it may be doubted whether Benjamin inherited his Jewish idealism from his father. The latter did not at all

approve of his son's Eastern journey. jamin was consumed with the desire to

But Benvisit Jeru-

salem, and he realized this passionate longing in In later life he said that he had begun 1830-1.

Alroy before he Alroy he writes

left

In the preface to Jerusalem in the year

England.

" :

Being

at

1831, and visiting the traditionary tombs of the Kings of Israel, my thoughts recurred to a personage whose marvellous career had, even in boyhood, attracted

attention, as one fraught with the

my

richest materials

of poetic fiction. that should

commenced these pages " the name of Alroy.' *

I

And

then

I

commemorate

do not think that

this

statement contradicts his later assertion. When he " I then commenced," he may well be refersays: " ring to his

boyhood."

Disraeli thoroughly enjoyed his stay in the

Land.

He

refused to admit that

Holy

Athens was more

" I will not place this impressive than Jerusalem. he exclaims of the site of the ancient spectacle," " below the city of Minerva." Perhaps temple, 230

"ALROY"

DISRAELI'S

the most arresting detail in Alroy is the thirty-fifth the notes to the book, after the manner of

note Sir

Walter

He

Scott, are full of curious learning.

discusses the

origin of coffee, the habits of the

marten-cat, the art and furniture of the Orient, the sunset songs of Eastern maidens, the " Daughter

of the Voice," the Persian hurling of the jerreeds (javelins) into the air, the practice of the basti"

nado, the

"

golden wine

of

Mount Lebanon,

the

alleged playing of chess before the date of the Trojan War, screens and fans made of the feath-

and the

ers of the roc, brilliants all

run

"

tremulous aigrettes of worn by persons of the highest rank. In

these directions Disraeli's learning and fancy

and the

riot,

a nightmare,

result,

sometimes as grotesque as

often successful in producing the

is

But

effect.

required a

"

more personal

this thirty-fifth entry strikes

Let us read

note.

it

in his

own

words, remembering, however, that the Mosque of

Omar was "

The

certainly in existence in Alroy's day:

finest

of Olives.,

view of Jerusalem It

is

little

when David Alroy upon

it;

Mosque

of

but

it

Omar,

on the supposed

is

is

from the Mount

supposed to have gazed

enriched

by

the

splendid

by the Moslem conquerors of the Temple, and which,

built site

is

altered since the period

231

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND with

its

gardens, and arcades, and courts, and foun-

tains,

described as the most imposing

of

I endeavored to enter

may fairly be Moslem fanes.

it

at the

hazard of my life. I was detected and surrounded by a crowd of turbaned fanatics, and escaped with I saw enough to feel that minute would not belie the general character I inspection formed from it from the Mount of Olives. I

difficulty;

but

caught a glorious glimpse of splendid courts, and light airy gates of Saracenic triumph, flights of noble steps, long arcades, and interior gardens, where silver fountains spouted their tall streams

amid the

taller cypresses."

Here we,

too,

have a

glorious glimpse

one-half of the real Disraeli for the other half

we must

"

" here and

in

into

Tancred;

study his political novels.

Fivian Grey, so Disraeli himself said, expressed his " " ideal," ampractical," as Alroy expressed his bition. And one final word. I have said nothing of the plot of Alroy. I assume it to be familiar to my readers. If it be not, they can easily make good the omission.

I

have no fear that "

of a " imor

this story

"

hero twelfth century shall I call him " For it is more than ? fail to will postor grip. a story, it is to use that over-worked phrase also a

"

human document." 232

ROBERT GRANT'S

"

SACRED POEMS "

When Gibbon wrote the famous fiftieth chapter of the Decline and Fall, he was suspected of being a Mohammedan, because he dealt leniently with the

Arab

religion.

Edwin Arnold was

half be-

lieved to be a Buddhist, because his Light of Asia

idealized the saint of India.

But Robert Grant

was never called a Jew, despite the fact that he was the champion of Jewish rights in Parliament. Grant was too genuine a Christian for anyone to doubt in

his orthodoxy.

the

abilities

lar

The same man who brought

1830 Bill to remove Jewish political diswas the author of some of the most popu-

hymns of

the Church.

Yet, as though to show the Hebrew spirit of this non-Hebraic friend of the Hebrews, the best of his

poems were written on Hebrew themes. Sir Robert Grant died in India in 1838; he had gone out as In the following year, his

governor of Bombay. brother,

Poems.

Lord Glenelg, published Grant's Sacred It was a small book, containing in all only

a dozen items.

But

it

had

233

a great vogue,

and

'BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

some of the poems found

a place

"

in

almost every

collection of devotional verse," as the children of

the author proudly claim in the preface to the 1868

Grant would have been especially one may feel certain, had he been able

edition. fied,

ticipate that his translation of parts of

would be adopted

grati-

to an-

Psalm 104

such Jewish compilations as the Services for Children drawn up for use in the in

New West End

Synagogue, London. charming poem did Grant write on the text: " Whom have I in heaven but Thee? And there

A

is

none upon earth that

I desire in

comparison of

Thee " (Psalm 73. 25). Earth is beautiful with " " its woods that wave," its hills that tower," and " " human friendship Ocean rolling in his power ;

is

"

a

"

gem

transcending price," while love

is

a

flower from Paradise," Yet, amidst this scene so fair,

Should

I

cease

What were

Whom

And there

"

clouded "

have

Thy

all its I

smile to share,

joys to

so with heaven, where rolls a bliss,

immortal

"

world of purer its

me?

on earth but Thee?

beyond our sight," light," with its un-

union of severed hearts, where " "

music

rings

seraph strings." 234

from

unnumbered

"

ROBERT GRANT'S O!

world

that

Yet

if

is

passing fair;

Thou wert

What were

Whom

have

SACRED POEMS "

absent there,

all its joys to

me?

heaven but Thee?

in

I

The poem might have

closed there,

perhaps

would have suppressed the thin But while it detracts from the virility of

a stronger writer

stanza.

the verses,

adds measurably to their tenderness.

it

Lord of earth and heaven! my breast Seeks in I

was

Thee

lost,

Homeward

its

only rest;

Thy

accents mild

lur'd

Thy wandering

child;

was blind; Thy healing ray Charm'd the long eclipse away;

I

Source of every joy I know, Solace of my every woe, O if once Thy smile divine Ceas'd upon my soul to shine,

What were What have

Almost form, u

as

good

earth or heaven to me? I in each but Thee?

Grant's set

is

Blessed

is

the

though not so perfect in of verses on Psalm 94. 12:

in idea,

man whom

Enchanted with

all that

was dazzling and

followed the rainbow

I

And

still

thou chastenest."

in displeasure

I

Thy

fair,

caught at the toy; goodness was there,

Disappointing the hope, and defeating the joy.

The ments, loss,

divine goodness

when

is

seen in man's disappoint-

the fulfilment of hope

not gain. 235

would have been

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

On

the whole, however, Grant

when writing

His renderings of

successful a

certain

Psalms are

the best attempts of the kind.

This praise

context.

among

is less

when paraphrasing

to a text than

Psalm 49; less unreservedly to his adaptation of Psalm 2. In rendering Psalm 71, Grant gave sentiment too loose a rein. applies to his version of

Addison had translated the opening verses of Psalm "

The

spacious firmament on high." Grant composed what he called " a sequel or coun" to Addison's hymn, corresponding to the terpart 19, beginning

latter portion of

Psalm 19

as Addison's

plement ends thus

:

Almighty Lord! the sun

The moon

And The

fragment

Grant's sup-

corresponds to the earlier portion.

shall fail,

forget her nightly

tale,

deepest silence hush on high

radiant chorus of the sky;

But, fixed for everlasting years,

Unmoved amid

Thy word

When This

is

the wreck of spheres,

shall shine in cloudless day,

heaven and earth have passed away.

fine,

but Grant here hardly bears com-

parison with Addison:

it is

the fate of sequels to

prove inferior to their forerunners. 236

There

is

noth-

ROBERT GRANT'S "SACRED POEMS" ing in Grant's version to equal Addison's close, where the sun, moon, and stars are Forever singing as they shine, "

On

made

that

us

is

divine."

the other hand, Grant falls very

Milton

must

The hand

in his imitation of part of

find

room How Thy

to quote deep the

it

joy,

little

in full.

Almighty Lord,

altars to the heart afford!

With envying

eyes

I

see

The swallow fly to nestle there, And find within the house of prayer A bliss denied to me !

Compelled by day

Where

to

roam

for food

scorching suns or tempests rude

Their angry influence

fling,

O, gladly in that sheltered nest

She smooths,

And

at eve, her ruffled breast,

folds her

weary wing.

Thrice happy wand'rer! fain would Like thee, from ruder climates

That

How To

I,

fly,

seat of rest to share;

Opprest with tumult, oft

my

lay

its

Oh! ever on

sick

with wrongs,

fainting spirit longs

sorrows there! that holy ground

The cov'ring cherub Peace is found, With brooding wings serene; 237

below

Psalm 84.

I

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND And Charity's seraphic glow, And gleams of glory that foreshow

A

higher, brighter scene.

For even that refuge but bestows

A

transient tho' a sweet repose,

For one short hour allowed;

Then upwards we

To

A

Had For

heaven without a cloud!

Grant ever studied rabbinic commentaries?

this

Psalm

shall take our flight

hail a spring without a blight,

is

made of the eighty-fourth Midrash. The earthly pilgrimage

the very use

in the

leads to the heavenly Zion. I

have used for

readers

may have

this

poem

expected

me

space which some to reserve for the

best of all of Grant's renderings, that of portions

of Psalm 104.

In this Grant not only does not fall below the greatest of his predecessors Henry

Vaughan work.

but he transcends even that master's

It is true that

of this long Psalm a

Vaughan renders

literally,

few verses.

whereas Grant merely But none the less,

paraphrases " Grant's O Worship the King " duction of the Psalmist's spirit.

monly happens with Grant, he end, and

his sixth verse

is

238

the whole

is

a superb repro-

As

not uncom-

falls off

towards the

nowadays

justly deleted

"

ROBERT GRANT'S

when

the rendering

however,

is

be

could

SACRED POEMS "

used

liturgically.

more

exquisite

Nothing, than these

stanzas:

The earth with its store Of wonders untold, Almighty!

Thy power

Hath founded Hath

By

of old:

'stablished

fast

it

a changeless decree,

And round

it

hath

cast,

Like a mantle, the sea.

Thy bountiful care What tongue can It

breathes in the

recite?

air,

It shines in the light; It

streams from the It

And

sweetly distils

In the

One wonders

hills,

descends to the plains,

dew and

the rain.

He

at his versatility.

could draft

a bill for parliament deftly, and then indite such

verses as those quoted.

There

indeed, some-

is,

thing akin to the Hebrew genius For David, too, could govern, and

in

of ruling meditate the Psalms which nal an appeal.

On

the English.

in the intervals

make

so eter-

Robert Grant, the advocate of

Jewish rights, there had, indeed, fallen a portion of the Davidic spirit. 239

"

GUTZKOW'S Twice within

URIEL ACOSTA "

were hopes of the production of Uriel Acosta on the EngSoon after Sir Hall Caine published lish stage.

my

recollection there

the Scapegoat that noblest of recent tales with " " Sir Herbert Tree was present Jewish plot

a

with the novelist at a Maccabean banquet. On that occasion Sir Herbert, adopting a suggestion of my

own, announced that he had proposed to Mr. ZangAcosta for His

will the office of preparing Uriel

Majesty's

Theatre.

Nothing has come

of

it.

years before, that competent actor, Mr. A. Bandmann, was lessee of the Lyceum for a time.

Some

He

had often played the part of Uriel in Germany with success, and he had an English version made. was not performed, but the plan was so far fruitful that Mr. H. Spicer's adaptation was pub-

It

lished.

workmanlike but undistinguished renderintroduces It mistakes for which Gutzkow is

It is a

ing.

(such as the barbarism Sanhedrim), and omits points which make up Gutzkow's merit.

guiltless it

Curious, for instance,

is it

that the English version

240

GUTZKOW'S

"

URIEL ACOSTA "

should obscure the line which so lingers in the mind of the reader of the original, the line in fact most often quoted of everything that Gutzkow wrote. I refer, of course, to the old Rabbi's constant com-

ment on

Uriel's heresies.

are as old as old

;

it

has

all

These, urged the Rabbi, " happened before ( Alles

schon einmal dagewesen"). It is a striking " variant on Solomon's epigram, there is nothing new under the sun" (Ecclesiastes I. 9), and it ist

drones through the recantation scene with fine dramatic effect. Far superior to this English version

is

Rubin

the in

The told.

Hebrew

rendering published by Salomo

1856.

actual facts about Uriel Acosta are soon

His was an

arresting personality, but his

importance has been much overrated. Acosta would have been deservedly forgotten but for the similarity between his career and that of another

Amsterdam Jew of

the

same period

Baruch

Both came into conflict with the synaSpinoza. gogue, both were excommunicated. But there the In Gutzkow's play, Uriel proclaims himself sufficient unto himself (" Mir selber

resemblance ends.

Welt"). This is what Uriel was not.

bin ich cine ganze

Spinoza was, just represents Uriel as a youth 16

241

just

what

Gutzkow

at the time of his sui-

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND But he was certainly over fifty, and more He shot himself in probably was nearer sixty. cide.

appears that he was born in Oporto in 1590, he must have been fifty-seven at the moment of his tragic end. Uriel (or Gabriel as he 1

647 and ;

as

it

was then named) was the scion of a Marano family, and in 1617 contrived to escape to Holland, where he resumed Judaism. But he was no more contented with his ancestral religion than he had beeen with the creed to which he had compulsorily conformed. He advocated a purely deistic philos-

was excommunicated by

ophy,

the

communicated, and

finally

synagogue,

was again

recanted, again defied the authorities,

ex-

underwent the degradawhich he put an end

tion of a public penance, after to his troubled life.

though,

mass

Uriel's misfortune

was

that,

he was unable to go with the beliefs, yet unlike Spinoza, he was unable

like Spinoza,

in its

to stand alone.

Gutzkow was attracted own devotion to freedom.

to the subject

by his

In the stormy movements which culminated in the outbreaks of 1848,

Gutzkow was in 1 8

1 1

onment party.

,

directly implicated.

He

was born

when

barely twenty, suffered impris" " as a leader of the Young Germany and,

Besides,

Gutzkow had many 242

close

Jewish

GUTZKOW'S

"

URIEL ACOSTA "

friends,

among them Berthold Auerbach, who,

perhaps,

introduced Uriel Acosta to his notice.

When Gutzkow Europe was on

wrote his play on the subject, the eve of revolution. It is signifi-

cant, in face of the anti-Semitism

which

really orig-

inated on the failure of the Liberals, that selected, in 1847, a

Gutzkow

Jewish mis-en-scene, in order between the old order and

to depict the struggle

And

the new.

to the insight

it is

impossible to refuse admiration

and

skill

which enable the author,

while obviously sympathizing with the new, to treat the old with justice and even with tenderness. The characters Judith,

is

are

all

types.

Menasseh,

father

of

the fair-dealing merchant, accepting the

current religion of his people without enthusiasm for or against

more or piece,

is

less

its

demands.

Judith, the heroine,

betrothed to Jochai, the villain of the

vaguely susceptible to the newer ideas of

her tutor and lover Uriel. ventionally drawn

Jochai

is

a rather con-

But the strength of the play is the contrast, on the one hand, between Uriel and the Rabbis, and, on the other, between rascal.

the various schools of Rabbis

among

themselves.

Da

Silva has the tolerance of uncertainty as to his own position, Akiba has the broad generosity which

comes from confidence

in

243

his

old-world loyalty.

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

The

scenes between Uriel

the former and "

May you never

stage. cries

Da

Silva to

recantation.

and

Silva,

Akiba would make

and between

a success

on any

repent of this repentance," is talk of Uriel's

Akiba when there

There

this recantation.

is

strong emotional interest in

Shall Uriel recant for Judith's

Hardly. But he cannot resist the appeal " I tremble before thy sightof his blind mother. less eyes; shut thine eyes, mother! Yea, I will sake?

do

it."

The

ish at their

Both Judith and Uriel perown hands. But the tragedy did not

end

Mention has been made of Da

close

there.

If Uriel

is

is

tragic.

Silva.

the counterpart of the talmudic arch-

heretic, Elisha

ben Abuyah, then

is

Da

Silva the re-

incarnation of Elisha's contemporary Meir.

Who

has not wept over the heart friendship but mind estrangement of these two men ? Da Silva stands in the

same

He

relation to Uriel.

but loves the heretic.

hates the heresy,

Uriel himself uses words "

Love or Truth? What if the heart be wiser than the mind? " Spinoza (who was really fifteen years of age when which sum up the

Uriel died)

flits

situation.

across the scene as a

der at

his childish thoughts.

244

little

boy,

why people won" Uriel bids him Keep

strewing flowers and wondering

GUTZKOW'S

"

URIEL ACOSTA "

thy soul's secret and so find peace."

This is perincident in the tragic play, though the dramatist contrives to relieve the tension by the

haps the

most

simple beauty of the Spinoza interlude. Still, however, the whole of the tragedy has not yet been told.

For Hermann

been named.

Indeed, three remarkable Jellinek the scene. In 1847 two lit-

brothers

Jellinek has not yet

now come on

works appeared on Gutzkow's Uriel. The one (Elischa ben A buy a) was written by Adolf Jelli-

tle

nek, then the youthful preacher of Leipzig, afterwards the famous pulpit orator of Vienna. The

other was Uriel Acosta's Leben und Lehre, and author was Hermann Jellinek (younger than

its

Adolf by a couple of years).

The

booklet was

inscribed to a third brother, Moritz.

mann

Jellinek

"

Her-

to a heated indignation

was roused "

Now

Uriel was by Gutzkow's no lovelorn boy, but a middle-aged philosopher; he died not for loss of Judith, but as a martyr to Hermann Jellinek in so many words sees truth. fictions

about Uriel.

a year later prototype in Acosta less than he at all events shared his hero's tragic end; but

his

own

;

under more dignified circumstances. What the historical Uriel Acosta lacked, Hermann Jellinek possessed in over measure 245

the quality of determi-

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

Hermann was

nation.

a revolutionary,

and took

Viennese rising of 1848, being twentyat the time. He does not seem to have actually

part in the six

resisted the troops, but he

was

court-martialled,

His friends made every effort to save him, but he was relentless. Nothing could move him to present a conciliatory front to and sentenced to death.

In this at least he could be no

the authorities.

Uriel! Recant? No! "Shoot me," he cried, " but ideas cannot be shot." They shot him, and his ideas

may

be found in two or three volumes, of

which dusty copies occur in a few libraries. I have some of them on my table as I write. It is not easy to say

which

Jellinek's

have

his

;

is

the greater tragedy, Acosta's or

but for the

way.

moment

at least let Jellinek

For an hour we have

not his ideas, at

all

events his name.

246

resurrected,

if

GRACE AGUILAR'S " SPIRIT OF JUDAISM " Known Aguilar ism.

to

the

known

is

The book

for

many

to the

her

few for her

novels,

Grace

Spirit of Juda-

passed through a real adventure,

quite as exciting as the fictional fortunes of any of

her

romantic

heroes.

Miss Aguilar wrote She had, lished sermons phia.

"

asked him

in

Somewhat before

1840,

to Isaac Leeser, of Philadel-

1839, read the Rabbi's first pubwas yet to come. She

his Bible

to undertake the editorial supervision

of her manuscript work on the Spirit of our reLeeser courteously responded to the ligion." " request.

"

I shall readily

be believed," he wrote

happy that such a demand had been made upon me; and I accordingly offered my services to do as I was desired." Miss in

1842,

that I felt truly

Aguilar completed the book, but chance decreed that it was not to reach its goal. She sent it out to "

through a private channel," and it never came to Leeser's hands. Such a mishap did not

America

thwart so ardent and industrious a girl she was not much over twenty at the time. She accordingly 247

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND proceeded sketches,"

to

made

fortune was

tered

"

re-write in

more

it

1837.

from

some further delays before

A

much

of view of "get-up" in

again

her

Philadelphia.

original

the second occasion

kind, though the

1842, in America. second edition

No.

On

it

inferior

book encounappeared,

in

from the point

was published

in

The second

issue

1849,

was

of the Jewish Miscellany of the original Jewish Publication Society. The book was never xiii

My

printed in England.

own

introduction to

it

was curiously made. Being deeply new plans for teaching Hebrew, I wrote (in 1903) a preface to a book on the Yellin method. I showed interested in the ,

the proof of

essay to the late Rev. S. Singer,

my

whereupon he remarked: "Grace Aguilar said much the same thing more than half a century And so, indeed, she did. She saw that ago."

Hebrew must

be taught naturally, that the lan" engage a child's fancy," guage must be made to first of all introducing to it familiar Hebrew by

words from the

child's every-day life.

I to find this anticipation

cited

it

Glad was

of modern opinion, and

I

fully.

From

that time

I

have, for other reasons,

very fond of the book

of which 248

I

grown

possess the

1

849

GRACE AGUILAR

GRACE AGUILAR'S

"

SPIRIT OF JUDAISM

It is so delightfully fresh

reprint.

and

confident

something

enthusiastic.

entertaining in

his editorial function.

himself.

Not

"

and young, so

Moreover, there

is

Leeser's conception of that he could well help

He was

almost compelled to apply a wet blanket to her fire. She had expressly invited him to confine himself to

removing obscurities and ap" The chief point of pending the necessary notes. difference between Miss Aguilar and myself," says " are her seeming aversion to the tradition, Leeser,

and her idea that the mere teaching of formal religion opens the door to the admission of Christianity."

On

effective.

If,

the second point, Leeser's answer

is

unintelligent teaching, cere-

through monial religion degenerates into a burden, then the outcome is more likely to be disregard for the old than regard for a a far greater

enemy

new

faith.

"

Indifference

is

to us than conversion," said

1842, and assuredly we can use identical words now. It is not so clear, however, that Leeser was equally successful in meeting Miss Aguilar on

Leeser

in

the problem of tradition. She was very emphatic in her desire to base Judaism on the Bible, but she

was only

verbally, not spiritually, a Karaite.

She

often uses the very language of tradition, and in " The religion of no Hebrew is one place says :

249

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND form be hallowed by the spirit, the spirit quickened by the form. The heart must be wholly given to the Lord, yet still the instituted form must be obeyed." Miss Aguilar probably perfect, unless the

in the ritual objected to the minutiae of pietism sense when she spoke of tradition; she had no

Leeser could hardly be expected to set her right; he was as little of a mystic as she was. philosophical conception of

No

doubt, however, she

anti-traditionalist that she self is

it.

an

to this extent an

thought the Bible

in

it-

Judaism. Her book commentary on theShema'

all-sufficient basis for

cast in the

in fact,

was

it

is

form

of a "

called

Shema

Israel, the Spirit of

Judaism." She begins by expounding the unity of God; she shows that it is the real difference be-

tween Synagogue and Church; and then ends her chapter with a passionate plea for friendly intercourse between Jew and Christian on the basis of frank and unashamed profession of Judaism by She was absolutely right. It is not the former.

merely the only honest,

it

is

also the only stable

basis for such intercourse.

To Grace God" (that

Aguilar, is

her

Moses was

own

phrase).

"

mouth of There is noththe

ing between a theory of verbal inspiration and the 250

GRACE AGUILAR'S belief that

the

Moses "

ignorance

nation."

tends that

"

SPIRIT OF JUDAISM

invented

"

and

"

<:

presumed on and superstition of the rescued

With a feminine love of italics she con" we must believe God framed every law

mentioned

Mosaic books or none."

in the

crude this sounds

On

!

the one hand,

it

How

cuts off all

thought of inspiration before Moses, on the other, all

thought of

canon.

It

it

after the close of the scriptural

would have seemed

to regard Hillel as

phemous same spirit of God misses the is

"

Oral

moved Haggai.

that

Law

to her almost blas-

animated with the

"

in

an aside.

"

She

The

dis-

Bible

Miss Aguilar goes

the foundation of religion."

on to complain that English Bibles were not found in Jewish homes. But the explanation is easy. In those days

it

was impossible

to find an acceptable

English Bible for Jewish use. The Authorized Version was marred not only by Christological renderings, but also by the Christological insertions of the headings to the chapters. tion of the Revised Version

it

Before the publica-

had become

possible

to obtain an Anglican edition without the headings. But I doubt whether that was the case so early as

Moreover, Jews have always been slow to acknowledge that the Hebrew Bible was insuffi1842.

cient.

There was much that 251

is

creditable in this

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND reluctance to face facts

though there was also much

;

was dangerous.

that It

is

impossible to do justice in a brief article to

of Judaism shown in Miss She pleads for the religion with persuasive eloquence; it must appeal to the heart and the reason it must permeate the home it must

the

love

intense

Aguilar's book.

;

;

She would have family prayers daily. regulate To this topic she returns over and over again. " The youthful members of a little domestic conlife.

gregation would look back with

warm

emotion, in

after years, to that period when, with their brothers

they thronged around their parents to listen to the word of God, and made known their

and

sisters,

common wants

together."

dominates her whole book sufficiency

of Judaism.

It

is

But the thought that the perfect truth and

only needs to be

known

to be preferred to every possible alternative.

Jew

can ever become lukewarm

his religion. :

'

We

know

if

No

he understands

But he must understand

its

spirit.

who

depart from the faith of their fathers are ever those reared in the severest that they

obedience to mere forms." his note

comments

" :

clause though there

He

is

This

Whereupon Leeser is

in

certainly a sweeping

a great deal of truth in it."

adds that the fault " does not 252

lie

in the forms,

"

GRACE AGUILAR'S

SPIRIT OF JUDAISM

"

but in the absence of spiritual education." That is clearly the reason why Miss Aguilar called her " book The Spirit of Judaism." She was no foe to

forms as such.

She strongly defends the dietary

laws, in the very chapter

was

Obedience

taken.

every page

;

but so

is

whence the is

last

quotation

the term writ large on

When

belief.

Judaism

is

be-

lieved in and obeyed, then will redemption be nigh, release

from

captivity at hand,

the Messiah approaching. says

it

in

her

own

fiery

But how movingly she

words

253

and the advent of

1

ISAAC LEESER'S BIBLE The twenty

years around the middle of the nineteenth century witnessed the preparation of several Jewish translations of the Bible. Moses Mendels-

sohn had shown the way in the previous century; he did not, however, produce a complete German This was done with success by a body of Bible.

Zunz

scholars led by

(Berlin,

1838).

Ludwig

Philippson, in the very next year, began an enterprise the accomplishment of which occupied him till

was

1856. also

His

edition

adorned with

was not only annotated; illustrations.

Philippson Bible came out

it

In 1875 the

anew with

the

Dore

pictures.

As

for English versions by Jews,

edited the Pentateuch in 1787.

David Levi

But, to pass over

certain publications of separate books,

no complete

England from a Jewish hand until the issue of Benisch's version (1851-56). This was a melancholy affair. Real and original scholarship is shown in every page. He claimed for his Bible appeared in

" rendering fidelity, uniformity and independence." But he had no sense for English style. He un254

ISAAC LEESER

(From a Painting by Solomon Nunaz da

ISAAC LEESER'S BIBLE necessarily and grotesquely

altered the

familiar

words of the Authorized Version. Hence, one is bound to speak of this monument of learning and " " earnestness as it might so melancholy easily have been acceptable. His corrections of the ;

Authorized were often necessary.

Thus,

Ten Commandments he

"

not murder

"

rightly put "

Thou

for the current

The Revised Version made So, too, he

was

the

in

Thou

the

shalt

shalt not kill."

same

correction.

right when, for historical reasons,

he made a change Authorized Version

Leviticus 23. 15. In the " this runs And ye shall count unto you from the morrow after the Sabbath." But by the Jewish tradition the Feast of Weeks is not in

:

counted from a Saturday but from the first day of Passover on whatever day that happens to fall.

Hence Benisch unto you from

substituted:

"And

ye shall count

the morrow after the day of rest." he corrected certain dogmatic prejuNaturally, too, dices of the Anglican Version.

" Thou Curiously enough, Isaac Leeser leaves " But he was vigilant uncorrected. shalt not kill

with

"

the

morrow "

after the Sabbath," for which

morrow

after the holy day." " On the other hand, he retained the word Sab" bath (where the Hebrew has Shabbaton) applied

he substitutes

the

255

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND and eighth days of Tabernacle, e. g., LeThis, however, he altered in his 23. 39.

to the first viticus

later editions to a rest; Benisch

has

The

strict rest.

Revised Version has a similar correction:

solemn

rest.

It

is

not

purpose to compare Leeser's Ver-

my

sion with others.

God"

of

From

appeared

when

his

Philadelphia,

in

the hour

in

"

octavo, in

Bible

Hebrew and

came out

English; the

in quarto, in

the end of 1853.

1845, of

won the affectionate regard The Pentateuch was issued

Leeser's Pentateuch

American Jews.

Law

From

in

whole of the

English alone, towards it has been often

that time

reprinted in varying forms, simply and in editions

But

de luxe.

it is

not the printers

book popular, though

who made

must remark

I

the

that, despite

the small public support the enterprise secured, the

1845 Leeser Pentateuch

is

a beautiful specimen of

What made

book was the Can higher people's growing love for Leeser. the printer's art.

the

praise be given, can a finer fate be wished, than

that a man's

book

because of him

This

is

shall live in his brethren's hearts

?

not the time to

criticise

Leeser's work.

Like Benisch, he had no feeling for English

style.

He

won-

could, in the twenty-third Psalm, alter the 256

ISAAC LEESER'S BIBLE "

derful melody of

He

maketh me

to lie

down

in

"

In pastures of tender grass green pastures," into he causeth me to lie down." He could take the

haunting rhythm of Job's

"

There the wicked

cease

from

troubling, there the weary are at rest," and " and where the exhausted weary are at give us

which

no nearer the

Hebrew

(" the wearied in strength "), and is incomparably farther from its beauty. Or again, the felicitous opening " lines of the nineteenth Psalm, The heavens derest,"

is

clare the glory of his

God and ;

handiwork," become

relate the glory of

to

;

made

Leeser's

use

scholarly grounds

Thus,

Leeser

It

"

The heavens

the expanse telleth of is

this

more than

any-

impossible for English Jews Bible. Revision of Leeser on it

was

also necessary,

no doubt.

rendering of Esther 6. 8, where suggests the details of the pageant in be-

in

Haman

the firmament sheweth

God and

the works' of his hands."

thing else that

in

literal

his

man whom the king delighteth (why desire th ?} to honor, Leeser Leeser substitute did " has: Let them bring a royal apparel which the hath worn, and a horse on which the king king

half of the

hath ridden, and let there be placed a royal crown on his head." But, as Ibn Ezra had in part already pointed out (as Leeser notes), and as 17

257

we

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

know

to be almost certainly the case, the

crown was

In the Revised Version the

for the horse's head. "

Let royal apparel be brought passage runs which the king useth to wear, and the horse that the king rideth upon, and on the head of which a royal :

crown

is

set."

Naturally, in what precedes I have turned to comments only touch the

My

familiar passages.

In one fringe of the problem of Bible revision. Leeser the Reanticipated important particular, vised Version:

graphs and not

he arranged the English in

precise

we

learned

more

as to the

meaning of words, but we have won

closer insight into the idiomatic use of the tenses.

para-

Since Leeser's day,

verses.

however, not only have

in

The American

the auspices of the

revision,

now

a

Hebrew

issued under

American Jewish Publication

Society, has given us at once a scholarly translation,

and one which remains true lences of the version

made

to the English excelin the reign of

King

James. Leeser's Bible, therefore,

is

more or less doomed.

cannot but pass out of general use. But it can never pass out of our esteem and affection. Leeser, It

though he indignantly repudiated sectarian bias, did not translate the Bible as an exercise in scholar258

ISAAC LEESER'S BIBLE

He

ship.

belonged to those who believed in the Quite naively he tells us in his Preface

Bible.

"

an Israel(dated September 20, 1853) tnat ne ls ite in faith, in the full sense of the word; he believes in the Scriptures as they

down cies

to us

;

in the truth

and their ultimate

have been handed

and authenticity of prophe-

Nor

literal fulfilment."

did

he think that the age of miracles was past. He admitted that there were sources of information

which he had not consulted when preparing his Bible. But he had done his best, and felt that he

was therefore working with his

own.

"

I

thought, in

might safely go

all

due humility, that

to the task, confidently relying

that superior aid which

inquirer after truth." sophistication

hand stronger than

a

is

I

upon

never withheld from the

What

a

combination of

and simplicity we have here

!

In the

mid-nineteenth century such a union of rationalism

and

faith

We

shall

memory

was rare; it is growing rarer every day. soon be thinking of putting Isaac Leeser's in a

specimen of a

museum

of Jewish antiquities as a

lost type.

259

LANDOR'S "ALFIERI AND SALOMON" There

Landor's long series of Imaginary Conversations, and he was, most prob" Salomon the ably, an invention of the author's. only one

is

Florentine Jew,"

Jew

who

with Count Vittorio events he

is

discourses in Landor's pages Alfieri,

not identifiable.

of such a person

Landor's editor point out.

in

Still,

in

never existed; at

There

Alfieri's

is

all

no mention

autobiography; so

Mr. C. G. Crump is careful to Landor (1775-1864) spent sevand

eral years in Florence,

it

heard of some Jewish worthy

is

possible that he

whom

he used for

the purpose of his dialogue.

Landor courtesy.

whom

I

Jewish character with You are the only man in Florence with

treats his solitary

"

would willingly exchange

a salutation,"

says Alfieri at the opening of the conversation.

Salomon expresses himself as highly be for

its

The

not one of Landor's best, unless recognition of the sterling quality of

actual dialogue it

flattered.

is

the English middle-class.

"

It

is

among

those

who

stand between the peerage and the people that there exists a greater mass of virtue and of wisdom 260

LANDOR'S "ALFIERI AND SALOMON"

The historical the rest of Europe." found himself out of sympathy both with kings and with the French Revolution which dethan

in

Alfieri

stroyed

It

kingship.

was

a

happy

touch

of

Lander's, therefore, to put into Alfieri's mouth the praise of the class which stood between royalty and the masses.

But

Alfieri

work of

art.

and Salomon

hardly a successful It has neither the romantic beauty of is

Lander's Aesop and Rhodope, nor the dramatic interest of his Hannibal and Marcellus. Naturally, "

A poet however, it has some good epigrams. can never be an atheist," says Lander's Alfieri. He calls on God to confound the fools who always eulogize the least praiseworthy of princes because, " the rascals have ruined my physihe complains,

ognomy;

wear an habitual sneer upon

I

How many

a genius has been

made

my

face."

similarly dis-

agreeable because he could not suffer fools gladly Very true again is Alfieri's paradox that the gravest " Few men have been people are the wittiest. !

graver than Pascal, few have been wittier." Had Lander's Florentine Salomon been a real Jew, he could have capped Alfieri's citation of Pascal by referring to

Abraham

many

a

Ibn Ezra.

Jewish instance,

On 261

among them

the contrary,

Salomon

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

Landor disputes the truth of Alfieri's statement. " is fond of national generalizations. Not a single

man

of genius hath ever appeared

in the

whole

ex-

tent of Austria," he makes Salomon say; while " the Spaniards have no palate, Alfieri asserts that

the Italians no scent, the French it

nately

Jews

in

Landor

did not occur to

an epigram.

no ear."

He

to

Fortu-

sum up

the

retained, however, the

eighteenth century tolerance, and might have been lenient. The only thing he thoroughly detested was priest-craft,

that

theology

the saying

There

His Salomon confesses " for him, and

fanaticism.

" is

without attraction

came from Lander's

is

not

much of

the

heart.

Jew

in

Salomon.

He

might have been any cultured contemporary of

At one point, however, he refuses to hazard a word as to certain clerics, while Alfieri freely " The people who judges and condemns them.

Alfieri.

would laugh with you, would stone me," says Salomon. Was this really true of the end of the eighteenth century in Italy? I doubt it. Landor is no true guide to the opinions of his age.

To

continue.

Landor's Salomon speaks of Florence as his native city; he knows it and its extraordinary story in every detail; he discusses

admits:

"

My

men

of genius, though he ignorance of Greek forbids me to its

262

LANDOR'S

"

ALFIERI

AND SALOMON "

compare our Dante with Homer." Salomon is through and through Italian. Perhaps Landor meant to depict him as a Jew by putting into his

mouth

A it

good anecdote

a

sailor

found upon the shore a piece of amber; he carried

home, and, as he was fond of fiddling, began to rub

the strings of his violin.

some pieces

off,

boiled

It

'What

leather.

man

it

;

fancied

is

was

it

resin

what we cannot

There

makes

it

is

are you '

amber.' ' ;

would not answer.

them

surprise and disquiet that

it,

:

it

in

He

it

and found

blacking,

gave no fresh lustre devil take

and he threw

it

it,'

hi?

to

to the shoe-

about?' cried a messmate.

The

across

then broke

'Smell

cried the finder,

into the sea.

We

'

I

despise

use.

one touch

in Alfieri

and Salomon which

look as though the latter were a real per-

Salomon urges Alfieri to ignore his detractors and inferiors, and to be assured that, sonage.

his

contemporaries might terity would be more appreciative.

though

belittle

him, pos-

Salomon: All the present race of them, all the creatures in the world which excite your indignation, will lie in the grave, while young and old are clapping their hands or

beating their bosoms at your Bruto Primo Alfieri:

I

believe,

sir,

you were the

first

praises a good book becomingly

first

in

commending my

tragedies.

Salomon:

He who

in merit to the author.

263

is

next

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

That

" sentence,

you were the

first in

commend-

ing my tragedies," has a genuine ring, it is life-like. Had Landor any real ground for believing that a certain Florentine

was the

first

edy?

It

it

has

so,

is

Jew named Salomon or Solomon

to recognize Alfieri's genius for trag-

an interesting

its

Even (1749-1803) was

fact, if it

curious side.

Alfieri

be a

fact.

a prolific writer of plays, but the best of his trage-

and

dies

his tragedies as a

whole were superior

was not his Brutus. It is queer should Jew forget which was the best. It

to his comedies

that the

was

certainly Alfieri's Saul, published in October,

1784. It won more success than any other of his " " dramas. His severe and unadorned manner

was

peculiarly adapted to the rugged simplicity of

the characters

drama

which are presented

in Saul.

The

deals with the last day of the king, the scene

being laid in the Israelite

There are only

six

camp on mount Gilboa.

characters:

Saul,

Gionata

(Jonathan), David, Micol, Abner, Achimelech, " " " with stage armies of and solsoldati israeliti dati filistei." Apart from the subtle contrasts between David the warrior and David the minstrel,

the finest thing in the play

is

the

management of

Saul's insanity. Indeed, it has been truly said of " Alfieri : In the representation of that species of 264

LANDOR'S "ALFIERI AND SALOMON" mental alienation, where the judgment has perished but traces of character

still

remain, he

is

peculiarly

happy."

Another poet who was

in

Florence with Landor

also chose the subject of Saul for one of his

dramatic

had

efforts.

refer to Robert Browning,

most

who

common with Landor, and philosophy of life temperament

intellectually his

I

much

though were quite other.

Browning imitated

in

Landor ignored

Alfieri's Saul,

in

1820, Joseph

it.

Earlier,

Ephrathi, no doubt instigated by Alfieri's success, produced a Hebrew drama with Saul as hero.

Gutzkow

later

on wrote a tragedy on the subject.

Another who treated of the

had no

topic

likeness to Landor, but

He

was Byron.

was not

dissimilar to

both were aristocrats, both pretended to cynicism, both were versatile authors, both squanAlfieri;

derers of a great opportunity. It is strange that it left to Alfieri to detect the dramatic possibilities

was

in the tragedy of Saul.

Handel's exploitation of

the theme was, naturally, musical rather than dramatic.

In the

new freedom of

the English stage

we

shall, no doubt, soon have plays and to spare on the subject. Landor, as we have seen, makes no

use whatever of biblical personages for his dialogues.

But English poetry has not done 265

ill

with

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND Saul's

memory.

Sir Philip Sydney, or one of his

age, gave us as beautiful a rendering as we need wish of David's elegy over Saul and Jonathan.

What

could be more lovely than Pleasant they were in

Nor

life,

and

fair,

yet did death their love divide.

or than Ah! Jonathan, my brother! lorn And friendless I must look to be That heart whose woe thou Is sore

!

oft hast

borne

and stricken now for thee!

Young bridegroom's love on bridal morn, Oh! it was light to thine for me;

now must plain, own high places slain! How lowly now the mighty are, How still the weapons of the war

Thy

timeless lot I

Even on

thine

!

We

have got rather far from Landor.

Yet

I

cannot but think that the best thought suggested by his

A

Ifieri

and Salomon

which the parties to the make no allusion.

"

is

just Alfieri's Saul, to

imaginary conversation

"

PART V

PART

BROWNING'S Two

"

V

BEN KARSHOOK "

great literary forces, poets both yet both what they said than in how they said it,

greater in

expressed their most intimate beliefs on life and destiny under the guise of a Jewish personation. Nathan the Wise, the hero of Lessing's drama, was Lessing, just as Rabbi soliloquist

Lessing,

of

it is

had a

living

in

Moses

since Furnivall has identified the

hero of Browning's poem with is

model

Nathan was drawn from his friend. any such model? Yes and no.

Had Browning Many a writer It

the supposititious

Browning's poem was Browning.

certain,

Mendelssohn.

Ben Ezra,

Abraham Ibn Ezra.

probable that the poet had him vaguely

in

mind.

When, however, it is sought as several have done to work out the identity in detail, the

The

poet clearly meant to prevent any For in Holy-Crass Day, he intro" duces a Rabbi Ben Ezra as singing a Song of " from Death tone the different in poem in quite which Rabbi Ben Ezra unfolds his scheme of life. effort fails.

such error.

269

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

Browning obviously meant us Ezra was no one in particular.

to infer that

Ben

Browning's Hebrew knowledge was probably good; like his wife he was apparently able to read the Bible in the original.

He

also

had dipped

into

way books on Jewish lore. The Rev. Michael Adler cleverly detected that he owed

curious, out of the

some of the astonishing Hebrew words

in

his

read edition of the Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela. Very bad Hebrew it is, but its author was not Browning but Baratier (see

Jocoseria to a

little

Jewish Chronicle, April 25, 1890). hand, Dr. Joseph Jacobs records Quarterly Review for April,

On in

the other

the Jewish

1890, an incident "

"

which shows that the poet was in his use shaky of Hebrew names. One of Browning's most im"

"

portant

Jewish

poems was

his

Johanan Hakka-

dosh, Johanan the Holy. Dr. Jacobs tells us that " the author was about to call this worthy Hakka" dosh Johanan." But through a common friend

pointed out the error to the poet, and the adjective was put in its proper position." Another misI

conception of epithets will be noted below. Similarly with the poem entitled Ben Karshook's "

Wisdom.

whether

Who

the

was

writer

Ben Karshook "?

could 270

have

told.

I

doubt

In

the

BROWNING'S "BEN KARSHOOK " Tauchnitz copy of 1872, as well as in the English edition of 1889, as Mrs. Sutherland Orr points out, the

name

" is

spelt

Karshish." Ben Karshook,

seems a mere jumble of Ben Hyrkanos. But either way, there was no Rabbi of the name. Elsewhere, Browning employs the name Karshish to designate an Arabian physician. It was one of Browning's foibles, to quote Dr. Jacobs again, to give an impression of recondite learning.

Ben Karshook

would seem

poet's

have been the

to

tempt at a Jewish, as ject.

Holy-Cross

Day was

the

first

at-

first

a biblical sub-

to be published

Rabbi Ben Ezra came

in

it

from

distinct

;

in

appeared 1855. 1864, Filippo Baldinucci in 1876, Johanan Hakkadosh (with other Jewish poems) in 1883. This list is not a complete summary, but (if one adds

Abt Fogler) Karshook' s

it

includes the

Wisdom was

most important.

Ben

not published until a year

Holy-Cross Day, for it was printed in the Keepsake for 1856. But it was written on later than

April 27,

1854 (according

to the

statement of

Browning himself omitted the poem, apparently by accident, from one of his own volumes, where it is included in the table of contents Berdoe).

but not

in the

result has

book.

been that

He it

never reprinted it. The has often been reproduced 271

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND by others for that very reason; and now, though it has been given a place in the Oxford Browning, let it

be printed again

!

I.

"Would

a

man

'scape the

Rabbi Ben Karshook "

See that he turn to

The Day "

The

it

God

before his death."

Ay, could a

When

man

shall

inquire

come

?

"

Rabbi's eye shoots

"Then

rod?"

saith,

let

I

say

fire

him turn to-day."

II.

Quoth a "

Is

young Sadducee:

Reader of many

it

so certain

Have, as they "

Son, there

is

tell us,

souls?"

no reply "

The Rabbi "

rolls,

we

!

bit his

beard:

Certain, a soul have 7

We may

have none," he sneered.

Thus Karshook, the Hiram's-Hammer, The Right-hand Temple-column, Taught babes

And

in

grace their grammar,

struck the simple, solemn.

272

BROWNING'S "BEN KARSHOOK "

The

first

an apt version of the saying of

is

part

"

Rabbi Eliezer, son of Hyrkanos Repent one day before thy death" (Pirke Abot 2. 15). :

Whereon

Talmud (Shabbat 1533)

the

records that

Eliezer's disciples asked Browning's very question,

and received precisely the same answer. The second group of stanzas introduces us to a young Sad-

who has The poet

ducee soul.

Mark, but was

obviously got his information from a trifle confused as to what he read

The Sadducees (Mark

there.

resurrection, to

doubts as to the existence of the

12. 18) denied the

and some have supposed

have extended to the belief

Dr. Kohler's remarks

in the

in

their denial

immortality.

(See

Jewish Encyclopedia,

top of second column.) To Browning this may have seemed equivalent to questioning the existence of the soul. Assuredly, granted that

vol. x, p. 631,

there be a soul at

all, it

must be immortal. "

What is the point of calling Karshook Hiram's Hammer? " Browning is probably drawing on Josephus. ple, also

mon.

Hiram, who helped

interchanged

(Antiquities,

uses the

name

answered

8

viii, 5.

3).

Hence, Browning

in relation to these puzzles, so

in the

poem.

identical with the 1

difficult

building the temproblems with Soloin

It

was

king of Tyre 273

wisely

Hiram not who constructed

also

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND the two temple columns Jachin and Boaz. Or, as Dr. Halper has cleverly suggested, the poet may

have had

in his

mind

a confused reminiscence of the

Rabbinic praise of Johanan ben Zaccai, who (in Berakot 28 b.) is described as Right-hand Temple-

Hammer. Hebrew hazak

Browning possibly mixed up the (strong) with hiram, " Hiram's and so transformed the epithet into Hammer." If these and similar reminiscences were column,

Strong

passing through Browning's mind, they might well result in the verse which terminates with the bril"

liant

phrase

rare

wisdom

make him

struck the simple, solemn." It needs or even better, to make a fool think

silent.

Dr. Jacobs well summed up our indebtedness to " it is not in the Browning when he said that

Hebrew scholarship that we are to look for Browning's sympathy with the Jewish

minutiae of

markedly shown in his writings. Mr. Stopford Brooke (The Poetry of Robert Brown-

spirit," so

1902, pp. 33-4) puts .the case strongly but " no English poet, save truly when he declares that

ing,

perhaps Shakespeare, whose exquisite sympathy could not leave even Shylock unpitied, had spoken

Jew with compassion, knowledge and admiThe Jew lay ration, till Browning wrote of him.

of the

274

BROWNING'S "BEN KARSHOOK" deep in Browning." The writer of those sentences no doubt would not call Richard Cumberland a poet; his plays were friendly enough to the Jew.

But Browning's understanding was more profound than Cumberland's. It is a mistake to say, as a recent critic has said, that

"

Browning would have

of any creed or That was perhaps Lessing's view. Brown-

us see that the purest religion

none."

ing seems to go further. tain

elements

of

He

absolute

is

saw

in

truth;

Judaism

cer-

therefore

he

presented those elements through Jewish characters.

275

K. E.

FRANZOS'

"

JEWS OF BARNOW

"

George MacDonald was a novelist of distinction. When an English translation of Ein Kampf urns Recht appeared (under the title For the Right), " Not having MacDonald wrote an introduction. been asked to do so, I write this preface from admiration of the book."

It

was

a significant fact,

he continued, that the generation had produced a man capable of such an ideal as the book repre-

was

work which

substituted for the " of the cry art for art's sake half wisdom " the whole wisdom of the cry art for truth's sented. "

It

a

"

"

And MacDonald

concluded as he began: read a work of fiction that I have seldom, ever, moved me with so much admiration." Mr. Gladsake." "

stone, too,

if

was among the

enthusiastic eulogists of

the novel. Its author was Karl Emil Franzos, to whom we owe, besides that masterpiece of his genius, For the Right (1887), also the less mature work of his

earlier years,

The Jews of Barn ow (1877). remembered for a saying of

will always be

which appeared

in his first-published

276

He his

book, a nar-

K. E.

FRANZOS' "JEWS OF

BARNOW"

Aus Halb-Asien (1876)

rative of travel-sketches,

:

Land

hat die Juden die es verdient (" Every " country has the Jew that it deserves ) Macaulay said much the same thing, but less epigrammatically,

Jedes

.

nearly half a century earlier.

It

is

not a completely

satisfactory generalization, but it is an effective counter to the cruel theory that every Jew gets the " It is not the fault of the country he deserves. Polish Jews that they are less civilized than their

brethren in the faith

in

England, Germany, and

France."

Writing this sentence forty years ago, " " Franzos used the word civilized in a narrow sense.

All that

conventions of

it

really

amounted

Barnow were not

to

was that

the

those of Berlin.

Franzos makes quite a grim problem out of the

Barnow

Jewess's revolt against the Scheitel, without seeing that in point of fact the revolt was only one, and an early, phase of the new feminist move-

ment which was

What

to spread all over the world.

were Franzos'

qualifications for

becoming

He

lived out

the historian of a Podolian ghetto? his

boyhood there; and he never

sympathies

generated

by

his

lost the

early

Jewish

experiences.

Years afterwards, when he was at the summit of his renown, the most famous Jewish litterateur of his age,

he associated himself heartily at Berlin 277

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND with the work being d6ne for Israel in Russia. The Barnow of his tales was the Czortkow of his

Whether

youth. picture

is

he, therefore, presented a true

He himself was

not so certain.

convinced

that, though he strove to give poetic value to the scenes, he none the less depicted the scenes accu-

" rately.

have never permitted

I

beautiful to lead facts I

me

into the sin of falsifying the

and conditions of

have described

of existence

love of the

my

life,

and

this strange

precisely

as

it

am

confident that

and outlandish mode appeared to me."

Franzos' claim that he drew a sincere picture cannot be disputed, but a sincere picture is not neces" " sarily an accurate one. Things may not appear to one truly.

How stands

The Barnow

of the tale

and the houses of it it

it

with Franzos?

is

a

gloomy

little

town,

ghetto small and dirty. Yet boasts the great white mansion of its millionaire; has its real spring days when the air is deliciously

soft

and warm.

Sabbath, tion

how

which

to

its

And

it

knows how

welcome

to keep the

the bride with an

emo-

the very depths.

But

stirs its spirit to

the passion is expended on the adoration of the " The same race whose genius gave Divinity.

all

Song of Songs the eternal hymn of love-^-and to whom the world owes the story of birth to the

278

K. E.

FRANZOS' "JEWS OF

BARNOW"

Ruth, the most beautiful idyl of womanhood ever has now, after a thousand years of the

known

night of oppression and wandering, learned to look on marriage as a mere matter of business, by which

some pecuniary advantage, and as a means of preventing the chosen of the Lord from dying off the face of the earth." The author grows more to secure

" and more indignant as he writes These men know not what they do they have no suspicion of :

the sin of which they are guilty in thus acting." This, for Franzos, was the tragedy of Barnow. It is the it

is

theme of several of

the boy, sometimes the

his tales. girl,

who

against the paternal choice of a mate. selects for his son or

Sometimes rides a-tilt

The

father

daughter the most pious and They will not know

wealthy partner available.

each other, but what of that? plenty of time to

One Barnow

They will have make acquaintance after marriage.

father thus defends the system

" :

We

don't look upon the chicken as wiser than the hen. And, thank God, we know nothing of love and all

We

that kind of nonsense. things are alone requisite riage,

and

these are health

and bridegroom

consider

when arranging a marand wealth. The bride

in this case possess

obviously regards

both." Franzos

this justification as

279

that two

one of the

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND v

.outlandish

were he

"

But

features of Barnow's manners.

alive

he would recognize that

to-day,

Moses Freudenthal, the Barnow father who thus argues, was anticipating the latest formula of

The

Eugenics!

From

the system.

however, remorselessly and not the amenities of

novelist,

sees only the tragedy

the side of the

story Nameless Graves, Franzos put

in the

man, it

thus:

"

As

Jewish youth never even thinks of any girl until his father tells him He somethat he has chosen a wife for him. a general rule, the long-haired

times sees his bride for the

but in a great

many

first

time at betrothal,

cases he does not see her until

and then, whether she pleases him or not, he makes up his mind to get used to But the Barnow her, and generally succeeds." his marriage-day;

young men turn and look the street

"

at

Lea

a thing hitherto "

down Even in

as she walks

unknown."

when quiet, dreamy, and very dirty Talmudists bent over their heavy folios, her name was sometimes mentioned, followed by many a deep the Klaus,

sigh."

On

A revolution in male manners, undoubtedly. the other side,

things are even worse in

for themselves,

men actually think of the women go and do

And

results.

Barnow.

If the

with fatal

choosing likewise.

Half educated, feasting 280

K. E.

FRANZOS'

"

JEWS OF BARNOW "

on surreptitious and precocious courses of the works of Paul de Kock, fascinated by Christian lovers, the girls of

Barnow go through

agitating experiences, sometimes heading for the rocks, al-

ways wrecking the harmony of the home. Esther and Chane differ only in externals; the one openly Mrs. Grundy, the other, in appearance only, But both are led by passion to kick obeys her. over the traces both are treated by Franzos as vicdefies

;

tims of the loveless marriage system. Esterka Regina makes renunciation, but her last act was to write to the lover

a

Jew

this

time

whom

she

had renounced, practically to confess to him that her marriage had been a failure. She had chosen the course mapped out by her parents, not from motives of obedience, but because her ignorant bringing-up had unfitted her for the position she

would have had

to occupy

had she followed the

dic-

tates of her heart. I

have hinted above

my

doubts whether Franzos

a correct picture of Barnow conditions. the realistic touches, here and there one

drew for us

Amid

all

comes across evidence of defective vision. painted Barnow as he saw it, but he did not as

it

was.

His father was

He see

friend of his fellow- Jews, but not living their 281

it

district physician, a real life.

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

The

son saw Galician Jewish life from an aloof It is significant that in one of his point of view.

tales he confuses the

night prayers. quences, but

It it

is

Friday eve with the Saturday a slip with no serious conse-

does reveal the

limitations

of

None

of his tragic heroines strikes so convincing a note as does, for instance, BernBernstein's graciously pathetic Voegele.

Franzos' knowledge.

Jew, while Franzos remained Spiritual fidelity, however, does not necessarily carry with it realistic artistry.

stein ceased to be a

faithful.

282

"

HERZBERG'S

FAMILY PAPERS "

Wilhclm Herzberg was sensitiveness.

may

abuse a

fairly as

you

a victim to the world's

And a queer sensitiveness it is man as much as you like, and like,

while he

is

You

!

as un-

But you must

alive.

not speak harsh, even if they be true, things of him when he is recently dead. De mortuis nil nisi

bonumf After

a decent interval, criticism

sume operations.

But for the

may rehour you may only

say soft things of the departed.

Far be from me and humane I

prefer to

is still

to

deny that there

side to this convention.

is

an amiable

For

my

moderate

alive.

I

my judgments while the do not admire over much those

part,

man who

bespatter another with abuse in his lifetime, and with flattery in the moment of his death. But the

world thinks

differently.

Herzberg sinned

against

this convention; he wrote severely, even bitterly, and also unjustly, of an Anglo-Jewish worthy soon

after the interment of the latter. his friends,

his

own

And

so he lost

and was ostracized here for the

life.

the Jerusalem

other reasons.

He

rest of

resigned his post as Director of

Orphanage

He

though probably for

died in Brussels in 1898. 283

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

The was

incident alluded to in these preceding lines

He was not easy was not so much quarrelsome Witty, keen-minded, he was above

typical of the

man's nature.

He

on with.

to get

as aggressive.

He

man

of impulsive emotions. fended a cause; he always attacked

all

a

its

never deopponents.

were besieged, he answered with a he could not fight behind the walls. And

If his fortress sortie;

wonderful book which, under the Gustav Meinhardt," he first pub-

this is true of the

pen-name of

"

Hamburg

lished in

in

1868, calling

most

It is the

Familienpapiere.

Judaism published But it is an attack on

a

mere apology for

throughout

is

The book is

brilliant vindica-

rival systems

own

plaintiff rather

religion.

more than

The

author

than defendant.

consists of a series of letters written

from Germany letters

his

Judische

in the nineteenth cen-

tion of tury.

it

to England.

a youth,

Samuel

;

The

author of the

the recipient of

them

is

an Englishman of means, Samuel's adoptive father. Jew by birth, Samuel has been brought up in

A

England crat,

as a Christian

who found

by the kind-hearted

of his real father, a poor hawker. sent

home

he

to convert

is

aristo-

the child destitute after the death

to his Jewish relatives

them

to his 284

new

And now

he

is

on a mission

faith.

The

letters

HERZBERG'S "FAMILY PAPERS" describe Samuel's arrival in the abode of his uncle,

Rabbi Nathan, and with exquisite charm unfold the gradual reversion of Samuel to his ancestral This part of the book is certainly constructive enough. Samuel is overwhelmed with his allegiance.

He

discoveries.

and also by

is

fascinated by Rabbi Nathan,

his cousin, Rachel.

I

think

more

difficult to find in literature a

it

would be

beautiful de-

scription of Jewish home-life than Herzberg preNo wonder that in the end the would-be sents.

converter becomes the converted.

The

great part of the argument, however,

is

with showing the success of Judaism, occupied than the failure of Christianity. Herzberg speaks less

out; there

is

no

hesitation,

loses his courteous

no reserve.

manner, but

this

He

never

formal suavity

does not mitigate the truculence of the statements he makes, the severity of the arguments he uses.

He

is

one-sided in that he sets the Church's failure

against the Synagogue's success, and does not attempt to balance against each other the successes of

each and the failures of each.

But he

is

confessedly

an advocate and not a judge. It is this that makes It is an outspoken criticism his book so valuable. of modern culture by a well-equipped mind. to

For

Herzberg, naturally and rightly enough, the 285

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND Church

is

typical of

ing the former, he

and

civilization.

Attack-

assailing the latter, denying

is

Western

the validity of ideals,

Western

disputing their

Before pointing out

or rather

Germanic,

permanent worth.

in a sentence the significance

of this attitude for the present condition of Jewish thought, one or two other things must be said about

There were three German editions

the book.

in

the author's lifetime, the third appearing in Zurich

1893. Why was the third issue made in Switzerland and not in Hamburg? In the circular

in

announcing

made a remarkable The author had been urged by his

it,

statement.

Caesar Schmidt

friend to soften

Anti-Semitism shape, the

some parts of

made

the

more necessary; but

sirable to issue

it

in

"

He

it.

book, in it

also

refused.

unaltered

its

made

free Switzerland."

it

de-

The

author would have bettered the book in one sense, had he yielded to his friend's counsel. Its historical surveys are not unassailable, and its logic is not

always

perfect.

Yet

have modified

to

its

polemical tone would have been to destroy its effiMoreover, Herzberg's friends can have cacy.

known alter

little

even a

of him

if

comma

they imagined that he would to please

several times before 1893, 286

them

and

I

!

I

met him

could have told

HERZBERG'S "FAMILY PAPERS"

them him

that they

were wasting always went

He

advice.

would have been the

way was

a

their time in giving

own way; and

his

he

complain because that

last to

rugged one.

The author had

this satisfaction

:

his

work was

enthusiastically admired by a notable circle of readers. Graetz had a high opinion of it. David

Kaufmann,

a lad of sixteen at the time of

appearance, was third edition

is

its first

ardent eulogist; to him the

its

"

inscribed.

You

will find

your

erstwhile darling unchanged for to change it would " so writes Herzberg to Kaufbe to mangle it ;

mann.

One would

not talk of changing

one does not mutilate

Kaufmann, young

it

now, for

classics.

as he

was

in

1868, was already Let another

a student of the Breslau Seminary. student of the same institution

tell

us of the impres-

Family Papers made there. Dr. F. " he was yet studying de Sola Mendes writes that at the Breslau Theological Seminary when the book sion

the

brought under his notice by a fellowone of its most enthusiastic admirers. A student, large number of copies were at once procured and

was

first

read with avidity by our comrades.

we

read so

is

impossi-

book called forth glowing and so powerful a

ble to describe the applause the

never had

It

287

;

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND vindication of pure Judaism.

We

were rejoiced

that the country which produced an Eisenmenger, a

Wagenseil, Schudt, Pfefferkorn et hoc genus omne, should have yielded in our day, too, so triumphant a

Our

Defender of the Faith.

venerable Director,

Dr. Frankel, was as enthusiastic as any of his young disciples in its praise."

The

writer of the lines

just quoted determined to render the book into " The work of translation was comEnglish.

menced and carried on

in leisure intervals for the

next few years. In January, 1874, in conjunction with Mr. A. Herzberg, then of London, brother of the author, a prospectus was issued in England,

proposing the publication of the work by subscription. The project was heartily indorsed by the

Chief Rabbi and Dr. H. Adler, the latter of kindly

made

whom

valuable suggestions as to omissions

and alterations proper

come before One wonders what the

in a version to

average English readers." " author would have said to such omissions and alterations."

But the matter was not taken up by

the Anglo- Jewish public, and Dr.

Mendes

ally issued his excellent translation in

eventu-

New York

(1875), under the auspices of that American Jewish Publication Society which preceded the present organization bearing the same name. 288

HERZBERG'S "FAMILY PAPERS"

There must clearly be much significance in a work which has from time to time aroused so much feeling.

As

a boy, I read

and consternation. must have had

Even

it

with mingled delight

then, unconsciously,

a premonition of

its

I

inner meaning.

I promised above to sum up its import and I can do it. Herzberg stands

in a sentence, in

line

with

ha- Am. The former does not give a Zionist turn to his exposition, nor does he speak of a

Ahad

Hebrew

culture.

But he

is

practically at the

Civilization for the

standpoint. pressed in Jewish terms.

That

is

same

Jew must be exthe real moral of

Herzberg's work. Now, as of old, I face such an It ideal with delight, but also with consternation. gives us back

but

it

much we were

tends to take

away from

gained.

280

in

danger of

us

much

that

losing,

we had

Whenever Handel's melody

falls

on one's

ears,

it is impossible to miss the musical beauty of the chorus :

See the conquering hero comes,

Sound the trumpets, beat the drums.

But the words make one shudder. turgid, so inappropriate.

men,

first

of those

O

Not unto

us,

But unto

Thy name

Tennyson speaks of noble words." as art

is

are so

Judas Maccabaeus, of

to strut forth to such a

belonged to the

They

welcome

who

he,

all

who

declared:

Lord, not unto us,

"

give glory!

perfect music set unto

Handel's music

capable of, but his

may be

librettist

as perfect

betrayed him

by supplying words far from noble. They would better have suited Antiochus than Judas. In fact,

Handel

originally wrote the

melody for Joshua

who would have approved them

as

little

as the

Maccabee.

We

have to wait for a really great drama written round Judas Maccabaeus as hero. The still

290

LONGFELLOW'S "JUDAS MACCABEUS" most has therefore been made of Longfellow's attempt, which was turned into Yiddish by Belinson

and

(1882)

into

Hebrew by Massel (1900).

not an easy character to draw. He was Judas truculent enough, yet there must have been a fasis

The

cinating sweetness in him.

key-note is struck phrase supplied by the First Book of the Maccabees. He and his brethren " fought with gladin a

The

ness the battle of Israel." is

a touch

which marks

off the

joyousness of duty

Maccabees from the

Puritans, and which, developed in Israel's after-

helped

history,

Longfellow, in

1872,

to

form the Jewish character. his Judas Maccabeus

who wrote

when he had passed

the zenith of his

pow-

ers, misses the point altogether.

Yet he

realizes other aspects of his hero's dis-

He partly, though not completely, shares Handel's mistake of turning Judas into a braggart. But he atones by presenting very fully the sentimen-

position.

tality

of the Maccabee.

mental

may seem

To

seizing

finest

itself

chiefly

in

In his

associations aroused by local scenery.

Wherever he happens his

but the

most sentimental.

sentimentality shows

upon

a warrior senti-

contradictory,

soldiers have been just the

Judas,

dub

age inform us

to be

so the historians of

he recalls past incidents which 291

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND occurred there.

Here, again, we have

in

Judas a

which afterwards became a deep-seated

quality

characteristic of the Jew, his romanticism.

fellow

was himself

Long-

a romantic as well as a Puritan,

and perfectly presents this side of Judas's disThus at Beth-horon Judas recalls how, position. on the same battlefield, Joshua, The

A

great captain of the hosts of God,

slave brought up in the brick-fields of Egypt,

There was no day

O'ercame the Amorites. Like that, before or after

The

sun stood

still

the

;

it,

nor shall be.

hammers

of the hail

Beat on their harness; and the captains set Their weary feet upon the necks of kings,

As

I will

upon

Thou man

thine, Antiochus,

of blood

Behold, the rising sun

!

Strikes on the golden letters of

Who

Be Elohim Yehovahf

my

banner,

is like

To thee, O Lord among the gods? I am not Joshua, I cannot say,

Alas!

"

Sun, stand thou still on Gibeon, and thou In Ajalon! " Nor am I one who wastes

The

fateful time in useless lamentation:

But one who bears

To

lose

it

his life

or to save

Serve the designs of

The

"

Moon

nor shall be

of this quotation

is

upon his hand

as

may best Him who giveth

it,

"

which

closes the fourth line

a false note. 292

life.

The Maccabee

LONGFELLOW'S "JUDAS MACCABEUS" did expect to repeat Joshua's glory; that expectation of recurrent providences was the basis of Israel's belief in Providence. in his

the

day Hebrew had

national

xealots

speech

remember

given

(let

Again, even though

way

Aramaic

to

as

some of our Hebrew

that Judas Maccabaeus did not

talk in Hebrew !), none the less Judas would hardly have been guilty of the error to begin a Hebrew sentence in the middle. Yet Longfellow repeats

making Judas rush to battle, shouting Be Elohim Yehovahf as though " " Among the gods, O Lord (for that is what the

this curious slip later on,

Hebrew words mean)

No

Maccabee text

could possibly be a war-cry. in one theory the name

doubt he knew that "

is

Who

explained as the initials of the Hebrew is like unto Thee among the mighty

(or the gods), fusion that

O

Lord."

But

made him employ

it

was

a queer con-

the second half of

the verse as a signal, and to substitute elohim for I the dim of the Song of Moses (Exod. 15. 1 1 ) .

say nothing of his putting into Judas'

mouth

the

a misspelling (more commonstrosity Yehovah mon in the form Jehovah) which was invented

about the year 1520 by the reformers.

As

is

well

known, the misspelling arose by reading the vowels of adonai (Lord), as the 293

Name was

quite early

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND read, with the consonants of the

the

Hebrew

Name

as written in

text.

In another aspect Longfellow is perhaps unfairly kind to Judas. Henry V, as Shakespeare drew him, was something of a braggadocio. But the dramatist might almost have been thinking of

Judas when he makes "

his

Henry exclaim before

pray thee, wish not one man more." that much of the glory of victory Judas, too, depended upon the success of the few over the Agincourt:

I

knew

"

the fewer men the greater share of many, honour." Judas, unlike Henry, would have meant

the

more

signal

would be the revelation of God's

power, if the human means by which the won were weaker. On the other hand,

the

of the Maccabees do not, so far as one's goes, indicate that Judas,

was chivalrous

in the

was Books

battle

memory

any more than Henry,

narrower

The Jewish

sense.

exemplar of the chivalrous warrior

is

David not

Judas. Longfellow, however, presents Judas as the chivalrous knight. One hesitates what to think

of the third scene in Act III of Longfellow's play. " In mysterious guise," Nicanor enters the Jewish " " unheralded," gliding like a sercamp, a herald " into the very presence of Judas. pent silently Nicanor discovers himself. 294

LONGFELLOW'S "JUDAS MACCABEUS" Judas:

Thou

What

art indeed Nicanor.

I

salute thee.

brings thee hither to this hostile

camp

Thus unattended? Nicanor:

Confidence in thee.

Thou

hast the noble virtues of thy race,

Without the failings that attend those

Thou

virtues.

and yet not tyrannous, Can'st righteous be and not intolerant. can'st be strong,

Let there be peace between

Judas:

What

is

bow

Is

it

to

Is

it

to see

us.

peace? in silence to our victors?

our

cities

sacked and pillaged?

Our people slain, or sold as slaves, or fleeing At night-time by the blaze of burning towns; Jerusalem laid waste; the Holy Temple Polluted with strange gods?

This

Are

these things peace?

Nicanor's degrading compliments as well as his false offer of peace are rejected with due scorn. Longfellow probably got is

cleverly conceived.

the idea for this scene tathias, to

whom

from the story

the Syrian envoys

told of

made

Mat-

overtures,

which the dour father of the Maccabee knew how But what one doubts is whether Nicanor to treat.

would have trusted himself camp. The Judas:

Go

Nicanor:

scene ends

:

to thy tents.

Shall

it

be

war

or peace?

295

to

the

Maccabean

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND War, war, and only war. Go to thy tents That shall be scattered, as by you were scattered The torn and trampled pages of the Law,

Judas:

Blown through

the

windy

Nicanor: Farewell, brave foe

Judas: Ho, there,

my

streets. !

Have

captains!

safe conduct given

Unto Nicanor's herald through the camp, And come yourselves to me. Farewell, Nicanor!

One wonders whether scene

were possible?

acted thus generously,

such an end to such a

Still,

why

if

David would have We must

not Judas?

allow for the insight of genius.

Longfellow may have understood the story more truly than his critic. If to the valor, the recklessness of self, the romanticism, the all-pervading joyousness of Judas,

we

may add the trait of generosity, then is he indeed among the noblest models of chivalry which history can show.

296

ARTOM'S SERMONS When,

in

Haham Artom was

February, 1873,

pressed to publish a selection of his Sermons, he " I consented, but with reluctance. For, said he,

am

fully

aware of the

of speaking and not my own ...

difficulty

writing in a language which

is

some years ago, was unknown to me." Artom never lost his Italian accent, and the slight survival of his native idiom added grace to his English orations. He was an attractive figure in the pulpit; and as effective as attractive. He died in 1879. Having frequently heard him preach, having, indeed, been present when many of a language which,

these very addresses were

first

given, I have again,

more than

forty years, turned to the printed volume. Is any of the fire left? Has all the charm evaporated? His commanding presence, his beauafter

tiful voice,

his

dramatic gestures, his extempore

were delivery of carefully prepared impromptus these mannerisms answerable for the whole of Artom's power, or was there something forceful and In a word, do the persuasive in the matter? speeches survive the speaker?

Let us remember, an

artist.

He

first

and

last,

that

Artom was

not only wrote verses, but he com297

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND posed music; some of his melodies are

This

in prose.

gift

The

speeches.

7,

remain

certainly

one

For

still.

(November

in

in

the

passages which sounded grotesque

in the hearing, strike

grotesque

sung

was also an artist sometimes led him astray. The

of the speaker

faults

still

He

the Sephardic synagogues.

in the

instance,

reading as more

sermon

his

in

1874) against Cremation, he de-

scribes in lurid detail the scene at the burning of the

"

body, and then he proceeds:

A sad and

repeated

going on ears to be But to that seems rapidly. my crackling the complaint of the dead person for being treated with such cruelty and disrespect." crackling

This

is

is

soon heard; the combustion

sentimentalism at

its falsest.

such faults of the orator endure.

same

the

lasting quality?

confidently answered

He showed true art.

Not merely

;

it

Obviously, his merits

may

question

be

in the affirmative.

He

A preacher

has to construct a

in the sense

chiefly in substance. ful

The

Have

artistry in structure.

must be a builder.

is

of form, but also and

Judaism

fascinates the eye, but

work of

it

is

the

home

also provides

Artom entertained, and he Out of his sermons you could

beauti-

rooms

for living.

also fed his

guests.

easily piece

together a fine edifice of Judaism. 298

Many

of

its

ARTOM'S SERMONS greatest truths are there, presented very solidly, all his decorative art very simply. Artom

and for

was not

a thinker, he

he never

was

a believer.

Yet, though

doubt, he always realized that there were people who differed from him. He was thus frequently controversial he had in mind some other felt a

;

opinions which he was determined to combat. This

method impelled him

to present religion in relation

to the realities of his day.

No

preacher can be

words

effective, unless he does so; no preacher's

endure for other times, unless they are own.

for

first vital

his

In another respect, Artom's method

justified

it-

He

I refer to his use of rabbinic quotations.

self.

seldom quoted anything else. Here we have, in part, a mere trick, a mechanical device, artificial rather than

two

artistic.

Every sermon

is

headed by

texts, the one scriptural, the other rabbinic.

those

olden Jewish homilies called,

Yelammedenu

opening formula,

a

from similar

In

their

plan

was followed, but the rabbinic passage was legal, involving some problem of Halakah or practical laws. cal,

Artom's

and rarely add

Mechanical, too,

citations are

always homileti-

to the effect of the biblical text.

is

the division of each address

into a Prologue, followed 299

by three

parts,

ending

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND with an Epilogue culminating in a prayer. The whole congregation almost invariably rose at the close of the

Haham's sermons,

to join in these

prayers, spoken with genuine but never unctious fervor.

Such severe divisions of the sermon were

long de rigueur on the continent.

Nowadays,

in

the reaction against these fetters, sermons tend to lose

form

But where Artom showed

altogether.

himself a master was in his use of Midrash in the

He had nothing like the of Jellinek, who employed theological profundity Midrash to enforce fundamental ideas with subNor had he Jellinek's power of " holding the tlety. Midrash in chemical solution." As Mr. Singer body of

his addresses.

a greater

Memoir

said in his preacher far than Artom of Jellinek, midrashic quotations in a

sermon are as

"

stuck clumsily into the discourse, and leave upon the palate the flavour a

rule

of undissolved spice or sugar in an ill-prepared Sabbath or Festival dish. In Jellinek the assimilation

of

is

his

perfect. flesh.

It

is

the bone of his bone and flesh

Whether

preacher's theme came way to meet the other,

the

first, is

Midrash or

the

which went the longer

often as uncertain to de-

termine as the question, in the case of some of the finest songs, whether the music suggested the words, or the words the music." 300

ARTOM'S SERMONS

Artom did not reach the perfection of Jellinek, but he never sank to the level of the botcher. What he aimed at he succeeded in attaining. If his rabbinic quotations at the beginning of a discourse

were perfunctory, those which he made in the body of the discourse were invariably to the point; they

always

Midrash

He

interpreted.

into his

own

did

not

merge

personality as Jellinek did.

But he employed it as a certain type of painter does the accessories to a picture, to add color, to relieve the severity of the main idea, to suggest outwardly that which he is not quite able to express inwardly.

Hence he usually quoted obvious Midrashim, and used them in an obvious sense. He showed his

wisdom

in this.

help me

to perceive that he

If a painter puts in a camel to is

representing a desert,

he must be very careful to make his camel recognot do to give me a symbolical Ship of the Desert," it must be a camel, palpable and conventional. Within his limitations, he shows

nizable.

It will

"

himself the better artist the less he

tries to

make

his accessories bizarre or even original. I trust that

"

no one

will suspect

me

of a desire to

with faint praise." On the contrary, starting with the unquestionable fact that the living

damn

Artom was

a great preacher, 301

my

intention

was

to

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND indicate

admire

what we have

mind

to keep in

if

we would

his printed addresses as they deserve.

we know what Take the following paragraph: " Our sages said that a precious to expect

from them we

If

shall find

it.

'

around the neck of Abraham.'

It

jewel hung

was not

a talis-

man, an amulet, supposed by the superstitious keep away the consequence of envy, of

evil eye

;

to

the

the knowledge of the Lord, of the one

jewel was God, of the Omnipotent Being, that knowledge which Abraham disseminated among men; it was the spiritual jewel which ought to be treasured in the heart of every

good man, of every

true Israelite.

We have inherited that Jewel, we have let us

wear

it

with pride, for

it is

it still.

Oh,

the noblest deco-

ration."

There are

a

hundred such passages

They got home when nounced them, and they get home volume.

read as literature.

It

in

Artom's

the orator prostill

when calmly

perhaps curious that a

is

preacher who in his day was admired for his brilliance, should endure less for the sparkle than for the substance of the

common

what he

said.

fate of orators.

That

Happy

is,

however,

they, if their

utterances have worth after the personality behind

them has passed away. 302

SALKINSON'S

"

OTHELLO "

One of the first writers to combat, on the continent of Europe, Voltaire's depreciation of ShakeBut his eulogy was dated speare was Lessing.

A

year earlier (1758) Moses Mendelssohn, in his essay on the Sublime, had anticipated Lessing's judgment. But his influence did not lead 1759.

new-Hebrew school to translate Shakespeare. was not till near the middle of the nineteenth

the It

century that we find Hebrew translations even of " To be or not such famous soliloquies as Hamlet's to be." In 1842 Fabius Mieses and in 1856 N. P.

Krassensohn rendered the passage. Both, however, were dependent on Mendelssohn, translating rendering. Others, at the same period, turned a few passages, including one of Richard

German

his

II's

monologues,

from

German

versions

into

Hebrew. " lish

To-day we exact our revenge from the Eng!

They took our

Bible and

have captured

We,

in return,

Is

not a sweet revenge?"

it

made

it

their

own.

their Shakespeare.

With

these

words

Smolenskin opened his introduction to Salkinson's

Hebrew

translation of Othello. 303

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND not easy to explain how it happened that we had to wait till 1874 for the first Hebrew adaptaIn fact, with the tion of a Shakespearean drama. It

is

exception of Salkinson's

Romeo and Juliet (1878),

L. Gordon's King Lear (1899), and Isaac Barb's Macbeth (1883), I know of no Hebrew S.

version of plays by the author of Hamlet, which latter drama so far as I have observed, has not even

been printed in Yiddish. ( Dr. Halper, however, informs me that Hamlet was translated into Hebrew

by H.

J.

Bornstein, and that his version appeared in

the pages of Ha-Zefirah Julius

Casar appeared

somewhere about 1900).

in

Yiddish

in

1886.

King same language, and the Merchant of Venice received the same honor, at the hand of Basil Dahl, in New York, in " " ad1899. I use the words printed in Yiddish Lear has

also been printed in the

visedly, because there are extant in

ing

versions

companies.

of

Of

other

plays

manuscript actused by Yiddish

course, select passages

peare have often been rendered

into

from Shakes-

Hebrew,

as,

for instance, in that curious publication Young's Israelitish

Gleaner and Biblical Repository, Edin-

burgh, 1855 (pp. 24, 16). The lack of Hebrew translations may be explained by two considerations.

The Merchant

of Venice, despite 304

its

sympa-

SALKINSON'S

"

OTHELLO "

some aspects of Shylock's chardealt so acter, deadly a blow at the Jews, that there could be no enthusiasm with to the thetic treatment of

regard

other works.

But more operative was another The available Hebraists for the most part

fact.

were ignorant of English. The Macbeth mentioned above was translated not from the original, but from Schiller's German.

There

is

a further consideration (for after all German version was at hand for

fine

Schlegel's

who knew no English). Drama in Hebrew, whether original or translated, has always been those

spasmodic.

Hebrew

Drama

revival

needs an audience.

Until the

become wider spread, there can

sufficiently popular demand for the of Hebrew plays to encourage or culpresentation tivate the composition of them. It will no doubt

never be a

be otherwise in the new Palestine.

Indeed we

al-

M. James RothHebrew Drama in Judaea.

ready read of plans, instituted by schild, to

Isaac

organize a

Edward

knew English

well.

(Eliezer)

He

was

Salkinson,

however,

also gifted with a fine

command

of Hebrew, which he wrote not only He was born in fluently, but in real poetic style. Solomon son of the Salkind, Wilna, being perhaps himself a writer of meritorious 20

'

305

Hebrew

verse

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND 651). Unfortunately, a knowledge of Hebrew does not of itself (Jewish Encyclopedia, vol.

x, p.

keep a Jew within the pale of the Syna-

suffice to

"

As a youth, Salkinson set out for Amergogue. ica with the intention of entering a rabbinical in London he was met London Missionary Society, and

seminary there; but while

by agents of the

was persuaded to forsake Judaism." The Synagogue lost in him one of the most accomplished Hebraists of modern times. But though he was lost, his work or some of it remains to us, and we ought not to let it go. Nahum Slousch makes an admirable remark on the subject in his Renascence of (p.

245).

Salkinson's

first

Hebrew

Literature

great translation

was

not of Shakespeare, but of Milton. In 1871 appeared a delightful Hebrew version of Paradise Lost.

It

was

a masterly rendering, attaining almost

Take

to absolute perfection.

called

it

Fayegaresh

et

ha-adam (" So

it

is

title.

He

He

drove

How

much 24). for Paradise Lost than Meir Letteris

out the man," from Genesis apter

Salkinson's

3.

Ben Abuyah for Goethe's Faust. Salkinson's ver" It was a sign of the sion is genuine Milton. times," says Slousch of Salkinson's rendering of " that this work an epic so Christian in character, 306

"

SALKINSON'S

OTHELLO "

of art was enjoyed and appreciated by the educated Hebrew public in due accordance with its literary merits."

It

was, in brief, an indication that Jewish

Hebrew were

readers of

form and substance.

discriminating between Many who are as old as I am

can recall a similar change

To

pictures.

on one's forbearance.

a tax

turn

offended

the

however, a large mire an

Art Gallery was

a great

go through

Madonnas

at every

Jewish consciousness.

number

find

it

Now,

quite easy to ad-

artist's talent irrespective

Yet Josef

with regard to

in feeling

of the subject.

Israels never painted a

Madonna, though he was strongly urged to do so by eminent admirers of his genius. In the case of Shakespeare's Othello no such

problem as it,

just searched for a like

" Ithiel,"

"

"

Hebrew

title

Salkinson did not seek for any paraphrase.

for

He

sound

In finding a

this arises.

Ithiel

"

"

Hebrew name which would

Othello," and he found

which may signify

"

it

God

would thus mean much "

God

with us ").

in the biblical is

with me."

the

same

as

cannot be

Immanuel (" " " fails to correspond in sense Ithiel asserted that " the for with simple reason that no one Othello," is

It

seems to know what "Othello" means; Ruskin suggested the sense careful. 307

On

the other hand,

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND "

" is

lago

son calls him Doeg:

there

"

"

probably a variant of

Jacob

some

is

;

Salkin-

similarity in

name, between the false Doeg

character, as in a

and the wily lago. The other names call for comment. Desdemona becomes Asenath,

little

not a happy choice, for while Desdemona appar" unfortunate," Asenath is probently means the " Favorite of Neith." ably the Egyptian for the Cassio

is

Cesed

a

hand, the Clown

On

mere assonance. is

Lez

(the

scoffer)

the other ;

a reproduction of meaning, not of sound. all, not the names, but the play Salkinson certainly gives us the play. is

is

is

After thing.

His Hebrew

Often have

the real Shakespeare.

the

this

I

found

in

passages of the English that the Hebrew is a useful help to the understanding of the original. Sometimes a hasty reader of Salkinson may think difficult

that the translator erred, as in his rendering of Othello's last pathetic speech Speak of me as

Nor

set

Of one Of one

I

am; nothing

down aught

:

extenuate,

in malice: then

must you speak

that loved not wisely but too well

;

not easily jealous, but being wrought,

Perplex'd in the extreme

;

of one

whose hand,

Like the base Indian, threw a pearl

Richer than

all

his tribe.

308

away

SALKINSON'S

"

OTHELLO "

Salkinson turns these last two lines into Like the despicable Jeia,

Richer than

It

is

all the

who threw

wealth of

no mistake.

There

:

a pearl

away

Israel. is

good authority for

reading Judean in the English text in place of Indian. The most plausible suggestion is Theobald's, that

Shakespeare was referring to Herod

The whole

and Mariamne.

of this speech is a triumph of literalness combined with beauty of If Salkinson had only written this phraseology. one page he would be famous among modern

Hebraists.

Othello was done into

Hebrew

at the suggestion

of Perez Smolenskin, himself, of course, a noted Smolenskin pioneer of the new-Hebrew school.

was "

delighted

See," he cried,

with "

Salkinson's

performance. Shakespeare lends himself

how

Hebrew. While so many are translating into Hebrew works utterly foreign to the Hebraic spirit, to

here lies

we have one who

near to that

spirit."

itself to translation into

the relation

Hebrew

Bible,

There

is

English does very readily lend

this contention.

when

poem which much truth in

has chosen a

is

Hebrew,

reversed.

just as

No

is

the case

version of the

not even Luther's, has ever apits fidelity to the soul of the

proached the English in

309

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND But Smolenskin goes on to use another argument, which is somewhat amusing. He draws a picture of the Jewry of his day, and then exclaims original.

:

Lo

here are the very conditions presented to us in Othello. And he bids his contemporaries to draw a !

moral from the play, to regulate their conduct by it. I should hardly justify an appreciation of Othello on moral grounds. It is a great psychological also touches the pinnacle of romanand it drama,

But

ticism.

a

moral?

Smolenskin seems to have

men

to treat women better. warning Certainly one would prefer that our Othellos should be a little milder towards their Desdemonas

found

in

a

it

to

in real life.

All this

is off

the point.

Salkinson's merit lay

work of art, pass it the of crucible through translation, and then bring

just in his

to take a

power

out the result as a

work of

are not always traitors. Salkinson's

came

qualities.

Romeo and But

first.

I

I

in the

list

still.

Translators

have said nothing about

Juliet, because his Othello

former he reveals the same

do not know

Salkinson in the

art

whom I would place above

of the best translators into

Hebrew.

310

"LIFE

THOUGHTS" OF MICHAEL HENRY

Michael Henry died in 1875. I n the following year a volume of his Life Thoughts was issued. There are twenty-one chapters, all of them re" Sabbath Readings," printed from the series of issued by the Jewish Association for the Diffusion

of Religious Knowledge. I

The

take pride to remember,

father,

Association, which,

was founded by

was afterwards transformed

my

into the

Jewish Association took

Religious Education Board. The a broader view of its function than does the Board; at all events, the discontinuance of the tracts called

Sabbath Readings was

a deplorable but not irreme-

diable error.

The

Life Thoughts of Michael Henry corre-

Their cheery optimism was Their philosophy is not part of the man's self. is But not conspicuous. their learning profound,

sponded to

his life.

make for happiness. Michael Henry was happy when he made others happy, and he suc-

they

ceeded five

in his genial ambition.

when

He

was only

forty-

his career ended, but he had crowded in 311

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND space many a momentous service, especially to the boys and girls whom he loved as though an elder brother to all of them. It was the short

that

Jewish boys and girls who in 1876 presented the " " first Michael Henry to the Royal National Life-

The boat was twice replaced by Michael Henrys," and the three boats named after " the scholars' friend " have saved

boat Institution. "

other

136

From

lives.

to be

time to time appeals are certain " for funds to enable further Michael

made

Henrys

"

to be launched.

If to bring joy into a life

man Michael Henry

is

to save

saved more

lives

it,

then the

than

all

boats named, or to be named, after him.

already spoken of his geniality.

added

as to his piety.

spring of conduct.

A

the

have

I

word must be

Religion to him was the

Here,

again,

his

optimism

reigned supreme. Judaism was the road to good, on earth and in heaven. In his Gossip with Boys " You may be very good Jews and yet he exclaims Virtue and enjoyment are not ones. very happy :

incompatible. right

arm

will

It is

not unmanly to be good.

fling a

deftly because your left

cricket-ball

arm has worn

an hour before you went Your heart will beat none the

Your

none the

less

the tephillin

into the play-ground.

312

less bravely,

because

THOUGHTS" OF MICHAEL HENRY

"LIFE it

throbs against the four-cornered band of the

These

tsitsith."

sentences

Henry's appeal to the

Michael

crystallize

young

for manliness and

confidence.

Virtue

is

happiness, duty "

axioms sum up

The

his creed.

perceives in the

"

manliness

is

these "

smile of hope

Psalms of David."

He

he

hears

" Home worship." He music, he smells perfume in " " " Barmitzvah that by imitation of good, tells the great and true men, the work shall be done and tri-

umph crown "

Moses

"

the toil."

The law and

the life which

"

both glorious proclaimed and led are " earth." heaven to of Happy gifts

and gracious we," he cries

in his Elijah,

"

if

when we

pass

away

we

leave behind us, like Elijah, a twofold portion of the spirit which those whom we love have every " From " Josiah " young reason to desire of us! " the most manly king of learn that and old

may

most religious"; so, too, the " " Nehemiah was a combination of character of " " Moses Mendelssohn manliness and holiness." " enables us to learn to be good and happy," and, " it is refreshing to turn from adds Michael Henry, the troubled stories of kings, warriors, and states-

Judah was

also the

"

men, to the record of

this calm,

pure

life, in

which,

and wisas in the religion he followed, peace, love 313

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

dom

are harmoniously combined."

In his Message of Love (Leviticus 19. 18), he quotes with a croon of delight the poet's thought Seid umschlungen,

Millionen

be

("Millions!

locked

em-

one

in

brace"). "

In his paper on

"

Peace

he enumerates the

practical means by which that end may be ad" Thus we can promote vanced, and he continues: in the world, and by that effort peace outwardly

pomote peace inwardly in our hearts we can spread around us a peace of earth like a sun-picture of the ;

we ask from Heaven for our" Heaven upon Then, in his paper on

peace

spiritual

selves."

Earth," he argues that Judaism does not tell us " to strive against the very nature of our being."

There

a not very thickly veiled controversialism

is

in the sentences that

when

the left cheek

"

follow:

We

need not turn

stricken on the right, nor im-

poverish ourselves to enrich the poor, nor let the guilty go free because we are not righteous enough to punish, nor leave the holy charms of family deto

lights

follow the standard of fanatical

But what we have

denial.

the teachings of our faith,

nature as pulses

;

it is

;

with

all its

to

do

aims,

and, beating the evil 314

is

this

we have its

from

:

True

to

to take our

passions,

it

self-

its

im-

as the thresher

"

LIFE

THOUGHTS " OF MICHAEL HENRY

strikes the chaff from the grain, or the smelter frees the dross from the gold, we must shape and trim the pure material into its best form, and work it to its

best purpose,

drawing from

it

all

that

it

has of

good; giving to all its strength an upward tendency." But Michael Henry is not at his best when

We

he is arguing. enjoy him in his unreasoning but fascinating optimism, as when, in The Everlasting Light, after describing the troubles and clouds of life and destiny, he comfortably assures " us: Have faith, and it all seems easy." see

We

the real Michael

the three stories or Henry " rather parables with which the volume ends, in

How

we

Angel,"

and

the

"

Schoolboy and the " Everlasting Rose." These

Spoilt our Holiday," the

three chapters at least would bear reprinting.

express Michael

pects of sincerity,

They

most charming asclean-heartedness, and uncon-

Henry

in his

querable belief in the ideal. But there is one chapter missing from the Life Thoughts of Michael Henry. It is a strange omis-

No man

ever excelled the subject of this article in his power to harmonize his religion with sion.

Michael Henry as pietist, as lover of children, as editor of the Jewish Chronicle (from 1868), as agent for patents under all these as-

his life.

315

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND pects the

man was

one and the same.

Thoughts are a torso, unless

To

ings as a mechanician. his contribution to the

"

his writ-

restrict the selection to

Sabbath Readings

And what

to misunderstand him.

His Life

we draw on

"

a notable chap-

ter could

have been added from the source

cated.

have read

Patent it

I

indi-

Defence of the Present

his

Law

was

an able plea, but though (1866). deals with a severely commercial topic in a It

is

whole pamphlet is lit up by personality. Another fact re-

business-like spirit, the

the writer's spiritual

vealed

is

this:

shows Michael Henry

It

to

have

been possessed of a ready wit, a keen sense of This note is missing from the volume of

humor.

Life Thoughts.

Even more

characteristic

manac, the annual 1858.

To

is

the Inventor's Al-

of which was begun in it is abso-

issue

comprehend Michael Henry

lutely necessary to turn over these sheets, a fine set

of which (as continued also by Mr. Ernest de Pass) may be seen in the British Museum. Each

Almanac

consists of a single page,

crowded masses of cal, practical,

clever.

and

Now,

these almanacs

technical information

historical.

this:

The

artistic

statisti-

design

is

why I am referring to From 1862 onwards, the

the reason is

on which are

316

"LIFE

THOUGHTS" OF MICHAEL HENRY

sheets are adorned by quotations as well as pictures. In 1864 Michael Henry quotes from Disraeli: '

You have disenthroned

and placed on her Then the compiler must force,

high seat intelligence." have been struck by the fact that Disraeli's remark

had

a scriptural analogue.

subsequent year, the "

Wisdom

maxim:

clesiastes). 1

The

In 1865, and in every

Almanac is

is

surmounted by the

better than strength

reference

is

(Ec-

to chapter 9 verse

In 1866 he quotes Gladstone:

6.

no honourable, no useful

"

upon

place,

"There

is

this busy,

teeming earth, for the idle man." In another issue he uses a passage from that once popular versifier Mackay; union had often been tried by man for purposes of war,

why

not try

for purposes of

it

"

construction, industry, and mutual peace, so that " lead from darkness into light." Naturaid," may ally

enough he revels in Tennyson Men our brothers, men the workers, :

ever reaping something new,

That which they have done but

earnest

of the things that they shall do.

used that couplet in 1872. Of course, he presents in due course the same poet's

He

Let Knowledge grow from more to more,

But more of reverence 317

in us

dwell

!

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND Quite obvious

all this,

no doubt. Michael Henry

was, one must admit, given to the cult of the obvious. Therein lies not blame but praise. Many of us just fail because we do not see what lies simply before us. Tennyson was the incarnation of obviousness, hence he helped his generation to see.

Michael Henry had no very keen or far vision. But he saw straight, he saw true. He was not an ocean goer, he hugged the shore within a dozen miles or so. Very like a life-boat, after all !

Clearly a

der will

memory to be

!

"

Michael Henry

"

in

good working

or-

always be the best monument to his And he belongs to the type which ought

remembered.

318

Affixed to the colossal monument, which dominates and ennobles the entrance to bor,

is,

as all the

world knows,

Lazarus (1849-1887). "

her genius.

Liberty,

a

New York harpoem by Emma

It

commemorates her and

a

mighty

torch," stands there as the

"

woman

Mother

crying with silent lips to the older world Give me your

tired,

Your huddled masses yearning

The wretched Send

to

with a

of Exiles," :

your poor,

breathe free,

refuse of your teeming shore,

these, the homeless, tempest-tost, to me,

I lift

my lamp

beside the golden door.

This sonnet expresses both sides of the writer's her devotion to America and her love

idealism:

for the Jews. She wrote much as a Hellenist, but her genuine outbursts were stimulated by two the American War of North and South in crises :

the sixties, and the Russian Persecutions in the eighties.

In a sense

Laws came

so late.

it is

unfortunate that the

Emma

May

Lazarus had but few

of the legislayears to live after the promulgation tion which sent forth, from their country, those 319

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND myriads of Russian Jews, whose presence has so profoundly altered Jewish conditions lands.

Her Jewish poems

but

the

it is

fire

in

various

are full indeed of

fire,

When she

of an immature passion.

had only begun to find herself as the of cause. Israel's singer Even so, however, her songs will not die. For " the slave of the Idea." she realized that Israel is died, she

She did not fully grasp what the Idea was, however.

including those from

Israel's migrations

Russia to Texas

were

all,

Freedom

To The

to love the

towards a

felt, :

law that Moses brought,

sing the songs of David, and to think

thoughts Gabirol to Spinoza taught,

Freedom

The

she

Freedom

destined end, and that end

to dig the

universal air

common

earth, to drink

for this they sought

Refuge o'er wave and continent, to link Egypt with Texas in their mystic chain,

And

Freedom of

is

truth's perpetual

lamp forbid

part of Israel's Idea

;

it is

to

wane.

not the whole

it.

In her new-found enthusiasm for the

language she translated poets.

But she

the bard of

much from

will always

Hanukkah.

come

Hebrew

the medieval

to one's

mind

as

There she comes nearest 320

EMMA LAZARUS

THE POEMS OF EMMA LAZARUS to

Idea of which Israel

the

Cheyne,

in

one of his

is

works

finest

(

the

missioner.

The Origin and

Religious Contents of the Psalter, pp. 18, 104), quotes two stanzas from her Feast of Lights as an apt commentary on Psalms 79 and 1 18, contrasting the desolation of Zion and the re-dedication :

They who had camped Couched on the

within the mountain-pass,

and tented 'neath the

rock,

Who

saw from Mizpah's heights Choke the wide Temple-courts,

Disfigured and polluted

Their faces on the

And

the altar lie

who had

stones,

flung

and mourned aloud

rent their garments, wailing with one tongue,

Crushed as a wind-swept bed of reeds

Even they by one

Though broken

is

bowed,

voice fired, one heart of flame, reeds,

had

risen,

and were men,

They rushed upon the spoiler and o'ercame, Each arm for freedom had the strength of

Now

sky,

the tangled grass

is

their

mourning

into

ten.

dancing turned,

Their sackcloth doffed for garments of

delight,

Week-long the festive torches shall be burned, Music and revelry wed day with night.

One

could

quote

much

else

from

Emma

Lazarus; her pagan poems written under classic and romantic influences; her renderings of Heine; her historical tragedy, the Dance of Death, dedicated to George Eliot; her prose epistles, in one of

which occurs her famous use of a Hebrew gram21

321

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND matical form.

Hebrew

In the

verb there

an

is

and so the Jews are the intensive form of any nationality whose language and customs they adopt. Or again, one might cite her intensive voice,

New

Legends, her Rashl lines

Bar Kochba,

her

Ezeklel,

In

Prague,

her

or, better

Talmud still,

her

from Nahum's Spring Song: Now the dreary winter's over, Fled with him are grief and pain;

When Then

the trees their bloom recover, the soul

born again

is

!

always firmest when her theme is This subject gave her the Maccabaean heroism. the opportunity which her nationalistic mood needed. We have read part of one of her poems

But her hand

on the subject, is

is

let us

read another

in full,

though

it

perhaps the most familiar of her compositions. "

The Banner

of the Jew." While it repeats the thought and almost the phrases of the Feast of Lights, it has more of the lyric lightness Its title is

of touch.

It

Wake,

runs thus Israel,

:

wake!

Recall to-day

The glorious Maccabean rage, The sire heroic, hoary-gray, His

five- fold lion-.Hneage

The Wise, the Elect, The Burst-of-Spring,

:

the Help-of-God, the

Avenging Rod,

THE POEMS OF EMMA LAZARUS From Mizpeh's mountain-ridge Jerusalem's empty

streets,

they

saw

her shrine

Laid waste where Greeks profaned the Law, With idol and with pagan sign.

Mourners

in tattered black

With ashes

were

there,

sprinkled on their hair.

Then, from the stony peak there rang

A

down poured who sang

blast to ope the graves:

The Maccabean

clan,

Their battle-anthem

to the Lord.

Five heroes lead, and following, see

Ten thousand

rush to victory

!

Oh for Jerusalem's trumpet now, To blow a blast of shattering power, To wake the sleepers high and low, And rouse them to the urgent hour! No hand for vengeance but to save,

A

thousand naked swords should wave.

O deem

not dead that martial

fire,

Say not the mystic flame is spent! With Moses' law and David's lyre,

Your

ancient strength remains unbent

Let but an Ezra rise anew,

To

A

lift

the

rag, a

Banner

mock

of the

at first

Jew!

erelong

When men have bled and women wept, To guard its precious folds from wrong, Even

they

who

shrunk, even they

Shall leap to bless Strike

I

it,

and

who

to save.

for the brave revere the brave

323

!

slept,

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND This fail

bold and moving, but the reader cannot to observe that the metre and the passion are is

derived

from

Byron's

Isles

of

Greece.

The

Hebrew's protest against Greece must, forsooth, owe its form and sentiment to the Saxon's plea for Greece

!

The true, None the

The Jewish muse full less,

is still in leading strings. of Israel's hope is yet to come. song the genius of Emma Lazarus struck

truly the key-note to that song. still.

324

We

hear

its

echo

CONDER'S " TENT WORK IN PALESTINE " He used the continentals.

Conder.

Bible too

Compare,

much

The Frenchman employed

illustrate the country, the

to illustrate the Bible.

able

?

to please

The answer

is

some of the

for instance, Gautier with the Bible to

Englishman the country

Which procedure is preferanother question. Why does

every inch of Palestine interest the modern exNo Parthenon is to be seen within its plorer? boundaries, no Sphinx. Neither is the Attic beautiful there to charm, nor the Egyptian colossal to

provide a

work

his seal

When Thomson (in 1859) called The Land and the Book," he put the

thrill.

"

on the English way of regarding the

relation

between the geography and the history of the Holy Land. Englishmen have been among the keenest geographers of Palestine because they respond best to

its

history.

Hence Conder's is,

some have termed it, Apart, however, from the

defect, as

in truth, his merit.

pietism of his motives, he deserved well of all who love Palestine. He gave some of his best years to 325

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

and that operation did much to revivify the country. His services must always have a value its

survey,

because he, more than any other modern, put an end to a sort of thing formerly common. I mean the sort of thing which a pious old dame is said " once to have remarked I knew these places were :

in the Bible,

know they were in Palesparticular owe a good deal to him.

but

tine." I

Jews in doubt whether

Medyeh cabaeans

did not

I

I,

for one,

would ever have the

home of

probably Modin, but for Conder. I think

heart his description

how

I

visited

the

Mac-

could quote by

the ancient road

from

Jerusalem to Lydda emerged from the rocky Bethhoron defiles and " ran along a mountain spur " towards the plain how, a mile or so to the north ;

of this main road, the village of Modin was built upon the southern slopes of the valley; how the gentle hills of the lowlands (Shephelah) could be seen from the "

At

Modin

Knoll, stretching westwards.

amid dark groves of olive, lay the white town of Lydda, and behind it the broad plain their feet,

of Sharon extended to a breadth of ten miles. Furthest of

bounded the

afl,

the yellow-gleaming sand-dunes

rich arable land,

and the waters of the

Great Sea (the Mediterranean) shone brightly under the afternoon sun." 326

CONDER'S "TENT

WORK

IN PALESTINE"

This description comes from one of Conder's books, his Judas Maccabaeus. But his earlier Tent Work in Palestine (1878) is full of other

passages just as vivid. It is even more interesting because it shows us the explorer groping for the results, at which he has not yet arrived.

Aptly enough, the title-page presents, from a sketch by the author, a theodolite-party at work, for the surof Western Palestine was conducted on serious vey

That

trigonometrical methods.

the narrative

is

so

picturesque must not blind us to the truth that the operations were severely scientific. We are now,

however, concerned with the as a parallel to the

account of his

pictorial effects.

Read, Conder's description, to Samaria. Taking the

Modin

first visit

north road from Jerusalem, he passes the ranges about Ne"by Samuel (probably the ancient Mizpah), and sees the hills of Benjamin, "black against a sky of most delicate blush-rose tint, and the contrast was perhaps the finest in a land where fine effects are

common

at sunset."

Then he

de-

scends into the rough gorge of the Robbers' Foun" The road is not improved by the habit of

tain.

clearing the stones off the surrounding gardens into In the east, roads are often thus

the public path."

made

the

common dumping-ground 327

for rubbish,

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND and

I

remember how

the

walk round the outside of

was much spoilt by the heaps of vegetable and other refuse which had been flung over the ramparts. (General Allenby's campaign

the Jerusalem walls

has already changed all that for the better. ) Pro" the short twilight gave place to almost ceeding, total darkness as we began to climb the watershed

which separates the plain from the valley coming down from Shiloh, and the moon had risen when the great shoulder of Gerizim became dimly visible

some ten miles away, with on

its

a silvery

wreath of cloud

summit." The right time to appreciate Pales-

tinian scenes

is

usually just after sunset.

And

so,

" night march, Conder describes how, creeping beneath the shadow of Gerizim, we gained the narrow valley of Shechem, and followed a stony

on

this

lane between walnut trees under a steep hillside.

The barking in

camp came

and

sleepy,

of dogs was

larger bull-terriers,

heard, and the lights

My poor terrier was tired

into view.

and was

now

set

upon Jack and

at once Jill,

by Drake's

rather a rude

reception after a thirty-mile journey."

Mr. C.

F.

Tyrwhitt Drake who died soon afterwards had gone on in advance and had placed the camp close to the beautiful fountain of 828

Ras

el-Ain.

CONDER'S

"

TENT WORK

IN PALESTINE

"

Such extended journeys could not be accomplished without paying the price. Thus, after the survey of Samaria, Carmel, and Sharon, operations

had

to be suspended for a time, simply because the

" party had reached the limit of endurance. fatigue of the campaign had been very great. eyes were quite pink

all

glare of white chalk,

boots had no soles.

My

over, with the effects of the

my

clothes

were

in rags,

my

The men were no better off, were all much exhausted, suf-

and the horses also fering from soreback, due the spirit

The

to the grass diet."

was stronger than

the flesh.

"

The

But rest

soon restored our energies, and autumn found us once more impatient to be in the fields."

Thence Conder was off to Damascus, Baalbek and Hermon, away from Palestine itself. The ascent of the 9,000 feet of mount Hermon was begun at 10.30 a. m., and at 2 o'clock the summit was reached. But we must pass over the glowing description of the

panorama

that unfolded itself to

the gaze of the explorers. After three months in the north, tents were struck, and the party marched

out of their pleasant mountain-camp, bound for Jerusalem and the hills of Judah. Of the many pen-pictures which Conder draws, we will stay only the description of Bethar, where to regard one 829

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

Bar Cochba made

his great effort at recovering

Jewish independence (about the year 135 of the

Conder

present era).

modern

locates the fortress at the

which there

village Bittir (at

way

station)

sea,

and about

It is

.

five

now

is

a rail-

about thirty-five miles from the "

from Jerusalem.

side, except the south,

On

every

surrounded by deep and supplied with fresh water

it is

rugged gorges, and it is from a spring above the

On

village.

the north

would have been impregnable, as steep from the bottom of the ravine, upon

the position cliffs

.

rise

which the houses are perched.

The name

(Bittir)

Hebrew (Bethar), and

the

distances agree with those noticed by Eusebius

and

exactly represents the

the ten,

Talmud. which

on the

hill,

Khurbet

el

is

Nor must

the curious

title

applied to a shapeless

be forgot-

mass of

ruin

immediately west of Bittir, for the name Yehud Ruin of the Jews may be well

thought to hand down traditionally among the natives of the neighbourhood the memory of the great

Whether

catastrophe of Bethar."

this place

is

the

Bar Cochba's Bethar may be seriously questioned, but no other view can claim to be more " certain. The site of Bethar must still be con-

true site of

sidered S.

doubtful,"

Krauss,

who

says

himself

is

330

that

good

authority,

inclined to the theory

CONDER'S "TENT

WORK

IN

PALESTINE"

which places the fortress much further north, near Sepphoris.

We

should like to linger over the rest of Con-

der's journey, but the

devoted to his

few

lines that

remain must be

remarks.

Conder, it must ever be remembered, was one of the first to dispute the final

then current belief that the

Holy Land had

lost its

fertility, and that changes in mate had induced an irreparable barrenness.

old character for

maintained

in particular that the

of water had been tourists. is

"

With

cli-

He

supposed dearth

much exaggerated by

recent

respect to the annual rainfall,

it

only necessary to note that, with the old cisterns

cleaned and mended, and the beautiful tanks and aqueducts repaired, the ordinary fall would be quite sufficient for the wants of the inhabitants and for irrigation." (Here, too, recent events have

And, in effected an agreeable transformation.) " the change in productiveness which has general due to decay of cultivation, to decrease of population, and to bad government. It is Man and not Nature, who has ruined land in which was no lack,' and it is, the really occurred in Palestine,

is

'

good

therefore, within the

power of human industry

restore the old country to cultural prosperity."

its

to

old condition of agri-

Construct roads, raise irriga331

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND promote afforestation those were the measures Gender suggested, after the three strenution works,

ous years of his survey (1872 to 1875). optimistic opinions are

we may

now

quite

common;

Such and,

hope, are tending towards realization,

if

only men's hopes are not set too high. But let us not forget that among the first moderns to formulate such opinions,

on the basis of exact knowledge,

was the author of Tent Work

332

in Palestine.

KALISCH'S Of Marcus

"PATH AND GOAL"

Kalisch's learned commentaries on

has been truly said that they are a thorough summary of all that had been written on the subject up to the date when those commentaries the Bible

it

were published. He not only knew everything, but he had assimilated it. Nor was it only his learning that placed

him among

the

first

among

the Jewish

scholars of the second part of the nineteenth cen" was original as well that he anticipated tury.

He

;

Wellhausen," more than one has declared of him, as they have declared of others before Kalisch.

Learning and originality make a fairly strong instrument for drawing out the truth. But another strand is needed to compose the threefold cord that shall not easily be broken.

This, too, Kalisch had

In command. It is his more orthodox days when he produced his Exodus (1855), and in his more rationalistic period when he gave to the world his Balaam and his at all stages of his activity he Jonah (1887-8) was never the mere philologist. Like Sheridan's character, he was a man of sentiment; but unlike He Joseph Surface, his sentiment was genuine. at his

the strand of sentiment.

332

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND was, to put the same truth in other words, an expounder of ideas as well as a critic of words. It should in

any

have surprised no one to meet Kalisch where the qualities above defined

situation

could be exercised.

Yet some of those who only Hebrew grammarian must eyes when the- fact was brought

thought of him as the

have opened their

to their notice that within a couple of years of

printing his Genesis (1858) he issued a small vol-

ume on

Oliver Goldsmith.

substance of this volume as to a village audience."

"

In 1860 he spoke the two lectures delivered

The theme was

treated by

him with considerable learning, but with an even more considerable good feeling. I remember par" Forticularly two or three sentences in this book. " his but do one not them is faults, give forget I quote from memory and may not be verbally exact. Forgiveness not only differs from forgethumanely considered, the two things

fulness, but,

are scarcely consistent.

when you remember you are judging. " this:

You

writings,

You all

really can only forgive

that the

man was whom

Another sentence that I recall

is

will find Goldsmith's life again in his

and

his writings in his life."

This

is

a

But notable conception, not original to Kalisch. fresh. to me the turn he gives to it seems quite 334

"PATH AND GOAL"

KALISCH'S

Goldsmith, he

asserts, was a great writer and the faults aforementioned a good man. despite '

You

see his goodness in his writings

greatness

"

in his life

a neat description of the ideal

But how came

and

it

and

his

a brilliant epigram, but also

that

man

Marcus

of

letters.

Kalisch, a

German

was addressing village audiences in Born in Pomerania in 1828, he England had come to England fresh from the Universities of Berlin and Halle. Like so many others of varia Jew,

at all?

ous nationalities and creeds, he had played a generous part in the 1848 affair, and felt unsafe after its

Nathan Marcus Adler had

suppression.

tled in

London

in

The

1845.

asylum with the new chief rabbi

:

Kalisch served

His former

the latter as secretary for five years.

employer must have

felt fairly

set-

refugee found an

uncomfortable when

Kalisch's Leviticus appeared (1867-72), for this was a pretty thorough departure from the old-

fashioned standpoint.

without honor

in his

Kalisch, of course,

was not had a

He

own community.

in real, though not an undiscriminating, admirer seem still, however, the late A. L. Green.

We

rather far

off

from solving the

riddle

:

how came

Kalisch to be talking to English village audiences on Oliver Goldsmith or on any other subject? The 335

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND given with the names of the villages. were Aston Clinton and Mentmore in the

answer

They

is

county of Buckinghamshire places long associated with the country homes of the Rothschilds. In Kalisch tutor to the of was sons 1853 appointed

Baron Lionel de Rothschild.

From

Kalisch's death, in 1885, there

that date until

was no break

in the

cordial relations between the Rothschilds and the scholar.

vided the less

They provided the leisure, and he procapacity to make worthy use of it. Count-

are the honorable incidents in the Rothschild

none on which a Jewish writer more loves to dwell than on the association of the record, but there

is

family with the author of Path and Goal. The scene of that work is Cordova Lodge, the

house of Gabriel de Mondoza, situated in one of " an unthe northern suburbs of London. It was pretending structure of moderate dimensions, but adorned with consummate taste and judgment." The further description of the house rather reminds

one of Disraeli's creations.

And

this

"

Lodge,

a

veritable rus in urbe," with its Greek busts and " " there is not lacking even modest conservatories " " a diminutive farm was, we are told, so located "

and ordered as to afford

an atmosphere of calm cheerfulness, inviting the mind at once to concentra336

KALISCH'S "PATH

AND GOAL"

The owner, in whose abode Kalisch represents his characters as gathered, was descended from a distinguished family of Spantion

ish

and intercommunion."

Jews,

who had come from Holland

to

England

during Cromwell's protectorate. His mother was a " German, of an essentially artistic nature." From his father he derived his love for the Bible,

from

mother his admiration for the Classics; and " doubtful as to which to prefer, he clung the more firmly to both, and laboured to weld the conceptions

his

of the Scriptures and of Hellenism into one homo-

geneous design." His house was the habitual meeting-place for many native and foreign guests, and during the International Exhibition a specially representative

group are found "

at

Cordova Lodge, conducting

a

discussion of the elements of civilisation and the

conditions of happiness."

This discussion

is

the

substance of the volume entitled Path and Goal.

Such symposia go back to Plato, but it was W. H. Mallock who, with his New Republic, re-popularized the genre in England. This appeared in 1877; Kalisch's Path and Goal followed it in 1880. The include Christians of disputants in the latter work all degrees of high and low Churchiness a natural;

ist

and a Hellenist; a Reform and an Orthodox aa

337

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND Rabbi a Parsee and a ;

and

a

Buddhist.

Mohammedan

Perhaps the

feature of this gathering

is

;

Brahman

a

most remarkable

Kalisch's recognition of

Some-

the importance of the Eastern religions. times, indeed, those

who

try to prefigure the future

of the world's religion take account of Islam.

But

very few remember the beliefs and institutions of India. The learning with which Kalisch discusses the Indian systems

prepared for

it

would be amazing were one not

by previous knowledge of

his ency-

clopedic acquirements.

We will not follow out into any detail the course of the conversations at Cordova Lodge. It is cleverly constructed, being based on a discussion of

The whole

Ecclesiastes. in the

of that biblical book ap-

second chapter of Path and Goal, and

pears it is the text for what follows.

What

is

the object

" of the interchange of these opinions? do not search for that which appertains to one time or to

We

one nation, but those truths which flow from the constitution and wants of human nature, and are

on that account universal and unchanging."

No

is reached, except, perhaps, the final " " of Mondoza's suggested eucrasy justification " the harmony of character which is the perfection

definite result

of culture."

Here, then, we have the very antith338

"PATH AND GOAL"

KALISCH'S

view expressed

csis to the

in

Herzberg's Jewish

Family Papers. Kalisch believed in the possible harmonization of various elements into a perfect culture. But he does not describe as Jewish the

He

resultant harmony. all

would not have cared

at

about the name; he was chiefly concerned with

And

the thing.

in the light

of this

for

I

think

we may

not unjustly attribute the host's sentiments " to the host's author he regarded the political as an nation"; community only elementary stage

was

ality

union is

"

at best preparatory for the

men

of

;

while

a onesidedness to be

"

"

universal

the feeling of nationality

merged

ardent cosmopolitanism."

in a

genuine and

Cosmopolitanism

political correlative to a belief in culture.

end there

is

a very general agreement "

Cordova Lodge.

visitors at

Mondoza.

"

is

the

In the

among

the "

dream?

Is this a

heralds," said Rabbi Gideon, " the approach of the time with a trembling voice, cries

It

predicted by our prophets, be One and His name One

when ' ;

'

the

and when

Lord

shall

He

shall

'

Egypt My peohands, and Israel

bless the nations saying, Blessed be ple, and Assyria the "

Mine

work of

inheritance.'

Kalisch's

"

"

all,

not widely distant from the rightly be termed Jewish.

Goal

Goal that may

My

(Isaiah 19. 25.) So, after

is

339

FRANZ DELITZSCH'S

"

IRIS "

Light and color are the themes of the poet. But they and the flowers attract the theologian also.

Franz Delitzsch produced his Studies in Color and Talks on Flowers in 1888 (an English version appearing in the following year). The book gives the

lie

to the supposition that the technical scholar

is

so engaged in dissecting things of beauty, that he

is

blind to the beauty of things.

Delitzsch

student and interpreter of the Bible that he could not

remember

the time

the

assures us

when he

did

not muse on the language of colors; while, as for flowers, they ever had heavenly things to tell him ;

"

perfume he felt the nearness and breath of the Creator." Hence he called his book Iris. " The prismatic colours of the rainbow, the brilin their

liant sword-lily,

that wonderful part of the eye

which gives it its colour, and the messenger of heaven who beams with joy, youth, beauty, and

A

love, are all called Iris."

to

name

a

book which

lore of Bible and

is

pretty notion, this, so

occupied largely with the

Talmud.

But the question arises: Did the olden Hebrews and their rabbinic descendants appreciate colors? 340

FRANZ DELITZSCH'S

"

IRIS

"

Here we are face to face with a basic error to which some investigators have succumbed. They rely too much on words. The Hebrew names for colors are vague and few. Does it, however, follow that the ancient people were unable to enjoy

the blue of the sky because they had no sky-blue

There

?

Men

is,

word

for

do not name everything they know. no specific Hebrew for

for instance,

volcano, yet there are a score of passages in which volcanic

phenomena

Old Testament.

are forcibly described in the

Delitzsch did not belong to the He points out that,

superficial theorists just cited.

though

biblical

language has no adjective for blue,

compares the

sky to sapphire in the Sinaitic theophany (Exodus 24. 10), as well as in Ezekiel's " vision of the divine throne. Sapphire-blue is the blue of heaven; the colour of the atmosphere as it

illumined by the sun, through which shine the dark depths of space, the colour of the finite pervaded

by the infinite, the colour taken by that which is most heavenly as it comes down to the earthly, the colour of the covenant between So, too, the

Midrash says of

God and man."

the blue fringe

worn

on the corners of their garments by that it was a blue of the purple hyacinth hue Israelites

reminiscent of the heavens and the Throne of 341

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

And

Glory.

blue, continues Delitzsch, passes al-

most universally

as the color of fidelity.

He

proves

by reference to German and Sanskrit. The Indians would say of a steadfast man that he was

this

"

as unchangeable as the indigo flower,"

as durable as

ism there

is

it is

" lovely.

But

which

in biblical

is

symbol-

associated with blue the idea of the blue

and with the blue sky the idea of the Godhead coming forth from its mysterious dwelling in the sky,

unseen world, and graciously condescending to the

commentator though he was, had something of the darshan in him, and that accounts in part for his charm. The spirit of creature." Delitzsch, scientific

Midrash that

it

rests

where

sometimes

it

will:

finds itself a

a

happy truth

home

in the hearts

it

is

of others besides the sons of Israel.

may be likened to the darshan: home as allegorist. He can use the an Abbahu he can also follow the man-

Delitzsch, then,

he

is

equally at

method of

;

Take, for example, his treatment of the four colors which are found in the priestly ner of a Philo.

vestments

purple-red,

White, he white and God

white.

says,

is

is

purple-blue, is

white.

Dressed

of holiness, the priests blessed Israel "

May

the

scarlet,

the sacred color.

Lord make His 342

in the in the

and

Light white

words

face shine in light

:

upon

FRANZ DELITZSCH'S thee."

IRIS "

Delitzsch interprets light in the sense of is not quite adequate. He often quotes

This

love.

German views;

university customs in illustration of his

it is

a pity that he forgot the

Dominus

University of Oxford, (" the

Lord

my

is

light

"

mea

God

is

first

verse of

the author of

comments White would stand for

as well as the source of love,"

knowledge

C. G. Montefiore.

mind-service as well as heart-service

no doubt,

motto of the

illuminatio

"), from the

the twenty-seventh Psalm.

Mr.

"

is

emotional, but

lectual to be sane

it

:

illumination,

must also be

and complete.

other hand, continues Delitzsch

Scarlet, in his

intel-

on the

allegory of

the contrast to white. Isaiah " scarlet is the color red as scarlet

the priestly colors, "

is

speaks of sin of fire, hence of sin and the anger it evokes. " Scarlet with white in the dress of the high priest, therefore, means that he is the servant of that God

who

is

holy not only in His love, but also

anger."

A

into the

Hebrew

His

phrase that, showing deep insight Delitzsch, conception of God.

not to be lumped together with those would make of God all love there is a holy

obviously,

who

fine

in

is

;

anger, too, which belongs (inseparably with the love) to the divine nature. With regard to the two

purples in the priestly robes, they typify majesty, 343

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

was

for the dye

and

costly

its effects

magnificent.

"

God's majesty as the exalted One, and purple-blue to God's majesty in His conPurple-red points to "

descension.

"

For," continues Delitzsch,

even

taken

in itself, the

red

severe and earnest whereas purple-blue has a

is

impression produced by purple:

And

soft tranquillizing effect.

suggests the

frowns ness

God

in anger,

whereas purple-red

of judgment who,

when

He

changes the heavens into black-

and the moon into blood, purple-blue suggests

God of peace, who overarches the earth with the blue of heaven, like a tent of peace." the

How

very fanciful, but fore

how

There

how very

very Jewish is

Philonean, and there-

all this is

much more

as

good

!

as this in Iris.

For

instance, one would hardly have looked for poetry the minute scrutiny of the in the laws of bedikah

carcasses of animals as regards

But

just as in

symptoms of

disease.

Samson's riddle out of the body of

the lion there came forth sweetness, so in Iris the

author extracts aesthetics from the bedikah

and

sees in

them evidence of the

rules,

close observation

"

The colour of colors by the rabbinic legalists. of the lung especially is subjected to the most careful examination.

It

is

reckoned healthy

black like the Eastern eye paint 844

that

is,

if

it

is

tending

FRANZ DELITZSCH'S to blueish

eating

IRIS "

or green like leek, or red, or liver-

coloured, but

it

is

the colour

if

"

declared to be unsuitable for is

as black as ink, yellowish-

like hops, yellow like the yolk of

an egg, green yellow like saffron, yellow-red like raw flesh." And " after the recital, Delitzsch exclaims: Is not this " a rich variegated sampler of colours? Since the date when Delitzsch wrote there has

come about an important change in anthropologists. Little more than century has passed, but

all

the opinion of a quarter of a

anthropological theorists

no longer accept (though some still do) one theory on which Delitzsch builds, namely, that primitive peoples were color-blind. ties

Several eminent authori-

deny that savages lack the power to discriminate The fact simply is that with advance in cul-

colors.

ture there enters greater precision in nomenclature;

color-language becomes not so

ture associates itself with

far

definite,

But why?

Surely not because accurate observation of natural tints. Cul-

as of wider range.

of more

much more

more

town

life,

color-blind than rustics.

and urbans are

At

least, statis-

are said to prove this, though Dr. Maurice Fishberg questions one of the inferences. The dis-

tics

cussion has importance owing to the statement often

made

that

Jews

are

more 345

subject

to

color-

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND blindness than Gentiles, the suggestion being that,

predominatingly in towns, they see less green than do those who dwell in the country. Dr. Fishberg, on the other hand, maintains that, as

Jews

live

while the poor and ill-nourished are always susceptible to color-blindness, Jews of the well-nourished classes are quite as

good distinguishers of shades

of color as the rest of the population of the same social status.

There remains something else to add. Culture it luxury, and luxury leads to the manu-

carries with

facture of silks and cloths of every variety of shade. It is the mediaeval

improvement

in the art

of dyeing that has produced the increase of definition and

range

in

dyeing owed

known

And

the color vocabulary.

fact,

much

to Jews.

To

wherever he went on

the art of

repeat a wellhis Itinerary in

the mid-twelfth century, Benjamin of Tudela

al-

ways found Jewish dyers. Here, however, we must break off, for we seem getting a longish way from Iris.

But not

really.

The book

itself

makes no

attempt to be systematic, and discursiveness is, accordingly, not inappropriate in a causerie on Franz Delitzsch's masterpiece.

346

1

THE PRONAOS " OF

I.

M. WISE

Of

Isaac Mayer Wise it is customary to speak an organizer and nothing more. True, the most

as

significant

performance of

his

long

life

(1819-

1900) was the foundation of institutions for American Reform Judaism. More than any other leader of his age he realized two ideas which are usually regarded as contradictory, but which

Wise

saw can and must be harmonized.

ideas

are not of equal importance.

Jewish

life is

as the

unit.

The

The two basis of a

sound

the recognition of the congregation

Wise perceived

saw that some

this,

but he also

sort of grouping of the units

is

necessary to convert the congregations into a com-

This he effected by founding the Hebrew Union College as representative of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations. The Union devised by Wise differs essentially from the United Synagogue of London. The latter depends on the

munity.

principle of control, the former

of co-operation.

This

is

on the

the relative values of the two principles. it

principle

not the place to discuss Suffice

to indicate the distinction.

Yet, though Wise owes to his organizing skill " fame as the most potent factor in the history

his

347

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND of Judaism in America," he was also an author. His contributions to literature were many and varied.

but he

He was

was, above

all,

an energetic journalist;

a novelist and a dramatist as well.

A

careful study of his writings on religion will con-

vince any unprejudiced reader that Wise was also a theologian of no mean order. In his life-time it

was customary

throw easy But the ignoramus. charge was I

to

read for the

first

jibes at false.

him

as an

Not long ago

time Wise's most ambitious

books, as well as the Selected Writings, edited in 1900 by Drs. Philipson and Grossman. Now Wise,

throughout his career, worked consciously with the " aim to reconcile Judaism with the age and its needs."

Every Jewish

he belongs, does

that.

leader, to

whatever school

With Wise, however,

aim was most consciously felt. Hence were all directed to current problems, ions of the hour;

ephemeral.

and

as a result his

But the strange thing

the fashions have passed,

it is

the

his writings

to the fash-

books seemed is

that,

when

seen that the treat-

ment of them has permanent worth. I have been again and again struck by Wise's learning and He was a pioneer, for instance, in his originality. treatment of Christianity. He held the fantastic theory that Paul was identical with Elisha ben 348

ISAAC

MAYER WISE

"

THE PRONAOS " OF

Abuyah, and

I.

M. WISE

in other points displays a

somewhat

perverse ingenuity. But he was a pioneer in trying to separate the supernatural from the natural in the "

records of the early church. The God Jesus," he " and the supernatural Paul appear small in said, the focus of reason. The patriotic and enthusiastic Jesus,

and the brave, bold, wise Paul are grand

The

types of humanity."

epithets applied by

are not all well chosen; there tricity in

which he draws

a pioneer not so

is

much

Wise

frequently an eccen-

But the main

Wise's characterizations.

distinction

was

is

Again, Wise laying stress on the

sound.

in

prophetic Judaism, because Geiger did the same before him but where Wise led was in his effort to ;

attach the prophetic ideals to the congregational He understood that " social service " ought life. to be an integral element in every synagogue's ac-

"

Whatever a congregation does, it must never neglect the first of all its duties the Messianic duty of Israel. It must contribute its full share

tivity.

to the elevation of

human

nature, the redemption

of mankind, the sovereignty of truth, and the supremacy of reason, freedom, and virtue."

Wise, however, refused to the

for

Law. The

him

"

"

set the

Revelation on

valid eternally." 349

Prophets above

Mount

It is

Sinai

"

was

because of this

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND aspect of his

work

as the peg on

book appeared title

" is

that I have chosen his Pronaos

which

to

hang

these thoughts.

in Cincinnati in

1891, and

Pronaos to Holy Writ

The

its full

on

establishing,

documentary evidence, the authorship, date, form, and contents of each of its books, and the Authenticity

The book

of the Pentateuch."

is

among

the

reasoned replies to the Higher CritiWise would have nothing to do with the

earliest of the

cism.

modern treatment of little

the Pentateuch.

He

had

as

had with Wellthrough and through

patience with Graetz as he

The Pentateuch

hausen.

is

Moses wrote Genesis and Deuteronomy with his own hands; the rest was set down soon after his death from the records which he had left " There exists no for the purpose. And further: Mosaic.

any doubt authenticity of any book of Holy Writ."

solid

ground on which

to base

that emphatic assertion the

Wise,

'it

in the

With

book ends.

must be confessed, seemed unaware of To him criticism

the constructive side of criticism.

seemed

entirely negative.

Again, he was unable to may continue, even

see that the value of the Bible

though the older conception of authenticity be modified. But the interest of his Pronaos just lies in the vigor with which he maintains that older conception. 350

"

THE PRONAOS " OF

His defence

is

M. WISE

and in many ways convincwas undoubtedly wrong when it

spirited,

Criticism

ing.

I.

treated Judaism as the creation of the prophets, and the Pentateuch as lower in worth than Micah

and

Isaiah.

do not

remember that any predecesso thoroughly employed the argument of continuity. There is, he said, an " uninter" a logical organrupted tradition," the whole is sor of

I

Wise

ism," every part in function. Bible.

Now

its

this

is

right place, fulfilling

its

due

the real justification of the

There are variations

in the points

of view

of various inspired writers, but the whole tendency is one, there is Wise deconsistency of purpose. serves lasting gratitude for urging this truth so

powerfully.

Pronaos, a sanctuary." that

Wise

"

Well might he term his book a door leading into the interior of the For a detail, it is significant to find

anticipated the newer, though

I

think

our day. He absodifferent names refused to that the admit lutely erratic, direction of criticism in

applied to God (Adonai and Elohim) point to different authors or ages. Differ though we may with Wise some of us on account of his rejection of criticism, others be-

cause of his elevation of

"

Mosaism

"

into a cult,

others again because of both of these things 351

it is

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND not possible to withhold from him the crown of In particular, his Pronaos abounds scholarship. in

acute and fresh contributions to It

the biblical

moreover, a striking instance of the

is, problem. ironies of controversy that the most orthodox book on the Pentateuch was written by the leader of

American reform

Cincinnati, under the influence

!

of Wise, was certainly much more conservative in biblical exegesis than Breslau was under the influence of Graetz.

If in the seventies

a student had desired to

work

in

and

eighties

an environment

which acknowledged the older views of biblical spiration, he would have found himself more

in-

at

in the Hebrew Union College than in the Frankel Seminary. In the course of this series of papers, several anomalies have been discussed.

home

more remarkable than between Wise and Graetz. There is

But none of them contrast

other side to

it,

is

of course.

who

meaning of tradition.

remains that

in so far as the question

Wise stood

far

many who

pions of tradition. 352

never truly

Yet the

grasped the

the old paths than did

an-

Graetz took a wider

view of tradition than did Wise,

concerns the Bible,

the

fact

of a tradition

more

firmly in

pass for cham-

A BAEDEKER LITANY In the Baedeker Syria there

is

Handbook

for Palestine and

a well-known description of the scene

at the western wall of the temple.

In A. and C.

Black's Guide to Jerusalem, the Wailing Place is " Minor Sights," but Baedeker included among stars it, thus giving it a testimonial of importance.

Not being an I

inn, the wall

remember reading

Lost Star."

A

could spare this mark.

a clever story called

visitor to a hotel

with his treatment, and

his

was

"

The

dissatisfied

complaints to the

man-

ager were impatiently received. When the guest " You I am Baedeker. departed, he simply said :

your star." The Wailing Place could do Baedeker's without patronage.

have

lost

Now,

it is

not

my

purpose to discuss the history

of praying at the temple wall.

Jerome,

in

the

fourth century, speaks pathetically of the Jews buying their tears," paying for the privilege of

"

weeping by the wall on the anniversary of the temBut what will concern us now is ple's destruction. Baedeker's account of the liturgy used at the prayThe Rev. W. T. Gidney (as quoted in Black) ers. 23

353

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND asserts that there

"

used

is

concluding part of which Lord, build

Build In haste

Build

;

Thy !

Lord build house speedily.

in haste

Thy

kind of liturgy," the

a

is:

!

even

in

our days.

house speedily.

In haste! in haste! even in our days,

Build I

Thy

house speedily.

do not know whether any Jews actually sing

Passover

hymn (Addir hu) on

this

other occasions dur-

ing the year. Murray's Palestine Handbook as" serts that the lamentations are taken from the

79th Psalm," a statement which points to the same source as that relied on by Baedeker. The latter gives

two forms, of which the

Leader: For the palace that Response:

We

sit

We

sit,

runs thus

desolate:

and mourn.

in solitude

Leader: For the palace that Response:

lies

first

is

destroyed:

etc.

Leader: For the walls that are overthrown: Response:

We

sit, etc.

Leader: For our majesty that Response:

We

Leader: For our great men Response:

We

is

departed:

sit, etc.

who

lie

dead:

sit, etc.

Leader: For the precious stones that are burned: Response:

We

sit, etc.

354

:

Leader: For the priests who have stumbled: Response:

We

sit, etc.

Leader: For our kings Response:

We

sit,

who have

despised

Him:

etc.

Whence did the compiler this? From the Karaites.

of Baedeker derive If one turns to the

fourth volume of the Karaite liturgy, published in Vienna in 1854, page 208, this litany is to be found. It is

part of a very long series of prayers (which

on page 212, the passage which, in Baedefollows the one cited above). Psalm 79, reker, ferred to in Murray, appears in the same Karaite include,

book on page 206. tion of the whole.

extremely long.

The selections are a tiny fracThe Karaite prayers are always

Thus, their marriage service

eleven large, closely printed sides. prayers are even more elaborate.

fills

The Jerusalem As the pilgrim

from home for the Holy City, the congregation turns out to give him a send off, reciting sixteen Psalms as a supplication for his protection, and other fourteen Psalms in praise of Jerusalem. He starts

then proceeds on his way. city, as

When

he arrives at the

far off as the distance at which a

man

can

and recognize his fellow, he rends his garments

mourns

as for a lost first-born.

He

then recites

Psalms and parts of the Lamentations, and enough 355

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND Selihot to occupy another ten pages.

Some

of us

complain of the length of our prayers; when look at the weary mass of the Karaite liturgy,

amazed

stand

at

our

own moderation.

Having tracked Baedeker stricting ourselves to the

quotes,

The

original.

and refrom which he pages to his source,

worth comparing

it is

omissions

made

his version

with the

are so serious as to

spoil the beauty of the whole, for beautiful is

suredly

of

its

kind.

Baedeker only reading

Now

umns.

we we

The fault down one of

arises

the

it

as-

from

two

col-

the lines are alphabetical, and must be

down the page. There are other for instance faults; palace in the second line is a mistake for house, but the compiler may have used read across, not

a slightly different version.

there

who

is

In the one before

me

nothing to correspond to For our great men

lie

as in the

The

dead.

book

I

am

rest of the lines are the

same

But note how the

effect

using.

by the loss of the half-lines to which I have referred. Thus Baedeker gives For the priests who suffers

have stumbled, but omits the complementary phrase For our studies which were interrupted. Again,

Baedeker quotes For the precious stones which are burned, but fails to follow it up with For loving ones that were separated, a fine line which ought to 356

A BAEDEKER LITANY have been retained

in

any abbreviation, however

short.

"

The only other passage quoted in Baedeker, " another antiphon or responsive chant, is the

following: Leader:

We

Response:

pray Thee, have mercy on Zion Gather the children of Jerusalem.

Leader: Haste, Response:

Leader:

Redeemer of Zion!

haste,

Speak

May

to the heart of Jerusalem.

beauty and majesty surround Zion

Response: Ah! turn Thyself mercifully

Leader:

Leader:

the kingdom soon return to Zion Comfort those who mourn over Jerusalem.

May

!

peace and joy abide with Zion!

Response: And

the branch (of Jesse) spring up in Jerusalem.

Comparing is

this

with the

no such mistake

summarizer has page.

!

to Jerusalem.

May

Response:

!

Hebrew

original, there

as in the previous case.

The

correctly read the lines across the

There are

certain slips,

and more than a

half of the whole (which again runs in alphabetical sequence) is left out; but the shortening is here no loss, as the best lines

have been

selected.

Besides these prayers, the Karaite book includes a large number of hymns. Among them, inappropriately enough, Isaac.

is

the piyyut on the offering of

In the Sephardic service this properly be357

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND longs to the New Year; melody at Bevis Marks.

it

goes to a swinging

True, the scene was But the Karaite book

Moriah, the temple hill. gives no direction that the shofar

is

to be sounded.

None the less, it finishes this piyyut with the prayer God will hearken to the shofar sounds and say

that

unto Zion:

"The

time of salvation has come."

Obviously, this is a fitting prelude to the blowing of the shofar on Rosh ha-Shanah. But it has no right

where

this

Karaite book has transplanted

although the bulk of the

hymn

the liturgy of the Wailing Place.

358

suits well

it,

enough

IMBER'S SONG Throughout

whole range modern Hebrew no poem to rival in popularity

its

literature can offer

Naphtali Herz Imber was born in 1856, and wrote Ha-Tikwah in his youth in one of his many moods. His disposition was wayward; Imber's song.

he had a

full

Some of

his characteristics are accurately hit off in

share of the artistic self-consciousness.

Melchitsedek Pinchas of Mr. Zangwill's Children of the Ghetto.

Ha-Tikwah owes poem makes

fame

hymns

"God

Rule Britannia

save " is

to the directness of

for weakness in

for strength in

effective national

poetical. "

its

What makes

sentiment.

it

as a song.

it

its

as a

The most

are not usually the most

the

King"

bombast.

is

doggerel;

But both put

patri-

straightforward terms, both are happily wedded to simple tunes within the range of Ha-Tikwah satisfies both these average voices. otic

thoughts

in

The melody is beautiful and easily sung by of people. The opening line of masses large " " Our hope has not perished yet Imber's refrain:

tests.

is

"

from the National Song, Poland has not perished yet," to which the Polish certainly

derived

legions marched.

So the melody of Ha-Tikwah 359

is

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND said to be a Polish folk-tune, but

it

closely resem-

melody of the Sephardim. Various settings of the tune differ in detail, and the same is true of the current versions of Imber's words. It bles a favorite

is

strange that the versions

retain

stanza.

unanimously It

would,

I

the

all

known

to

ungrammatical

admit, be

me second

difficult to correct

it

without destroying the rhythm, and poetical license has worse things to answer for. Indeed the grammatical lapse, to which

I refer, is

authorities as perfectly

regarded by some

normal and admissible

in

new Hebrew. The power of Ha-Tikwah, as has just been said, arises from its directness. There is no subtlety in

the

thought, no changes through its nine verses. " God Save the Just as few ever sing through its

King," so few sing all the verses of Ha-Tikwah. stanzas tend to become monotonous. They

The all

the

say the same thing; and it is not surprising that number of verses is curtailed in some printed

editions (thus in Idelsohn five of the nine verses

complete the song). is

identical.

The burden of

The hope of

all

the verses

a return to the land of

Israel will never die, so long as this or that endures.

Each verse adds

a this or a that to the count.

While

myriads of Jews go as pilgrims to the sepulchres of 360

NAPHTALI HERZ IMBER

IMBER'S SONG the fathers, while a single eye is left to drop its tear over the ruins of the temple, while the waters of the Jordan swell between its banks and fall with a rush through the sea of Kinnereth, while a

drop

of blood courses through a Jewish vein, while Israel retains his national aspirations, still may he hope for their fulfilment.

genuinely pathetic,

Some

and the

of these appeals are final

appeal is magnificent in its strength. Only with the end of the Jews will come the end of the hope. This is the only to write a popular song. There must be no nuances, but just a confident assertion. Imber sup-

way

nothing less, and nothing more. for the song is not in any sense a more, Nothing It deals only with the declaration of the end.

plies exactly that;

means, making them into an end. Unquenchable, he cries, is the hope of a return; no one has expressed this hope more vigorously and takingly.

But what

what is

is

With Ha-Tikwah

to be the result of the return

ideals are the patriots filled?

?

on these questions. Imber was not qualito reply to them. He had no depth of spiritual

silent

fied

feeling,

and though he was capable of

inspiriting,

he was incapable of inspiring. Hence the absence Comof all Messianic thought in Ha-Tikwah. the Friday pare it, for instance, with Leka Dodi; 24

361

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND

hymn

night

Ha-Tikwah, a song of the reHa-Tikwah, it is Messianic, and is

like

is

turn, but, unlike

also a song of the rebuilding.

When

the history

movement comes to be written, this fact will undoubtedly come into due prominence namely, that we have been passing through of the neo-Zionist

:

a phase in which the hope of the return has been

divorced from the hope of the rebuilding. It is remarkable that some versions of the

re-

remove the only words which possibly can bear a Messianic construction. I have not before frain

me

the original

a notion that

words of Imber himself, and

Mr. David

part for the chorus. line

Jerusalem

Yellin

Be that

as

described as

is

David encamped."

is

it

"

I

have

responsible in

may, the

in the last city

where

The phrase comes from

the

opening line of the twenty-ninth chapter of Isaiah. " Woe to Ariel, Ariel, city where David en" " " Lion of God Ariel is either or, as camped " the Targum takes it, Altar-hearth." The Rabbis Ariel was the altar, yet they saw something lion-shaped in the sanctuary. In Isaiah the passage is one of doom, Ariel is to be

combined both

senses.

humiliated by the Assyrians. the ancient

Greek

turn to the words

Curiously enough,

translation gives also a hostile " city

where David encamped,"

362

IMBER'S "

rendering this

which David dwelt, David,

it is

David encamped." But

against which

erroneous.

is

SONG

The meaning selecting

it

the city in

is:

as the royal capital.

true, did not build the temple, but

brought the ark thither,

and offered

sacrifices

the occasion, and later on built an altar.

Not

he

on

only,

Ariel justly to be termed the city where David encamped, but the use of the phrase in Ha-Tikwah supplies the missing Messianic hope, then,

for

is

David

is

the type of this hope.

In the version

Ha-Tikwah

printed by Idelsohn four verses are omitted, and some of those which are retained are set in an inverted order. More culpably, the reof

frain

weakened

is

lem,"

into

"

the city of Zion and JerusaThe Davidic touch.

thus removing the

change does not merely offend against reason; it also sins against rhyme; thus adding another instance to

many

others of the destructive tamperings

with masterpieces which some editors seem unable to avoid.

other striking merit of Ha-Tikwah must be observed. Unlike many other poets of Zion, Imber does not denounce. He makes no attack on those

One

not share his feelings. He points to the continued existence of the hope for the return, but

who do

he refrains from condemning, except by the merest 363

BY-PATHS IN HEBRAIC BOOKLAND implication, those

There

hope.

is

appreciate, far

who have no

true art here,

removed

as I

consciousness of the

which

I

am from

am

able to

Imber's na-

For, on the one hand, art is best when it some without paining others. Imber pleases pleases those who agree with him without paining the tionalism.

On

rest.

the other hand, art

is

strongest

when

does not recognize that there are others to be displeased. The confident note is the artistic note.

it

The

poet assumes that what he feels To talk of doubters thing to feel.

A

doubt on himself. It

argument.

is

accept

table, to

message.

the only to

throw

popular song cannot stoop to Thus Imber's categorical.

Ha-Tikwah can be enjoyed by its

is is

And

its

those

melody

who do is

not

sung at

Psalm 126, by some who never sing the "

When

Lord turned again the captivity of Zion, we were like unto them that dream. Then was our mouth filled with

tune to Imber's words.

the

laughter, and our tongue with exultation; then said

they

among

the

nations:

The Lord hath done

Psalm 126, when all is great things for them." and done, is the most exquisite Song of the " Return ever written. They that sow in tears

said

shall reap in joy."

We

can

all

realize the pathos

and the hope, even though we are not the nature of the harvest that 364

is

at one as to

to be reaped.

INDEX Abarbanel,

53.

Aben Ezra, ham Ibn

also

Abra-

see

Aben

also

Uriel,

for

Pales-

353-358.

tine,

Bandmann,

Aboab, Isaac, 102-107. Abraham Ibn Ezra, 66, 261, 269; Acosta,

Handbook

Baedeker's,

176; see Ezra.

A., 240.

Bar Abun, Solomon, 97-101. Bar Hisdai's Prince and Dervish,

Ezra.

84-90.

Baratier, 270.

240-246.

Addison, Joseph, 153, 236, 237. Addison, Lancelot, 153-159.

Barb, Isaac, 304. Barbary Jews, Lancelot

Addison

Adler, H., 288. Adler, Michael, 228, 270. Adler, Nathan M., 288, 335.

on the, 153-159. Barlaam and Josaphat,

romance

Fables,

.flisop's

18,

of, 88, 89.

Belinson, 291.

22, 35, 84.

Benevolent Jew, the, Walker, 192-198.

Aguilar, Grace, 247-253.

Ahad ha-'Am,

185,

289.

Ben

Ahikar, the story of, 17-23. Al-Fasi, Alfieri

63.

and Salomon, by Landor,

260-266.

Al-Harizi,

Rabbi, by Robert Browning, 269-275. Ben Karshook, by Browning, 269275-

79,

Benisch, A., 254, 255, 256. Benjamin of Tudela, 270.

8r.

Allenby, General, 328. Allingham, William, 82. Alnaqua, Israel, 102, 103. Anti-Maimonists, 85. Apion, Josephus against, 32-38. Arabian Nights, 18.

Archagathos, 43, 44. Aristeas, Letter of, 116,

Bernstein, 282.

Berdoe, 271.

Guide to Jerusalem, 353. White's Sonnet, 220-225; see also White, Joseph Blanco. Bodenschatz Pictures, the, 160Black's

Blanco

117, 119,

.

165.

120.

Aristobulus,

by George

Ezra,

De

Bonajuto, 116; see also

Book

of Tobit, 17, 18, Bornstein, H. J., 304.

Jewish Hellenist, 44.

Aristotle, 78, 79.

Arnold, Edwin, 233. Arnold, Matthew, 32, 42, 207. Artom's Sermons, 297-302. Aruk, the, by Nathan of Rome,

22,

Rossi. 23.

Box, C. H., 136.

Braham, 208, 209. Briggs, C. A., 225. Brooke, Stopford, 274. Browning, Robert, 265,

60-66. libel of, 34.

Ass-worship, Auerbach, Berthold, 242.

365

Buddha,

life of, 88.

Buffon,

French

naturalist,

269-275. 32.

INDEX Burke, Edmund, 168. Burne-Jones, 95, 96. Buxtorf, J., 62. Byron, 199, 324. Byron's Hebrew Melodies,

Deity, depicting of the, 92, 93, 152. Delitzsch, Franz, 340-346.

Demosthenes, 194,

207-213, 265.

Disraeli, Benjamin, 226-232, Disraeli's Alroy, 226-232.

Caecilius on the Sublime, 39-45. Caine, Hall, 240. Carigal,

rabbi,

Cassel, Paul,

33.

Deutsch, Emanuel, 190. Dickens, Charles, 227. Didot, M., 151.

Disraeli, Isaac, 229.

Dobson, Austin, 123. Dore, biblical pictures of, 254. Drake, C. F. Tyrwhitt, 328.

176.

no.

Cervantes, 109.

Dutuit, M., 151.

Cheyne, T. K., 321. Chilmead, Edmund, 138,

139,

140,

Efros,

141.

102.

Israel,

German

Chwolson, Daniel, no.

Eichler,

Cicero, 33.

Eisenmenger,

Cobbett, William, 200. Cohen, F. L. f 101, 208.

Eliezer, son of

Cohn,

336.

artist, 161.

189, 288.

Hyrkanos, 273.

George, 229, 321.

Eliot,

Elisha ben Abuyah, 244, 348. En Ya'akob, 102-107.

26.

'

Coleridge,

S.

T.,

Table

Coleridge's

214-219,

Talk,

224.

Ephrathi, Joseph, 265.

214-219.

Epictetus, 32.

Conder, 325-332. Conybeare, F. C., 25, 26. Cowley, A. E., 80.

Espinasse, Francis, 153.

Crawford Haggadah,

Essenes, the, 20.

Erasmus, no,

the, 92, 96.

Eusebius, 48, 330. Ezekielos, Jewish Greek poet, 46-

Creighton, bishop, 113. C. G., 260.

Crump,

Cromwell, Oliver,

113.

52.

138,

139,

147,

191,

193,

337-

Cumberland,

Richard,

Faithful Shepherdess, by Fletcher, 127.

201, 275.

Family Papers, by Wilhelm Herz-

Da

berg, 283-289.

Costa,

H. Men.,

Fettmilch

174,

Dahl, Basil, 304.

Dalman,

Rossi, Azariah, 116-121. Rossi's Light of the

127-

Eyes,

Sola, 79, 80.

Franzos, Karl Emil, 276-282. Friederich of Brandenburg, 160.

Degli Mansi, Italian Jewish family, 60,

i

Frankel, Z., 288, 352. Frankfurt, Moses, 103.

116-121.

De

130.

118.

Fishberg, Maurice, 345, 346. Fletcher's Faithful Shepherdess,

Dante, 263.

De De

riot,

Finzi, David,

G., 62.

Furnivall, 269.

1 1 8.

366

INDEX Gaffarel,

Gautier,

Henry, Michael, 311-318. Johann Gottfried

136.

J.,

Caster, Moses,

Herder,

172.

Herder's Anthology, 184-190. Herodotus, 46, 51. Herzberg, A., 288. Herzberg, Wilhelm, 283-289, 339. Hesiod, 51.

Geiger, Abraham, 349. Geiger, L., 72. Gellius, Aulus, 33.

Gibbon, E., 233. Gidney, W. T., 353.

Hillel, tanna, 53, 251.

Gifford, 48, 49, 50, 51. Ginzberg, L., 54, 221.

W.

Gladstone,

Hoffmann,

Homer, Huhner,

E., 276, 317.

Glenelg, Lord, 233.

Hebrew

Goethe's Faust, of,

translation

306.

Goldsmid, Isaac Lyon, 183. Goldsmith, Oliver, 136, 334, 335. Gordon, S. L., 304. Graetz,

H.,

von.

184-190.

325.

44,

62,

71,

72,

117,

Il8,

119,

I2O,

121,

129,

184,

187,

188,

189,

228, 287,

350,

252.

G.,

18.

41,

40,

57,

263.

L., 176.

Hurwitz, Hyman, 216, 217. Hutten, Ulrich von, 109. Huxley, 218, 219. Ibn Ezra, Abraham, 66, 261, 269; see also

Aben

Ezra.

Ibn Gebriol's Royal Crown, 77-83. Ibn Gebriol, Solomon, 77-83, 97. Ibn Habib, Jacob, 105, 106, 107.

Grant, Robert, 233-239. Green, A. L., 335.

Idelsohn, 360, 363.

Grossman, Louis, 348.

Iris,

Grotius, 214.

Isaac

Guarini and Luzzatto, 122-128. Giidemann, M., 65.

Isaac's

Imber, Naphtali Herz, 359-364.

by Franz Delitzsch, 340-346. Pinto's Prayer-Book, 171-

177-

Gunzburg; see Stassof and Gunz-

Lamp and

Jacob's

Well,

102-107.

burg.

Israels, Josef, 307.

Gutzkow's

Uriel

Acosta,

240-246,

Italia,

Salom, engraver, 151, 152.

265.

Jacob ben Nissim of Kairuwan, Haes, Frank, 92, 93, 96.

Haggadah, of

Sarajevo, 91-96.

271, 274.

Hahn, Joseph, 129-135. Hahn's Note Book, 129-133. Hai Gaon, 53, 66. Halper, B.,

Hamlet,

9,

James, William, 182. Jastrow, Marcus, 62. Jastrow, Morris, 176.

18, 274,

Hebrew

304. translation

Jeff cry, 213.

of,

Jellinek, Adolf, 245, 300, 301.

304-

Handel, 265, 290, 291. Ha-Tikwah, by N. H. Imber, 359-

Jellinek,

Hermann,

Jellinek,

Moritz,

245, 246.

245.

Jerome, 353.

364.

Havell, H. L., 40.

54.

Jacobs, Joseph, 84, 88, 89, 90, 270,

Jews of Barnow, by K. E. Franzos, 276-282.

Heine, H., 81, 321.

3G7

INDEX Johanan ben Zaccai, 274. Johanan Hakkadosh, by

Leibnitz,

Brown-

270, 271.

ing,

Johnson, Samuel, 136. Johnson's Rasselas, 87. Josaphat; see Barlaam and Josa-

Leon

109.

Modena's

Rites,

136-143. 188,

194,

Play,

166-

Obscure Men,

108-

Lessing, 166-170, 184, 269, 273, 303. Lessing's

First Jewish

170.

Letteris, Meir, 306.

phat.

Josephus, 32-38, 44, 273Joubert, no.

Letters from

Judah ha-Levi, 28, 79. Judah the Prince, 55, 57, 58, 59. Judas Maccabaus, by Longfellow,

Levi, David, 254.

iiS-

290-296.

Levi, Lyon, 201. Levy, S., 101. Life Thoughts, by Michael Henry,

Juvenal, 109.

311-318. Lilien, E. M., 95.

Kalir,

79.

Marcus, 333-339Kalonymos ben Kalonymos, Kalisch,

109.

Luria, Isaac, 28, 158. Luther's version of the Bible, 309. Luzzatto, Moses Hayyim, 122-128.

Karpeles, Gustav, 81, 82. Kaufmann, David, 287. Keats, John, 95.

Kimhi, David, 46, 86,

87.

King Lear, Hebrew translation

Longfellow, 290-296. Longinus, 39-45. Lucas, Mrs. Henry, 77, 80, 98, 99.

of,

Lyon, Solomon, 211. Lytton, Bulwer, 207, 213.

304-

Macaulay, Thomas, 58, 159, 277. MacDonald, George, 276. Mackay, popular versifier, 317. Maimonides, 24, 58, 84, 140.

Kinnaird, Douglas, 208, 211. Kipling's Recessional, 193. Kirchner, 162. Kirkpatrick,

222.

Kohut, G. A., 172, 174, 175. Krassensohn, N. P., 303. Krauss,

S., 34, 330.

Kuiper, 47.

337.

Martyrologies of the Jews, Massel, Joseph, 291. Meir, tanna, 244. Meisel,

210.

W.

A.,

68.

86.

Menasseh ben

Israel,

Mendelssohn,

Moses,

178-183,

Landor, 260-266.

187,

147-151.

188,

166,

167,

189.

Mendelssohn's Jerusalem, 178-183,

Lavater, 161

Lazarus, Emma, 319-324. Lee, Sidney, 170. Leeser, Isaac,

H.,

Mandelkern, S., 213. Marlowe, Chris., 194.

Lactantius, 49.

Lamb, Caroline,

W.

Mallock,

Kohler, K., 273. Kohut, Alexander, 62, 64.

182,

254, 269, 303, 313.

Mendes, F. de Sola, 287. Menorat ho-Maor, 102-107.

247, 249, 252,

Meor 'Enayim,

254-259. Leeser's Bible, 254-259.

Michaelis, 167.

368

116-121.

INDEX Middleton's Descriptive Catalogue

Etched Rembrandt, 149. the

of

Work

of

333-339Pfefferkorn, no, 112, 113, 288.

Mieses, Fabius, 303. Milton, John, 36, 237, 306.

Modena, Leon,

Philippson, Ludwig, 254.

136-143, 166.

Philipson, David, 348. Philo, 24-31, 35, 44, 120. Phoenix of Ezekielos, the, 46-52.

Moliere, 227.

Montefiore, C. G., 29, 343. Montefiore, Sir Moses, 168.

Monypenny, 226, 227, 228, Moore, Thomas, 200, 213. More, Sir Thomas, 113.

Picart, Bernard, 162. Piedra Gloriosa, 147, 151, 153.

229.

Pinto, Isaac, 171-177. Pinto, Joseph Jesurun, 174, 175. Piyyut by Bar Abun, 97-101.

Moses, Longinus on, 40, 41. Miiller, Johann Conrad, 161. Miiller,

Miiller

Max, 66. and Schlossar, publishers

Plato, 337.

Pliny, 33of

Haggadah, 91. Murray, Fairfax, 151. " The Rise of Murray, Gilbert, on the Greek Epic," 57. Murray, John, 207, 208. Murray's Palestine Handbook, 354, 355-

Plutarch,

Pompey, Pool,

60-

66.

Nathan, Isaac, 194, 207-213. Neubauer, A., 55, 56, 69. Niemeyer, 168. Isaac,

171,

171.

170.

Pronaos, by I. M. Wise, 347-352. Prothero, 211. \

109.

Rashi, 63, 65.

Nathan of Rome's Dictionary,

Raspe, Rudolf Eric, 194. Reinach, Theodore, 41, 42, 43, 44. Rejected Addresses, by Horace Smith, 199-204.

Rembrandt, 147-151. Renan, E., 108.

172.

Nordlinger, Joseph; Joseph. Nusbiegel, G., 161.

44.

43.

David,

Possart,

Rabelais,

Musafia, Benjamin, 6a.

Nieto,

Pastor Fido, by Guarini, 122-128. Path and Goal, by Marcus Kalisch,

Reuchlin, see

Hahn,

J.,

in,

112, 115.

Roth, C. M., 161. Rousseau, 184.

Romeo and

Juliet,

Hebrew

trans-

lation of, 304, 310.

Ockley, 139. Oesterly, 136.

Orr, Mrs. Sutherland, 271. Othello,

Hebrew

translation of, 303-

Rothschild, James, 305. Rothschild, Lionel de, 336.

Royal Crown, by Ibn Gebriol, 83-

310.

Paradise Lost, Hebrew translation of,

306.

Pascal,

109,

113,

261.

Pass, Ernest de, 316.

Rubin, Salomo, 241. Ruskin, 307. Sa'adya, 46. Sabbatai Zevi, 228.

77-

INDEX Sachs, Michael, 78, 79, 80.

77,

Salkind, Solomon, 305. Salkinson, I. E., 303-310.

Steele,

Schiller, F., 305.

Alfieri

and Salomon.

translation

speare, 305. Schlossar, see Muller

of

Shake-

and Schlos-

Richard, 114, 115. M., 78, 88,

Stevenson, 213. Stiles, Ezra, 176, 177. Stobbe, 69. Stokes, Francis Griffin,

114.

Suidas, 42.

Swift,

112.

J.,

Swinburne, A. C., 207. Symonds, John Addington,

194,

195,

123^

196,

Tacitus, 34. 194,

196,

231-

Shakespeare, William, 89, 184, 214, 224, 274, 294. translations from,

Hebrew

Tatnu, Sorrows of, 67-73. Tennyson, Alfred, 290, 317, 318. Tent Work in Palestine, by Conder,

303-

325-332.

Tertullian, 72.

Thackeray, H. St. Theobald, 309.

310.

128.

Theocritus,

53-59.

119.

J.,

Sidney, Philip, 266.

Therapeutae, 26, 28.

Singer, Simeon, 32, 172, 173, 248,

Thomson,

325.

Tiberius, emperor, 33.

300.

Slousch,

in,

175.

124.

200, 204, aio. Scott's Ivanhoe, 193,

of,

Grace*

Sully, James, 184. Surrenhusius" Latin Mishnah, 162.

Schmidt, Caesar, 286. Schopenhauer, A., 82. Schudt, anti-Semite, 114, 115, 288. Schurer, E., 43, 44.

Sheridan, 333. Sherira, Letter

by

Sublime, Caecilius on the, 39-45.

ser.

Schurzfleisch, 42. Scott, Walter, 193,

242.

Steinschneider, Stern, 69.

Samuels, M., 183. Sarajevo Haggadah, the, 91-96, 132. Sc hell ing, 214. Schlegel's

241,

Aguilar, 247-253. Stassof and Gunzburg, publishers of the Haggadah, 91.

97.

Salfeld, 69, 70.

Salomon; see

Judaism,

of

Spirit

Mrs. R. N.,

181,

244, 245.

233-239.

Salaman,

Baruch,

Spinoza,

Sacred Poems, by Robert Grant,

Nahum,

Titus, 61, 117.

306.

Horace, of the Rejected Addresses, 199-204. Smith, James, of the Rejected Addresses, 199-204. Smolenskin, Perez, 303, 309, 310. Solomon, S. J., 95. Solomons, I., 150, 151, 152. Sorrows of Tatnu, the, 67-73. Smith,

Spicer, H., 240.

370

Treitschke,

German

historian,

71..

Tree, Herbert, 240.

Trench, 186. Uriel

Acosta,

by

Gutzkow,

246.

Vaughan, Henry, 238. Yaughan, R., 162.

240-

INDEX Vogelstein, 62. Voltaire, 109, 175, 303. Vossius, Isaac, 147, 149.

Wise, Isaac Mayer, 347-352. Wolf, Lucien, 226.

Wagenseil, 288. Walker, George, 191-198. Walker's Theodore Cyphon,

Yellin, David, 362.

Wordsworth, William,

166.

Yellin method, the, 248. 191-

Yosif Omes, by Joseph Hahn, 129135-

198.

Wellhausen, Julius, 186, 333, 350.

Wendland, 26. Wharton, Edith, 112. Whewell's Astronomy,

Zangwill, Israel, 80, 88, 228, 240, 359-

222.

White, Joseph Blanco, 220-225. Williamson, 154.

t

Zedner, J., 103. Zunz, Leopold, 97, 98, 1

1

8,

Bort (gafftmore

BALTIMORE, UD., U.

871

8.

119,

120,

254.

102,

116,

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