I-Ching

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The I Ching

The Sacred Books of the East

translated

by various Oriental scholars

and

F.

edited by

Max Muller

Vol.

XVI

The Sacred Books of China

The I Ching Translated by James Legge

Second Edition

Dover Publications, Inc. New York New York

For bibliographic ease and accuracy the modern transliteration of Chinese has been adopted for the title page and cover of this book. Within the text, however, the older transliteration has been retained.

Published in Canada by General Publishing Company, Ltd., 3O Lesmill Road, Eton Mills, Toronto, Ontario. Published in the United Kingdom by Constable

and Company,

Ltd., 10

Orange

Street,

London

WC 2.

This Dover edition, first published in 1963, is an unabridged and unaltered republication of the second edition of the work, first published by the Clarendon Press in 1899 as Volume XVI of "The Sacred Books of the East" and with the special designaton of Part II of "The Texts of Confucianism."

Standard Book Number- 486-21O62-6 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 63-1 95 O8

Manufactured in the United States of America Dover Publications, Inc. 180 Varick Street 1OO14

New York, N. Y.

CONTENTS. PREFACE

xni

INTRODUCTION. CHAP.

THE

Yt KING FROM THE TWELFTH CENTURY B.C. TO THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE CHRISTIAN ERA

I.

.

.

i

There was a Yi in the time of Confucius. The Yi is now of the Text which Confucius saw, and the Appendixes ascribed to him. The Yi escaped the fires of Shin. The Yi before Confucius, and when it was made mentioned in the Official Book of K&XL in the Qo JTAwan testimony of the Appendixes. Not the most ancient of the Chinese books. The Text much older than the Appendixes. Labours of native scholars on the Yi imperfectly described. Erroneous account

made up

:

;

;

,

of the labours of sinologists. II.

THE SUBJECT-MATTER OF THE TEXT. THE LINEAL FIGURES AND THE EXPLANATION OF THEM

...

The Yt

consists of essays

9

based on

lineal figures. Origin of first multiplied them to sixty-four?

the lineal figures. Who Why they were not continued after sixty-four. The form of the River Map. State of the country in the time of king

Wan. A*au

;

Character of the

and

with the lineal figures. III.

last

especially king

king of Shang.

Win.

W&n

in

The

lords of

prison occupied

The seventh hexagram.

THE APPENDIXES Subjects of the chapter.

26

Number and

nature of the Appen-

Their authorship. No superscription of Confucius on any of them. The third and fourth evidently not from him. Bearing of this conclusion on the others. The first Fu-hst's trigrams. The name Appendix. King Win's. Kwei-shan. The second Appendix. The Great Symbolism. The third Appendix. Harmony between the lines of the figures ever changing, and the changes in external phenomena. Divination; suitfiiiiMtnd its object. Formation of dixes.

CONTENTS.

Vlll

the lineal figures

by the divining

stalks.

Thenl^MFYin and

Yang. The name Kwei-shan. Shan alone. The fourth Appendix. The fifth. First paragraph. Mythology of the Yi. Operation of God in nature throughout the year. Concluding paragraphs. The sixth Appendix. The seventh.

Plates

I, II,

III, exhibiting the

hexagrams and trigrams.

THE TEXT. SECTION MbXACRAM

I. TA<

A7en

I.

Khwan

II.

I

57

III.

A'un

59 62

IV.

Ming Hsu

67

Sung

69

V.

VI. VII.

VIII.

IX.

X.

64

Sze

71

Pf

73

Hsiao ATru

76

LI

78

XL

Thai

81

XII.

Phi

83

XIII.

ThungZin

86

XIV. XV.

TaYu

88

A^ien

89

XVL

Yii

9I

XVII.

Sui

93

XVIII.

Ku

95

XIX.

Lin

97

Kwan

99

XX.

XXL XXII. XXIII.

Shih

Ho

103

Po

105

XXIV. Fu XXV. Wu Wang XXVI. TiA^a XXVII. XXVIII.

101

Pi

107

109 112

1

114

TAKwo

u6

CONTENTS.

IX

PAGE

HEXAGRAM

C

XXIX.

Khan

118

Li

120

XXX.

SECTION

XXXI. Hsien XXXII. Hang XXXIII. Thun

XXXIV. TaA'wang XXXV. 3in XXXVI. Ming I XXXVII. AHaZan XXXVIII.

Khwei

XXXIX. A1en XL. XLI. XLII. XLIII.

XLIV. XLV. XLVI. XLVII. XLVIII.

XLIX.

II.

123 125

127

129 131

134

136 139 141

ATieh

144

Sun

146

Yi

149

Kwai

151

Kau

154

3hui

156

Sh&ng

159

Khwan

161

Sing

164

Ko

167

169

L.

Ting

LI.

Aftn

172

LII.

Kan

175

LIII.

A'len

178

LIV.

KweiMei

180

Fang Lu

183

LVII.

Sun

189

LVIII.

Tui

192

Hwan

194

LV. LVI.

LIX.

LX. LXI. LXII. LXIII.

LXIV.

187

ATieh

197

Afung Fu Hsiao Kwo

199

#131 WeiSi

201

204 207

X

CONTENTS.

THE APPENDIXES. I.

TREATISE ON THE THWAN, THAT is, ON KING WAN'S EXPLANATIONS OF THE ENTIRE HEXAGRAMS. fA(,F

SECTION

I.

A'Aien to Li

213-237

SECTION

II.

Hsicn to Wei 3* II.

238-266

TREATISE ON THE SYMBOLISM OF THE HEXAGRAMS, AND OF THE DUKE OF ATAu'S EXPLANATIONS OF THE SEVERAL LINES. SECTION A^ien

to Li

Hsien

to

267-305

SECTION

III.

Wei

I.

II.

Si

3<>5-347

THE GREAT APPENDIX. SECTION

I.

Chapters I-XII

348

SECTION

II.

Chapters I-XII

IV.

379

SUPPLEMENTARY TO THE THWAN AND YAo ON THE FIRST AND SECOND HEXAGRAMS, AND SHOWING HOW THEY MAY BE INTERPRETED OF MAN'S NATURE AND DOINGS. SECTION

I.

On A*ien

408

SECTION

II.

On Khw&n V. TREATISE OF

418

REMARKS ON THE TRIGRAMS.

Chapters I-XI

f

422

CONTENTS.

VI.

XI

THE ORDERLY SEQUENCE OF THE HEXAGRAMS. PACK

SECTION A^ien

I.

to Li

433

SECTION

II.

Hsien to Wei 3 VII.

435

TREATISE ON THE HEXAGRAMS TAKEN PROMISCUOUSLY, ACCORDING TO THE OPPOSITION OR DIVERSITY OF THEIR MEANING

....

441

Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the Translations of the

Sacred Books of the East

...

445

PREFACE. wrote out a translation of the Yi King, embracing both the Text and the Appendixes, in 1854 and 1855 and have I

;

when the manuscript was completed, about the scope and method of the book.

to acknowledge that I

knew very little

laid the volumes containing the result of my labour aside, and hoped, believed indeed, that the light would by and by dawn and that I should one day get hold of a clue that would guide me to a knowledge of the mysterious classic. Before that day came, the translation was soaked, in 1870, for more than a month in water of the Red Sea. By dint of careful manipulation it was recovered so as to be still but it was not till 1874 that I began to be able to legible the book the prolonged attention necessary to make give to it reveal its secrets. Then for the first time I got hold, as I believe, of the clue, and found that my toil of twenty years before was of no service at all. What had tended more than anything else to hide the nature of the book from my earlier studies was the way in I

;

which, with the Text, ordinarily and, as I think, correctly ascribed to king Wan and his son Tan, there are interspersed, under each hexagram, the portions of the Appendixes

I,

II,

and IV relating to

it.

The student

at

first

thinks this an advantage. He believes that all the Appendixes were written by Confucius, and combine with the

Text to form one harmonious work

and he

glad to have the three sages brought together. But I now perceived that the composition of the Text and of the Appendixes, allowing the Confucian authorship of the the sentiments of

c

;

is

'

was separated by about 700 years, and that their subject-matter was often incongruous. My first step of Yf towards a right understanding the was to study the Text by itself and as complete in itself. It was easy to latter,

PREFACE.

XIV

do

because the imperial edition of 1715, with

this

apparatus, keeps the

critical

all

its

Text and the Appendixes

separate.

The wisdom

of the course thus adopted

became more

apparent by the formation of eight different concordances, one for the Text, and one for each of the Appendixes.

They showed that many characters in the Appendixes, and those especially which most readily occur to sinologists as characteristic of the Yi, are not to be found Text

A fuller

acquaintance, moreover, with the tone and style of the Appendixes satisfied me that while we had sufficient evidence that the greater part of in the

at

all.

them was not from Confucius, we had no evidence that any part was his, unless it might be the paragraphs introduced by the compiler or compilers as sayings of the '

Master/

Studying the Text

in the

arrived at the view of the

which

manner thus described, I soon meaning and object of the Yi,

have described in the second chapter of the Introand I was delighted to find that there was a duction substantial agreement between my interpretations of the hexagrams and their several lines and those given by the most noted commentators from the Han dynasty down to the present. They have not formulated the scheme so concisely as I have done, and they were fettered by their belief I

;

in the Confucian authorship of the

Appendixes

;

but they

held the same general opinion, and were similarly controlled by it in construing the Text. Any sinologist who will

examine the Yu ATih Zah ATiang YI King ATieh 1, prepared by one of the departments of the Han Lin college, and published in 1683, and which I have called the 'Daily Lessons,' or Lectures/ will see the agreement between my views and those underlying its paraphrase. After the clue to the meaning of the YI was discovered, c

there remained the difficulty of translating. The pecuof its makes it the most of all the difficult liarity style

Confucian classics to present in an intelligible version. I suppose that there are sinologists who will continue, for a time at least, to maintain that it was intended by its

XV

PREFACE.

author or authors, whoever they were, merely as a book of divination and of course the oracles of divination were ;

designedly wrapped up in mysterious phraseology. But notwithstanding the account of the origin of the book and

composition by king Wan and his son, which I have seen reason to adopt, they, its authors, had to write after its

the manner of diviners.

There

is

hardly another work in

the ancient literature of China that presents the difficulties to the translator.

same

When I made my first translation of it in 1854, I endeavoured to be as concise in my English as the original Chinese was. Much of what I wrote was made up, in of so many English words, with little or no consequence, mark of

connexion.

syntactical

I

followed

in

this

the

example of P. Regis and his coadjutors (Introduction, page 9) in their Latin version. But their version is all but How to surmount unintelligible, and mine was not less, so. this difficulty occurred to me after I had found the clue to the interpretation in a fact which I had unconsciously acted on in all my translations of other classics, namely, ;

that the written characters of the Chinese are not representations of words, but symbols of ideas, and that the

combination of them of

what the

writer

in

composition is not a representation It is say, but of what he thinks.

would

vain therefore for a translator to attempt a literal version. the symbolic characters have brought his mind en

When

rapport with that of his author, he is free to render the own or any other speech in the best manner

ideas in his

that he can attain to.

This

is

the rule which Mencius

followed in interpreting the old poems of his country: must try with our thoughts to meet the scope of a sentence, and then we shall apprehend it. In the study

'We

1

of a Chinese classical

book there

is

not so

much an

inter-

pretation of the characters employed by the writer as a there is the seeing of mind participation of his thoughts ;

to mind.

The canon hence

one of license.

It will

derived for a translator

is

not

be his object to express the meaning

of the original as exactly and concisely as possible. But it will be necessary for him to introduce a word or two

PREFACE.

XVI

now and

then to indicate what the mind of the writer

itself. What I have done in this way will be seen enclosed in parentheses, though I queried whether I might not dispense with them, as there is nothing in the English version which was not, I believe,

supplied for

generally

I hope, however, that I present in the writer's thought. in this way to make the translation intel-

have been able

ligible to readers.

If,

after

all,

they shall conclude that

what is said on the hexagrams there is often much ado about nothing/ it is not the translator who should be deemed accountable for that, but his original. I had intended to append to the volume translations of certain chapters from Kb Hsi and other writers of the Sung dynasty but this purpose could not be carried into effect for want of space. It was found necessary to accompany c

in

;

the version with a running commentary, illustrating the way in which the teachings of king Wan and his son are supposed to be drawn from the figures and their several

was to keep the single YI within the limits of one volume. Those intended translations therefore are reserved for another opportunity and indeed, the Sung philosophy did not grow out of the Yi proper, but from the Appendixes to it, and especially from the third It is more Taoistic than Confucian. of them. lines

;

and

my

difficulty

;

When

took the Yi in hand, there existed no transany western language but that of P. Regis and his coadjutors, which I have mentioned above and in lation of

I first it

in

various places of the Introduction. The authors were all sinologists of great attainments and their view of the Text ;

as relating to the transactions between the founders of the ATu dynasty and the last sovereign of the Shang or Yin,

and capable of being illustrated historically, though too The late narrow, was an approximation to the truth. M. Mohl, who had edited the work in 1834, said to me once, I like it for I come to it out of a sea of mist, and find solid ground.' No sufficient distinction was made in it, however, between the Text and the Appendixes and in diV cussing the third and following Appendixes the translators *

;

;

XVI 1

PREFACE.

were haunted by the name and shade of Confucius. To the excessive literalness of the version I have referred above.

In 1876 the Rev. Canon McClatchie, M.A,, published a '

A

version at Shanghai with the title, Translation of the Confucian Yl King, or the "Classic of Changes," with Notes and Appendix. This embraces both the Text 1

and the Appendixes, the

second, and fourth of the being interspersed along with the Text, as in the ordinary school editions of the classic. So far as I can first,

latter

judge from his language, he does not appear to be aware that the first and second Appendixes were not the work of king Wan and the duke of AT&U, but of a subsequent writer he would say of Confuciusexplaining their expla-

hexagrams and their several lines. His own special object was 'to open the mysteries of the Yi by applying to it the key of Comparative Mythology.' Such a key was not necessary and the author, by the has of found it, application sundry things to which I have

nations of the entire

;

occasionally referred in my notes. They are not pleasant to look at or dwell upon and happily it has never entered ;

minds of Chinese scholars to conceive of them. I have followed Canon McClatchie's translation from paragraph to paragraph and from sentence to sentence, but from nothing which I could employ with advantage in my own. Long after my translation had been completed, and that of the Text indeed was printed, I received from Shanghai the third volume of P. Angelo Zottoli's 'Cursus Litteraturae Sinicae/ which had appeared in 1880. About 100 into the

pages of it are occupied with the Yl. The Latin version is a great improvement on that in the work of Regis but ;

Text of the first two hexagrams, with the portions of the first, second, and fourth Appendixes relating to them and other six hexagrams with the explanations of king Wan's Thwan and of the Great Symbolism. P. Zottoli translates only the

;

Of the remaining fifty-six hexagrams only the briefest summary is given; and then follow the Appendixes III, V, VI, and VII at length. The author has done his work well.

PREFACE.

XV111

His general view of the Yi Ex FO-hst figuris, tences '

:

stated in the following sen-

is

WSn

regis definitionibus, AT4u

ducis symbolis, et Confucii commentariis, Liber conficitur,

qui a mutationibus, quas duo elementa in hexagrammatum compositione inducunt, Yi (Mutator) vel Yi King (Muta-

tionum Liber) iste

Quid igitur tandem famosus ex linearum qualitate earumque situ, imo, medio, vel

appellatur.

Yi King?

Faucis accipe:

continua vel intercisa

;

supremo; mutuaque ipsarum relatione, occursu, dissidio, ex ipso scilicet trigrammatum corpore seu convenientia forma, turn ex trigrammatum symbolo seu imagine, turn ex ;

trigrammatum proprietate seu virtute, turn etiam aliquando ex unius ad alterum hexagramma varietate, eruitur aliqua

imago, deducitur aliqua sententia, quoddam veluti oraculum continens, quod sorte etiam consulere possis ad documentum obtinendum, moderandae vitae solvendove dubio consentaneum. Ita liber juxta Confucii explicationem in scholis tradi solitam. Nil igitur sublime aut

mysteriosum, potius

que

lusum

nil

foedum aut vile

hie quaeras argutulum video ad instructiones morales politicas-

ibi

eliciendas, ut

;

ad satietatem usque

classicis, obvias, planas,

naturales

ut integrum legenti textum facile deductus fuerit, per ipsum jam

in Sinicis passim tantum, cum liber iste, patebit, ad sortilegit usum ;

summum homo

obtinebit

arcanam cum spiritibus communicationem futurorum eventuum cognitionem theurgus secretamque vitae beneficium,

;

igitur visus est iste liber, totus lux, totus spiritus, hominis-

que vitae accommodatissimus ei

;

indeque laudes a Confucio

tributas, prorsus exaggeratas, in hujus libri praesertim

appendice videre

erit,

si

vere tamen, ut

communis

fert

opinio, ipse sit hujus appendicis auctor.'

There has been a report for two or three years of a new translation of the Yi, or at least of a part of it, as being in preparation by M. Terrien de Lacouperie, and Professor R. K. Douglas of the British Museum and King's College, London. I have alluded on pages 8, 9 of the Introduction

some inaccurate statements about native commentaries on the Y! and translations of it by foreigners, made in connexion with this contemplated version. But I did not know

to

PREFACE.

XIX

what the projected undertaking really was, till I read a letter from M. Terrien in the 'Athenaeum* of the aist January of this year. He there says that the joint translation deals only with the oldest part of the book, the short lists of (

characters which follow each of the sixty-four headings, and leaves entirely aside the explanations and commentaries attributed to Wen Wang, AT&u Kung, Confucius, and others, from 1200 B. c. downwards, which are commonly embodied as an integral part of the classic adding, The proportion of the primitive text to these additions is about one-sixth of the whole.' But if we take away these explanations and commentaries attributed to king WSn, the duke of K&u, and Confucius, we take away the whole Yi. There *

;'

remain only the linear figures attributed to Ffi-hsi, without any lists of characters, long or short, without a single written character of any kind whatever. The projectors have been misled somehow about the contents of the Yi ; and unless they can overthrow all the traditions

and

beliefs

undertaking

about them, whether Chinese or foreign, their is more hopeless than the task laid on the

children of Israel

by Pharaoh,

that they should

make bricks

without straw.

do not express myself thus in any spirit of hostility. If, by discoveries in Accadian or any other long-buried and forgotten language, M. Terrien de Lacouperie can throw new light on the written characters of China or on its speech, no one will rejoice more than myself; but his ignorance of I

how the contents of the classic are made up does not much prospect of success in his promised translation.

give

In the preface to the third volume of these 'Sacred Books of the East/ containing the Shfl King, Shih King, and Hsio King, I have spoken of the Chinese terms Ti and Shang Ti, and shown how I felt it necessary to continue to render them by our word God, as I had done in all

my

translations of the Chinese classics since 1861.

My

doing so gave offence to some of the missionaries in China and others and in June, 1880, twenty- three gentlemen addressed a letter to Professor F. Max Miiller, complaining ;

XX

PREFACE.

such a work edited by him, he should allow me to give my own private interpretation of the name or names in question instead of translating them or transferring them. that, in

Professor Miiller published the letter which he had received, with his reply to it, in the 'Times' newspaper of Dec. 30, 1880. Since then the matter has rested, and I introduce it

again here in this preface, because, though we do not meet with the name in the Yi so frequently as in the Shti and Shih, I have, as before, wherever it does occur, translated

by God. Those who object to that term say that Shang Tt might be rendered by Supreme Ruler' or 'Supreme Emperor,' or by 'Ruler (or Emperor) on high;' but when I examined the question, more than thirty years

it

*

ago, with

all

possible interest

and

all

the resources at

my

command, I came to the conclusions that Tf, on its first employment by the Chinese fathers, was intended to express the same concept which our fathers expressed by God, and that such has been its highest and proper application ever since. There would be little if any difference in the meaning conveyed to readers by 'Supreme Ruler' and God ;' but when I render Ti by God and Shang Ti by the Supreme God, or, for the sake of brevity, simply by God, I am translating, and not giving a private interI do it not in the interests of conpretation of my own. troversy, but as the simple expression of what to me is truth and I am glad to know that a great majority of the Protestant missionaries in China use Tt and Shang TI as the nearest analogue for God.

1

;

It would be tedious to mention the many critical editions and commentaries that I have used in preparing the transI have not had the help of able native scholars, lation. which saved time and was otherwise valuable when I was working in the East on other classics. The want of this, however, has been more than compensated in some respects by my copy of the Daily Lectures on the Yf the full title of which is given on page xiv. The friend who purchased it for me five years ago in Canton was obliged to content himself with a second-hand copy but I found that the '

,'

;

PREFACE.

XXI

previous owner had been a ripe scholar who freely used his It was possible, from his pencil in pursuing his studies. punctuation, interlineations, and many marginal notes, to follow the exercises of his mind, patiently pursuing his search for the meaning of the most difficult passages. I am

under great obligations to him; and also to the K&u Yl AT eh A!"ung, the great imperial edition of the present dynasty, first published in 1715. I have generally spoken of its authors as the Khang-hsi editors. Their numerous discussions of the meaning, and ingenious decisions, to raise the interpretation of the Yi to a science. J.

OXFORD, 1

6th March, 1882.

go L.

far

THE

Yl

KING

OR

BOOK OF CHANGES.

THE

KING

YI OR

BOOK OF CHANGES. INTRODUCTION. CHAPTER

I.

THE Yi KING FROM THE TWELFTH CENTURY B.C. TO THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE CHRISTIAN ERA. i.

Confucius

is

reported to have said on one occasion,

some years were added There was a Yt m the time of Confucm,.

of Confucius'

stuc^y

to

^ t 'le

life,

If

would give fifty to the ^i, and might then escape falling

my

life, I

1 great errors .' ferred fay tfae b

into

'

The

utterance

^ ^.^ ^ dosing tQ

when he had returned from

is

re-

per od

his long

j

and

wanderings among the States, and was settled By this time he was nearly seventy, and it seems strange, if he spoke seriously, that he should have thought it possible for his life to be prolonged other fifty years. So far as that specification is concerned, a corruption of the painful

again in his native Lu.

My

reason for adducing the generally admitted. has been to simply prove from it the existence of passage a Y! King in the time of Confucius. In the history of him text

is

by Sze-ma ATAien it is stated that, in the closing years ol his life, he became fond of the Yi, and wrote various appendixes to

it,

that he read his

copy of

it

so

much

that the leathern

it were bound were thrice worn and he said, 'Give that out, together) me several years (more), and I should be master of the Yl V The ancient books on which Confucius had delighted

thongs (by which the tablets containing

1

2

Confucian Analects, VII, xvi. The Historical Records Life of Confucius, p. ;

i

a.

THE

2

YI KING.

CH.

I.

with his disciples were those of History, l Poetry, and Rites and Ceremonies ; but ere he passed away from among them, his attention was much occupied to discourse

by the Yi as a monument of antiquity, which in the prime of his days he had too much neglected. 2. A7/ien says that Confucius wrote various appendixes to the Yi, specifying all but two of the treatises, which go also

by the name of 'the Ten Appendixes/ and The Yi is now * .,* * ,,-* i are , wlt h hardly a dissentient voice, attributed made up of to the sage. They are published

.*

M

^nd' th7 A'P"

cr^ed^hTm.

the older Text, which is based on still older lineal fi g ures and are received by most Chinese >

by foreign Chinese scholars, Yi King. The two portions

readers, as well as

as an integral portion of the

should, however, be carefully distinguished. them as the Text and the Appendixes.

I will

speak of

3. The Yi happily escaped the fires of Shin, which proved so disastrous to most of the ancient literature of China in

B c 3I 3* * n t 'le memor a l which the premier Li Sze addressed to his sovereign, advising o 3 in. t ^ at t ^ e old books should be consigned to the flames, an exception was made of those which treated of medicine, divination, and husbandry V The Yi was held to be a book of divination, and so was preserved. In the catalogue of works in the imperial library, pre'

The Yl

i

*

es-

caped the

fires

'

pared by Lift Hin about the beginning of our era, there is an enumeration of those on the Yi and its Appendixes, the books of thirteen different authors or schools, com3 prehended in 294 portions of larger or smaller dimensions I need not follow the history and study of the Yi into the .

lineof the centuries since the time of Lift Hin.

The

imperial

it, which appeared in 1715, contains Khang-hsi from the commentaries of 218 scholars, covering, quotations more or less closely, the time from the second century B.C.

edition of

to our seventeenth century.

1

I

may

venture to say that

Analects, VII, xvii.

1

Legge's Chinese Classics,

*

Books of the Earlier Han; History of Literature, pp.

I,

prolegomena, pp. 6-9. I, a.

CH.

INTRODUCTION.

I.

those ai 8 are hardly a tenth of the men who have tried to interpret the remarkable book, and solve the many

problems to which it gives rise. 4. It may be assumed then that the Yl King, properly so called, existed before Confucius, and has The Yl

before Confucius,

and when it was made.

,

come down

A

t1

to us as correctly as

...

any other

o f the ancient books of China and it might & be said, as correctly as any of the old ;

also

monuments of Hebrew, Sanskrit, Greek, or Latin literature. The question arises of how far before Confucius we can trace its existence. Of course an inquiry into this point will not include the portions or

appendixes attributed to Attention will be called to them by and

the sage himself.

by, when I shall consider how far we are entitled, or whether I do not are at all entitled, to ascribe them to him.

we

doubt, however, that they belong to what may be called the Confucian period, and were produced some time after his death,

probably between

B. C.

450 and 350.

By whom-

soever they were written, they may be legitimately employed in illustration of what were the prevailing views in that age on various points connected with the Yi. Indeed, but for the guidance and hints derived from them as to the

meaning of the and the linear

and the relation between its statements figures, there would be great difficulty in

text,

making out any (i)

The

consistent interpretation of

earliest

mention of the

Official

OfficSok

is

three

Yl

found in the

Book

of the K&.U dynasty, where it said that among the duties of 'the Grand

The Yt menof AT&U

it.

classic is

>

'

Diviner,'

he had charge of the rules for the

(systems of Changes), called the Lien-shan, the the Yi of ATdu that in each of them the

K wei-jhang, and

;

regular (or primary) lineal figures were 8, which were mulThe date of the tiplied, in each, till they amounted to 64.' Official

Book has not been exactly ascertained.

The above

passage can hardly be reconciled with the opinion of the majority of Chinese critics that it was the work of the duke of

ATu, the consolidator and legislator of the dynasty so called but I think there must have been the groundwork of it at a very early date. When that was composed or compiled, there ;

THE was

among the

existing,

YI KING.

CH.

I.

archives of the kingdom, under the

charge of a high officer, the Yi of AT&u,' what constitutes the Text of the present Yi the Text, that is, as distinguished from the Appendixes. There were two other Yi. known '

;

Lien-shan and the Kwei-jhang. It would be a waste of time to try to discover the meaning of these They are found in this and another passage designations.

as the

of the

Official

Book

;

and nowhere

else.

of what they denoted remains, while of A'au' complete 1

Not a

we

single trace

possess 'the Yi

.

'

In the Supplement of 3 A^iu-ming to the Spring anc* Autumn/ there is abundant evidence that The Y! mentioned in the divination by the Yi was frequent, throughout 3o A-Awan. states Qf Chinaj before the t ; me of Con _ There are at least eight narratives of such a fucius. (ii)

^

practice, between the years B. C. 672 and 564, before he was born and five times during his life-time the divining stalks and the book were had recourse to on occasions with which he had nothing to do. In all these cases the text ;

of the Yf, as we have

it

now,

is

'

and Autumn commences

The Spring freely quoted. If it extended back

to the rise of the K&\\ dynasty,

1

we

should, no doubt, find

AHu Kwan

See the

Tcheou

'

in B. C. 722.

LI, vol.

ii,

Biot (Le (or LI), Rook XXIV, parr. 3, 4, and 27. pp. 70, 71) translates the former two paragraphs thus*

(Le Grand Angui e) est propose* aux trois methodes pour les changements La premiere est appele*e Liaison des montagnes (Lien-shan) la second e, Retour et Conservation (Kwei-jhang) la troibieme, Changements des A an. Pour toutes il y a huit lignes symboliques sacre'es, et 7 oixante-quatre combmaisons de ces lignes. '

II

(des lignes divinatoires). ;

;

Some

tell us that by Lien-shan was intended Fti-hsi, and by Kwei-ghang Tl; others, that the former was the Y! of the Hsifi dynasty, and the A thud set will have it that Lien-shan was a latter that of Shang or Yin designation of Shan Nang, between Fu-hsf and Hwang Tf. I should say myself, afc many Chinese cntics do say, that Lien-shan was an arrangement of the lineal

Hwang

symbols in which the

first

figure

was the

present 52nd hexagram,

Kan

r

consisting of the trigram representing mountains doubled; and that Kweighang was an arrangement where the first figure was the present 2nd hexagram,

Khwfin ~

" T

consisting of the trigram representing the earth doubled,-*

with reference to the disappearance and safe keeping of plants in the bosom of the earth in winter. All this, however, in only conjecture.

CH.

INTRODUCTION.

I.

5

accounts of divination by the Yl interspersed over the long intervening period. For centuries before Confucius appeared

on the stage of his country, the Yt was well known among the various feudal states, which then constituted the Middle

Kingdom *.

We may

(iii)

now look

into

one of the Appendixes

for

testimony to the age and authorship of the Text. The third Appendix is the longest, and the most important 2 In the 49th paragraph of the second Section of it it is said its

.

:

Was

'

it

to flourish it)

not in the middle period of antiquity that the YJ began Was not he who made it (or were not they who made

?

familiar with anxiety

and calamity ?

'

The

highest antiquity commences, according to Chinese writers, with Fu-hsi, B. C. 3322 and the lowest with Con;

fucius in the middle of the sixth century B. C.

Between

the period of middle antiquity, extending a comparatively short time, from the rise of the K&u dynasty,

these

is

towards the close of the twelfth century fucian era.

period that our

The

B. C., to

According to this paragraph

it

the Con-

was

in

this

Yi was made.

69th paragraph isstillmoredefinitein

its

testimony:

Was not m the last age of the Ym (dynasty), when the virtue of Aau had reached its highest point, and during the troubles between king Wan and (the tyrant) Aau, that (the study of) the Yf began to flourish ? On this account the explanations (in the book) '

it

express (a feeling of) anxious apprehension, (and teach) how peril may be turned into security, and easy carelessness is sure to meet with overthrow/

The dynasty of Yin was superseded by that of A^u in The founder of ATu was he whom we call king Wan, though he himself never occupied the throne. The

B.C. 1122.

1

bee

ist year

in the

of

Qo

Mm

AAvtan, under the 22nd year of duke A'wang (B.C 672); the his 2nd year (660); twice in the ith year of

(661); and

m

Hsl (645); his 25th year (635); the I2th year of Hsuan (597); the i6th year the 5th of A'^ang (575) the yth year of Hsiang (564) his 25th year (548) year of A'Aao (^537) his 7th year (535) ; his I2th year (530) ; and the 9th year of Ai (486). * That is, the third as it appears farther on m this volume in two Sections. With the Chinese critics it forms the fifth and sixth Appendixes, or ' Wings/ ;

;

,

as they are termed.

;

THE troubles between

Y! KING.

him and the

last

CH.

i.

sovereign of Yin reached

their height in B.C. 1143, when the tyrant threw him into prison in a place called Yti-lJ, identified as having

been

in the present district of

Thang-yin, department of of Ho-nan. Wan was not kept long in A'ang-teh, province confinement. His friends succeeded in appeasing the jealousy of his enemy, and securing his liberation in the following year. It follows that the Yi, so far as we owe to king Wan, was made in the year B.C. 1143 or 1142,

it

or perhaps that in the latter \

it

was begun

in the

former year and finished

But the part which is thus ascribed to king Wan is only a small portion of the YI. larger share is attributed to his son Tan, known as the duke of K&u, and in it we have allusions to king WO, who succeeded his father Wan, and

A

was really the first sovereign of the dynasty of A'au 2 There are passages, moreover, which must be understood of events in the early years of the next reign. But the duke of ATu died in the year B.C. 1105, the nth of .

A

few years then before that time, in the king ATAang. last decade of the twelfth century B. C., the Yi King, as it has come down to us, was complete 3 .

We have thus traced

the text of the Yi to

its authors, the year 1143 B.C., and his equally famous son, the duke of A'iu, in between thirty and

5.

the famous king The Yi

is

not

McieTrf the Chinese

books

-

fort y

Wan

in

ye *rs

later.

great anti(l uit y; prevailed that

more

it

It can thus boast of a but a general opinion has belonged to a period still

Only two translations of it have been made by European scholars. The first was executed by Regis and other Roman Catholic missionaries in the beginning of last century, though it was given to the public only distant.

1

Sze-mi AT/4ien (History of the Aau Dynasty, p. 3) relates that, 'when he was confined in Yft-lt, Wan increased the 8 trigrams to 64 hexagrams.' 3 E. g., hexagrams XVII, 1 6 ; XLVI, 1. 4. Tan's authorship of the symbolism is recognised in the 3<> A'^wan, B. c. 540. 3 P. Regis (vol. 11, p. Vel nihil vel parum errabit qui dicet opus 379) says Yi King fuisse perfectum anno quinto ATAang Wang, sen anno 1109 aut non ultra annum 1108, ante aeiae Christianae mitium ; quod satis in rebus non omnino certis.' But the fifth year of king A^ang was B. c. 1 1 1 1 . .

CH.

INTRODUCTION.

I.

Mohl, with a title commencing YSinarum The language of the liber 1 .' King, antiquissimus other European translator of it, the Rev. Canon McClatchie

in 1834

by the

'

late Jules

of Shanghai, whose work appeared in 1876, is still more decided. The first sentence of his Introduction contains

two very serious misstatements, but to do only with the former of them ;

I

have at present

that

*

the Yi

King

regarded by the Chinese with peculiar veneration, .... as The being the most ancient of their classical writings.' is

Shu is the oldest of the Chinese classics, and contains documents more than a thousand years earlier than king Wan. Several pieces of the Shih King are also older than anything in the Yi to which there can thus be assigned only ;

the third place in point of age among the monuments of Chinese literature. Existing, however, about 3000 years ago,

cannot be called modern.

it

Unless

it

be the books of the

Pentateuch, Joshua, and Judges, an equal antiquity cannot be claimed for any portion of our Sacred Scriptures.

be well to observe here also how much older the Text is than the Appendixes. Supposing er them to be the work of Confucius, though Thtnthe it will appear by and by that this assumption Appendixes, It will

The Text

1 '

A

the

'

has been suggested that Antiquissimus Sinarum libei may mean only very ancient book of the Chinese/ but the first sentence of the Preface to '

It

work commences

' .

Inter

omnes constat hbrorum Smicorum, quos

classicos

'

vocant, primum et antiquissimum esse Y-King At the end of M. De Guignes' edition of P. Gaubil's translation of the Shu, there is a notice of the YI King sent in 1738 to the Cardinals of the Congregation de

Claude Visdelou, Bishop of Claudiopohs. M. De * Guignes says himself, L' Y-King est le premiei des Livres Canoniques des Pour son But P. Visdelou writes more guardedly and correctly Chinois.' anciennet, s'll en faut croire les Annales des Chmois, il a et commence

Propaganda Fide by M.

'

:

Si cela est vrai, comme tonte la nation quarante-six siecles avant celui-ci. 1'avoue unanmiement, ou peut a juste titre 1'appeler le plus ancien des livres.'

But he adds, 'Ce n'e*toit pas pioprement un livre, m quelque chose d'approchant; une e*mgme tres obscure, et plus difficile cent fois a exphquer que celle

c'e*toit

du

sphinx.* P. Couplet expresses himself much to the same effect in the prolegomena (p. xvni) to the work called 'Confucius Sinarum Philosophus,' published at

by himself and thiee other fathers of the Society of Jesus (IntorHerdntch, and Rougemont). Both they and P. Visdelou give an example of a portion of the text and its interpretation, having singularly selected the same hexagram the I5th, on Humility. Paris in 1687 cetta,

THE

8

Y! KING.

CH.

I.

can be received as only partially correct, if indeed it be received at all, the sage could not have entered on their composition earlier than B. C. 483, 660 years later than the

came from king Wn, and nearly 630 what we owe to the duke of Ku. But during that long period of between six and seven centuries changes may have arisen in the views taken by thinking men of the method and manner of the Yi and I cannot accept the Text and the Appendixes as forming one work in any portion of the text that

later than

;

proper sense of the term.

Nothing has prevented the

full

understanding of both, so far as parts of the latter can be understood, so much as the blending of them together, which The originated with Pi /fih of the first Han dynasty. common editions of the book have five of the Appendixes

they are ordinarily reckoned) broken up and printed by side with the Text and the confusion thence arising has made it difficult, through the intermixture of (as

side

;

incongruous ideas, for foreign students to lay hold of the meaning. 6. Native scholars have of course been well aware of the

between the appearance of the Text and and in the Khang-hsi edition * t *iem t *le are P" nte d separately. two scholarsTon thcYt. now and then, however, has any critic Only ventured to doubt that the two parts formed one homogeneous whole, or that all the appendixes were from the Hundreds of them have style or pencil of Confucius. difference in time

the Appendixes

Labours of

;

brought a wonderful and consistent meaning out of the Text; but to find in it or in the Appendixes what is unreasonable, or any inconsistency between them, would be to impeach the infallibility of Confucius, and stamp on

themselves the brand of heterodoxy. At the same time it is an unfair description of what C Y have accomplished to say, as has An

^

imperfect description of

^

been done

their labours,

t

^

lately,

that

since

the

fires

of

foremost scho l ars of each gene . ration have edited the Text (meaning both the Text and the Appendixes), and heaped tary upon

it

;

and one and

all

commentary

after

commen-

have arrived at the somewhat

CH.

INTRODUCTION.

II.

lame conclusion that

1

1

past finding out multitude of the native commentaries are of the highest

A

its full

significance

is

.

and have left little to be done for the elucidation and if they say that a passage in an Appendix is unfathomable or incalculable/ it is because their authors shrink from allowing, even to themselves, that the ancient sages intermeddled, and intermeddled unwisely, with things

value,

of the Text

;

'

'

'

too high for them. When the same

writer

scholars goes on to say Erroneous account of the labouis of

scholais.

who

thus

that 'in the

speaks

of

native

same way a host

European - Chinese scholars have made ,. A mp and have, if possible, confusion worse confounded/ he only shows how imperfectly he had made himself of ,

.

.

.

,

.

..

.

translations of the Yi,

The host of European acquainted with the subject. Chinese scholars who have made translations of the Yi '

'

amount

to two,

the

same two mentioned by me above

The

translation of Regis and his coadjutors 2 indeed capable of improvement but their work as a

on pp. is

6, 7.

;

whole, and especially the prolegomena, dissertations, and notes, supply a mass of correct and valuable information.

They had nearly succeeded in unravelling the confusion, and solving the enigma of the Yi.

CHAPTER

II.

THE SUBJECT-MATTER OF THE TEXT. THE LINEAL FIGURES AND THE EXPLANATION OF THEM. i.

Having described the Yi King as

consisting of a text

explanation of certain lineal figures, and of appendixes to it, and having traced the composition of the former to in

'

' in the Times of and Tru Oriental liner's American, European, April 20, 1880; reprinted Literary Record, New Series, vol i, pp 125-127. 9 Regis' coadjutors in the work were the Fathers Joseph de Mailla, who turned the Chinese into Latin word for woid, and compared the result with the Manau version of the Yl and Peter du Tartre, whose principal business was to supply the historical illustrations Regis himself revised all their work and enlarged it, adding his own dissertations and note*.. See Prospectus Opens, immediately after M. Mold's Preface.

1

See a communication on certain new views about the Yt in

;

THE

JO its

Y! KING.

authors in the twelfth century

B.

CH.

c, and that of the latter

to between six and seven centuries later at least, to give an account of

deduced from the

is

The sists

what we

II.

find in the Text,

I

proceed

and how

it

figures.

subject-matter of the Text may be briefly represented as consisting of sixty-four short essays,

enigmatically and symbolically expressed, on important themes, mostly of a moral, social, and political character, and based on the same

of essays

based on lineal

number

of lineal figures, each

made up

of six lines,

some

of which are whole and the others divided.

The

first

two and the

last

two may serve

as a specimen of those figures *.

The Text

:

,

for the present

EE EE and "~ ;

*~,

says nothing about their origin and

Wan takes them up, that suits himself, deterone after another, in the order mined, evidently, by the contrast in the lines of each successive pair of hexagrams, and gives their significance, formation.

There they

as a whole, with to

be

them

taken

in

some the

are.

King

indication, perhaps, of the action circumstances which he supposes

symbolise, and whether that action will be or Then the duke of K&u, beginning lucky unlucky. with the first or bottom line, expresses, by means of a to

symbolical or emblematical illustration, the significance of each line, with a similar indication of the good or bad fortune of action taken in connexion with

it.

The

king's

hexagram will be found to be in harmony with the combined significance of the six lines as interpreted by his son. Both of them, no doubt, were familiar with the practice of divination which had prevailed in China for more than a thousand years, and would copy closely its methods and style. They were not divining themselves, but their words became oracles to subsequent ages, when men divined by the hexagrams, and sought by means of what was said under them to ascertain how it would be with them in the interpretation of the whole

1

See Plate I at the end of the Introduction.

CH.

INTRODUCTION.

II.

1 1

future, and learn whether they should persevere in or withdraw from the courses they were intending to pursue.

an instance of the lessons which the lineal to teach, but before I do so, it will be necessar y to relate what is said of their origin, The origin of the lineal and of the rules observed in studying and gures. For information on these interpreting them. points we must have recourse to the Appendixes and in reply to the question by whom and in what way the figures were formed, the third, of which we made use in the last chapter, will give

2. I

made

figures are

;

supplies us with three different answers. of Section ii says: (i) The nth paragraph Anciently, when the rule of all under heaven was in the hands of Pao-hsi, looking up, he contemplated the brilliant forms exhibited in the sky, and looking down, he suiveyed the patterns shown on '

He marked

the earth.

own

his

the ornamental appearances

on

birds

and

Near at hand, in (different) suitabilities of the soil. he found for consideration, and the same things person,

and the

beasts,

On

at a distance, in things in general. this he devised the eight lineal figures of three lines each, to exhibit fully the spirit-like and intelligent operations (in nature),

and

to classify the qualities of the

myriads of things/

name for Fu-hsi, the most ancient mentioned with any definiteness in Chinese history, while much that is fabulous is current about him. His place in chronology begins in B.C. 3332, 5203 years He appears in this paragraph as the deviser of the ago. or trigrams. The processes by which he was kwd eight led to form them, and the purposes which he intended them to serve, are described, but in vague and general terms that do not satisfy our curiosity. The eight figures, Pdo-hsi

personage

"~

is

another

who

is

and == =E; called Aien, tui, li, sun, kh^n, kan, and khwan; and representing heaven or the sky water, especially a collection of water as in a marsh or lake fire, the sun, lightning thunder wind and '

.

.

;

;

;

wood

;

streams

water,

especially as

in defiles,

To

;

the clouds, springs, a hill or mountain ; and

in rain,

and the moon

;

each of these figures is assigned a certain attribute or quality which should be suggested by the

the earth.

THE

12

Y! KING.

natural object it symbolises need not enter at present.

;

CH.

II.

but on those attributes we

The jcth and 7ist paragraphsof Section i give another (ii) account of the origin of the tngrams :

In (the system of) the Y? there is the Great Extreme, which produced the two f (Elemental y Foims). These two Forms pro1

Hsiang (Emblematic Symbols); which again produced the eight Kv\a (or Tngrams). The eight Kwd served to determine the good and evil (issues of events), and from this determination there ensued the (prosecution of the) great business duced the four

of

life.'

The two elementary Forms,

the four emblematic Symbols, and the eight Trigrams can all be exhibited with what

A

be deemed certainty. whole line ( were the two 1. These two ) (

may

divided

)

and a

lines placed

over themselves, and each of them over the other, formed

same two

lines placed successively over these

Hsiang,

formed the eight Kw&, exhibited above. Who will undertake to say what is meant by the Great Extreme* which produced the two elementary Forms? Nowhere else does the name occur in the old Confucian I have no doubt myself that it found its literature. way into this Appendix in the fifth (? or fourth) century B. C. from a Taoist source. Kb Hsi, in his Lessons on the Yi for the c

'

thus,O; observing Young,' gives for it the figure of a circle that he does so from the philosopher A"au (A.D. 101 7-1073) \ and cautioning his readers against thinking that such a representation came from Fu-hsi himself. cular symbol appears very unsuccessful. treme,' line

it is

and a divided

could be. 1

c

said,

To me '

divided and produced two lines, line But I do not understand

Suppose

'

it

the

cir-

The Great Exa whole

how

this

possible for the circle to unroll itself;

A

an Mau-shuh, and, still more commonly, ATau-gze, called A'an Tun-i and rivulet near which was his favourite residence, Aau Lien->6//t. Mayers

from the

He held various offices of state, and (Chinese Reader's Manual, p 23) says for many years at the head of a galaxy of scholars who sought for instruc'

.

was

tion in matters of philosophy repute.'

and research:

second only to Afl Hsi

in literal

y

CH.

INTRODUCTION.

II.

we

shall

have one long

13 If this divide

line,

we have two whole lines; and another division of one of them is necessary to give us the whole and the divided The attempt to fashion the lines of the lineal figures. Great Extreme as a circle must be pronounced a failure. But when we start from the two lines as bases, the itself,

formation of

all

the diagrams

above

indicated

is

easy.

by a

The

repetition of the process to each of the

addition

trigrams of each of the two fundamental lines produces 1 6 figures of four lines; dealt with in the same way,

and a similar 33 figures of five lines the these with 64 hexagrams, each operation produces an of of which forms the subject essay in the text of the these

produce

The

;

an arithmetical progression whose and the figures in a geometrical This is all the progression whose common ratio is 2. of the the in formation lineal figures this, I believe, mystery was the process by which they were first formed and it is hardly necessary to imagine them to have come from a sage like Fu-hsi. The endowments of an ordinary man Yi.

common

lines increase in

difference

is

i,

;

;

were

sufficient for

such a work.

It

was possible even

to

once from the shorten the operation by proceeding trigrams to the hexagrams, according to what we find in at

Section

i,

paragraph 2

:

A strong and a weak line were manipulated together (till there were the 8 trigrams), and those 8 tugrams were added each to itself and to all the others (till the 64 hexagrams weie formed) '

'

It

is

Who

a moot question who first multiplied the figures from the trigrams universally ascribed to

first

to the 6 4 hexagrams of the Yi. The more common view is that it was king Wan but Kb Hsl, when he was questioned on the subject, rather inclined to hold that Fu-hsi had multiplied them himself, but declined to say whether he thought that their names

^hgures to

Fu ' hsi

64*

;

were as old as the figures themselves, or only dated from the twelfth century 1

/ffi-gze

on the Yt),

A%wan shfl, art. 16.

B. c.

1

I will

not venture to controvert

or Digest of Works of

A'ti-jze,

chap. 26 (the

first

chapter

THE

14 his opinion

Yf KING.

CH.

about the multiplication of the

II.

but

figures,

I

must think that the names, as we have them now, were from king Wan.

No

Chinese writer has tried to explain why the framers stopped with the 64 hexagrams, instead of going on to 128 figures of 7 lines, 256 of 8, 512 of 9, and Why the noTSnti^u'Si after 64.

so on indefinitely. No reason can be given for it, but the cumbrousness of the result, and

the impossibility of dealing, after the manner of king with such a mass of figures.

The 73rd paragraph

(iii)

of Section

Wan,

with but one para-

i,

and the two others which we have been considering, gives what may be considered a third account graph between

it

of the origin of the lineal figures

:

'Heaven produced divining plant), and

the spirit-like things (the tortoise and the the sages took advantage of them. (The operations of) heaven and earth are marked by so many changes and transformations, and the sages imitated them (by means of the

Heaven hangs out its (brilliant) figures, from which are seen good fortune and bad, and the sages made their emblematic interThe Ho gave forth the scheme or map, pretations accordingly. and the Lo gave forth the writing, of (both of) which the sages Yi).

took advantage.'

'

The words with which we have at present to do are The Ho (that is, the Yellow River) gave forth the Map.'

This map, according to tradition and popular belief, contained a scheme which served as a model to Fft-hsi in

making his 8 trigrams. Apart from this passage in the Yi King, we know that Confucius believed in such a map, or spoke at least as if he did 1 In the * Record of Rites it is said that the map was borne by a horse 2 and .

'

'

*

;

the thing, whatever

it

was,

is

mentioned

in the Shft as still

3 preserved at court, among other curiosities, in B.C. 1079 . c The story of it, as now current, is this, that a dragon-

horse' issued from the Yellow River, bearing on

an arrangement of marks, from which

its

back

Fti-hsi got the idea

of the trigrams. 1

Analects IX, via.

LI

Xi

VIII,

iv, 16.

8

Shft V, xxii, 19.

CH.

INTRODUCTION.

II.

All this is so evidently fabulous that it seems a waste of time to enter into any details about it. My reason for doing so is a wish to take advantage of the map in giving such a statement of the rules observed in interpreting the figures as

necessary in this Introduction. that was preserved, it has been seen, in the eleventh century B.C., afterwards perished, and though there is

The map

was much speculation about its form from the The form of Map. time that the restoration of the ancient classics

the River

was undertaken of

it

in the

Han

given to the public

was

dynasty, the first delineation in the reign of Hui 3 un g of

the

Sung dynasty (A.D. iioi-nas) scheme of it is the following

1

The most approved

.

:

oo

o o o

oo o oo

o

ooo o

m T * T

o o o o o o

o

It will

be observed that the markings

in this

scheme are

circles, pretty nearly equally divided into dark and light. All of them whose numbers are odd are light circles, f them whose numbers are even are !> 3> ,5 7> 9 5 an d a H

small

This is given as the origin of what is a, 4, 6, 8, 10. dark, said in paragraphs 49 and 50 of Section i about the numbers of heaven and earth. circles

The

difference in the colour of the

occasioned the distinction of them and of what they 1

See Mayers' Chinese Reader's Manual, pp. 56, 57.

1

THE

6

signify into

Yl KING.

Yin and Yang,

moon-like and the sun-like

;

CH.

II.

the dark and the bright, the for the sun is called the Great

Brightness (Thai Yang), and the

moon

the Great

Ob-

I shall have more to say in the next scurity (Thai Yin). on the application of these names. Fu-hsi in making chapter the trigrams, and king Wan, if it was he who first mul-

tiplied

them

to the 64 hexagrams, found

use lines instead of the circles:

it

convenient to

the whole line

and the divided line ( The first, the third, and the

(

)

for the bright circle (O),

the dark

().

fifth

for

lines

'

*

a

)

hexagram, if they are correct as it is called, should all be whole, and the second, fourth, and sixth lines should all be divided. Yang lines are strong (or hard), and Yin lines are weak (or soft). The former indicate vigour and authority; the latter, feebleness and submisin

sion.

It is

the part of the former to

command

;

of the

latter to obey.

The lines, moreover, in the two trigrams tha* make up the hexagrams, and characterise the subjects which they lepresent, are related to one another by their position, and have their significance modified accordingly The first line and the fourth, the second and the fifth, the third and the sixth are all correlates and to make the correlation perfect the two members of it should be lines of different qualities, one whole and the other divided. And, finally, the middle lines of the trigrams, the second and fifth, that is, of the hexagrams, have a peculiar value and force. If we have in the fifth place, and a divided line a whole line ( ) ;

in the second, or vice versa,

(

)

plete.

Let the subject of the

fifth

the correlation

is

com-

be the sovereign or a

commander-in-chief, according to the name and meaning of the hexagram, then the subject of the second will be an able minister or a skilful

officer,

and the

result of their

action will be most beneficial and successful.

mutual

It is specially

important to have a clear idea of the name of the hexagram, and of the subject or state which it is intended to denote. The significance of all the lines comes thus to be of various application, and will differ in different

hexagrams.

CH.

INTRODUCTION.

II.

17

I have thus endeavoured to indicate how the lineal figures were formed, and the principal rules laid down for the inThe details are wearying, but my terpretation of them. position is like that of one who is called on to explain an

important monument of architecture, very bizarre in its conception and execution. plainer, simpler structure have answered the purpose better, but the architect might

A

had

and style which he adopted. be worth expounding, we must not grudge the study necessary to detect his processes of thought, nor the effort and time required to bring the minds of others into sympathy with his. My own opinion, as I have intimated, is, that the second his reasons for the plan

If the result of his labours

account of the origin of the trigrams and hexagrams is the true one. However the idea of the whole and divided lines arose in the mind of the

them

first

framer,

and then, manipulating them

;

scribed,

we

arrive,

very

we must in the

easily, at all the lineal

start

from

manner defigures, and

We

cannot might proceed to multiply them to billions. tell who devised the third account of their formation from the

map

River

1

or scheme on the dragon-horse of the Yellow no doubt, was to impart a supernatural

Its object,

.

character to the trigrams and produce a religious veneration them. It may be doubted whether the scheme as it

for

now

is

fashioned be the correct one,

such as

it

was

in

the

K'au dynasty. The paragraph where it is mentioned, goes The Lo produced the writing.' This writing on to say was a scheme of the same character as the Ho map, but '

on the back of a tortoise, which emerged from the river Lo, and showed it to the Great Yu, when he was engaged

work of draining off the waters of the in as related the Shu. To the hero sage it sugflood, 'the Great Plan/ an interesting but mystical gested the same classic, 'a Treatise/ according to document of in his celebrated

Gaubil,

'

of Physics, Astrology, Divination, Morals, Politics, for the government of the

and Religion/ the great model 1

See on the authorship of the Appenit was not Confucius. and especially of Appendix III, in the next chapter.

Certainly dixes,

1

THE

8

The accepted

kingdom.

the following

Yl KING.

CH.

representation of this writing

II.

is

:

ooooocooo

coo o

o

o

o

o

o

o

o o o o o

o But substituting numbers have

number of marks, we

492 8

This

for the

6

I

nothing but the arithmetical puzzle, in \\hich i to 9 are arranged so as to make 15 in whatever way we add them l If we had the original form of 'the River Map/ we should probably find it a is

the numbers from

.

trifle, not more difficult, not more supernatural, than this magic square. 3. Let us return to the Yi of A'du, which, as I have said

numerical

above on p. 10, contains, under each of the 64 hexagrams, a brief essay of a moral, social, or political character, symbolically expressed. 1

the

But

For this

Lo

dissection,

which may also be called reductioadabsurdum, of

See his Y-King I, p. 60. writing, I was indebted first to P. Regis. ATI Hs! also has got it in the Appendix to his Lessons on the Yi for

the Young.'

CH.

INTRODUCTION.

II.

19

To understand it, it will be necessary to keep in mind the circumstances in which king Wan addressed himself to the study of the lineal figures. The kingdom, under the sovereigns of the Yin or

was

country m

tim

w5

Shang dynasty,

^ jj j j ij utterly disorganised and demoralised. ^ rot ^ er f t* 16 reigning king thus described its condition

State of the

i

^

kmg

:

The house of Yin can no longer exercise ule over the land. The great deeds of our founder were displayed in a formei age, but through mad addiction to drink we have destroyed the effects of The people, small and great, are given to highway his virtue. robberies, villainies, and treachery. The nobles and officeis imitate 1

i

one another

in violating

Theie

ihe laws.

be apprehended.

criminals will

The

is

no

ceitainty that

lesser people rise

up and

violent outrages on one another The dynasty of Yin is sinking in ruin ; its condition is like that of one crossing a large

commit stream,

who can

find neither ford nor

bank

V

This miserable state of the nation was due very

^

The

character of the mo aic

Declaration '

much

to

character and tyranny of the monarch. When the son of Wan took the field against

'

him, he thus denounced him addressed to all the states

in

'a

Solemn

:

Shau, the king of Shang, treats all virtue with contemptuous and abandons himself to wild idleness and irreverence. He

slight,

has cut himself off from Heaven, and bi ought enmity between himHe cut through the leg-bones of those who self and the people. a ( winter- Jmorning he cut out the heart of the His power has been shown in killing and murdering. His honouis and confidence are given to the villainous and bad.

weie wading 2[ood

He

man 2

in

;

.

has driven from him his instructors and guardians.

thrown

He

has

winds the statutes and penal laws. He neglects the to Heaven and Earth. He has discontinued the offerings

to the

sacrifices

1

TheShfiTV,xi, 1,2. These were well-known instances of ShaVs wanton cmelty. Observing some people one winter's day wading through a stream, he ordered their legs to be cut through at the shank-bone, that he might see the marrow which could so endure the cold. 'The good man* was a iclative of his own, called 2

Pi-kan.

Having enraged Sh&u by the stemness of

ordered his heart.

lit

art to

his rebukes, the tyrant

be cut out, that he might see the structure of a sage's

THE

2O

Y! KING.

CH.

II.

He makes (cruel) contrivances of won1 and extraordinary ingenuity to please his wife

in the ancestral temple.

deiful

device

God \vill no his ruin

.

longer bear with him, but with a cuise

is

sending down

V

Such was the condition of the nation, such the character Meanwhile in the west of the kingdom, of the sovereign. a in The lords of part of what is now the province of Shena hst lav the principality of ^fau, the lords of peua iiy

which had long been distinguished for their

king Wan.

Its present chief, now known to us as was who had succeeded to his father Wan, AV/ang, king He was not only lord of A'au, but had come in B.C. 1185.

ability

and

virtue.

to be a sort of viceroy over a great part of the

kingdom. Equally distinguished in peace and war, a model of all that was good and attractive, he conducted himself with remarkable wisdom and self-restraint. Princes and people would have rejoiced to follow him to attack the tyrant, but he shrank from exposing himself to the charge of being

Shu

was aroused. At last the jealous suspicion of as has been already stated, was thrown into prison in B.C. 1143, and the order for his death might arrive at any

disloyal.

Wan,

Then

moment.

it

was that he occupied himself with the

lineal figures.

The

of the trigrams at least

had

long been practised for the purposes of divination.

The

use of those figures

employment of the divining

stalks

is

indicated in 'the

Counsels of the Great Yu,' one of the earliest Books of the Shu 3 and a whole section in the Great Plan/ also a '

,

Book of the Shu, and

referred to the times of the Hsid

dynasty, describes how doubts were to be examined by means of the tortoise-shell and the stalks *. Wan could

'

*

not but be familiar with divination as an institution of his

We

do not know what these contrivances weie. But to please his wife, ' the infamous Ta-t, Shau had made * the Heater and * the Roaster/ two instruments of toiture. The latter was a copper pillar laid above a pit of 1

burning charcoal, and made slippery 8 The Shu V, i, Sect, iii, 2, 3. 3

Shu

II,

11,

18.

;

culprits

were forced to walk along

Shu V,

iv,

20-31.

it.

CH.

INTRODUCTION.

II.

country

1 .

Possibly

King Wan

m

more

2

1

occurred to him that nothing was likely to lull the suspicions of his it

dangerous enemy than the study of the ,./-,., and if his keepers took notice of what the lineal figures figures. fa was doing, they would smile at his lines, and the sentences which he appended to them. prison.

occupied with

./-,

,

;

I

like to think of the lord of A"au,

when

incarcerated in

64 figures arranged before him. Each hexagram assumed a mystic meaning, and glowed with a deep Yu-li, with the

significance.

He made

it tell

him of the

qualities of various

objects of nature, or of the principles of human society, or of the condition, actual and possible, of the kingdom. He

named

the figures, each by a term descriptive of the idea it in his mind, and then he proceeded to set that idea forth, now with a note of exhortation,

with which he had connected

now with

a note of warning. It was an attempt to restrict the follies of divination within the bounds of reason. The last

but one of the Appendixes bears the

name

of 'Sequence

of the Diagrams.' I shall have to speak of it more at in the I next remark at present that length chapter only it deals, with of the names the feebly indeed, hexagrams in

harmony with what

have said about them, and tries to which they follow one another. It not critically as if it needed to be established,

account for the order

does

all this,

I

in

but in the

way of expository statement, relating that about which there was no doubt in the mind of the author. But all the work of prince AY/ang or king Wan in the Yi thus amounts to no more than 64 short paragraphs.

We

do not know what led his son Tan to work and complete it as he o^theslp^te lines. did. Tan was a patriot, a hero, a legislator, and a philosopher. Perhaps he took the lineal figures in hand as a tribute of filial duty. What had been done for the whole hexagram he would do for each line, and make it clear that all the six lines 'bent one way their precious influence/ and blended their rays in the globe of light which his father had made each figure give forth. Work

of the

enter into his

1

Book of Poetry we have Wan's grandfather (Than-ffl, III, and his son (king Wfl, III, i, ode 10. 7) doing the same.

In the

divining,

i,

ode

3. 3)

THE

22

Y! KING.

CH.

II.

But his method strikes us as singular. Each line seemed to become living, and suggested some phenomenon in nature or some case of human experience, from which the wisdom or folly, the luckiness or unluckiness, indicated by it could It cannot be said that the duke carried out

be inferred.

his plan in a

shang who style of its

way

any one but a hsien

likely to interest

a votary of divination, and admires the oracles. According to our notions, a framer of is

emblems should be a good deal

of a poet, but those of

the Yi only make us think of a dryasdust. Out of than 350, the greater number are only grotesque.

more

We

do

not recover from the feeling of disappointment till we remember that both father and son had to write according to the trick,' after the manner of diviners, as if this lineal '

augury had been their profession. 4.

At

length

come

I

The

seventh

hexagram.

what I have said on the by an example. It shall be the

to illustrate

subject-matter of the Yi

treatment of the seventh hexagram

which king

The

character

and

in fact, in

is

(=_=)

Wan named

Sze, meaning Hosts. meaning multitudes

'

'

also explained as

;

a feudal kingdom, the multitudes of the all to become its army, when occasion were liable people and the host and the population might be required, As terms. Froude expresses it in the interchangeable '

*

'

'

Every man was regimented somewhere/ The hexagram Sze is composed of the two trigrams Khan (~ ~) and Khwan (= =), exhibiting waters and in other symbolisms besides collected on the earth

introductory chapter to his History of England,

*

;

that of the Yi, waters indicate assembled multitudes of

men. The waters on which the mystical Babylon sits in the Apocalypse are explained as 'peoples and multitudes and nations and tongues.' I do not positively affirm

was by

that

it

king

Wan

saw

this in

~

interpretation

of the trigrams that

SEE the feudal hosts of his country

from him nor his son do we learn, by had any acquaintance with the trigrams of FO-hsi. The name which he gave collected, for neither

their direct affirmation, that they

CH.

INTRODUCTION.

II.

23

the figure shows, however, that he saw in it the feudal hosts in the field. How shall their expedition be conducted that it may come to a successful issue ?

Looking again

at the figure,

five divided lines, line

we

see that

and of one undivided.

made up of The undivided

it is

occupies the central place in the lower trigram,

the

most important place, next to the fifth, in the whole hexagram. It will represent, in the language of the comand the parties mentators, the lord of the whole figure be the other lines may represented by expected to be of one mind with him or obedient to him. He must be the leader of the hosts. If he were on high, in the fifth place, he would be the sovereign of the kingdom. This is what '

'

;

king '

Wan

Sze

says

indicates

:

how

(in the case

and correctness, and (a leader be good fortune and no error.'

This

is

a good auspice.

K&u expands He says

which

of) age

it

supposes), with firmness

and experience, there

will

Let us see how the duke of

it.

:

'The

first

line, divided,

to the rules (for such a there will be evil.'

We are not were.

told

shows the host going

movement).

what the

forth according

If those (rules) be not good,

rules for a military expedition

Some commentators understand them

of the reasons

that it should be to repress and justifying the movement, punish disorder and rebellion. Others, with more likelihood,

take them to be the discipline or rules laid

down

to be

observed by the troops. The line is divided, a weak line c in a strong place, not correct this justifies the caution '

:

given in the duke's second sentence.

The Text goes on '

The second

the hosts.

line,

There

:

undivided, shows (the leader) in the midst of be good fortune and no error. The king

will

has thrice conveyed to him his charge/

in

This does not need any amplification. The duke saw the strong line the symbol of the leader, who enjoyed

THE

24 the

Y! KING.

CH.

II.

confidence of his sovereign, and whose authority

full

admitted of no opposition.

On

the third line

said

it is

:

The third line, divided, shows how many commanders (in such a case) '

:

the hosts

may

there will be

possibly have

evil.'

The third place line,

is odd, and should be occupied by a strong of instead which we have a weak line in it. But it is

and

subject should be in office or activity. There is suggested the idea that its subject has vaulted over the second line, and wishes to share in the command and honour of him who has been appointed at the top of the lower trigram,

The

sole commander-in-chief.

made

of none

We

its

lesson in the previous line in the

have a divided authority The result can only be evil. expedition. On the fourth line the duke wrote is

effect.

:

1

no

The

fourth line, divided, shows the hosts in retreat

there

:

is

error/

The but

and

line

is

also weak,

in the fourth place a its

and victory cannot be expected

weak

subject will do what

He will retreat, and a retreat When safely effected, where a retreat

is

The

is is

right in his circumstances. for him the part of wisdom.

advance would be disastrous,

as glorious as victory.

Under the '

;

line is in its correct position,

fifth line

we

read

:

line, divided, shows birds in the fields which it is to seize (and destroy). There will be no error. If advantageous the oldest son lead the host, and younger men be m com(also) mand, however firm and correct he may be, there will be evil fifth

'

We have an intimation

in this

passage that only defensive

war waged by the rightful authority to put down rebellion and lawlessness, is right. The 'birds in the fields' are emblematic of plunderers and invaders, whom it will be well to destroy. The fifth line symbolises the chief authority, but here he is weak or humble, and has given all power and authority to execute judgment into the hands of the commander-in-chief, who is the oldest son and in the subject of line 3 we have an example of the younger men who would cause evil if allowed to share his power. war, or

;

CH.

INTRODUCTION.

II.

Finally, on the sixth line the 1

25

duke wrote:

The topmost line, divided, shows the great ruler delivering his (to the men who have distinguished themselves), appointing

charges

some

to be rulers of states,

small

men

and others

should not be employed

The action

of the

(in

to

be chiefs of clans.

But

such positions)/

hexagram has been gone through. The

expedition has been conducted to a successful end. The enemy has been subdued. His territories are at the disposal

The commander-in-chief has done his His sovereign, 'the great ruler/ comes upon the scene, and rewards the officers who have been conspicuous by their bravery and skill, conferring on them rank and lands. But he is warned to have respect in doing so to their moral character. Small men, of ordinary or less than ordinary character, may be rewarded with riches and certain honours but land and the welfare of its population should not be given into the hands of any who are not equal to of the conqueror.

part well.

;

the responsibility of such a trust. The above is a specimen of what

have called the essays Wan and his son have bad all military expeditions conducted in their country 3000 years ago. It seems to me that the principles which they lay down might find a suitable application in the modern warfare of our civilised and Christian Europe. The inculcation of such lessons cannot have been that

make up

the Yi of Kau.

without good effect

in

I

So would king

China during the long course of

its

history.

Sze

is

a

fair

specimen of

its class.

lessons are deduced, for the

From

the other 63

most part equally

hexagrams good and striking. J3ut why, it may be asked, why should they be conveyed to us by such an array of lineal figures, and in such a farrago of emblematic representations? It The is not for the foreigner to insist on such a question. Chinese have not valued them the less because of the antiquated dress in which their lessons are arrayed. Hundreds of their commentators have evolved and developed their meaning with a minuteness of detail and felicity of It is for that leave nothing to be desired. foreign students of Chinese to gird up their loins for the

illustration

THE

26

"

Y! KING.

mastery of the book instead of talking about and all but inexplicable.

it

CH.

III.

as mysterious

Granting, however, that the subject-matter of the Yi is what has been described, very valuable for its practical wisdom, but not drawn up from an abysmal deep of philosophical speculation, it may still be urged, But in all this we find nothing to justify the name of the book as Yi *

Is there not

King, the "Classic of Changes."

something

the Appendixes that have been ascribed to Confucius, whose authority is certainly not inTo reply ferior to that of king Wan, or the duke of ATdu ?

more, higher or deeper,

in

'

fully to this question will require

CHAPTER

another chapter.

III.

THE APPENDIXES. i. Two things have to be considered in this chapter: the authorship of the Appendixes, and their contents. The Text is ascribed, without dissentient voice, to Subjects of

the chapter.

and

king W5n> the founder o f the K&u dynasty, known as the duke of K&\\ and

his son Tan, better

;

the preceding chapters, given reasons for acceptthat view. As regards the portion ascribed to king ing the of the third of the Appendixes and the evidence Wan, I have, in

statement of Sze-md A^ien are as positive as could be desired

;

and as regards that ascribed to

his son, there

for calling in question the received tradition

ground Appendixes have

is

no

The

all been ascribed to Confucius, though not with entirely the same unanimity. Perhaps I have rather intimated my own opinion that this view cannot be sustained.

I have pointed out that, even if it be true, between six and seven centuries elapsed after the Text of the classic appeared before the Appendixes were written and I have said that, ;

two parts as a homoor in the ordinary as one book geneous whole, constituting of that on the question name. Before entering acceptation considering this fact, I

cannot regard

its

of the authorship, a very brief statement of the nature and number of the Appendixes will be advantageous.

CH.

INTRODUCTION.

III.

27

They are reckoned to be ten, and called the Shih Yi Ten Wings.' They are in reality not so many but the

2.

or

'

;

x and Number ,

,

,

nature of the

Text

Upper

ixes.

ppen

is

is

'

anc secon(^ ancj then the commentary on made to form a separate Appendix. I have

rs

each section

divided into two sections, called the and Lower, or, as we should say, the j

more convenient in the translation which follows to adopt a somewhat different arrangement. My first Appendix, in two sections, embraces the first and

found

it

second wings/ consisting of remarks on the paragraphs by king Wan in the two parts of the Text. My second Appendix, in two sections, embraces the third '

and fourth wings/ consisting of remarks on the symbolism c

of the duke of

Ku

in his

explanation of the individual

lines of the

hexagrams. My third Appendix, in two sections, embraces the fifth and sixth wings/ which bear the name in Chinese of 'Appended *

c

Sentences/ and constitute what is called by many the Great Treatise.' Each wing has been divided into twelve chapters of very different length, and

arrangement Appendix.

in It

I

have followed

this

the most important my has less of the nature of commentary than sections.

This

is

the previous four wings. While explaining much of what is found in the Text, it diverges to the origin of the trigrams, the methods pursued in the practice of divination,

many arts in the progress of civilisation, and other subjects. fourth Appendix, also in two sections, forms the

the rise of

My

seventh

*

wing/

It is

confined to an amplification of the

and second hexagrams by king and his son, purporting to show how they may be interpreted of man's nature and doings.

expositions

of the

first

Wan

My

fifth

Appendix

is

'

Disthe eighth wing/ called It treats of the different arrange*

courses on the Trigrams/ ment of these in respect of the seasons of the year and the cardinal points by Fti-hsi and king Wan. It contains

one paragraph, which might seem to justify the view is a mythology in the Yi. My sixth Appendix, in two sections, is the ninth wing/

also

that there

c

THE

28

Yf KING.

CH.

III.

'a Treatise on the Sequence of the Hexagrams/ intended to trace the connexion of meaning between them in the order in which they follow one another in the Text of king

Wan.

My seventh

Appendix is the tenth wing/ an exhibition the meaning of the 64 hexagrams, not taken in succession,

of

'

but promiscuously and at random, as they approximate to or are opposed to one another in meaning. We have 3. Such are the Appendixes of the Yi King. The

author-

encl uire next

*

whether

who wrote them, and

espe-

be possible to accept the Appendixes. dictum that they were aH written by ConIf they have come down to us. bearing unmistakefucius. shipofthe

cially

it

ably the stamp of the mind and pencil of the great sage, we cannot but receive them with deference, not to say with reverence.

on the contrary,

If,

it

shall

appear that with

great part of them he had nothing to do, and that it is not certain that any part of them is from him, we shall feel

own judgment on

entirely at liberty to exercise our

their

contents, and weigh them in the balances of our reason. None of the Appendixes, it is to be observed, bear the There

is

no

superscription

of Confucius on any of the Appendixes.

There is not a them ascribing B the first chapter, on

superscription of Confucius. single 5 sentence in any one of .

,

.

to him.

_ I

:

f

gave in earliest testimony that these treatises

it

p ^ ^e were produced by him. It is that of Sze-ma AY/ien, whose Historical Records must have appeared about the year 100 before our era. He ascribes all the Appendixes, except the last two of them, which he does not mention at all, expressly to Confucius and this, no doubt, was the common '

*

;

belief in the fourth century after the sage's death. But when we look for ourselves into the third and fourth

Appendixes The

^ third

and fourth

both sixth, and seventh 'wings' are specified by AV/ien, we find impossible to receive his statement about

the

it

them not from

fifth,

w ^ crl -

Whal

o f the third

remarkable

in

both parts

occurrence of is, the frequent the formula, The Master said/ familiar to readers of the Confucian Analects. Of course, the '

all

is

INTRODUCTION.

CH. in.

sentence following that formula, or the paragraph covered by it, was, in the judgment of the writer, in the language of

but what shall we say of the portions preceding and following? If he were the author of them, he would not thus be distinguishing himself from himself. The formula Confucius

;

occurs in the third

Where we

first

at least twenty-three times. ATQ Hsi has a note to the effect

Appendix

meet with

it,

the Appendixes having been all made by Confucius, he ought not to be himself introducing the formula, " The " Master said and that it may be presumed, wherever it that it is a subsequent addition to the Master's occurs,

that

*

;

1

One

text.

instance will

to solve the difficulty.

show the

The

futility of this

attempt

tenth chapter of Section

mences with the 59th paragraph

i

com-

.

'

In the Yi there are four things characteristic of the way of the We should set the highest value on its explanations, to sages. guide us in speaking

ments; on

its

;

on

changes, for the initiation of our movein the

its

emblematic

construction of implements

figures, for definite action, as ;

and on

its

prognostications, for our

practice of divination.'

This

by seven paragraphs expanding its statements, and we come to the last one of the chapter which says, 'The Master said, "Such is the import of is

followed

the statement that there are four things in the Yi. characterI cannot understand how istic of the way of the sages." '

it

could be more fully conveyed to us that the compiler Appendix were distinct from the Master

or compilers of this

whose words they quoted, as illustrate their

it

suited them, to confirm or

views

In the fourth Appendix, again, we find a similar occurrence of the formula of quotation. It is much shorter than the

and the phrase, 'The Master said/ does not come before us so frequently but in the thirty-six paragraphs that compose the first section we meet with it six times.

third,

;

Moreover, the are older than

three paragraphs of this Appendix compilation, which could not have taken

first

its

place till after the death of Confucius, seeing it professes to quote his words. They are taken in fact from a narrative

of the

3 A" wan,

as having been spoken

by a marchioness-

THE

3O

Yi KING.

CH.

III.

dowager of Lu fourteen years before Confucius was born. To account for this is a difficult task for the orthodox critics among the Chinese literati. Kb Hsi attempts to perform that anciently there was the explanation it in this way :

paragraphs of the four adjectives employed to give the significance of the first hexa-

in these

given

Wan

by king gram that ;

was employed by

it

Mu A^ang of Lti

Confucius also availed himself of

it,

;

and that

while the chronicler

used, as he does below, the phraseology of The Master said/ to distinguish the real words of the sage from such ancient sayings. But who was 'the chronicler?' No one *

The legitimate conclusion from Afu's criticism is, much of the Appendix as is preceded by The Master said is from Confucius, so much and no more. I am thus obliged to come to the conclusion that Confucius had nothing to do with the composition of these two Ap-

can

tell.

'

that so

'

pendixes, and that they were not put together till after his death. I have no pleasure in differing from the all but unanimous opinion of Chinese critics and commentators.

What

is

me

called

'

the destructive criticism

'

has no attractions

but when an opinion depends on the argument adduced to support it, and that argument turns out to be for

;

of no weight, you can no longer set your seal to this, that the opinion is true. This is the position in which an examination of the internal evidence as to the authorship of the third

and fourth Appendixes has placed me. ConfuThis conclusion weakens the confidence which we have been accustomed

cius could not be their author.

Bearm

of

the conclusion

h d rnd foufth on

to place in the view that the ten wings to be ascribed to him unhesitatingly. *

view has broken down

the other

Appendixes

them

..

i

'

were

The

in the case of three i

i

possibly there is no sound reason for holding the Confucian origin of the other seven. I cannot henceforth maintain that origin save with bated breath.

of

This,

;

however, can be

said

for

the

first

two

Appendixes my arrangement, that there is no evidence * their against being Confucian like the fatal formula, The Master said* So it is with a good part of my fifth Appendix in

;

but the concluding paragraphs of

it,

as well as the seventh

CH.

INTRODUCTION.

III.

31

in a less degree, seem too to be the production of the great man As a translator of every sentence both in the Text and the Appendixes,

Appendix, and the sixth also

trivial

I confess

sympathy with P. Regis, when he condenses Appendix into small space, holding that the

my

the

fifth

8th

and following

are

paragraphs

not

worthy to be

'They contain/ he says, 'nothing but the mere enumeration of things, some of which may be called

translated.

Yang, and others Yin, without any other cause for so thinking being given. Such a method of procedure would be unbecoming any philosopher, and it cannot be denied to be unworthy of Confucius, the chief of philosophers V could not characterise Confucius as

I

'

the chief of phi-

losophers,' though he was a great moral philosopher, and has been since he went out and in among his disciples,

But from the was directed to the Yi, I regretted

the best teacher of the Chinese nation.

time

first

my

attention

that he had stooped to write the parts of the Appendixes now under remark. It is a relief not to be obliged to receive

them

as his.

Even the

better treatises have

no

other claim to that character besides the voice of tradition, first heard nearly 400 years after his death. return to the Appendixes, and will endeavour to give a brief, but sufficient, account of their contents. The first bears in Chinese the name of Thwan ATwan, 4.

I

'Treatise on the The

first

Appendix

Thwan/ thwan

being the

name given

Wan

to the paragraphs in which his sense of the significance of the

expresses

hexagrams. He does not tell us why he attaches to each hexagram such and such a meaning, nor why he predicates good fortune or bad fortune in connexion with it, for he speaks It is the object oracularly, after the manner of a diviner. of the writer of this

king Wan's thoughts

Appendix

to

show the processes of

in these operations,

how he looked

component trigrams with their symbolic intimations, their attributes and qualities, and their linear composition, till he could not think otherwise of the figures than he did. All these considerations are sometimes taken into account, at the

1

Regis'

Y-Kmg,

vol.

ii,

p. 576.

THE

32

Yl KING.

and sometimes even one of them this

way some

found

in the

is

CH.

deemed

III.

sufficient.

In

technical characters appear which are not

Text.

The

lines, for instance,

and even whole '

trigrams are distinguished as kang^and sau, hard or strong' and 'weak or soft/ The phrase Kwei-shan, 'spirits,' or 1

but has not its physical signification of the contracting and expanding energies or operations of

'spiritual beings, occurs, *

nature.'

The names Yin and Yang, mentioned above on

pp. 15, 16, I

do not present themselves. on p. IT, the eight trigrams of Fu-hsi, and

delineated,

gave their names, with the natural objects they are said to represent, but did not mention the attributes, the virtutes, ascribed to them.

Let

me

submit here a table of them,

with those qualities, and the points of the compass to which they are referred. I must do this because king Wan made a change in the geographical arrangement of them, to which reference is made perhaps in his text and certainly in this treatise.

He

also

is

said to have formed an entirely different

theory as to the things represented will fifth

be well to give now, though

it

by the trigrams, which

it

belongs properly to the

Appendix,

TRIGRAMS.

CH.

INTRODUCTION.

III.

The

natural objects and

33

phenomena thus represented are

found up and down in the Appendixes. It is impossible to believe that the several objects were assigned to the several figures on any principles of science, for there is

no indication of science

in

the matter:

it

difficult

is

even

to suppose that they were assigned

scheme of thought. Why represent water in different over, represents the

on any comprehensive are tui and khn used to

khdn, more-

conditions, while

moon?

How

represent things so different as

is

sun

set

apart to At a

wind and wood?

very early time the Chinese spoke of 'the

five

elements/

wood, metal, and earth but the trigrams were not made to indicate them, and it is the general 1 opinion that there is no reference to them in the Yt

meaning water,

fire,

;

.

Again, the attributes assigned to the trigrams are learned mainly from this Appendix and the fifth. We do not readily get familiar with them, nor easily accept

them

all.

It is

im-

whether they were a part of the jargon of divination before king Wan, or had grown up between possible for us to tell

his time

King

and that of the author of the Appendixes.

Wan

altered the arrangement of the trigrams so

them should stand at the same point of the compass as in the ancient plan. He made them also of certain relations representative among themselves, as if that not one of

they composed a family of parents and children. It will be sufficient at present to give a table of his scheme.

KING WAN'S TRIGRAMS.

See A'ao Y!'s Hai

Yu 3hang Khao, Book I,

art.

3 (1790).

THE

34 There

Yf KING.

CH.

thus before us the apparatus with which the

is

writer of the

Appendix accomplishes

his task.

one of the shortest instances of

select

~" fourteenth

III.

hexagram

his

Let

me The

work.

Ta Yu, and meaning King Wan saw in it

~", called

is

'

Possessing in great abundance.' the symbol of a government prosperous and realising all but all that he wrote on it was ( T Yu its proper objects ;

(indicates) great

view of

progress and success.' Unfolding that the Appendix says:

its significance,

Ta

Yfl the weak (line) has the place of honour, is grandly and (the strong lines) above and below respond to it. Hence comes its name of " Possession of what is great." The ien and It) are strength attributes (of its constituent trigrams, and vigour, elegance and brightness. (The ruling line in it) responds to (the ruling line in the symbol of) heaven, and its actings '

In

central,

are (consequently

all) at

the proper times.

to indicate great progress

Thus

it is

that

it is

said

and success/

the paragraphs on all the other 63 hexagrams are gone through and, for the most part, with The conviction grows upon the student that the success. In a similar

way

;

writer has I

on the whole apprehended the mind of king Wan. on p. 32, that the name kwei-shan occurs

stated,

The name Kwei-shan.

in this

Appendix.

It

has not yet, however,

received the semi-physical, semi-metaphysical the comparatively modern scholars of which signification the Sung dynasty give to it. There are two passages

where

the second paragraph on jfifAien, the and the third on Fang, the fifty-fifth. hexagram, consulting them the reader will be able to form an it is

found;

fifteenth

By

The term kwei denotes specially opinion for himself. the human spirit disembodied, and shan is used for spirits whose seat is in heaven. I do not see my way to translate them, when used binomial ly together, otherwise than by spiritual beings or spiritual agents. Jfu Hsi once had the following question suggested by the second of these passages put to him 'Kwei-shan is a name for the traces of making and transformation but :

;

when

it

is

said that (the interaction of)

heaven and earth

CH.

INTRODUCTION.

III.

now

35

now dull and void, to and the seasons, that growing diminishing according constitutes the traces of making and transformation why is

vigorous and abundant, and

;

should the writer further speak of the Kwei-shan?' He " heaven and earth," replied, When he uses the style of '

he

but in ascribing it representing the traces of their there were men (that is, some

speaking of the result generally

is

to the

Kwei-shan, he

is

effective interaction, as if

;

personal agency) bringing it about V This solution merely explains the language away. When we come to the fifth

Appendix, we

shall understand better the

period when these

views of the

were produced. The single character shan is used in explaining the thwan on Kwan, the twentieth hexagram, where we read treatises

:

1

Kwan we

In

see the spiiit-like

way of heaven, through which The sages, in accordance

the four seasons proceed without error.

with (this) spirit-like way, laid down their instructions, and heaven yield submission to them.'

The author

of the

all

undei

delights to dwell on the

Appendix

changing phenomena taking place between heaven and and he earth, and which he attributes to their interaction ;

was penetrated evidently with a sense of the harmony between the natural and spiritual worlds. It is this sense, indeed, which vivifies both the thwan and the explanation of them.

We

proceed to the second Appendix, which professes duke of A"au's symbolical exposition of the the Thwan Kwan does for the entire what lines several 5.

to

do

for the

The second Appendix.

The whole

figures.

The work

pHshed with bears the '

less

name

of

is

accom-

more

briefly.

here, however,

trouble and

Hsiang /Twan,

'Treatise

on the Symbols or Treatise on the Symbolism (of the '

Yi).'

1

See the 'Collected Comments' on hexagram 55 in theKhang-hst edition of Yl (App. I). * The traces of making and transformation mean the ever' changing phenomena of growth and decay. Our phrase Vestiges of Creation '

the

'

might be used to translate the Chinese characters. See the remarks of the late c Dr. Medhurst on the hexagrams 15 and 5 5 in his Dissertation on the Theology In hexagram 15, Canon McClatchie foi kweiof the Chinese,' pp. 107-112. shan gives gods and demons;' in hexagram 55, the Demon-gods.' '

'

THE

36 If there

Y! KING.

were reason to think that

it

CH.

came

in

III.

any way from

Confucius, I should fancy that I saw him sitting with a select class of his disciples around him. They read the

duke's Text column after column, and the master drops now now a sentence or two, that illuminate

a word or two, and

The disciples take notes on their tablets, or store his remarks in their memories, and by and by they the meaning.

them out with the whole of the Text or only so much of it as is necessary. Whoever was the original lecturer, the Appendix, I think, must have grown up in this way. write

would not be necessary to speak of it at greater length, were not that the six paragraphs on the symbols of the duke of ATu are always preceded by one which is called the Great Symbolism,' and treats of the trigrams composing the hexagram, how they go together to form the six-lined figure, and how their blended meaning appears in the institutions and proceedings of the great men and kings of former days, and of the superior men of all time. The paragraph is for the most part, but by no means always, in harmony with the explanation of the hexagram by king Wan, and a place in the ThwanA'wan would be more appropriate to it. I suppose that, because it always begins with the mention of the two symbolical trigrams, it is made, for the sake of the symmetry, to form a part of the treatise on the Symbolism of the Yi. It

if it

'

I

a few examples of the paragraphs of the

will give

The

Great Symbolism.

first

hexagram

is

formed

K

by a repetition of the trigram h i en Symbolism, representing heaven, and it is said on Heaven in its motion (gives) the idea of strength. The Great

'

===

.

it:

The

superior man, in accordance with this, nerves himself to ceaseless activity.'

The second hexagram EE 5E of the trigram is

is

what

is

'

it

:

accordance with

and

things.'

is

this,

formed by a repetition

="representing- the earth, and

The capacious denoted by Khwan.

said on

it

Khwan ==

receptivity of the earth

The superior man, in with his large virtue, supports men

CH.

INTRODUCTION.

III.

The

forty-fourth hexagram, called

by the trigrams Sun

KAlen on

said

'

it

:

37

Kiu

,

is

formed

representing wind, and representing heaven or the sky, and it is (The symbol of) wind, beneath that of the .

In accordance with this, the sovereign sky, forms KAu. distributes his charges, and promulgates his announce-

ments throughout the four quarters

The

hexagram,

fifty-ninth

Khin

called

~

(of the

kingdom)/

Hwn =

=:,

is

formed

representing water, and and it is said on it: representing wind, and water of (that wind) above it form (The symbol of) in ancient accordance with this, preHwein. The kings, sented offerings to God, and established the ancestral temple/ The union of the two trigrams suggested to

by

the trigrams

Sun

.

.

c

Wan

king

the idea of dissipation in the alienation of

men

from the Supreme Power, and of the minds of parents from their children a condition which the wisdom of the ancient kings saw could best be met by the influences of ;

religion.

One more example. The

T

Kkb :=

=== ,

is

twenty-sixth hexagram, called

formed of the trigrams AT^ien, repre-

senting heaven or the sky, and

mountain, and it is said on it the midst of a mountain forms :

in

accordance with

Kn '

.

representing a

(The symbol

of)

heaven

in

T& Kku. The superior man,

this, stores largely in his

memory

the

words of former men and their conduct, to subserve the accumulation of his virtue/ We are ready to exclaim and Can ask, Heaven, the sky, in the midst of a mountain there be such a thing?' and Kb Hsi will tell us in reply, No, there cannot be such a thing in reality but you can '

I

*

;

conceive

From

purpose of the symbolism/ this and the other examples adduced from the

it

for the

Great Symbolism, it is clear that, so far as its testimony bears on the subject, the trigrams of Fu-hsi did not receive

form and meaning with a deep intention that they should serve as the basis of a philosophical scheme concerning the constitution of heaven and earth and all that their

THE

38 in

is

Y! KING.

CH.

III.

them. In this Appendix they are used popularly, just

as one '

Finds tongues in

Sermons

trees,

in stones,

books in the running brooks,

and good

in everything/

them in an edifying manner. ingenuity, and sometimes instruction also, in what he says, but there is no mystery. Chinese scholars and

The

writer moralises from

There

is

gentlemen, however, who have got some little acquaintance with western science, are fond of saying that all the truths of electricity, heat, light, and other branches of European

When asked how then physics, are in the eight trigrams. been and are ignorant of they and their countrymen have those truths, they say that they have to learn them first from western books, and then, looking into the Yi, they see that they were all known to Confucius more than 2000 years

The

ago.

vain assumption thus manifested

is

childish

;

and until the Chinese drop their hallucination about the Yi as containing all things that have ever been dreamt of it will prove a stumbling-block to them, and keep them from entering on the true path of science. 6. We go on to the third Appendix in two sections, being the fifth and sixth 'wings/ and forming what is called 'The

in all philosophies,

Great Treatise/

It will appear singular to the has always done to myself, that neither in the Text, nor in the first two Appendixes, does the character called Yi, which gives its name to the classic, once appear. It is the symbol of change,' and is formed

The

third

Appendix.

reader, as

it

'

from the character

'

the sun

'

'

placed over that for the 1 / As the sun gives place to the moon, and the to the sun, so is change always proceeding in the for

moon moon phenomena

of nature and the experiences of society. We meet with the character nearly fifty times in this Appendix applied most commonly to the Text of our classic, so that ;

YI King

or

It is also

applied often to the changes in the lines of the

>< 1

4&

Yi Shu

is

'the Classic or

Book

of Changes.'

,

"

H

>

the sun, placed over

#.

a form of the old g)

=

(/g)>

the

CH.

INTRODUCTION.

III.

39

figures, made by the manipulations of divination, apart from any sentence or oracle concerning them delivered

by king Wan or his son. There is therefore the system Yi as well as the book of the Yi. The definition of the name which is given in one paragraph will suit them both Production and reproduction is what is called (the of the

*

:

process of) change

1

1

In nature there

.

is

displaced, what displaces

is

no vacuum.

When

takes the

anything empty room. And in the lineal figures, the strong and the weak lines push each other out.

Now

the

remarkable

it

thing asserted is, that the lines of the figures

the

and changes of external phenomena show changes 7ve r ch anSg and the changes a wonderful harmony and concurrence. We Harmony en

in

be-

h

S

the

in external

,

read

phenomena.

:

The Yi was made on

*

a principle of accordance with heaven

and shows us therefore, without rent or confusion, the course (of things) in heaven and earth V There is a similarity between the sage and heaven and earth ;

and

earth,

1

no contrariety in him to them. His knowledge and his course is intended to be helpful to sky and therefore he falls into no error. He acts

and hence there embiaces

all

under the

all

is

things, ;

according to the exigency of circumstances, without being carried away by their current he rejoices in Heaven, and knows its ordi;

He rests in his own and hence he has no anxieties. of the generous benevolence; spirit (present) position, and cherishes and hence he can love (without reserve) Y (Through the Yi) he embraces, as in a mould or enclosure, the

nations

;

1

transformations of heaven and earth without any error ; by an evervaiymg adaptation he completes (the nature of) all things without exception; he penetrates to a knowledge of the couise of day and night (and

operation

all

other

It is thus that his con elated phenomena). unconditioned by place, while the changes

is spii it-like,

(which he produces) are not restricted to any form.'

One more 1

The

the sky. 1

quotation

:

sage was able to survey all the complex phenomena under He then considered in his mind how they could be 2

III,

i,

39 (chap.

III,

5. 6).

III,

1,

33.

i,

20 (chap

4. i).

THE

4O

Y! KING.

CH,

and (by means of the diagrams) represented forms and their character V figured,

III-

their material

thus predicated of the sage, or ancient sages, though the writer probably had Fu-hsi in his mind, is more than sufficiently extravagant, and reminds us of the language

All that

'

in

is

the Doctrine of the

Mean/

that

'

the sage, able to assist

the transforming and nourishing powers of heaven and earth, may with heaven and earth form a ternion

V

second chapter, from this Apquoted it which the accounts gives of the formation of the pendix largely, in the

I

There is no occasion to return to that subject. Let us suppose the figures formed. They seem to have the significance, when looked at from certain Divination. points of view, which have been determined But this does for us by king Wan and the duke of AT&u. not amount to divination. How can the lines be made to lineal figures.

.,..,.,,

serve this purpose

The Appendix

?

,

.,

,

professes to tell us.

Before touching on the method which it describes, let me observe that divination was practised in China from a very early time. I will not say 5,200 years the days of Fu-hsi, for I cannot of his historical personality doubts repress as soon we tread the borders of something like but as ago,

in

;

In the Shd King, in credible history, we find it existing. a document that purports to be of the twenty-third century B.C. 3 divination by means of the tortoise-shell is mentioned

;

,

we

and somewhat

later

also divination

by the

of the stalks of a plant cultivated on

is still I

method continuing, and figures, manipulated by means

find that

lineal 4 ,

the

Ptarmica Sibirica 5 which ,

and about the grave of Confucius, where

have myself seen

it growing. of the divination, it should be acknowledged, object was not to discover future events absolutely, Object of the

The

divination.

as

1

III, 8

8

i,

38 (chap.

The Shu

II,

ii,

if

8. i).

18.

they could be k nown beforehand a

fl

,

but

Doctrine of the Mean, chap. xxn.

The Sha V,

iv, 20, 31.

See Williams' Syllabic Dictionary on the character z&T.

6

' Canon McClatchie (first paragraph of his Introduction) says The Y! is regarded by the Chinese with peculiar veneration .... as containing a mine of :

OH.

INTRODUCTION.

III.

41

to ascertain whether certain schemes, and conditions of

events contemplated by the consulter, would turn out luckily or unluckily. But for the actual practice the stalks of the plant were necessary and I am almost afraid to write that this Appendix teaches that they were produced by Heaven ;

of such a nature as to be

fit

for the purpose.

*

Heaven,' paragraph of Section i, quoted above on p. 14, Heaven produced the spirit-like things.' The things were the tortoise and the plant, and in paragraph it

says, in the 73rd 4

68, the

same quality of being shan,

ascribed to them.

in

or

*

spirit-like/

is

the field of Chinese

Occasionally, as to the efficacy of divinaand the of tion, folly expecting any revelation of the of character the future from an old tortoise-shell and a literature,

we meet with doubts

handful of withered twigs l but when this Appendix was made, the writer had not attained to so much common ;

sense.

The

stalks

were to him

'

spirit-like/ possessed of

knowledge, which, if it were possible to fathom it thoroughly, would, in their estimation, enable the fortunate possessor to foretell all future events.' This misstatement does not surprise me so much as that Morrison, generally accurate on such points, should say (Dictionary, Part

II,

i,

p. 1020,

on the character >ft)-

the odd and even numbers, the k wa or lines of fcfi-hsi are the visible signs and it being assumed that these signs answei to the things signified, and from 1

Of

,

a knowledge of all the various combinations of numbers, a knowledge of all may be previously known.' The whole article

possible occurrences in nature

fiom which I take this sentence is inaccurately written. The language of the Appendix on the knowledge of the future given by the use of the Y! is often to a careful student, however, incautious, and a cursory reader may be misled ;

the meaning is plain. The second passage of the Shu", referred to above, ' ' the Examination of Doubts/ and concludes thus treats of When the tortoise-shell and the stalks are both opposed to the views of men, there will be good fortune in stillness, and active operations will be unlucky* 1 remarkable instance is given by Lifi A i (of the Ming dynasty, in the fifteenth century) in a story about Shao Phing, who had been maiquis of Tung-

A

ling in the time of Shin, but was degraded under Han. Having gone once to Sze-ma' A*i-u, one of the most skilful diviners ot the country, and wishing to

know whether

is

it

would be a brighter future for him, Sze-ma said, Ah love any (partially) ? Heaven loves only the virtuous. is possessed by spirits ? They are intelligent The divining stalks aie so much withered (only) by their connexion with men. the tortoise-shell is a withered bone. grass They are but things, and man is the

*

there

'

way of Heaven to What intelligence

,

more

intelligent than things. ' The learn) from things ?

Win,

or Elegant Writing.

Why not

of seeking (to of the collections of Ku

listen to yourself instead

whole piece

is in

many

THE

42

Yt KING.

a subtle and invisible virtue that

CH.

them

fitted

III.

for use in

divining. virtue, the process of manipulating them so as to form the lineal figures js described (Section i, chap. 9, parr. 49-5**),

Given the stalks with such Foimation of the lineal

but

divining

it

take the student

will

stalks.

to

much time and

master the various operations.

thought Forty- nine stalks were employed, which were thrice manipulated for each line, so that it took eighteen manipuThe lines were determined lations to form a hexagram.

by means of the numbers derived from the River Map or scheme. Odd numbers gave strong or undivided numbers gave the weak or divided. lines, and even

An

important part was played in combining the lines, and forming the hexagrams by the four emblematic symbols, The to which the numbers 9, 8, 7, 6 were appropriated l .

figures having been formed, recourse was had for their interpretation to the thwan of king Wan, and the emblematic sentences of the duke of K&u. This was all the part which numbers played in the divination by the Yi,

helping the operator to make up his lineal figure. An analogy has often been asserted between the numbers of the Yi and the numbers of Pythagoras and certainly we might make ten, and more than ten, antinomies from these ;

Appendixes

agreement with the ten principia

in startling

of the Pythagoreans. But if Aristotle was correct in holding that Pythagoras regaided numbers as entities, and main-

Number was the Beginning (Principle, ap^n) of the of their material existence, and of their cause things, tained that

1

These numbers are commonly denved from the River Scheme, in the outer which are the coi responding marks: opposite to o oooo oo, opposite to o; and ooooooooo, , opposite to* opposite to o o o. Hence the number 6 is assigned to 7 to 8 to and 9 to Hence also, in connexion with the formation sides of

;

,

~

;

T

r

.

-

of the figures by manipulation of the stalks, 9 becomes the number symbolical of the undivided line, as representing A'Aien and 6 of the divided .

line, as

icpresenting

Khwin

j~-jj

SSS.

But the

late delineation of the

map,

as given on p. 15, renders all this uncertain, go far as the scheme is concerned. The numbers of the h si an g, however, may have been fixed, must have been fixed indeed, at

an eaily period.

CH.

INTRODUCTION.

ill.

43

modifications and different states, then the doctrine of the philosopher of Samos was different from that of the Yi ]

,

which numbers come in only as aids in divining to form the hexagrams. Of course all divination is vain, in

nor

the method of the

is

Yi

less

The Chinese themselves have

absurd than any other.

up

it

given

in all

circles

above those of the professional quacks, and yet their scholars continue to maintain the unfathomable science and wisdom of these appended treatises !

It

in

is

this

we

that

Appendix

nam ^s yin and yang 2

The names

Ym and

meet with the have I

first

of which

,

on pp. 15, 16. Up to this point, ang instead of them, the names for the two elementary forms of the lines have been kang and #au, which I have translated by strong and weak,' and which also occur here ten times. The following attempt to exspoken

briefly

*

plain these different

paragraph 4 1

Anciently that

its

names appears

in

the

fifth

Appendix,

.

when

the sages

made

the Yi,

it

was with

the design

figures should be in conformity with the principles under-

men and

and the ordinances appointed view (for they exhibited in them the of heaven, calling (the lines) yin and yang; the way of way lying the natures (of

them by Heaven)

With

things), this

them the strong (or hard) and the weak (or soft); and the way of man, undei the names of benevolence and righteousness. Each (tnniam) embiaced those three Powers, and being lepeated, its full foim consisted of six lines/ eaith, calling

However

difficult

it

may be

confirms what

to

make what

is

said here

have affirmed of the signiintelligible, ficance of the names yin and yang, as meaning bright and dark, derived from the properties of the sun and moon. We may use for these adjectives a variety of others, such as active and inactive, masculine and feminine, hot it

and

cold,

more or

less

I

analogous to them

;

but there arise

the important questions, Do we find yang and yin not merely used to indicate the quality of what they are applied 1

See the account of Pythagoras and his philosophy in Lewes' History of

Philosophy, pp. 18-38 (1871). 8

See Section

i,

24, 32, 35

;

Section

ii,

28, 29, 30, 35.

THE

44

Y! KING.

CH.

III.

to, but at the same time with substantival force, denoting what has the quality which the name denotes ? Had the

doctrine of a primary matter of an ethereal nature,

now

activity and power as yang, now contracting and becoming weak and inactive as yin: had this doctrine become matter of speculation when this Appendix was written? The Chinese critics and commentators for the most part assume that it had. P. Regis, Dr. Medhurst, and other foreign Chinese scholars I have sought repeat their statements without question. in vain for proof of what is asserted. It took more than a thousand years after the closing of the Yi to fashion in

expanding and showing

itself full of

We

the Confucian school the doctrine of a primary matter. do not find it fully developed till the era of the Sung l To dynasty, and in our eleventh and twelfth centuries find it in the Yi is the logical, or rather illogical, error of .

putting 'the last first.' Neither creation nor cosmogony was before the mind of the author whose work I am

His theme nomena of nature and

analysing.

this in the

deeper or

'

is

the Yi,

the ever-changing phe-

There is nothing but experience. Great Treatise to task our powers nothing '

;

more

abstruse.

1 As a specimen of what the ablest Sung scholars teach, I may give the remarks (from the Collected Comments*) of Au A'an (of the same century as In the Yi there AH. Hsi, rather earlier) on the 4th paiagraph of Appendix V When we speak of the yin and yang, we mean the air is the Great Extreme. When we speak of the Hard and Soft, (or ether) collected in the Great Void. we mean that ether collected, and formed into substance. Benevolence and righteousness have their origin in the great void, are seen in the ether substantiated, and move under the influence of conscious intelligence. Looking at the one origin of all things we speak of their nature looking at the endowments '

*

.

;

we speak

of the ordinations appointed (for them). Looking at them as (divided into) heaven, earth, and men, we speak of their principle. The three are one and the same. The sages wishing that (their figures)

given to them,

should be in conformity with the principles underlying the natures (of men and things) and the ordinances appointed (for them;, called them (now) yin and yang, (now) the hard and the soft, (now) benevolence and righteousness, in ordei thereby to exhibit the ways of heaven, eaith, and men ; it is a view of them as related together. The tngrams of the Yt contain the three Powers ; and when they are doubled into hexagrams, there the three Powers unite and are one.

But there are the changes and movements of their (several) ways, and yin and yang, and reciprocal uses

therefore there are separate places for the of the hard and the soft/

INTRODUCTION.

CH. HI.

As

in

the

first

occurs twice

;

in

Appendix, so

in this,

45 the

name kwei-shan

paragraphs ai and 50 of Section

i.

In the

former instance, each part of the name has The name Kwei-shan. j ts Kwei denotes the animal significance. soul or nature, and Shan, the intellectual soul, the union of which constitutes the living rational man. I have translated them, it will be seen, by 'the animaand the animus/

Canon McClatchie

them demons and gods ;' and on the passage, 'The kwei-shans are '

gives for

Dr. Medhurst said

evidently the expanding and contracting principles of human life The kwei-shans are brought about by the dis-

human frame, and consist of the expanding and ascending shan, which rambles about in space, and of the contracted and shrivelled kwei, which reverts to earth and nonentity 1 This is pretty much the same view as my own, though I would not here use the phraseology of expanding and solution of the

.'

'

contracting/ Canon McClatchie is consistent with himself, and renders the characters by demons and gods/ '

In the latter passage it is more difficult to determine the exact meaning. The writer says, that by the odd numbers assigned to heaven and the even numbers assigned '

to earth, the changes

and transformations are

effected,

and

'

the spirit-like agencies kept in movement meaning that by means of the numbers the spirit-like lines might be formed on a scale sufficient to give a picture of all the ;

changing phenomena, taking place, as if by a spiritual agency, in nature. Medhurst contents himself on it with giving the explanation of ATu Hsi, that 'the kwei-shans

and expandings, the recedings and approachings of the productive and completing powers of the even and odd numbers V Canon McClatchie does not follow his translation of the former passage and give here 'demons and gods/ but we have 'the Demon-god (i.e.

refer to the contractions

Shang the

Ti)

fifth 1

1

V

I

shall refer to this version

when

considering

Appendix. Dissertation on the Theology of the Chinese, pp. in, 112. Theology of the Chinese, p. 122. Translation of the Yl King, p. 312.

THE

46 The

character

single

times;

used

Shan alone.

now

Yi KING.

CH.

shan occurs more than twenty now as an adjective,

as a substantive,

and again as a verb. I must to the translation and notes ,

.

,

refer the reader -

for its various

significance, subjoining in a note a list of the places

occurs

it

ill.

where

l .

Much more might be said on the third Appendix, for many other topics, antiquarian and

the writer touches on

speculative, but a review of

them would help us

little in

the study of the leading subject of the Yi. In passing on to the next treatise, I would only further say that the style of this and the author's manner of presenting his thoughts often remind the reader of 'the Doctrine of the

am

'

has surprised that the Great Treatise never been ascribed to the author of that Doctrine, 3 ze " sze, the grandson of Confucius, whose death must have Mean.'

I

'

taken place between B.C. 400 and 450. 7. The fourth Appendix, the seventh

'wmg'

of the Yi,

need not detain us long. As I stated on p. 27, it is confined to an exposition of the Text on the first The fourth Appendix ancj secon(j hexagrams, being an attempt to show that what is there affirmed of heaven and earth may also be applied to man, and that there is an essential agreement between the qualities ascribed to them, and the benevolence, righteousness, propriety, and wisdom, which are the four constituents of his moral and intellectual nature It is said by some of the critics that Confucius would have treated all the other hexagrams in a similar way, if his life had been prolonged, but we found special grounds for denying that Confucius had anything to do with the and, moreover, I cannot composition of this Appendix think of any other figure that would have afforded to the author the same opportunity of discoursing about man. The style and method are after the manner of 'the Doctrine of the Mean' quite as much as those of the Great Treatise.' ;

*

Several paragraphs, moreover, suggest to us the magniloquence of Mencius. It is said, for instance, by 3ze-sze, of 1

Section

i,

33, 34, 41, 45-

23, 32, 57, 58, 62, 64, 67, 68, 69, 73, 76,

8r

;

Section

li,

u,

15,

CH.

INTRODUCTION.

III.

'

the sage, that he in this

V

the equal or correlate of Heaven and the sentiment expanded into the

Appendix we have

following 1

is

47

The

:

great

man

heaven and earth

;

he who

is

in

is

harmony

in his attributes with

in his brightness with the

his orderly piocedure with the four seasons;

what

to

fortunate

is

and what

is

sun and moon ; in and in his relation

calamitous with the spiritual

He may

precede Heaven, and Heaven will not act in opposition to him ; he may follow Heaven, but will act only as Heaven at the time would do. If Heaven will not act in opposition

agents.

to him,

how much

One

less will

man

!

how much

less will the spiritual

'

*

agents

!

other passage

may

receive our consideration

:

The family that accumulates goodness is sure to have superabundant happiness, and the family that accumulates evil is sure to have supei abundant misery 8 / '

The language makes and

us think of the retribution of good

taking place in the family, and not in the inthe judgment is long deferred, but it is inflicted

evil as

dividual

;

at last, lighting, however, not

most deserved

on the head or heads that

Confucianism never falters in

it.

its

affirma-

between good and evil, and that each but it has little shall have its appropriate recompense to say of the where and when and how that recompense will be given. The old classics are silent on the subject of any other retribution besides what takes place in time. About the era of Confucius the view took definite shape that, if the issues of good and evil, virtue and vice, did tion of the difference

;

not take effect in the experience of the individual, they would certainly do so in that of his posterity. This is the prevailing doctrine among the Chinese at the present day and one of the earliest expressions, perhaps the earliest ;

it was in the sentence under our notice that has been copied from this Appendix into almost every moral treatise that circulates in China. wholesome and an

expression, of

A

important truth 1

it

is,

A'ung-ynng xxxi, 4. This i, 34.

9

Section

8

Section

li,

5.

is

that

c

the sins of parents are visited

the only paragraph where

kwei-sh&n ocean.

THE

48 on

'

their children

the curse? the only

'

It

CH.

III.

but do the parents themselves escape

to be regretted that this short treatise, of the Yi professing to set forth its teach-

is '

wing

;

Y! KING.

ings concerning man as man, does not attempt any definite I leave it, merely observing that reply to this question. it has always struck me as the result of an after-thought, and a wish to give to man, as the last of the Three Powers/ a suitable place in connexion with the Yi. The doctrine of the Three Powers is as much out of place in ConThe treatise fucianism as that of the Great Extreme/ '

'

'

*

contains several paragraphs interesting in themselves, but adds nothing to our understanding of the Text, or even

it

of the object of the appended treatises, look at them as a whole.

when we

try to

very different with the fifth of the Appendixes, which is made up of Remarks on the The fifth Appendix is It shorter than the fourth, Trigrams'

8.

It

is

'

consisting of only 22 paragraphs, in some of which the author rises to a height of thought reached nowhere else in these treatises, while several of the others are so silly

and

trivial, that it is difficult, not to say impossible, to believe find in that they are the production of the same man. it the earlier and later arrangement of the trigrams, the of and of that the that Wan their former, Fu-hsi, latter, king

We

;

names and

attributes

;

the work of

as a progress through the trigrams

;

God and

in nature,

described

finally a distinctive,

of the natural objects, but by no means exhaustive, symbolised by them. the enigmatic declaration that It commences with list

'

Anciently, First

when the sages made the Yi/

(that

is,

the lineal

and the system of divination by

figures, '

in order to give mysterious assistance to the spiritual Intelligences, they produced (the rules for the use of) the divining plant.' Perhaps this means no paragraph,

more than

them),

that the lineal figures were made to hold the to nature/ so that men by the study of them '

mirror up would understand more of the unseen and spiritual operations, to which the phenomena around them were owing,

than they could otherwise do.

CH.

INTRODUCTION.

ill.

49

The author goes on

to speak of the Fti-hsi trigrams, and of king WSn in paragraph 8. from to those them passes That and the following two are very remarkable ; but before saying anything of them, I will go on to the I4th,

which

is the only passage that affords any ground for saying that there is a mythology in the Yi. It says :

*

A!^ien

Myt

is

f

y

symbol

(the

(of of)

its

khwan

to

Aien), icsulting

male (or undivided

Sun

oldest son.

and hence

is

styled father.

^

-

thevf fiist

of) heaven,

Khwiin is (the symbol of) earth, and hence is st y ]ed mother &n (shows) the first application

(shous) a

in

getting

and hence we

lines),

khizn

call

it

(the

the

to

application (of khwan), resulting in getting (the first of) its female (or divided lines), and hence we call it the oldest daughter. (shows) a second first

Khan

//ien, and Lf a second (of khien application (of khwan to In to khwan), resulting in the second son and second daughter. A'an and Tui we have a third application (of khwan to khitn

and of

Aien

to

khwan), youngest daughter'

resulting

in the

youngest son and

From this language has come the fable of a marriage between AV/ien and Khwan, from which resulted the six other trigrams, considered as their three sons and three daughters and it is not to be wondered at, if some men of active and ill-regulated imaginations should see Noah and his wife in those two primary trigrams, and in the others their three sons and the three sons' wives. Have we not in both cases an ogdoad ? But I have looked in ;

the paragraph in vain for the notion of a marriage-union

between heaven and earth. It

does not treat of the genesis of the other six trigrams by is a rude attempt to explain their

the union of the two, but

forms when they were once existing 1 According to the idea of changes, AYnen and Khwan are continually vary.

ing their forms by their interaction. 1

This view seems to be

dynasty), as given in the

'

in

As here represented, the

accordance with that of

Collected

Wu

A"ang

(of the

Yuan

*

of the Khang-hs? edition. The in preference to the interrelation of A"ft

Comments

editors express their approval of it Hsi, who understood the whole to refer to the formation of the lineal figures, ' the ' application being ' the manipulation of the stalks to find the proper line.'

THE

SO

Y! KING.

CH. in.

'

other trigrams are not ' produced 1 by a marriage-union, but from the application, literally the seeking, of one of them

of

KhwSn

as

much

as of ATAien

addressed to the other 2

.

This

way of speaking of the trigrams, moreover, as father and mother, sons and daughters, is not so old as Ffi-hsf nor have we any real proof that it originated with king ;

W5n. time in

not of ' the highest antiquity/ It arose some middle antiquity/ and was known in the era of the

It is c

Appendixes; but it had not prevailed then nor has it prevailed since, to discredit and supersede the older nomenclature. We are startled when we come on it in the place which It is not entitled occupies. And there it stands alone. to more attention than the two paragraphs that precede it

or the eight that follow it, none of which were thought by P. Regis worthy to be translated. I have just said that it,

alone/ Its existence, however, seems to me to be supposed in the fourth chapter, paragraphs 28-30, of the third Appendix, Section ii but there only the trigrams of 'the six children* are mentioned, and nothing is said of 'the parents.' A^an, khin, and kan are referred to as being yang, and sun, If, and tui as being yin. What is said about them is trifling and fanciful.

stands

it

*

;

Leaving the question of the mythology of the Yi, of which I am myself unable to discover a trace, I now call attention to paragraphs 8-10, where the author speaks of the work of God in nature in all the year as a progress

God

nature

throughout

through the trigrams, and as being effected ky His Spirit. The description assumes the peculiar arrangement of the trigrams, ascribed to king Wan, and which I have exhibited

above, on page 33

3 .

Father Regis adopts the general view

But the Chinese term Shang / , often rendered ' produced,' must not be pressed, so as to determine the method of production, or the way in which one thing comes from another. 1

1

The significance of the mythological paragraph is altogether lost in Canon McClatchie's version: 'A^ien is Heaven, and hence he is called Father; Khwan is Earth, and hence she is called Mother A"ln is the first male, and ;

hence he 8

The

called the eldest son,* &c. &c. reader will understand the difference in the is

a reference to the

circular representations of

two arrangements them on Plate III.

better

by

CH.

INTRODUCTION.

III.

of Chinese critics that

51

WXn purposely altered

the earlier and

established arrangement, as a symbol of the disorganisation and disorder into which the kingdom had fallen 1 But it .

hard to say

is

So

it.

why

man

a

did something more than 3000

when he has not himself said anything about as we can judge from this Appendix, the author

years ago, far

Wan

thought that king

the existing order and

altered

position of the trigrams with regard to the cardinal points, simply for the occasion. that he might set forth vividly his

ideas about the springing, growth, and maturity in the vegetable kingdom from the labours of spring to the cessation from toil in winter.

The marvel

that in doing the scene, and makes Him in the

he brings God upon various processes of nature the The 8th paragraph says this

'

all

and

is

in all/

:

'God comes

forth in

A'an

(to his

producing work);

He

brings

(His processes) into full and equal action in Sun; they are manifested to one another in Li ; the greatest service is done for Him in

Khwan; He

rejoices in

Tui; He

comforted and enters into

work

of) the year in

God

rest in

A'^ien; He is he completes (the

struggles in

Khan; and

Kan/

named Ti, for which P. Regis gives the Supremus Imperator/ and Canon McClatchie, after 'the him, Supreme Emperor/ I contend that God' is really Latin

is

here

c

*

but to render it the correct translation in English of Ti here by Emperor would not affect the meaning of the ;

'

'

A'u Hsi says that by Ti is intended the Lord and Khung Ying-td, about five and Governor of heaven centuries earlier than Kb, quotes Wang Pi, who died A. D. '

paragraph.

'

;

1

E. g.

I,

23, 24:

'Observant etiam philosophi

(lib 15 Sinicae

philosophiae

prmcipem Wan-wang antiquum octo symbolorum, tmde ahae figurae omnes pendent, ordinem invertisse quo ipsa impel ii suis temponbus subversio graphice expnmi poterat, mutatis e natural! loco, quern genesis dederat, iis quatuor figuris, quae rerum naturahum pugnis ac dissociatiombus, quas posSing

If)

;

terior

labentis

anni pars afierre solet, velut in antecessum, repraesentandis S Li, v g si symbolum ; ignis, supponator loco

idoneae videbantur

"""" ""~ Khan, aquae, utnusque element! inordinatio principi visa non minus apta ad significandas nimas et clades reipublicae male ordinatae, quam naturales ab hieme aut immmente aut saeviente rerum generatarum corSee also pp 67, 68. ruptiones.

symboli

est

1

THE

52

249, to the effect that

'

Yl KING.

Ti

CH.

the lord

is

who produces

TIT.

(all)

things, the author of prosperity and increase.' I must refer the reader to the translation in the body of the volume for the 9th paragraph, which is too long to be

As

the 8th speaks directly of God, the 9th, speaks of all things following Him, from the east to the north, in His progress winter to from spring the year.' In words strikingly like those of the throughout

introduced here.

we

are told,

*

writing his Epistle to the Romans, Wan A^Aung-jung (of the Khang-hsi period) and his son, in their New Digest of Collected Explaadmirable work called, c

apostle Paul,

when

A

God (Himself) cannot be King,' say seen we see Him in the things (which He produces).' The first time I read these paragraphs with some understanding, nations of the

Yi

c

:

;

thought of Thomson's Hymn on the Seasons, and I have thought of it in connexion with them a hundred times since. Our English poet wrote I

:

*

These, as they change, Almighty Father, these Are but the varied God. The rolling year Is full of Thee.

Thy

Forth in the pleasing spring beauty walks, Thy tenderness and love.

Then comes Thy With

Shoots

m

glory

the

and heat refulgent.

light full

summer months, Then Thy sun

perfection through the swelling year. shines in autumn unconfined,

Thy bounty And spreads

a

In winter awful

common Thou

feast for

all

that lives.

'

I

Prudish readers have found fault with some of Thomson's expressions, as if they savoured of pantheism. The language of the Chinese writer is not open to the same captious

Without poetic ornament, or swelling phrase of any kind, he gives emphatic testimony to God as renewing the face of the earth in spring, and not resting till He has crowned the year with His goodness. And there is in the passage another thing equally wonderful. The loth paragraph commences When we

objection.

'

:

speak of Spirit, we mean the subtle presence (and operation of God) with all things;' and the writer goes on to illustrate this sentiment

from the action and influences symbolised

INTRODUCTION.

CH. in.

by the

six

*

53

children/ or minor trigrams,

water and

fire,

thunder and wind, mountains and collections of water. R\\ Hsi says, that there is that in the paragraph which he does not understand. Some Chinese scholars, however, have not been far from descrying the light that is in it. Let Liang Yin, of our fourteenth century, be adduced as an The spirit here simply example of them. He says 4

:

means God. God is the personality (literally, the body or substantiality) of the Spirit the Spirit is God in operation. He who is lord over and rules all things is God ; ;

the subtle presence and operation of is

The language

by His Spirit/

definition of

Section

i,

shan

or

spirit,

is

God

in fine

with

all

things

accord with the

given in the 3rd Appendix,

32.

wish that the Treatise on the Trigrams had ended with the loth paragraph. The writer had gradually risen to a noble I

Concluding

elevation of thought from which he plunges

nto a s O ugh of nonsensical remarks which would be difficult elsewhere to parallel. I have referred on p. 31 to the judgment of P. Regis about them. He could not receive them as from Confucius, and did not take the trouble to translate them, and transfer them to his own pages. paragraphs.

i

l

it

My

plan required

me

to translate everything published in

China as a part of the Yi King but I have given my reasons for doubting whether any portion of these Appendixes be really from Confucius. There is nothing that could better justify the supercilious disregard with which the classical literature of China is frequently treated than to insist on the concluding portion of this treatise as being from the pencil of its greatest sage. I have dwelt at some length on the I4th paragraph, because of its mythological semblance but among the eight paragraphs that follow it, it would be difficult to award the palm for silliness. They are descriptive of the eight trigrams, and each one enumerates a dozen or more objects of which its subject is symbolical. The writer must have been fond of and familiar with horses. ATAien, the symbol properly of heaven, suggests to him the idea of a good horse an old horse a lean horse; ;

;

;

and a

piebald.

A^n, the symbol of

;

thunder, suggests the

THE

54 idea of a

good neigher

of the prancing horse forehead. Khn, the

Yi KING.

CH.

III.

;

of the horse with white hind-legs

;

and of one with a white

;

star in his

symbol of water, suggests the idea of the horse with an elegant spine ; of one with a high and of one with a of one with a drooping head spirit ;

;

The

reader will think he has had enough shambling step. I cannot believe of these symbolisings of the trigrams. that the earlier portions and this concluding portion of If there were any the treatise were by the same author. evidence that paragraphs 8 to 10 were by Confucius, I should say that they were worthy, even more than worthy, what follows is mere drivel. Horace's picture of him ;

faintly pourtrays the inconsistency '

between the parts

:

Desinit in piscem mulier formosa superne.'

In reviewing the second of these Appendixes,

I

was led

to speak of the original significance of the trigrams, in opposition to the views of some Chinese who pretend that

they can find in them the physical truths discovered by the researches of western science. May I not say now, after viewing the phase of them presented

in these

paragraphs,

that they were devised simply as aids to divination, and partook of the unreasonableness and uncertainty belonging to that 9.

?

The

sixth

Appendix

is

the Treatise on the Sequence

of the Hexagrams, to which allusion has been made more than once. It is not necessary to dwell on The sixth Appendix. t at length. King Wan, it has been seen, gave a name to each hexagram, expressive of the idea some moral, social, or political truth which he wished to set forth by means of it and this name enters very i

;

The author of this treatise interpretation. endeavours to explain the meaning of the name, and also the sequence of the figures, or how it is that the idea of

closely into

its

the one leads on to that of the next. not expect to find in the 64 a chain

long drawn

1

out.

Yet the reader must *

of linked sweetness

The connexion between any two

is

but on the whole the essays, generally sufficiently close which I have said they form, resemble a heap of orient ;

'

pearls at

random

1

strung.

The changeableness

of

human

CH.

INTRODUCTION.

III.

55

a topic never long absent from the writer's mind. the fashion of the world firmly persuaded that

affairs is

He

is

*

1

Union is sure to give place to separation, and by and by that separation will issue in re-union. There is nothing in the treatise to suggest anything about its authorship ; and as the reader will see from the passeth away.

we are perplexed occasionally by meanings given names that differ from the meanings in the Text. 10. The last and least Appendix is the seventh, called The seventh 3& Kwa .AT wan, or 'Treatise on the Lineal

notes, to the

Figures taken promiscuously/ not with reany sequence, but as they approximate, or are to one another in meaning. It is in rhyme, moreopposed, Appendix.

gard to

much

as the meaning, determined, no of the doubt, the grouping hexagrams. The student will it is more a learn nothing of value from it jeu d'esprit over,

and

this,

as

'

;

than anything

else.

'

PLATE THE HEXAGRAMS,

I.

which they appear in the Yf, and were

in the order in

arranged by king Win.

pi

sze

sung

hsu

mang

Jun

khwSn

l/uen

16

15

14

13

12

ii

10

9

yu

Mien

Ihungzan

phi

lhai

If

24

23

22

21

20

19

18

17

ffl

po

pt

shin ho

kwau

lin

kA

*ui

32

31

30

29

28

27

26

25

hilng

hsicn

It

khan

?

ta k/t\\

wA wang

40

39

38

37

35

34

33

heh

>6ien

khwci

48

47

46

45

jing

khwan

shing

ghui

56

55

54

53

hi

fang

kwei mei

lien

64

6^

62

61

wei

jt

*t

t

Id

>a

bsiioUo

k&

kwo 36

can

^ung

ta

to

mmg

!

gin

ta

^\vang

thun

44

43

4'

4'

kau

kwni

)J

nm

5

5'

5

49

Kan

Hn

ting

ko

60

59

58

57

lieh

hwau

tut

" -^ ^ ^^ ^W ^5 """" ^^ ^ ^"* <^x ^^ ^^

>

1

%

>

II

'

Ml

s s

d

i

II

I

II

illiii

i

II

I

lllllll

imii

ii

II

II

Illlll

Illiii

Ii

II

ll

I

Him

ii

II

II

lllllll

imii

ii

II

II

lllllll

111111

mill

mi

111

Him

Ililn Ilii

iii

Mini

111111

mil

Him

ililii

i

2 S

?

S

H

Mill

n

*

"F-Y

H <

mill

.\iiw

^

imii Imii

mm mm

HUM mill mlii

MM

|iii|

lmn

ill-

iiiliiii

Iml

Inlmi

mi mi

ilium inimi

i I

I H

H *

hill

^*

in

mill mill

m m

V***

po

I

III!!!

llll-

inn

&

llll!

i-

inn inn

-rf^* stf&^f' * = =ss'^5'> * =?E^% -.-^ !'

s

*

fu

2 W w o

to

1

s II

W

III

i

w

H 3

d

.22

60

O,

5 H

III

I

i

1

III

III

III

III

,111

III

II

III

III

ll

H s

s o

LATER

w

j*,

1 8

III

5

?

2 CA

*>

"S

J

1

W.

ft.

!

X

i

O

O

THE

KING.

YI

TEXT. SECTION I.

THE

ATtfiEN

I.

HEXAGRAM.

Explanation of the entire figure by king

(represents)

what

is

great and originating,

penetrating, advantageous, correct Explanation of the separate 1.

its

In the

first

Wan.

lines

and

firm.

by the duke of JTdu.

(or lowest) line, undivided,

(we see

subject as) the dragon lying hid (in the deep). not the time for active doing.

It is

In the second

undivided, (we see its subIt will ject as) the dragon appearing in the field. be advantageous to meet with the great man. 2.

line,

In the third line, undivided, (we see its subject the as) superior man active and vigilant all the day, and in the evening still careful and apprehensive. 3.

(The

position mistake.

is)

dangerous, but there will be no

In the fourth line, undivided, (we see its subject as the dragon looking) as if he were leaping up, but still in the deep. There will be no mistake. 4.

In the

undivided, (we see its subject It will be as) the dragon on the wing in the sky. advantageous to meet with the great man. 5.

fifth line,

THE

58

Yt KING.

TEXT.

In the sixth (or topmost) line, undivided, (we see its subject as) the dragon exceeding the proper 6.

There

limits.

be occasion

will

for repentance.

lines of this hexagram are all strong and as undivided, appears from) the use of the number nine. If the host of dragons (thus) appearing were 7.

(The

to divest themselves of their heads, there

good

would be

fortune.

The Text under each hexagram consists of one paragraph by king Wan, explaining the figure as a whole, and of six (in the case of hexagrams i and 2, of seven) paragraphs by the duke of The explanatory notices AHu, explaining the individual lines. double introduced above to this effect will not be repeated.

A

space will be used to mark off the portion of king of his son.

Each hexagram

consists of

Wan

from that

two of the trigrams of Fu-hsf, the

lower being called the inner/ and the one above the outer.' The lines, however, are numbered from one to six, commencing with To denote the number of it and of the sixth line, the the lowest. '

'

The interterms for 'commencing' and 'topmost' are used. mediate lines are simply second,' ' third,' &c. As the lines must be either whole or divided, technically called strong and weak, '

yang and

yin, this distinction

is

them of the numbers nine and

by the application to All whole lines are nine, all

indicated

six.

divided lines, six.

Two

explanations have been proposed of this application of The jOien trigram, it is said, contains 3 strokes

these numbers. ...

(

Q. and

the

Khwan

6

).

(

But the

yang

contains

+ 6=9, itself, yin representative its own while the yin, not containing the yang, will number or 6. This explanation, entirely arbitrary, is now deservedly abandoned. The other is based on the use of the 'four Hsiang,' the

in

and

or emblematic figures the young yang,

number

be 3 have only

its

will

the great or old

~

yang, the young yin, and what is To these are assigned (by unimportant for process yin). our present purpose) the numbers 9, 8, 7, 6. They were * the old yang,' represented by 9, and 'the old yin/ represented by 6, that, in the manipulation of the stalks to form new diagrams, determined the changes of figure; and so 9 and 6 came to be used as the

=

(

the old

__

SECT.

THE KHWAN HEXAGRAM.

I.

II.

Khwan

59

THE KHWAN HEXAGRAM.

is great and originating, and correct penetrating, advantageous, having the firmness of a mare. When the superior man (here

(represents)

names of a yang

line

what

and a yin

This explana-

line respectively.

now

The nomenclature of first universally acquiesced in. nine, nine two, &c., or first six, six two, &c., however, is merely a jargon ; and I have prefeired to use, instead of it, in the translation, tion is

in ordei to describe the lines, the I.

Wan

Does king

only two

?

According

names

'

undivided

'

and

ascribe four attributes here to to

'

divided/

.Oien,

Appendix IV, always by Chinese

or

writers

assigned to Confucius, he assigns four, corresponding to the principles of benevolence, righteousness, propnety, and knowledge in man's nature. ATti Hsi held that he assigned only two, and that we should translate, ' greatly penetrating/ and ' requires to be correct firm,' two responses in divination. Up and down throughout Text of the 64 hexagrams, we often find the chaiacters thus I have Both interpretations are possible. coupled together. followed what is accepted as the view of Confucius. It would take pages to give a tithe of what has been written in justification of it, and to reconcile it with the other. The dragon is the symbol employed by the duke of Aau to represent the superior man and especially ' the great man/

and the

'

'

'

'

The exhibiting the virtues or attributes characteristic of heaven. creature's proper home is in the water, but it can disport itself on the land, and also fly and soar aloft. It has been from the earliest emblem with the Chinese of the highest dignity and wisdom, of sovereignty and sagehood, the combination of which con-

time the

the great man.' One emblem runs through the lines of of the hexagrams as here. But the dragon appears in the sixth line as going beyond the

stitutes

'

many

proper limits. The ruling-sage has gone through in which he is called on to display his attributes;

all it

the sphere time for

is

him to relax. The line should not be always pulled tight; the bow should not be always kept drawn. The unchanging use

THE

60

TEXT.

Yi KING.

make any movement,

he take the if he follow, he will find initiative, he will go astray his (proper) lord. The advantageousness will be seen in his getting friends in the south-west, and If he rest in corlosing friends in the north-east. rectness and firmness, there will be good fortune. intended) has to

if

;

In the

first line,

treading on (by and by).

hoarfrost.

1.

2.

The second

divided, (we see

The

strong

line, divided,

its

subject)

ice will

come

(shows the attribute

(Its operabeing straight, square, and great. in every will be without tion), repeated efforts,

of)

respect advantageous. 3.

The

keeping

third line, divided,

under

(shows

its

subject)

but firmly If he should have occasion to en-

his excellence

restraint,

maintaining it. gage in the king's service, though he will not claim the success (for himself), he will bring affairs to a

good 4.

issue.

The

fourth line, divided, (shows the symbol

of) a sack tied up. blame or for praise. 5.

The

fifth

lower garment.

line,

There

will

be no ground for

divided, (shows)

There

will

the yellow

be great good fortune.

of force will give occasion for repentance. The moial meaning found in the line is that the high shall be abased. 1

(

The meaning given to the supernumerary paragraph is the opposite ' of that of paragraph 6. The host of dragons without their heads '

would give us the next hexagram, or Khwan, made up of six divided lines. Force would have given place to submission, and haughtiness to humility ; and the result would be good fortune. Such at least is

the interpretation of the paragraph given in a narrative of the further explanation of the duke of

3o-ATwan under B.C. 513. For AHu's meaning, see Appendixes

II

and IV.

SECT.

THE KHWAN HEXAGRAM.

I.

The

6.

sixth line, divided, (shows) dragons fight-

Their blood

ing in the wild.

(The

7.

6t

lines of this

purple and yellow.

is

hexagram are

all

weak and

divided, as appears from) the use of the number If those (who are thus represented) be persix. petually correct and firm, advantage will arise.

The same

II.

attributes are here ascribed to

former hexagram to .Oien

Khwan,

but with a difference.

;

as in the

The

figure,

made up

of six divided lines, expresses the ideal of subordination and docility. The superior man, repiesented by it, must not take

and by

the subject, follow ing he will find his lord, Again, the correctness and firmness is defined to be that of 'a mare/ 'docile and stiong,' but a creature for the

the initiative that

is

,

of -Oien.

service of

man.

That

it

is

not the sex of the animal uhich the

writer has chiefly in mind is plain fiom the immediate mention of the superior man, and his loid.

That superior man

seek to bring his friends along with himBut accoiding to the arrangement of the

will

self to serve his ruler.

trigrams by king Wan. the place of Khwan is in the south-west, while the opposite quarter is occupied by the yang tngram Kan, as Figuie 2, Plate III. All that thi* portion of the Thwan says

m

an instruction

to the subject of the hexagram to seek for others of the same principles and tendencies with himself to serve their common lord. But in quietness and firmness will be his stiength.

is

The symbolism us the earth

itself,

of the lines

1 o keep

great cube.

is

various.

Paragraph

2 presents to

according to the Chinese conception of his excellence

under

it,

restraint, as in

as a

para-

3, is the part of a minister or officer, seeking not his own but that of his ruler. glory, Paragraph 4 shows its subject exera restraint still on himself than in paragraph 3. greater cising There is an interpietation of the symbolism of paragiaph 5 in

graph

a narrative of the *

B.C. 530.

3

Yellow'

colour of the earth.

The

under the i2th year of duke -Oao, five correct' colours, and the The lower garment' is a symbol of humility. -ATwan,

is '

one of the

*

of honour. If its occupant possess the will be he fortunate. greatly qualities indicated, See the note on the sixth line of hexagram i. What is there said to be beyond the proper limits' takes place here 'in the wild.' fifth

line is the seat

*

The humble

subject

of the divided line

is

transformed

into

a

THE

62

TEXT.

Yt KING.

THE A^UN HEXAGRAM.

III.

that

(indicates

the case which

in

it

pre-

supposes) there will be great progress and success, and the advantage will come from being correct and firm.

be

(But)

(lightly)

any movement in advance should not undertaken. There will be advantage

in appointing feudal princes. 1.

The

first

line,

undivided, shows the difficulty

It will be advantasubject has) in advancing. for him to abide correct and firm advangeous (its

;

tageous (also) to be

made a

feudal ruler.

The

second line, divided, shows (its subject) and obliged to return (even) the horses of her chariot (also) seem to be retreating. (But) not by a spoiler (is she assailed), but by one who seeks her to be his wife. The young lady maintains her firm correctness, and declines a union. After ten years she will be united, and have children. 2.

distressed

The

;

shows one following the deer without (the guidance of) the forester, and 3.

third line, divided,

only finding himself in the midst of the forest. The superior man, acquainted with the secret risks, If he went thinks it better to give up the chase. forward, he would regret

it.

dragon, and fights with the true dragon, the subject of the undivided They fight and bleed, and their blood is of the colour proper to heaven or the sky, and the colour proper to the earth. Paragraph 7

line.

supposes that the hexagram jfiTien

;

the result of

Khwan

should become changed into

which would be good.

SECT.

THE

I.

JOIN

HEXAGRAM.

6}

The fourth line, divided, shows (its subject 4. as a lady), the horses of whose chariot appear in She

retreat.

seeks, however, (the help of)

Advance

seeks her to be his wife. nate

him who be

fortu-

turn out advantageously.

The fifth line, undivided, shows the difficulties way of (its subject's) dispensing the rich

5.

,

all will

;

will

the

in

favours that might be expected from him. With firmness and correctness there will be good fortune in small things

be

will

(even) with

;

great things there

in

evil.

The topmost

6.

them

line, divided,

shows

(its

subject)

with the horses of his chariot obliged to retreat, and weeping tears of blood in streams. III.

The

character called

lun

is

pictorial,

and was intended

show us how a

plant struggles with difficulty out of the earth, This difficulty, marking the rising gradually above the surface. first stages in the growth of a plant, is used to symbolise the

to

struggles that

mark

the rise of a state out of a condition of disorder,

The same thing is denoted by the combination of the trigrams that form the figure ; as will be seen in the notes on it under Appendix II. consequent on a great revolution.

I '

have introduced within parentheses, in the translation, the words which the hexagram presupposes/ It is necessary to

in the case

King Wan and his son wrote, as they did in every with to a particular state of affairs which they reference hexagram, had in mind. This was the unspoken text which controlled and

introduce them.

and the student must try to get hold of way with comfort and success through the Yi. Wan saw the social and political world around him in But he had faith in himself great disorder, hard to be remedied. and the destinies of his House. Let there be prudence and caution, directed

this, if

all their

he would

writing

make

;

his

with unswerving adherence to the right ; let the government of the then all different states be entrusted to good and able men :

would be

The

well.

undivided, showing the strength of its subject. be capable of action, and his place in the trigram of But above him is the mobility will the more dispose him to it.

He

first line is

will

THE

64

Yf KING.

TEXT.

THE MANG HEXAGRAM.

IV.

(indicates that in the case which supposes) there will be progress and success.

Ming

it

preI

do

not (go and) seek the youthful and inexperienced, tngram of must look

Hence

peril

for

and the lowest line of that, response and co-operation,

;

arise the ideas of difficulty in

to is

which especially he divided and weak

advancing, the necessity of

and

the advantage of his being clothed with authority. the subject of the second line, divided, advance is still moie

caution,

To

difficult

He

is

weak

in himself; he is pressed

the strong line below him.

But happily

by the subject of

that subject,

though stiong, correct; and above in the fifth line, in the place of authonty, is the strong one, union with whom and the service of whom should i*.

All these circumstances suggested to the be the objects pursued. duke of /Tau the idea of a young lady, sought in marriage by a htiong wooer, when marriage was unsuitable, rejecting him, and finally, after ten years, marrying a more suitable, the only suitable,

match

for her.

The

third line

is

divided, not cential,

and the number of

its

All these appropriate to the occupancy of a strong line But the outcome things should affect the symbolism of the line. of the whole hexagram being good, the superior man sees the immeis

place

diate

danger and avoids

it.

The

subject of the fourth line, the first of the upper trigram, has recouise to the strong suitor of line i, the first of the lower trigiam ,

and with his help and go forward.

is

able to cope with the difficulties of the position,

The subject of the fifth line is in the place of authority, and should show himself a ruler, dispensing benefits on a great scale. But he is in the very centre of the trigram denoting penlousness, and line 2, which responds to 5, is weak. Hence arises the symbolism, and great things should not be attempted. The sixth line is weak ; the third responding to it

is

for

at the extremity

its

of

peril

;

the

game

is

up.

it is also weak What can remain

subject in such a case but tenor and abject weeping

;

?

SECT.

I.

THE MXNG HEXAGRAM.

65

When

he shows (the

but he comes and seeks me.

sincerity that marks) the first recourse to divination, I instruct him. If he apply a second and third time,

that

is

troublesome

troublesome.

and

;

There

and

will

I do not instruct the be advantage in being firm

correct.

The

line, divided, (has respect to) the of It will be advantageous dispelling ignorance. to use punishment (for that purpose), and to re1.

move on

first

the shackles

in that

way

(from the mind).

punishment)

(of

will

But going

give occasion

for regret. 2.

The second

line, undivided, (shows its subject) forbearance with the ignorant, in which exercising there will be good fortune ; and admitting (even)

the goodness of women, which will also be fortunate. (He maybe described also as) a son able to (sustain the burden of) his family. 3.

The

third line, divided, (seems to

say) that

woman whose emblem it when she sees a man of wealth,

one should not marry a

might

be, for that,

she will not keep her person from him, and in no wise will advantage come from her. 4. if)

The

bound

fourth line, divided, (shows its subject as in chains of ignorance. There will be

occasion for regret. 5.

The

fifth

line,

divided,

shows

a simple lad without experience.

good

its

subject as

There

will

be

fortune.

In the topmost line, undivided, we see one But no advantage smiting the ignorant (youth). 6.

THE

66

TEXT.

YI KING.

come from doing him an injury. Advantage would come from warding off injury from him.

will

IV. face,

As

-ATun shows us plants struggling from beneath the suisuggests to us the small and undeveloped appeaiance

Mang

which they then present and hence mouthful inexperience and ignorance.

it

;

is

to

came

to be the

symbol of

The

object of the hexagram such a condition should be dealt with by the parent

show how whose

and

ruler,

and

sixth, the

authority

and duty are represented by

tuo undivided

lines.

between the

All

the second

first

and

last

Thwan

must be taken as an oracular lesponse received by the party divining on the subject of enlightening the

sentences of the

enigmatical, and

being more than usually See Appendix I, being partly rhythmical.

This accounts for

youthful ignorant. for

its

its

in loc.

The

subject of the

first

line,

weak, and

bottom of

at the

tin*

Let him be punished. If ignorance. punishment avail to loosen the shackles and manacles from the mind, well, if not, and punishment be perseveied with, the effect figure,

will

is

the grossest

in

be bad.

On

the subject of the second line, strong,

and

in

place, devolves the task of enlightening the ignorant

him discharging generosity,

it

is

it

\\ith

foibearance and humility.

In proof of his

said that 'he leceives/ or learns from,

and ignorant women.

He

appears also as

'

the central

and we have

,

even weak

'

a son

taking the place

of his father.

The

is weak, and occupies an odd place belonging an undivided line nor is its place in the centre. All

third line

properly to

;

these things give the subject of it so bad a character. The fourth line is far from both the second and sixth, the first line, weak get no help from its correlate, can be done with the or good by subject of it ?

as

and can

itself.

What

The fifth line is in the place of honour, and has for its correlate the stiong line in the second place. itself, it is Being weak taken as the symbol of a simple lad, willing to be taught.

m

The topmost

line is stiong,

natural, but unwise, in

educational measures.

him

A

and

in the

highest place.

to use violence

better couise

is

in carrying

suggested to him.

It

on

is

his

SECT.

THE HSU HEXAGRAM.

I.

67

THE Hsu HEXAGRAM.

V.

Hsu

intimates that, with the sincerity which is declared in it, there will be brilliant success. With

firmness there will be good fortune and advantageous to cross the great stream. ;

The

1.

waiting

in

first

him constantly in

shows

undivided,

line,

the distant border.

It will

it

its

will

be

subject

be well for

to maintain (the purpose thus shown), will be no error.

which case there

The second

2.

undivided, shows its subject He (of the mountain stream).

line,

waiting on the sand

the small (injury of) being spoken in the end there will be good fortune. but (against),

will

3.

the

(suffer)

The third line, undivided, shows its subject in mud (close by the stream). He thereby invites

the approach of injury. 4.

The

fourth

line,

divided,

waiting (the place of) blood. out of the cavern. in

The

shows its subject But he will get

undivided, shows its subject waiting amidst the appliances of a feast. Through his firmness and correctness there will be good 5.

fifth

line,

fortune. 6.

The topmost

entered into the

line,

divided,

cavern.

shows there

its

subject are three

(But) guests coming, without being urged, (to his help).

THE

68

he receive them

If

Yi KING.

TEXT.

be good

respectfully, there will

fortune in the end. V. Hsti means waiting. Strength confronted by peril might be expected to advance boldly and at once to struggle with it but it This is the takes the wiser plan of waiting till success is sure. ;

'

'

lesson of the hexagram. That sincerity is declared in it is proved from the fifth line in the position of honour and authority, central, itself

undivided and in an odd place.

firm correctness '

is

Going through a great stream/ an expression frequent

may mean undertaking hazardous difficulties,

great is it

In such a case, nothing but

necessary to great success. or

enterprises,

in the Y!,

encountering

without any special reference ; but more natural ' ' by the great stream the Yellow river, which the

to understand

lords of

-au must

dynasty of Yin and

cross in a revolutionary

The passage

its tyrant.

movement of

it

against the by king Wti, the

in B.C. 1122, was certainly one of the greatest deeds in ' It was preceded also by long waiting/ till the history of China. the time of assured success came.

son of Wjin

'

The

under line i means the frontier territory of the There seems no necessity for such a symbolism. The sand

and but

'

'

state. '

'

border

the is

it

mud

'

are appropriate with reference to the watery defile ; the border.' The subject of the line appears '

different with

woik in his work and he at

;

distant fields, not thinking of anything but his daily is advised to abide in that state and mind.

'The sand' of paiagraph defile,

but

its

subject

is

2

still

suggests a nearer approach to the self-restrained

and

\vaiting.

not see what suggests the idea of his suffering from

'

do

I

the strife of

1

tongues.

In paragraph 3 the subject is on the brink of the stream. advance to that position has provoked resistance, which may

His result

in his injury.

Line 4 has passed from the inner to the upper trigram, and entered on the scene of danger and strife; into the place of blood.' '

'

'

weak and in the correct place for him ; he therefore and escapes fiom the cavern, where he was engaged with his enemy. Line 5 is strong and central, and in its correct place, being that Its subject is

retreats

of honour. it,

All

good

qualities therefore

belong to the subject of

who has

triumphed, and \\ith firmness will triumph still more. Line 6 is weak, and has enteied deeply into the defile and

caverns.

What

will

become of

its

subject

?

His correlate

is

its

the

SECT.

THE SUNG HEXAGRAM.

I.

69

THE SUNG HEXAGRAM.

VI.

Sung intimates how, though there is sincerity in one's contention, he will yet meet with opposition and obstruction but if he cherish an apprehensive ;

caution, there will be good fortune, while, if he must prosecute the contention to the (bitter) end, there will

be

great

man

;

it

be advantageous to see the not be advantageous to cross the

will

It

evil.

will

great stream.

The

line, divided, shows its subject not the matter about which (the contention perpetuating He will suffer the small (injury) of being spoken is). 1.

first

against, but the 2.

end

The second

will

line,

be fortunate.

undivided, shows

its

subject

and keep unequal concealed (where) the inhabitants of his city are (only) three hundred families, he will fall into no to the contention.

If

he

retire

mistake. 3.

The

keeping

third

line,

shows

divided,

its

subject

in the old place assigned for his support,

and firmly correct. Perilous as the position is, there will be good fortune in the end. Should he perstrong line 3 below, which comes with

its

two companions

to his

help. If they are respectfully received, that help will prove effectual. P. Regis tries to find out a reference in these ' three guests to '

distinguished themselves by taking part with Aau Yin or Shang; see vol. i, pp. 279-282. I dare not be so confident of any historical reference. three princes

who

in its struggle with

THE

70 chance engage

Y! KING.

TEXT.

the king's business, he will not

in

(claim the merit of) achievement. 4.

The

undivided, shows its subject the contention. He returns to (the

fourth

line,

unequal to study of Heaven's) ordinances, changes (his wish to contend), and rests in being firm and correct. There will be good fortune. 5.

The

undivided, shows its and with great good fortune.

fifth

contending

;

line,

The topmost subject may have

subject

undivided, shows how its the leathern belt conferred on

6.

line,

him (by the sovereign), and from him in a morning.

thrice

it

shall

be taken

We

VI. have strength in the upper tngram, as if to legulate and control the lower, and peril in that lower as if looking out for an opportunity to assail the upper ; or, as it may be represented, we

have one's without. stnfe.

self in

All this

a stale of peril matched against strength fiom is supposed to give the idea of contention or

But the undivided

line in the centre

of

Kh^n

is

emblematic

of sincerity, and gives a charactei to the whole figure. An individual, so repiesented, will be very wary, and have good fortune; but strife is bad, and if persevered in even by such a one, the effect will

be

evil.

The

fifth line,

undivided, in an

odd

place,

and

central,

*

serves as a representative of the great man/ whose agency is sure to be good ; but the topmost line being also strong, and with its

two companions, riding as it were, on the tngiam of peril, its action See the treatise on likely to be too rash for a great enterprise.

is

Thwan, in loc. The subject of line He may suffer a little

the

and the Line

effect will

at the

bottom of the it

figure.

drop;

be good.

one who is strong, and has the rule of the he has the mind for stnfe, and might be expected But his strength is \\eakened by being in an even

engage in it. and he is no match

place,

retreats.

weak and

in the nascent strife, but will let

2 represents

lower trigram; to

i is

A

town or

for his correlate in line 5,

city with

and therefoie

only three hundred families

is

said

SECT.

THE SZE HEXAGRAM.

I.

THE SZE HEXAGRAM.

VII.

Sze

indicates how, in the case which

with firmness and correctness, and That the subject of

to be very small.

insignificant a place

Line 3

is

he

is

weak and

equal to strive, but it,

He

in

eats his old virtue

appanage assigned

to

supposes, leader of) age

(a

the line should retne to so

an odd place.

Its subject theiefore is

in the

'

background

'

meaning

;

him

not

Even if foiced into and be safe. He

withdraws from the arena.

keep himself

will

it

further proof of his humility.

keeps in the old place assigned for *

7!

;

his

that

support'

he

lives in

is,

literally,

and on the

for his services.

Line 4 is strong, and not in the centre so that we ai e to conceive of its subject as having a mind to stuve. But immediately ,

above

it is

symbol of the mler, and with him it is hopeimmediately below is 3, weak, and out of its proper

line 5, the

less to strive

;

Its pioper correlate place, incapable of maintaining a contention. the lowest line, weak, and out of its proper place, fiom whom

is

Hence

help can come.

little

which leads

to

good

its

subject takes the course indicated,

fortune.

Line 5 has every circumstance in favour of its subject is strong and able to contend successfully; but

Line 6 to be

and

no end of

striving

Persistence in

?

it is

is

there

sure to end in defeat

The contender

here might receive a icward from the but if he received it thrice in a morning, king for his success thnce it would be taken from him again. As to the naiuie of the disgrace.

,

icward here given, see on the Li K\, X,

n, 32.

P. Regis explains seveial of the expressions in the Text, both in and the Hsiang, from the history of king and his the son king Wu. Possibly his own circumstances may have suggested to

Thwan

Wan

some of

Wan

the

Thwan

;

and

his course in avoiding a direct colli-

sion with the tyrant Shau, and Wu's subsequent exploits may have been in the mind of the duke of A'iau. Some of the sentiments,

however, cannot be histoiically explained. tests against all contention and stnfe.

They

aie general pro-

THE

72

and experience, there

Yt KING.

TEXT.

be good fortune and no

will

error.

The

shows the host going movement). these be not good, there will be evil. 1.

first line,

divided,

forth according to the rules (for such a If

The

second line, undivided, shows (the leader) There will be good forin the midst of the host. error. The and no tune king has thrice conveyed 2.

him the orders

to

3.

The

(of his favour).

third line, divided,

may, possibly, be evil.

have many

shows how the host There

inefficient leaders.

will

4.

The

There

retreat. 5.

fourth

The fifth

which

it

will

line,

is

no

line,

divided,

shows the host

in

error.

divided,

shows birds

be advantageous

in the fields,

to seize (and destroy). If the oldest

In that case there will be no error.

son leads the host, and younger

men

The topmost

occupy and correct

(idly

assigned to them), however firm he may be, there will be evil. offices

shows the great ruler delivering his charges, (appointing some) to be rulers of states, and others to undertake the headship of clans but small men should not be employed 6.

line,

divided,

;

(in

such positions).

VII. The conduct of military expeditions in a feudal kingdom, and we may say, generally, is denoted by the hexagram Sze. Referring to Appendixes I and II for an explanation of the way in which the combination of lines in it is made out to suggest the idea of an army, and that idea being assumed, it is easy to see how the

undivided line in the second place should be interpreted of the general, who is responded to by the divided line in the fifth and royal place.

Thus

entire trust is reposed in him.

He

is

strong

SECT.

THE

I.

VIII.

HEXAGRAM.

P!

THE

73

HEXAGRAM.

PI

Pi indicates that (under the conditions which it But let (the prinsupposes) there is good fortune. cipal party intended in it) re-examine himself, (as if) and

correct,

and

be successful.

his enterprises will

He

is

denomi-

ang zan, 'an old, experienced man/ The rules/ it is said, 'aie twofold; first,

nated '

righteous end

;

and second,

that the war be for a manner of conducting it, But how this and the warning

the

that

especially at the outset, be right/ in the conclusion should both follow in the first place, has not

been

fiom the divided

line

being

sufficiently explained.

How

line 2 comes to be the symbol of the general in command army has been shown above on the Thwan. The orders of the king thrice conveyed to him are to be understood of his appointment to the command, and not of any rewaids confened on him as a tnbute to his merit. Nor is stress to be laid on the thrice.' It does not mean that the appointment came to him three times ; but that it was to him exclusively, and with the entire con-

of the

*

'

fidence of the king/

The symbolism 'Milites

it:

of line 3

videntur

is

very perplexing.

P. Regis translates in curribus.

deponere sarcmas

Male/ Canon McClatchie has

* :

Third-six represents soldiers as

it

were lying dead in their baggage carts, and is unlucky/ To the same effect was my own translation of the paragraph, nearly thirty years But the third line, divided, cannot be forced to have such an ago.

The meaning I have now given is more legitimate, indication. taken character by character, and more in harmony with the scope of the hexagram. The subject of line 2 is the one proper leader of the But

and weak, and occupies the place of a as if its strong line, subject had perversely jumped over two, and perched himself above it to take the command. This interpretation also suits better in the 5th paragraph. host.

Line 4

line 3 is divided

is

weak and not

central

;

and therefore

'

'

to retreat

is

THE

74

whether

TEXT.

Y! KING.

be great, uninterIf it be so, there will be no mitting, and firm. Those who have not rest will then come to error. divination,

by

him

;

his virtue

and with those who are

(too) late in

coming

it

\\illbeill.

The

shows its subject seeking by his sincerity to win the attachment of his There will be no error. Let (the breast) object. be full of sincerity as an earthenware vessel is of its contents, and it will in the end bring other 1.

first line,

divided,

advantages. 2. In the second line, divided, we see the movement towards union and attachment proceeding With firm correctness from the inward (mind).

there will be good fortune. 3.

In the third

seeking

for

line,

divided,

we

see

its

subject

union with such as ought not to be

associated with. 4.

In the fourth

line,

divided,

we

see

its

subject

natural for its subject. But its place is even, and proper for a divided line; and the retieat will be right in the cncumstances.

In line 5 we seem to have an intimation of the important truth

war waged by the down and lebelhon put lawlessnesses right.

that only defensive war, or

ughtful authority to 'The birds in the

The fifth line attacking for plunder. or the is weak, who authoiity, king, humble, and in the centre, and cedes the use of all his power to the general symbolised by line 2. The subject of 2 is the oldest fields'

symbolise parties

symbolises

the

chief

*

Those of three and four aie supposed to be 'the younger brother and son/ that is, the younger men, uho would cause evil if admitted to share the command. The lesson on the topmoM; line is tiue and impoitant, but the critics seem unable to deduce it from the nature of the line, as son/

divided and in the sixth place.

SECT.

THE

I.

HEXAGRAM.

Pi

75

seeking for union with the one beyond himself. firm correctness there will be good fortune.

The

With

undivided, affords the most illustrious instance of seeking union and attachment. 5.

fifth line,

(We seem to see in it) the of the game (only) in three

king urging his pursuit

directions, and allowing the escape of all the animals before him, while the people of his towns do not warn one another (to

prevent

There

it).

will

be good fortune.

In the topmost line, divided, we see one seekunion and attachment without having taken the ing first step (to such an end). There will be evil. 6.

VIII.

The

idea of union between the different

and how The whole

classes of a state,

can be secured,

members and

the subject of the Pi. fifth the line hexagram occupying place, or that of in to whom luler the subjects the the authority, hexagiam, represents of all the other lines offer a ready submission. According to the it

is

general rules for the symbolism of the lines, the second line is the correlate of the fifth but all the other lines are here made subject ;

to that

fifth

,

'

also a law of the Yf, according to the Daily has the suspicious look of being made for the haimony of union, therefore, is to be secured by

which

Lectuie/

To me

occasion.

The

is

it

the sovereign authoi ity of one his virtue be

what

\vill

beseem

;

but he

is

his place,

warned to see to it that and subjects aie warned

not to delay to submit to him.

Where does the smcei ity predicated of the subject of line i come from? The earthen waie vessel' is supposed to indicate its '

'

'

unadorned chai actor; but theie is nothing in the position and nature of the line, beyond the geneial idea in the figure, to plain,

suggest the attribute.

Line 2 is the proper correlate of 5. Its position in the centie of the inner or lower tngram agrees wuh the movement of its subject as pioceeding from the inward mind Line 3 is weak, not above and below

lines

in the centre, it

nor in

aie both weak.

posed to account for what is said on it. The one beyond himself m line 4

its

conect place.

The

All these things aie sup-

*

is

the ruler or king,

uho

is

THE

76

THE HSIAO KH

IX,

TEXT.

Yt KING.

HEXAGRAM.

Khh

Hsi&o

indicates that (under its conditions) there will be progress and success. (We see) dense from but no rain our borders in the clouds, coming

west.

The

1.

undivided, shows

first line,

its

subject re-

turning and pursuing his own course. What mistake should he fall into ? There will be good fortune.

The second

undivided, shows its subject, by the attraction (of the former line), returning (to the proper course). There will be good fortune. 2.

line,

The the subject of 5, and with whom union ought to be sought. divided line, moreover, is in a place proper to it. If its subject be firm and correct, there will be good fortune. The

subject of line 5 is the king, who must be the centre of The ancient kings had their great hunting expeditions in the diffeient seasons; and that of each season had its peculiar

union.

But what is stated here was common to all. When the beating was completed, and the shooting was ready to commence, one side of the enclosure into which the game had been driven was left open and unguarded a proof of the royal benevolence, which did not want to make an end of all the game. So well known and lules.

;

understood

is this

benevolence of the model king of the hexagram,

that all his people try to give it effect. Thus the union contemplated is shown to be characterised by mutual confidence and appreciation

and benevolence. weak line being in the 6th

in viitue

A

place, which is appropriate to it, its subject is supposed to be trying to promote union among and with the subjects of the lines below. It is too late. The time is past.

Hence

it

taken the

on

is

symbolised as

fiist

to the end.

step,

'

without a head/ that is, as not having its action should begin, and go

from which

SECT.

THE HSIAO

I.

The

3.

KH(}

HEXAGRAM.

77

third line, undivided, suggests the

idea

of a carriage, the strap beneath which has been removed, or of a husband and wife looking on each

other with averted eyes.

The

4.

fourth

shows

divided,

line,

The danger

possessed of sincerity.

thereby averted, and his (ground

There

dismissed.

The

fifth

its

subject of bloodshed is

for)

apprehension

be no mistake.

will

shows

undivided,

its

subject to others unite and of possessed sincerity, drawing his he with him. Rich in resources, employs neighbours (in the same cause with himself). 5.

line,

line, undivided, shows how the and the (onward progress) is stayed

The topmost

6.

rain has fallen,

;

must we value the

(so)

accumulation of the

full

virtue (represented by the upper trigram). But a wife (exercising restraint), however firm and correct

she

may be, is in a position of moon approaching to the full. prosecute his measures

be

will

IX.

(in

peril,

(and

like)

If the superior

the

man

such circumstances), there

evil.

The name Hsiao Khh is interpreted as meaning 'small The idea of 'restraint' having once been determined that to be conveyed by the figuie, it is easily made out that

restiamt.'

on

as

the lestiamt

must be small, for its lepiesentative is the divided line and the check given by that to all the undivided

in the fourth place lines

that

;

cannot be great. all

the viitue of that

first line,

Even

if

we suppose,

upper trigram

the attribute ascribed to

Sun

Sun is

is

as

many

critics do,

concentrated in

it&

that of docile flexibility,

which cannot long be successful against the strength emblemed by r the lower trigram ^ien. The restraint therefore is small, and in the end theie will be 'progiess and success/ The second sentence of the contains indications of the

A

Thwan

and personality of the writer which it seems possible ascertain. The fief of ATau was the western portion of the

place, time, to

THE

78

X.

THE

Yi KING.

TEXT.

Li HEXAGRAM.

(LI suggests the idea of) one treading on the tail of a tiger, which does not bite him. There will be

progress and success. kingdom of Yin or Shang, the China of the twelfth century B.C., the Ram coming and moistening the ground is the era of king Wan. cause of the beauty and luxuriance of the vegetable world, and the emblem of the blessings flowing from good training and good government. Hee therefoie in the west, the hereditary ternloiy of the house of -ATau, are blessings which might ennch the whole

kingdom; but they are somehow restiamed. not empty their stores.

The dense

clouds do

P. Regis says: 'To declare openly that no lam fell from the heavens long covered with dense clouds ovei the great tract of country, which stretched from the western bolder to the court and

on to the eastern sea, was nothing else but leaving it to all thoughtful minds to diaw the conclusion that the family of Wan was as worthy of the supreme seat as that of Shau, the tyrant, however The intimation is not ancient, was unworthy of it (vol. i, p. 356).' put in the Text, however, so cleaily as by P. Regis.

Line place.

i is

undivided, the

of AT/; i en, occupying its pioper notwithstanding the check of line 4,

fiist line

It* subject, therefore,

resumes his movement, and will act according to his strong nature, and go forward. Line 2 is also strong, and though an even place is not appropi iate it, that place being central, its subject will make common cause with the subject of line i ; and there will be good fortune. Line 3, though strong, and in a proper place, yet not being

to

supposed to be less able to resist the restraint and hence it has the ill omens that are given. The subject of line 4, one weak line against all the strong lines of the hexagram, might well expect wounds, and feel apprehension

in the centre, is

of line 4

;

in trying to restrain the others; but is

the

first

line also

it

is

in its

of Sun, whose attiibute

is

proper place; it docile flexibility.

SECT.

THE

I.

The

T.

first

line,

HEXAGRAM.

Ll

shows its subject he go forward,

undivided,

accustomed path. be no error.

treading his there will

The second

2.

line,

79

If

undivided, shows

its

subject is level a the that and path treading easy quiet and solitary man, to whom, if he be firm and correct, ;

there will be

The

good

fortune.

shows a one-eyed man (who thinks he) can see a lame man (who thinks one who treads on the tail of he) can walk well a tiger and is bitten. (All this indicates) ill fortune. We have a (mere) bravo acting the part of a great 3.

third line, divided, ;

;

ruler.

The

shows its subject becomes full of tiger. apprehensive caution, and in the end there will be good fortune. 5. The fifth line, undivided, shows the resolute tread of its subject. Though he be firm and correct, there will be peril. 4.

fourth line, undivided,

treading on the

6.

The

tail

sixth line, undivided, tells us to look at

(the

whole course) that

The

strong lines aie

is

He

of a

moved

is

to

trodden, and examine the

sympathy and

help,

and 'there

no mistake.' Line 5 occupies the central place of Sun, and converts, by the

its subject, 4 and 6 into its neighbours, who suffer themselves to be used by it, and effect their common object. The In line 6, the idea of the hexagram has run its course.

sincerity of

harmony of nature is lestored. The ram fal's, and the onward march of the strong lines should now stop. But weakness that has achieved such a result, if it plume itself on it, will be in a and like the full moon, which must henceforth position of peril wane. Let the superior man, when he has attained his end, remain ;

in quiet.

THE

8O

Vf KING.

TEXT.

If it be complete and presage which that gives. without failure, there will be great good fortune.

The

character giving its name to the hexagram plays an important part also in the symbolism ; and this may be the reason why it does not, as the name, occupy the first place in the Thwan.

X.

at the figure, we see it is made up of the trigrams Tui, Tui is representing a marsh, and -Oien, representing the sky. Below .Oien, the gieat a yin trigram, and its top line is divided. symbol of strength, it may readily suggest the idea of treading on a tiger's tail, -which was an old way of expressing what was

Looking

hazardous (Shu V, xxv, 2). But what suggests the statement that 'the tiger does not bite the treader?' The attribute of Tui is

pleased satisfaction.

Of course such an

attribute could not

be

The coming predicated of one who was in the fangs of a tiger. scatheless out of such danger further suggests the idea of pi ogress '

the course which king Wan had in his mind. And according to Appendix VI, that course was ' propriety,' the observance of all the rules of courtesy. On these, as so many

and success'

in

stepping-stones, one

may

tread safely

amid scenes of disorder and

peiil.

Line of

i is

an undivided

activity, firmness,

line in an odd place giving us the ideas and correctness. One so characterised will ;

act rightly.

Line

2

occupies the middle place of the trigram, which

is

sup-

posed to symbolise a path cut straight and level along the hill-side, or over difficult giound. Line 5 is not a proper correlate, and hence the idea of the subject of 2 being a quiet and solitary man/ Line 3 is neither central nor in an even place, which would *

be proper to it. But with the strength of will which the occupant of an odd place should possess, he goes forward with the evil results so variously emblemed. The editors of the imperial edition, in illustration of the closing sentence, refer to

Line 4

is

in contiguity with 5,

Analects VII,

whose subject

is

x.

in the place of

but he occupies the place proper to a weak or divided and hence he bethinks himself, and goes softly. Beneath the symbolism under line 5, lies the principle that the most excellent thing in 'propriety' is humility. And the subject of the line, which is strong and central, will not be lacking in this, but bear in mind that the higher he is exalted, the greater may be authority

line,

his

fall.

;

SECT.

THE THAI HEXAGRAM.

I.

XI.

81

THE THAI HEXAGRAM.

In Thfii (we see) the little gone and the great come. (It indicates that) there will be good fortune, with progress and success. 1.

The

first line,

undivided, suggests the idea of

grass pulled up, and bringing with it other stalks with whose roots it is connected. Advance (on the of its subject) will be fortunate. part

undivided, shows one who can bear with the uncultivated, will cross the Ho without 2.

The second

line,

a boat, does not forget the distant, and has no (selfish) Thus does he prove himself acting in friendships.

accordance with the course of the due Mean.

The

third line, undivided, shows that, while no state of peace that is not liable to be disturbed, and no departure (of evil men) so that they shall not return, yet when one is firm and correct, as he realises the distresses that may arise, he will commit no error. There is no occasion for 3.

there

is

sadness at the certainty (of such recurring changes) and in this mood the happiness (of the present) may ;

be (long) enjoyed. 4.

The

fluttering

fourth

(down);

divided, shows not relying on his

line,

its

subject

own

rich

What is said on line 6 is good, but is only a truism. The whole course has been shown ; if every step has been right and appropriate, the issue will be very good.

THE

82

Yf KING.

TEXT.

resources, but calling in his neighbours. (They all come) not as having received warning, but in the sincerity (of their hearts). 5.

The

fifth

divided, reminds us of (king) the) marriage of his younger

line,

about sister. By such a course there there will be great good fortune. Tt-yl's

6.

(rule

The

sixth line, divided,

returned into the moat.

is

happiness and

shows us the

It is

city wall

not the time to use

the army.

(The subject of the line) may, indeed, announce his orders to the people of his own city

;

but however correct and firm he

have cause

will

for regret.

The language

XI.

may

be, he

of the

Thwan

has reference to the form of

Thdi, with the three strong lines of Khien below, and the three weak lines of Khwan above. The former are 'the great/ active and vigorous the latter are the small/ inactive and submissive. But where have the former come from, and whither aie the latter '

;

'

'

'

'

gone ?

In

many editions

here, there appears that of

of the

Yi beneath

Kwei Mei,

the

hexagiam of Thai

the 54th in order

(~ ~j

,

which becomes Thai, if the third and fourth lines exchange places. But in the notes on the Thwan, in the first Appendix, on hexa-

gram

6, I

intimated

'

have spoken of the doctrine of changing figures/ and my disbelief of it. The different hexagrams arose

necessarily by the continued manipulation of the undivided and divided lines, and placing them each over itself and over the other.

When

king

Wan

wrote these

Thwan,

grams, as they were ready to his hand,

another by any process of divination. are merely equivalent to or in the upper.

'

below

'

and

A course in

'

he was taking the 64 hexaand not forming one from

The 'gone' and 'come' above/ in the lower trigram

which the motive forces are represented by the three the and strong, opposing by the three weak lines, must be proand successful. Thai is called the hexagram of the gressive first month of the year, the first month of the natural spring, when for six months, through the fostering sun and genial skies, the processes of growth will be going on.

SECT.

THE PHt HEXAGRAM.

I.

THE

XII.

In Phi there

between the dication

is

83

Pnf HEXAGRAM.

the want of good understanding

(different classes of)

men, and

its

in-

unfavourable to the firm and correct

is

The symbolism

of paragraph

i

is

suggested by the three strong

Kh\en all together, and all possessed by the same instinct advance. The movement of the first will be supported by that

lines of

to

of the others, and be fortunate.

The second posed the

and

to

first it

is

line is strong,

but in an even place.

temper the strength of of his chai acteristics.

This

is

sup-

subject ; which is expressed by But the even place is the central; its

responded to by a proper correlate in the fifth line above. all the symbolism of the paiagraph and the auspice of

Hence come

good fortune implied

in

it.

Beneath the symbolism

in paragraph 3 there lies the persuasion of the constant change that is taking place in nature and in human As night succeeds to day, and winter to summer, bo affairs.

calamity

may be

expected to follow prosperity, and decay the The third is the last of the lines of A^ien,

flourishing of a state.

Thi

has been by whose strength and activity the happy state of but by be for Another of looked things may aspect produced. firmness and correctness the good estate of the present may be ;

long continued.

According to the treatise on the Thwan, the subjects of the and other upper lines are not the small returning' as *

fourth

lines below, as is generally supposed ; but as the correlates of those lines, of one heart and mind with them to

opponents of the strong

maintain the state of Thai, and giving them, humbly but readily, the help in their power. Tl-yi, the last sovereign but one of the Yin dynasty, reigned from B.C. 1191 to 1155; but what was the history of him and his all

sister

we do not know. P. Regis assumes that marriage to the loid of A!au, known in subse-

here referred to

he gave his

sister in

THE

84

course of the superior man. gone and the little come.

The

TEXT.

Y! KING.

We see

in

the great

it

divided, suggests the idea of grass pulled up, and bringing with it other stalks with whose roots it is connected. With firm cor1.

first

line,

rectness (on the part of its subject), there will be good fortune and progress. 2.

The second

To

and obedient.

shows

divided,

line,

its

subject

man

the small

(comportIf the fortune. himself there will be ing so) good great man (comport himself) as the distress and obpatient

struction require, 3.

The

third

he

will

line,

have success.

divided,

ashamed of the purpose folded 4.

The

acting in

shows

its

fourth line, undivided, shows

its

subject

accordance with the ordination (of Heaven),

and committing no error. His companions and share in his happiness. 5.

subject

(in his breast).

In the

fifth

line,

undivided,

we

will

see him

come

who

quent time as king Wan, and that she was the famous Thai-sze contrary to all the evidence I have been able to find on the subject. ;

According to A%ng-jze, Ti-yi was the first to enact a law that daughters of the royal house, in marrying princes of the states, should be in subjection to them, as if they were not superior to

them in rank. Here line 5, while occupying the place of dignity and authority in the hexagram, is yet a weak line in the place of a strong one and its subject, accordingly, humbly condescends to his strong and proper correlate in line 2. The course denoted by Thii has been run; and will be followed by one of a different and unhappy character. The earth dug from the moat had been built up to form a protecting wall ; but it ;

is

now

again fallen into the ditch.

War

will

only aggravate the

and however the ruler may address good proclamations to himself and the people of his capital, the coming evil cannot be

evil;

altogether averted.

SECT.

THE PHI HEXAGRAM.

I.

85

brings the distress and obstruction to a close,

man and

great

may

perish

become

things

'We

him say), shall the state of may perish (so firm, as if) bound to a clump of bushy fortunate.

(But

We

!

the

let

'

!

trees.

mulberry

The

shows the overthrow (and removal of) the condition of distress and obstruction. Before this there was that condition. 6.

sixth line, undivided,

Hereafter there

be joy.

The form of Pht, it will be seen, is exactly the opposite of Much of what has been said on the interpretation

XII. that of

will

Thai.

of that will apply to this, or at least assist the student in making Phi is the hexagram of the out the meaning of its symbolism. seventh month. Genial influences have done their work, the processes of growth are at an end. Henceforth increasing decay must

be looked

for.

Naturally we should expect the advance of the subject of the first of the three weak lines to lead to evil ; but if he set himself to be

and correct, he will bring about a different issue. Patience and obedience are proper for the small

firm

circumstances.

the great

If

man

in difficulty yet

man

in all

cherish these

incorrect.

Its

soon have a happy issue out of the distress. is weak. Its place is odd, and therefore for it vent his evil puipose, but has not would subject

strength to

do

so.

he

attributes,

The

will

third line

He

is

left

therefore to the

shame which he

Does the ming of the without a word of warning. ought fourth line mean the ordination of Heaven/ as Kb Hsi thinks ; or to feel

'

the ordeis of the ruler, as -O&ng-jze says?

Whichever

interpre-

tation be taken (and some critics unite the two), the action of the subject of the line, whose strength is tempered by the even position, will

The

be good and correct, and issue in success and happiness.

strong line in the

fifth, (its

correct), place, brings the distress

and obstruction to a close. Yet its subject the ruler in the hexagiam is warned to continue to be cautious in two lines of rhyme :

1

And

let

him

say,

" I die

!

I die

"

!

So There

is

to a bushy clump his fortune he shall tie/ an end of the condition of distress. It was necessary that its opposite; and the strong line represents the consequent joy.

condition should give place to in the

topmost place

fitly

THE

86

Y! KING.

THE THUNG ZAN HEXAGRAM.

XIII.

ThungZan(or* Union we

find

in the

it)

TEXT.

(remote

indicating progress and

of

men

')

districts

success.

appears here (as of the) country,

It will

be advanwill be ad-

It tageous to cross the great stream. firm of the the to maintain correctness vantageous

superior man.

The

undivided, (shows the representative of) the union of men just issuing from his 1.

first

There

gate.

line,

will

be no

error.

2. The second line, divided, (shows the representative of) the union of men in relation with his kindred. There will be occasion for regret.

The

third line, undivided, (shows its subject) with his arms hidden in the thick grass, and at the 3.

top of a high mound. (But) makes no demonstration. 4.

The

make

he

fourth line, undivided, (shows its subject) but he does not proceed city wall

mounted on the to

for three years

;

the attack (he contemplates).

There

will

be good fortune. 5.

In the

of) the

fifth line,

union of

men

undivided, (the representative first wails and cries out, and

then laughs. His great host conquers, and he (and the subject of the second line) meet together. 6.

The topmost

line,

undivided, (shows the repre-

SECT.

THE THUNG

I.

AN HEXAGRAM.

87

sentative of) the union of men in the suburbs. will

There

be no occasion for repentance,

Thung Zin

XIII.

describes a condition of nature and of the

Phi. There \\as distress and obstruction But the union must be based entirely on public

state opposite to that of

here

union.

is

;

considerations, without taint of selfishness.

The strong line in the fifth, its correct, place, occupies the most important position, and has for its correlate the weak second line, also in

its

correct place.

The one divided line is naturally sought The upper trigram is that of heaven,

by all the strong lines. which is above the lower is

after

fire, whose tendency is to mount harmony with the idea of union. from all selfish motives, and this is

that of

;

All these things are in

upwards.

But the union must be indicated by

its

free

being in the remote

districts

of the country, where

people are unsophisticated, and free from the depraving effects A union from such motives will cope incident to large societies. with the greatest

the

difficulties

;

and yet a word of caution

is

added.

emblems the first attempts at union. It is strong, but There lowest place and it has no proper correlate above.

Line

i

;

in is,

however, no intermixture of selfishness in it. Lines 2 and 5 are proper correlates, which fact suggests in this hexagram the idea of their union being limited and partial, and

such as

is

relate in 6.

but 2

is

ground for blame. in an odd place ; but it has not a proper corand strong, This makes its subject more anxious to unite with 2

may

Line 3

afford

;

devoted to

its

proper correlate in

and takes the measures described.

afraid,

of whose strength 3 is His abstaining so long,

5,

however, from any active attempt, will save him from misfortune. Line 4 is strong, but in an even place, which weakens its subject. He also would fain make an attempt on 2 ; but he is afraid, and

does not carry his purpose into effect. Line 5 is strong, in an odd, and the central place ; and would fain unite with 2, which indeed is the proper correlate of its subject.

But 3 and 4 are powerful foes that oppose the union. Their opposition makes him weep; but he collects his forces, defeats them, and effects his purpose.

The union versal

;

but

reaches to

still

there

is

all

within the suburbs, and

no cause

for repentance.

is

not yet uni-

THE

Y! KING.

THE TA YO HEXAGRAM.

XIV.

Tfi Yti indicates that,

which

it

TEXT.

(under the circumstances

implies), there will

be great progress and

success. first line, undivided, there is no apwhat is injurious, and there is no error. Let there be a realisation of the difficulty (and danger of the position), and there will be no error 1.

In the

proach to

(to the end). 2.

In the second

waggon is

with

made, there 3.

The

undivided, we have a large In whatever direction advance

line,

load.

its

be no

will

error.

shows us a feudal the Son of Heaven.

third line, undivided,

prince presenting his offerings to small man would be unequal (to such a duty).

A

The

fourth line, undivided, shows its subject keeping his great resources under restraint. There 4.

will 5.

be no

The

error. fifth

line,

divided,

shows the sincerity of that of

its

subject reciprocated by (represented in the hexagram).

proper majesty, and there

will

all

the others

Let him display a be good fortune.

6. The topmost line, undivided, shows its subject with help accorded to him from Heaven. There

will

be good fortune, advantage

in

every respect.

XIV. TS Yu means Great Havings denoting in a kingdom a state of prosperity and abundance, and in a family or individual, '

'

;

SECT.

THE KHIEX HEXAGRAM.

I.

89

THE AJHEN HEXAGRAM.

XV.

The suindicates progress and success. will have it as humble implies), perior man, (being a (good) issue (to his undertakings).

The first line, divided, shows us the superior man who adds humility to humility. (Even) the great i.

The danger threatening

a state of opulence.

from the pride which

it is

likely to

engender.

such a condition arises

But everything here

against that issue. Apart from the symbolism of the trigrams, we have the place of honour occupied by a weak line, so that its is

subject will be humble and all the other lines, strong as they are, will act in obedient sympathy. There will be great progress and success. ;

Line

i,

at the lowest part

is

though strong,

of the figure, and

No

has no correlate above.

external influences have as yet acted Let him do as directed, and no hurtful

injuriously on its subject. influence will ever affect him.

The

strong line 2 has

the figure, and will use Hence the symbolism.

its

its

proper correlate in

line 5, the ruler of

strength in subordination to his humility.

Line 3 is strong, and in the right (an odd) place. The topmost line of the lower trigram is the proper place for a feudal lord. The subject of this will humbly serve the condescending ruler in A small man, having the place without the virtue, would line 5. give himself

airs.

Line 4 is strong, but the strength is tempered by the position, which is that of a weak line. Hence he will do no injury to the mild ruler, to whom he is so near. Line 5 symbolises the ruler. Mild sincerity is good in him, and affects his ministers and others. But a ruler must not be without an awe-inspiring majesty. Even the topmost line takes its character from 5. The strength

of

its

subject

is still

tempered, and Heaven gives

its

approval.

THE

9O

may be

stream

that

crossed with

this,

and there

will

be

fortune.

good 2.

TEXT.

Y! KING.

The second line, divided, shows has made itself recognised. With

us humility firm correct-

ness there will be good fortune.

The third line, undivided, shows the superior of (acknowledged) merit. He will maintain his success to the end, and have good fortune. 3.

man

The

4.

action

up

would be

(the

being

may his

in

every

way advantageous,

whose stirring

his humility.

fifth line,

divided, shows one who, without

He

able to employ his neighbours. advantageously use the force of arms. rich, is

movements

6.

has

more)

The

5.

fourth line, divided, shows one,

will

All

be advantageous.

The sixth line, divided, shows us humility that made itself recognised. The subject of it will

with advantage put his hosts in motion only) punish his

own towns and

;

but (he will

state.

XV. An

essay on humility rightly follows that on abundant possessions. The third line, which is a whole line amid five others divided, occupying the topmost place in the lower trigram, is held by the Khang-hsi editors and many others to be ' the lord of the hexagram/ the representative of humility, strong, but abasing itself. There is nothing here in the text to make us enter

on the symbolism of the figure. Humility permanent success. A weak line, at the lowest place of the figure, is the farther

of the superior

Line

2

is

man

Line 3

is

'

the lord of the hexagram,' to above and below turn. is

fitting

way

to

symbol

its

proper place, representing

'

crowed ; that is, has proclaimed and strong, occupies an odd (its proper)

*

Line 4

the

adding humility to humility.

weak, central, and in

a humility that has

is

weak and

whom

all

itself.

place.

It is

represented by the lines

in its proper position.

Its subject is sure to

SECT.

THE YU HEXAGRAM.

I.

91

THE Yu HEXAGRAM.

XVI.

Yli indicates that,

the state which

(in

it

implies),

feudal princes may be set up, and the hosts put in motion, with advantage. 1.

The

first line,

divided, shows

claiming his pleasure

be

and

its

subject pro-

satisfaction.

There

will

evil. 2.

The second

divided, shows one who is a thing) without waiting sees (He to pass with his firm correctness

firm as a rock. till

has come

it

line,

;

there will be good fortune. 3.

The

third line, divided,

shows one looking up

he indulges the feeling of pleaIf he would understand! doing so, there will indeed be occa-

(for favours), while

sure and satisfaction. If

he be

late in

sion for repentance. 4.

The

whom

the

fourth

line,

undivided, shows

harmony and

satisfaction

come.

be successful and prosperous, but being so near the should

still

him from

fifth

Great line,

he

use the greatest precaution.

All men love and honour humility, in itself and without the adHence his juncts which usually command obedience and respect. neighbours follow the ruler in the fifth line, though he may not be

His humility need not keep him from the even asserting by force of arms. right, The subject of the sixth line, which is weak, is outside the game, very rich or powerful.

so to speak, that has been played out. He will use force, but only within his own sphere and to assert what is right. He will not be aggressive.

THE

92

Y! KING.

TEXT.

Let him not allow suspicions to enter his mind, and thus friends will gather around him. is

the success which he obtains.

5.

The

fifth line,

complaint, but

who

shows one with a chronic on without dying.

divided, lives

6. The topmost line, divided, shows its subject with darkened mind devoted to the pleasure and satisfaction (of the time) but if he change his course ;

even when (it may be considered there will be no error.

as)

completed,

XVJ. The Ytt hexagram denoted to King Wan a condition of harmony and happy contentment throughout the kingdom, when the people rejoiced in and readily obeyed their sovereign. At such a time his appointments and any military undertakings would be hailed and suppoited. The fourth line, undivided, is the lord of the

and being close to the fifth or place of dignity, is to be looked on as the minister or chief officer of the ruler. The ruler

figure,

gives to him his confidence yield their obedience.

;

and

all

represented by the other lines

Line

i is weak, and has for its correlate the strong 4. Its subject well enjoy the happiness of the time. But he cannot contain which is evil. himself, and proclaims, or boasts of, his satisfaction;

may

Line 2, though weak, is in its correct position, the centre, moreover, of the lower trigiam. Quietly and firmly its subject is able to abide in his place, and exercise a far-seeing discrimination. All is indicative of

Line 3

is

good

fortune.

weak, and in an odd place.

Immediately below

line 4,

to the lord of the figure, and depends on him, thinking of doing nothing, but how to enjoy himself. The consequence will be as described, unless he speedily change.

its

subject keeps looking

up

The strong subject of line 4 is the agent to whom the happy condition is owing; and it is only necessaiy to caution him to maintain his confidence in himself

and success

and

his purpose,

and

his adherents

will continue.

Line 5 is in the ruler's place ; but it is weak, and he is in danger of being carried away by the lust of pleasure. Moreover, proximity to the powerful minister represented by 4 is a source of danger.

SECT.

THE

I.

SUI HEXAGRAM.

THE

XVII.

93

Sui HEXAGRAM.

Sui indicates that (under its conditions) there will be great progress and success. But it will be advantageous to be firm and correct. There will (then) be no error.

The

1.

first line,

undivided, shows us one chang-

ing the object of his pursuit but if he be firm and correct, there will be good fortune. Going beyond ;

(his

find associates,

own) gate to

he

will

achieve

merit.

The second

2.

cleaves to the

divided,

line,

little

shows us one who

boy, and lets go the

man

of age

and experience.

The

shows us one who cleaves to the man of age and experience, and lets go the little boy. Such following will get what it seeks but it will be advantageous to adhere to what is firm and correct. 3.

third

line,

divided,

;

The

shows

one followed and obtaining (adherents). Though he be firm and correct, there will be evil. If he be sincere (however) in his course, and make that evident, into what error will he fall ? 4.

fourth

line,

undivided,

us

Hence he is repiesented as suffering from a chronic complaint, but nevertheless he does not die. See Appendix II on the line. Line subject if

he

6, at the is all

will

but

very top or end of the hexagram, is weak, and its lost. Still even for him there is a chance of safety,

but change.

THE

94

The

TEXT.

Yt KING.

undivided, shows us (the ruler) There sincere in (fostering all) that is excellent. 5.

will 6.

fifth line,

be good fortune.

The topmost

line,

shows us (that sinyea, and bound fast.

divided,

and clung to, the (We see) king with it presenting his offerings on the western mountain.

cerity) firmly held

XVII. Sui symbolises the idea of following.

It is said

to

follow Yti, the symbol of harmony and satisfaction. Where there are these conditions men are sure to follow ; nor will they follow

whom

The hexagram includes and where others follow him and the auspice of great progress and success is due to this flexiBut in both cases the following must bility and applicability of it. be guided by a reference to what is proper and correct. See the notes on the Th wan and the Great Symbolism. Line i is strong, and lord of the lower trigram. The weak lines ought to follow it but here it is below them, in the lowest place of the figure. This gives rise to the representation of one changing those in

they have no complacency.

the cases where one follows others,

;

;

Still through the native vigour indicated by the line being strong, and in its correct place, its subject will be fortunate.

his pursuit.

Going beyond his gate to find associates and superiority to selfish considerations.

indicates his public spirit,

Line 2 is weak. Its proper correlate is the strong 5 ; but it prefers to cleave to the line below, instead of waiting to follow 5. Hence the symbolism of the text, the bad omen of which needs not to be mentioned.

Line 3 is also weak, but it follows the strong line above it and leaves line i, reversing the couise of 2 ; with a different issue. It is weak, however, and 4 is not its proper correlate ; hence the conclusion of the paragraph

is

equivalent to a caution.

strong, and in the place of a great minister next the ruler in 5. But his having adherents may be injurious to the supreme and sole authority of that ruler, and only a sincere loyalty will save

Line 4

him from Line 5

is

and misfortune. strong, and in its correct

error is

place, with 2 as

its

proper

thus producing the auspicious symbolism. The issue of the hexagram is seen in line 6 ; which represents the ideal of following, directed by the most sincere adherence to correlate

;

SECT.

THE Kj HEXAGRAM.

I.

95

THE KC HEXAGRAM.

XVIII.

Kti indicates great progress and success (to him deals properly with the condition represented

who by

There

it).

will

be advantage

in (efforts like that

(He should weigh of) crossing the great stream. well, however, the events of) three days before the turning point, and those (to be done) three days after

it.

The

1.

first line,

divided,

shows

(a son) dealing with the troubles caused by his father. If he be an will father the of having the blame escape (able) son,

erred.

good

The

position is perilous, but there will be fortune in the end.

The second

undivided, shows (a son) dealing with the troubles caused by his mother. He should not (carry) his firm correctness (to the 2.

line,

utmost).

The

shows (a son) dealing with the troubles caused by his father. There may be some small occasion for repentance, but there will 3.

third line, undivided,

not be any great error. 4.

what

The

fourth

line,

divided,

shows

(a son)

viewing

This influence not only extends to men, but also to 'The western hill' is mount Kh\, at the foot spiritual beings. of which was the original settlement of the house of A!au, in B.C.

from

is right.

1325.

Wan

The

use of the

name

into the time of king

'king' here brings us

Wu

at least

down

THE

96

Yt KING.

TEXT.

indulgently the troubles caused by his father.

go forward, he

The

will find

cause to regret

If

he

it.

divided, shows (a son) dealing with the troubles caused by his father. He obtains 5.

fifth

line,

the praise of using (the

The

6.

fit

instrument for his work).

shows us one who

sixth line, undivided,

does not serve either king or feudal lord, but lofty spirit prefers (to attend to) his own affairs. XVIII. In the 6th Appendix

it is

'

said,

They who

in

a

follow another

are sure to have services (to perfoim), and hence Sui is followed In Ku.' But means the having painful or troublesome services It denotes here a state in which to do. things aie going to ruin,

Ku

if through poison or venomous worms and the figure is supposed to desciibe the arrest of the decay and the restoration to soundness and vigour, so as to justify its auspice of great progress

as

;

To realise such a result, however, great efforts will in crossing the great stream as and a careful conrequired, deration of the events that have brought on the state of decay,

and success. l>e

s

;

and

the measuies to

Appendix

The

I

'

on the

be taken to remedy

it

is

also necessary.

See

three days/

and of all the other lines, excepting perYet the line itself is of the yin nature, haps and the tngram in which it plays the pimcipal part is also yin. Line 2 is stiong, and of the yang nature, with the yin line 5 as 6,

its

subject of line i, appears as a son

In line 2, 5 appears as the mother ; but its suba son, and the upper tngram altogether is yang. again unable to account for these things. As is said in the note of

proper correlate.

ject there I

am

Regis on

mere

is

line 2

'

:

Haec

matris fihique denominatio ad has hneas

commentarius vulgans, ad explicatiosententiarum eas pro matre et filio supponere dicendum Nee ratio reddetur si quis in utroque hoc nomine mysterium est. quaerat. Cur enim aliis in figuris lineae nunc re gem, nunc vasaltranslatitia est, et, ut ait

nem

lum, jam imperil administrum, mox

praefectum

referre dicantur?

summum armorum

Accommodantur

scilicet lineae

ad

verba sententiae et verba sententiae ad sensum, quemadmodum faciendum de methodis libri Shih King docet Mencius, V, i, ode 4. 2.'

We 4

is

must

leave this difficulty.

also weak.

decay ?

But the

What can line is

Line

i is

weak, and

its

correlate

subject do to remedy the state of the first of the figure, and the decay is not its

SECT.

THE LIN HEXAGRAM.

I.

THE LIN HEXAGRAM.

XIX.

Lin

97

under the conditions supposed in it) there will be great progress and success, while it will be advantageous to be firmly correct. In the eighth month there will be evil. (indicates that

The

i.

first

advancing By

yet great.

undivided,

company

shows

its

subject subject of the

(with the

giving heed to the cautions in the Text, he will

accomplish what

The

line,

in

is

promised.

ruler in line 5

is

repiesented by a

Thus the symbolism takes the strong. the prevailing decay induced somehow must be very gentle

weak

line,

while 2

is

form of a son dealing with by his mother. But a son

in all his intercourse with his mother,

and espe-

cially so, when constrained by a sense of duty to oppose her course. I do not think there is anything more or better to be said here.

The

adopted by Regis and his friends, that king Wan, the mother Thli-sze, and the son king cannot be maintained. I have searched, but in vain, for the

historical interpretation

the father here

Wu,

slightest

ing of

Chinese sanction of

is

strong,

Ku

it would give to the instead of tioubles caused.

and

and not central, so that But this tendency

to excess in his efforts.

line's

it,

misfortunes endured,

Line 3

go

is

its is

mean-

subject might well counteracted by the

place in the trigram Sun, often denoting lowly submission.

Line 4 weakness.

is

weak, and in an even place, which intensifies that

Hence comes the caution against going forward. The weak line 5, as has been said, is the seat of the ruler ; but

the strong 2, the strong siding champion work of the hexagram is delegated. Line 6 is strong, and has no proper correlate below. Hence it suggests the idea of one outside the sphere of action, and taking no

its

proper correlate

minister, to

whom

is

the

part in public affairs, but occupied with the culture of himself.

THE

98

second will

Yi KING.

Through

line).

his

TEXT.

firm correctness there

be good fortune. The second line, undivided, shows

its subject of the first the subject advancing company (with There will be good fortune (advancing) will line). 2.

in

;

be

in

every way advantageous.

The

3.

third line, divided,

shows one well pleased

(indeed) to advance, (but whose action) will be in no way advantageous. If he become anxious about it

(however), there will be no error.

The

4.

fourth line, divided, shows one advancing

in the highest 5.

The

There

mode.

fifth

line,

wisdom, such as be good fortune.

will

be no

error.

shows the advance of There will the great ruler.

divided,

befits

The

sixth line, divided, shows the advance of and honesty generosity. There will be good fortune, and no error. 6.

'

The explained as meaning great the the misunderstood of writer, having meaning previous Ku, sub'He who such services become perfoims may joins "great."' But XIX. In Appendix VI Lin

Lin denotes to rule.

'

is

the approach of authority, to inspect, to comfort, or look at the figure, we see two strong undivided

When we

advancing on the four weak lines above them, and thence be powerful and successful. That action must be governed by rectitude, however, and

lines

follows the assurance that their action will

by caution grounded on the changing character of all conditions and events. The meaning of the concluding sentence is given in Appendix I as simply being that, the advancing power will decay in no long time/ Lu K$.r\-kh\ (Ming dynasty) says: 'The sun the is the (or day) symbol of what is Yang; and the moon is the of what is Yin. symbol Eight is the number of the second of the four emblematic figures (the smaller Yin), and seven is the number of the third of them (the smaller Yang). Hence to indicate the period of the coming of what is Yin, we use the phrase, "the " and to indicate the period of the coming of what is eighth month ; c

SECT.

THE KWAN HEXAGRAM.

I.

XX.

99

THE KWAN HEXAGRAM.

Kwan

shows (how he whom it represents should the like) worshipper who has washed his hands, but not (yet) presented his offerings with sincerity

be

;

Yang, we

The Khang-hsi

use the phrase, "the seventh day."'

editors say that this is the best explanation of the language of the Text that can be given : 'The numbers culminate in 9, the

Yang

and producing the 8 of the smaller Yin. The Yin numbers culminate in 6, and the next advance produces the 7 of the smaller Yang; so that 7 and 8 are the numbers indicating the first birth of what is Yin and what is Yang If we go to seek,' they add, 'any other explanation of the phraseology of the Text, and influence then leceding

'

'

such expressions as " 3 days," " 3 years/' " 10 years," &c., we make them unintelligible/ Lin is the hexagram of the twelfth month.

Line its

i

subject

is

a strong line in its proper place. The danger is that be more strong than prudent, hence the caution in

may

requiring fiim correctness. Line 2, as strong, should be in an odd place counterbalanced by the central position, and

Line 3

Hence

its

is

but this

;

its

weak, and neither central, nor in

action will not be advantageous

;

is

more than

correlate in line 5.

its

correct position.

but being at the top

of the trigram Tui, which means being pleased, its subject is represented as 'veil pleased to advance/ Anxious reflection will save

him from Line

error.

proper place, and has for its coradvance is 'in the highest style/ Line 5 is the position of the ruler. It is weak, but being central, and having for its correlate the strong and central 2, we have in it a symbol of authority distrustful of itself, and employing fit agents; 4,

though weak,

relate the strong i.

is

in its

Hence

its

characteristic of the wise ruler.

Line 6 is the last of the trigram Khwan, the height therefore of docility. Line 2 is not its correlate, but it belongs to the Yin to seek for the Yan g ; and it is so emphatically in this case. Hence the characteristic and issue as assigned.

THE

IOO

Y! KING.

TEXT.

and an appearance of dignity (commanding reverent regard).

The

1.

a lad

first

divided, shows the looking of

line,

not blamable in

;

matter for regret 2. The second

men

of inferior rank, but

men.

in superior line,

shows one peeping would be advantageous if it divided,

out from a door. It were (merely) the firm correctness of a female.

The

3.

third line, divided,

own

(the course of) his

life,

shows one looking at to advance or recede

(accordingly).

The

4.

fourth

line,

shows one contem-

divided,

It will be adplating the glory of the kingdom. vantageous for him, being such as he is, (to seek) to be a guest of the king.

The

5.

fifth

his

contemplating man, he will (thus)

The

undivided,

line,

own fall

shows

its

A

life(-course).

into

no

subject

superior

error.

undivided, shows its subject contemplating his character to see if it be indeed that of a superior man. He will not fall into error. 6.

sixth line,

XX. The Chinese is

named,

is

used in

character Kvvdn, from which this hexagiam in two senses. In the Thwan, the first

it

paragraph of the treatise on the Thwan, and the paragraph on the Great Symbolism, it denotes showing, manifesting; in all other places ject of the

it

denotes contemplating, looking

hexagram

is

the sovereign

manifests himself to them, and

how

two upper, undivided, lines belong lines below them are his subjects,

up

and

at.

they contemplate

the four weak and others who look

to the sovereign

ministers

The subhow he him. The

his subjects,

;

Kwdn is the hexagram of the eighth month. Thwan king Wiin symbolises the sovereign by

at him.

In the

a wor-

when he is most solemn in his religious seivice, at the commencement of it, full of sincerity and with a dignified carriage.

shipper

Line

i is

weak, and in the lowest place, improper also for

it

;

SECT.

THE SHIH HO HEXAGRAM.

I.

THE SHIH Ho HEXAGRAM.

XXI.

Ho

Shih

TO I

indicates

successful progress (in

of things which it supposes). be advantageous to use legal constraints. condition

The

1.

first

be no

the will

undivided, shows one with his and deprived of his toes. There

line,

feet in the stocks will

It

error.

The second

shows one biting through the soft flesh, and (going on to) bite off the nose. There will be no error. 2.

line,

the symbol of a thoughtless lad, superficial views.

Line 2

is

divided,

who cannot

see

far,

and takes only

its proper place, showing a woman, and only able to peep as from her door at the subject line. But ignorance and retirement are proper in a

also weak, but in

living retired,

of the

fifth

woman. Line 3, at the top of the lower trigram Khwan, and weak, must belong to a subject of the utmost docility, and will wish to act only accoi ding to the exigency of time and circumstances. Line 4, in the place proper to its weakness, is yet in immediate proximity to

5,

representing the sovereign. stirred to ambition.

Its subject is

moved

accordingly, and

Line 5

is

stiong,

and

in the place of the luler.

He

is

a superior

does not relieve him from the duty of self-contemplation or examination.

man, but

this

There is a slight difference in the 6th paragraph from the 5th, which can hardl) be expressed in a translation. By making a change in the punctuation, however, the different significance may be brought out. Line 6 is stiong, and should be considered out of the work of the hexagram, but its subject is still possessed by the spirit

of

its idea,

and

is

led to self-examination.

THE

1O2

The

TEXT.

Y! KING.

shows one gnawing dried flesh, and meeting with what is disagreeable. There will be occasion for some small regret, but no 3.

third line, divided,

(great) error.

The

4.

fourth

line,

undivided, shows one gnawing and getting the pledges

the flesh dried on the bone,

money and

of

him

arrows.

to realise the difficulty

which case there

in

The

5.

be advantageous to of his task and be firm,

It will

will

be good fortune

shows one gnawing at and finding the yellow gold. Let him

fifth line,

divided,

dried flesh, be firm and correct, realising the peril (of his posi-

There

tion).

The

be no error.

will

shows one wearing There will the cangue, and deprived of his ears. be evil. 6.

sixth line, undivided,

XXI. Shih

Ho

means

*

literally

Union by gnawing/

We

see in

the figure two stiong lines in the first and last places, \\hile all the others, with the exception of the fourth, are divided. This suggests

and the mouth between them kept open by Let that be gnawed through and the mouth will

the idea of the jaws in

something

it.

come

the obstacles to union,

together. So in the body politic. Remove and high and low will come together with

a good understanding.

And how

close

By

and

the ja\\s

emblemed by

force,

And

the

are those obstacles to be lemovecl

gnawing

these are sure to be successful.

i

that

The

is,

by

?

legal constraints.

auspice of the figure

is

and 6 are much out of the game or action described

in

There

favourable.

Lines

;

\\ ill

be success.

Hence

the figure.

they are held to represent parties receiving punishment, while the other lines represent parties inflicting it. The punishment in line i is that of the stocks, administered for

a small offence, and before crime has made much way. But if the 'depriving' of the toes is not merely keeping them in lestraint, but cutting them off, as the Chinese character suggests, the punish-

ment appears it

is

to a western reader too severe.

weak, appropriately therefore in an even place, and central besides. The action therefore of its subject should

Line 2

is

SECT.

THE

I.

Pi

HEXAGRAM.

THE

XXII.

Pf

IOJ

HEXAGRAM.

Pi indicates that there should be free course (in -what

it

There will be little advantage be allowed to advance (and take

denotes). if

(however)

it

the lead). be effective

and

shown by

the

*

biting through the soft Immediately below, however, is a stiong offender represented by the strong line, and before he will submit ' it is necessary to bite off his nose ; for punishment is the rule ; ;

an easy

flesh/

this is

thing. '

must be continued and increased till the end is secured. Line 3 is weak, and in an even place. The action of its subject will be ineffective ajid is emblemed by the hard task of gnawing through dried flesh, and encountering, besides, what is distasteful and injurious in it. But again comes in the consideration that here punishment is the rule, and the auspice is not all bad. Of old, in a civil case, both parties, before they weie heard, bi ought to the court an arrow (or a bundle of arrows), in testimony of their rectitude, after which they were heard in a criminal case, they in the same way deposited each thirty pounds of gold, or it

;

;

some other

metal.

See the Official Book of

of the fourth

The

.A'au, 27. 14, 15.

getting those pledges indicates his exercising his judicial functions ; and what he gnaws through indicates their difficulty. Moreover, though the line is strong, it is in subject

an even place

The

;

line's

and hence comes

the lesson of caution.

represents the lord of judgment/ As it is a weak line, he will be disposed to leniency ; and his judgments will be c

fifth line

correct.

'

declared by his finding the ' yellow metal ; for one of the five correct colours. The position is in the

This

is

'

yellow

is

'

and

that of rule ; but the line being weak, a caution is given, as under the previous line. The action of the figure has passed, and still we have, in the subject of line 6, one persisting in wrong, a strong criminal, wearing

centre

the cangue,

and deaf to counsel.

Of course

the auspice

is evil.

THE

IO6 1.

The

first line,

Yt KING.

TEXT.

divided, shows one overturning

the couch by injuring its legs. (The injury will go on to) the destruction of (all) firm correctness, and there will be evil. 2.

The second

line,

shows one over-

divided,

throwing the couch by injuring

its

frame.

go on to) the destruction of correctness, and there will be evil. injury will

3.

The

(The firm

(all)

shows its subject among but there will be no error.

third line, divided,

the overthrowers

The

;

shows its subject having overthrown the couch, and (going to injure) the skin (of him who lies on it). There will be evil. 4.

fourth

line,

divided,

The fifth line, divided, shows (its subject leadon the others like) a string of fishes, and (obing taining for them) the favour that lights on the inmates of the palace. There will be advantage in 5.

every way.

The topmost

undivided, shows its subject The (as) a great fruit which has not been eaten. man a finds as chariot superior (the people again) 6.

line,

The

carrying him.

small

men

(by their course)

overthrow their own dwellings. XXIII.

Po

is

the symbol of falling or of causing to

be applied, both in the natuial and process of decay, or that of overthrow.

may

fall,

and

political woild, to the

The

figuie

consists of

divided lines, and one undivided, which last thus becomes the prominent and piincipal line in the figure. Decay or overthrow five

and crept up to the top. The month, when the beauty and glory of hexagram summer have disappeared, and the year is ready to fall into the arms of sterile winter. In the political world, small men have gradually displaced good men and great, till but one remains and

has begun at the bottom of is

it,

that of the ninth

;

the lesson for

him

is

to wait.

The power

operating against him

is

SECT.

THE FU HEXAGRAM.

I.

XXIV.

THE

IO7

HEXAGRAM.

Fti

Fft indicates that there will be free course

progress

(in

what

it

no one to

finds

denotes).

distress

him

(The subject of it) in his exits and

too stiong; but the fashion of political life passes away. a change for the better will shortly appear.

The

lesser

symbolism

The

occupant.

chiefly that of a

is

If

he wait,

bed or couch with

its

occupant to be that an attempt be made to overthrow him.

idea of the

overthrown, or at least

and

hexagram requires

this

m

line i is made by commencing with the Accordingly the attempt the The of couch. symbolism goes on to explain itself. The legs evil worker is the overthrow of all firm correctness. the of object

Of course Line

there will be

evil.

same

effect as i only the foe has advanced from the legs to the frame of the couch. Line 3 also represents an overthiower; but it differs from the 2

is

to the

;

others in being the correlate of 6. The subject of it will take part with him. His association is with the subject of 6, and not, as in the other weak lines, with one of its own kind.

From

line 4

overthrown.

the danger

The person

is

imminent.

of the occupant

The couch is

at the

has been

mercy of the

destroyers.

symbolism changes. The subject of 5 is lord the other weak lines/ and their subjects are at his disposal.

With of

all

'

line 5 the

He and

they are represented as fishes, following one another as if All fishes come under the category of yin. the symbolism changes again. The subject of 5, representing

strung together.

Then

and controlling sixth line.

yang leads

all

We

all

the yin lines, is loyal to the subject of the is the rightful sovereign in his palace, and 5

He

the others there to enjoy the sovereign's favours.

Its strong symbolism under line 6. the and survives, him, subject, notwithstanding attempts against The people again cherish their sovereign, acquires fresh vigour. and the plotters have wrought to their own overthrow.

have

still

different

THE

IOS

come

friends

entrances;

TEXT.

Yf KING.

to him,

and no error

is

He will return and repeat his (proper) In seven days comes his return. There

committed. course.

be advantage made.

will is

1.

The

2.

The second

whatever direction movement

in

undivided, shows its subject an error) of no great extent, which returning (from would not proceed to anything requiring repentance. There will be great good fortune. return (of

first

its

4.

The

will

divided, shows the admirable

line,

subject).

3. The third made repeated

but there

line,

line,

There

be good fortune. divided, shows one who has

The

returns.

be no

fourth

line,

will

position

is

perilous,

error.

divided,

shows

its

subject

right in the centre

moving by the other divided (to his

(among those represented lines), and yet returning alone

proper path).

The fifth

shows the noble return of no be subject. ground for repentance. 6. The topmost line, divided, shows its subject all astray on the There will subject of returning. be evil. There will be calamities and errors. If with his views he put the hosts in motion, the end will be a great defeat, whose issues will extend to the ruler of the state. Even in ten years he will not be able to repair the disaster. 5.

its

XXIV.

line, divided,

There

will

coming back or hexagram showed us inferior prevailing over superior men, all that is good in nature and society yielding before what is bad. But change is the law of nature and society. When over again.

Fti symbolises the idea of returning,

The

last

decay has reached its climax, recovery will begin to take place. In Po we had one strong topmost line, and five weak lines below

SECT.

THE

I.

WANG HEXAGRAM.

Wti

XXV. THE WO WANG

Wft

Wang indicates

IOQ

HEXAGRAM.

great progress and success,

while there will be advantage in being firm and it

;

here we have one strong

line,

and

five

weak

lines

above

it.

To

from what we see in nature, Po is the hexagram of the ninth month, in which the triumph of cold and illustrate the subject

decay in the year

is

It is

nearly complete.

month, whose hexagram

is

= :=

Khwan

complete ;

in the tenth

then follows our hex-

agram Fu, belonging to the eleventh month, in which was the winter solstice when the sun turned back in his course, and moved with

a constant regular progress towards the

summer

solstice.

In harmony with these changes of nature are the changes in the There is nothing in the Yi political and social state of a nation. to suggest the hope of a peifect society or

kingdom

that cannot

be moved.

The

strong bottom line

is

ment, and the uppei trigram

The

the is

first

of A'an, the trigram of

Khwan,

move-

denoting docility and capa-

meet with no distressing obstacle, change before it into strong, and be as friends. The blight quality will be developed brighter and brighter fiom day to day, and month to month. city.

strong

returning

and the weak

The

'

sentence,

line

will

lines will

Jn seven days comes his return/ occasions

If the reader will lefer to

some

hexagrams 44, 33, 12, 20, 23, and 2, he will see that during the months denoted by those figures, the 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, and loth, the yin lines have gradually been prevailing ovei the yang, until in Khwan (2) they have extruded them entirely fiom the lineal figure. Then comes our Ffi, as a seventh figure, in which the yang line begins to reasseit itself, and from which it goes on to extrude the yin lines in their turn. Explained therefore of the months of the year, we have to take a day for a month. And something analogous we cannot say exactly what must have place in society and the perplexity.

state.

1

THE

TO If

correct.

he

correct,

The

from

all

his

him

for

first line,

to

move

in

it

any

undivided, shows

His advance

insincerity.

be not not be

action)

and

will fall into errors,

advantageous 1.

subject and

(its

TEXT.

Yf KING.

will

direction.

its

subject free

be accom-

will

panied with good fortune. 2. The second line, divided, shows one who reaps without having ploughed (that he might reap), and gathers the produce of his third year's fields without

having cultivated them the first year for that end. To such a one there will be advantage in whatever direction he may move.

The

3.

third

who

pening to one The concluding divination

by

The

is

shows calamity hapas in from insincerity

divided,

line,

free

is

;

uho

auspice or oracle to him

Ffl

finds this

what we might expect.

subject of line

i

is

of course the undivided

line, meaning A^ang- jze, way of the superior man/ There must have been some deviation from that, or returning could not be '

here, says

the

'

*

spoken Line is

2 is in its

proper place, and central

more than compensated

the its

of.

subject

weak.

This

adherence to

line i,

but

;

however, by

not being a proper correlate.

fifth line is

for,

its

it

is

Hence

the return of

called excellent or admirable.

Line 3 is weak, and in the uneven place of a strong line. It is the lop line, moreover, of the trigram whose attribute is movement. Hence the symbolism ; but any evil issue may be prevented

by a

weak

danger and by caution. proper correlate in i ; different from

realisation of

Line 4 has lines

Line 5

Khwan, Line 6

;

is

its

and

its

docility.

all

the other

different accordingly.

is

in the central place of honour,

denoting is

course

Hence

weak; and being

its

and

the middle line of

auspice.

at the top of the

hexagram, when

its

action of returning is all concluded, action on the part of its subject ' will lead to evils such as are mentioned. Ten years ' seems to be

a round number, signifying a long time, as in hexagram

3. 2.

SECT.

W

THE

I.

WANG HEXAGRAM.

I I I

A

the case of an ox that has been tied up. passer by finds it (and carries it off), while the people in the

neighbourhood have the calamity (of being accused and apprehended).

The

4.

fourth

undivided, shows (a case) in

line,

which, if its subject can remain firm and correct, there will be no error. 5.

The

free

from

undivided, shows one who is Let insincerity, and yet has fallen ill.

fifth

line,

him not use medicine, and he

have occasion

will

for

joy (in his recovery).

The topmost

undivided, shows its subject insincerity, yet sure to fall into error, if he take action. (His action) will not be advan6.

free

line,

from

tageous in any way.

XXV. Wang insincere

;

such a condition

The

cere.

is

the

Wu Wang ;

its

is

and

often of being

descriptive of a state of entire

freedom from

symbol of being is

subject

is

reckless,

one \\ho

and sinHeaven, and of we have an essay hexagram is

entirely simple

characteristic of the action of

quality In this the highest style of humanity. on this noble attribute. An absolute rectitude

is

essential to

it.

The

nearer one comes to the ideal of the quality, the more powerful will

be

that

he never swerve from being correct.

his influence, the greater his success.

But

let

him see

to

it

The first line is strong; at the commencement of the inner trigram denoting movement, the action of its subject will very much characterise all the action set forth, and will itself be fortunate. Line

may be

2 is

weak, central, and in

predicated of

its

correct place.

The

quality

There is an entire highest degree. freedom in its subject from selfish or mercenary motive. He is good simply for goodness' sake. And things are so constituted it

in

its

that his action will be successful.

But calamity may also sometimes befal the best, and where there freedom from insincerity and line 3 being weak, and in the an even line, lays its subject open to this misfortune. 'The of place is this

;

'

people of the neighbourhood are of course entirely innocent. Line 4 is the lowest in the trigram of strength, and i is not

1 I

THE

2

XXVI.

Under

Yi KING.

THE TA KH

the conditions of

and

tageous to be firm

TEXT.

HEXAGRAM.

T Khh

correct.

it

(If

be advansubject do

will its

not seek to) enjoy his revenues in his own family (without taking service at court), there will be good It will

fortune.

be advantageous for him to cross

the great stream. 1.

The

undivided, shows

first line,

position of

It will

peril.

its

subject in a

be advantageous

for

him

to stop his advance. 2.

The second

line,

with the strap under 3.

The

third

it

line,

undivided, shows a carriage

removed. undivided, shows

its

subject

way with good horses. It will be advantageous for him to realise the difficulty (of his course), and to be firm and correct, exercising himurging his

self daily in his charioteering a proper correlate, nor

Hence

the paragraph

is

and methods of defence;

the fourth the place for a strong line.

must be understood as a caution.

Line 5 is strong, in the central place of honour, and has Us proper correlate in 2. Hence its subject must possess the quality of the hexagram in perfection. And yet he shall be sick or in distress.

But he need not be anxious. Without him will be opened.

his efforts a

way of

escape for

Line 6 is at the top of the hexagram, and comes into the field v hen the action has run its course. He should be still, and not initiate any fresh movement.

SECT.

THE TA KH$ HEXAGRAM.

I.

113

then there will be advantage in whatever direction he may advance.

The

4.

fourth line, divided, shows the

(and yet) having the piece of

There

young

wood over

bull,

his horns.

be great good fortune. 5. The fifth line, divided, shows the teeth of a There will be good fortune. castrated hog. will

The sixth line, undivided, shows its subject command of the firmament of heaven. There

6.

(as) in

will

be progress.

XXVI. Khh. has two meanings. It is the symbol of restraint, and of accumulation. What is repressed and restrained accumulates its strength and increases its volume. Both these meanings are found in the treatise on the Thwan; the exposition of the Great Symbolism has different lines aie

ment.

The

first

for its subject the

accumulation of

virtue.

The

occupied with the repression or restraint of movethree lines receive that repiession, the upper three

The accumulation to which all tends is that of virtue and hence the name of Td Khb 'the Great Accumulation.' What the Thwan teaches, is that he who goes about to

exercise

it.

;

9

accumulate his viitue must be firm and correct, and

may

then,

engaging in the public service, enjoy the king's grace, and undertake the most difficult entei prises. Line if

i is

subject to the repression of 4, which will be increased

he try to advance. It is better for him to halt. Line 2 is liable to the repression of 5, and stops

its

advance of

subject having the wisdom to do so through its position in the central place. The strap below, when attached to the axle, made the carriage stop ; he himself acts that part. itself, its

-Oien, and responds to the sixth line, the But as they are both strong, the latter does not exert its repressive foice. They advance rapidly together; but the position is perilous for 3. By firmness and caution, howLine 3

last

of

is

the last of

Kan,

above.

ever, its subject will escape the peril,

The young

and the

to their rudiments the piece of

wood

to prevent

an instance of extraordinary precaution good.

issue will be good.

bull in line 4 has not yet got horns.

;

The

attaching

him from goring

and precaution

is

is

always

THE Y * KING.

114

XXVII.

THE

TEXT.

HEXAGRAM.

1

indicates that with firm correctness there will be

i

good fortune (in what is denoted by it). We must look at what we are seeking to nourish, and by the exercise of our thoughts seek for the proper aliment.

The

1.

first '

line,

You

undivided, (seems to be thus

leave your efficacious tortoise, and

addressed), look at me till your lower jaw hangs

be

will

down/

There

evil.

2. The second line, divided, shows one looking downwards for nourishment, which is contrary to what is proper or seeking it from the height (above), ;

advance towards which 3.

The

will lead to evil.

third line, divided,

shows one acting con-

method of nourishing. However firm there will be evil. For ten years let him

trary to the

he may

be,

not take any action,

(for)

it

will

not be in any

way

advantageous.

A

boar

trated,

Here

is

a powerful and dangerous animal.

and though

his tusks remain,

he cares

line 5 represents the luler in the

to repress the advance of evil. strong second line in its advance

A

Let him be caslittle

to use them.

hexagram, whose work

is

conflict with the subject of the

would be perilous ; but 5, taking early precaution, reduces it to the condition of the castrated pig. Not only is there no evil, but there is good fortune.

The \vork of repression is over, and the strong subject of line 6 now the amplest scope to carry out the idea of the hexagram

has

in the accumulation of virtue.

SECT.

THE

I.

4.

The

fourth

downwards

HEXAGRAM.

!

5

shows one looking nourish. There will

divided,

line,

for (the

1 1

power

to)

be good fortune. Looking with a tiger's downward unwavering glare, and with his desire that impels him to spring after spring, he will fall into no error.

The

shows one acting conand regular proper but if he abide He should firmness, there will be good fortune.

5.

what

trary to in

fifth line,

divided,

is

;

not, (however, try to) cross the great stream. 6.

The

sixth

whom comes

undivided,

line,

the

nourishing.

perilous, but there will

be advantageous

shows him from His position is

be good fortune.

It

will

to cross the great stream.

XXVII. I is the symbol of the upper jaw, and gives name to the hexagram ; but the whole figure suggests the appearance of the mouth. There are the two undivided lines at the bottom and The first line is the top, and the four divided lines between them. first in

the trigram A'an, denoting

third in

^an, denoting what

is

movement

;

and the

The former

solid.

sixth

is

is

the

the lower

and the other the more fixed upper jaw, part of the mobile chin The open lines are the cavity of the mouth. As the name jaw. ;

of the hexagram, I denotes nourishing, one's body or mind, one's or others. The nourishment in both the matter and method

self

will differ

it and every one must deteremploy and do in every case by exercising his own that in both respects the thoughts, only one thing being piemised, nourishing must be correct, and in harmony with what is right. The auspice of the whole hexagram is good.

according to the object of

mine what

The

;

to

strong, and in its proper place ; its subject might nourishing of himself, like a tortoise, which is supposed to live on air, without more solid nourishment. But he is drawn out of himself by desire for the weak 4, his proper correlate, first line is

suffice for the

at

whom

waters.

he looks

Hence

till

his

is

bad.

form of an expostulation addressed, fourth line to the

The weak

or, as we say, his mouth The symbolism takes the we must suppose, by the

jaw hangs down,

the auspice

first.

2, insufficient for itself,

seeks nourishment

first

from

THE

Il6

There

will

ditions)

in

TEXT.

THE TA Kwo HEXAGRAM.

XXVIII.

Kwo

Y! KING.

suggests to us a

beam

that

be advantage in moving (under any direction whatever there ;

is

weak.

its

con-

will

be

success. 1.

The

first line,

of the white

There

ground. 2.

mo

divided, shows one placing mats

grass under things set on the

will

The second

be no

line,

error.

undivided, shows a decayed

strong line below, which is not proper, and then from the In either strong 6, not its proper correlate, and too far removed. case the thing is evil. the

Line 3

weak, in an odd place ; and as it occupies the last tngram of movement, all that quality culminates in its Hence he considers himself sufficient for himself, without is

place in the subject.

any help from without, and the issue is bad. With line 4 we pass into the upper trigram. It is next to the ruler's place in 5 moreover, and bent on nourishing and training Its proper correlate is the strong i and though weak all below. ;

in himself, its subject looks with intense desire to the subject of that for help ; and there is no error.

The subject of line 5 is not equal to the requirements of his position ; but with a firm reliance on the strong 6, there will be good fortune. Let him not, however, engage in the most difficult undertakings.

The topmost

line is strong, and 5 relies on its subject; but the idea of the hexagram, he feels himself in with being penetrated the position of master or tutor to all under heaven. The task is

hard and the responsibility great; but realising these things, he will prove himself equal to them.

SECT.

THE TA KWO HEXAGRAM.

I.

II 7

willow producing shoots, or an old husband in possession of his young wife. There will be advantage in

every way.

The

3. is

weak.

third line, undivided,

There

The

4.

will

fourth

be

line,

shows a beam that

evil.

undivided,

shows a beam

If curving upwards. There will be good fortune. but of that other of for looks (the subject (help it) line one), there will

The

be cause for

regret.

undivided, shows a decayed willow producing flowers, or an old wife in possession of her young husband. There will be occasion 5.

fifth

line,

neither for blame nor for praise.

The topmost

6.

divided,

shows

its

subject extraordinary (boldness) wading through a stream, till the water hides the crown of his head. There will be evil, but no ground for blame. line,

with

XXVIII. Very extraordinary times require very extraordinary conduct of affairs in them. This is the text on which king Wan and his son discourse after their fashion in this hexa-

gifts in the

What

gram. dinary

what

goes, in their view, to constitute anything extraor-

greatness and not right.

is its

is

difficulty.

There need not be about

it

Looking at the figure we see two weak lines at the top and bottom, and four strong lines between them, giving us the idea of But the second a gieat beam unable to sustain its own weight.

and fifth and the

lines are

both strong and in the centre ; and from this component trigrams a good auspice is

attributes of the

obtained.

being weak, and at the bottom of the figure, and of the trigram Sun, which denotes flexibility and humility, its subject is distinguished by his carefulness, as in the matter mentioned ; and

Line

there

is

Line

weak

i

i

a good auspice. has no proper correlate above.

2

below him

;

Hence he inclines to the and we have the symbolism of the line. An

THE

Il8

Y! KING.

TEXT.

XXIX. THE KHAN HEXAGRAM.

repeated, shows the possession of sincerity, through which the mind is penetrating. Action (in accordance with this) will be of high

Khan, here

value.

The

shows

subject in the double defile, and (yet) entering a cavern within it. j.

There 2.

old

will

first line,

be

divided,

evil.

The second

line,

undivided, shows

husband with a young wife

of the subject of 2

its

will

will yet

its

have children

subject the action

;

be successful.

Its subject is confident strong, and in an odd place. Alone, he is strength, but his correlate in 6 is weak. unequal to the extraordinary strain on him, and has for his symbol the weak beam.

Line 3

in his

is

own

Line 4 is near 5, the ruler's place. On its subject devolves the duty of meeting the extraordinary exigency of the time but he is strong and, the line being in an even place, his strength is tem;

;

He will be equal to his task. Should he look out for the pered. help of the subject of i, that would affect him with another element of weakness; and his action would give cause for regiet. Line 5 is strong and central. Its subject should be equal to achieve extraordinary merit. But he has no proper correlate below, and as 2 inclined to i, so does this to 6. But here the willow only produces flowers, not shoots An old wife will have no children. to be

;

its

decay

will

soon reappear.

If the subject of the line

is

not

condemned

as that of 3, his action does not deserve praise. The subject of 6 pursues his daring course, with a view to satisfy the extraordinary exigency of the time, and benefit all under

the sky. He is unequal to the task, and sinks beneath motive modifies the judgment on his conduct.

it

;

but his

SECT.

THE KHAN HEXAGRAM.

I.

He

in all the peril of the defile.

a

little

will,

however, get

(of the deliverance) that he seeks.

The

3.

IIQ

third

line,

whether he comes or confronted by a

shows

divided,

= goes ( descends

defile.

All

is

peril

its

subject,

or ascends), to

him and

(His endeavours) will lead him into the cavern of the pit. There should be no action (in unrest.

such a case).

The

4.

fourth line, divided, shows

its

subject (at

feast), with (simply) a bottle of spirits, and a subsidiary basket of rice, while (the cups and bowls) are (only) of earthenware. He introduces his im-

a

portant lessons (as his ruler's) intelligence admits. There will in the end be no error. 5. The fifth line, undivided, shows the water of the defile not yet full, (so that it might flow away) but order will (soon) be brought about. There will ;

be no

error.

6. The topmost line, divided, shows its subject bound with cords of three strands or two strands, and placed in the thicket of thorns. But in three years he does not learn the course for him to pursue. There will be evil.

XXIX. The

trigram Khan, which the lineal symbol of water. giam, a pit,' 'a perilous cavity, or defile is

is

'

*

Y!

doubled to form

Its

is

;

this

hexa-

meaning, as a character,

and here and elsewhere

in

leads the reader to think of a dangerous defile, with water It becomes symbolic of danger, and what the flowing through it. authors of the Text had in mind was to show how danger should the

it

its effect on the mind, and how to get out of it. a strong central line, between two divided exhibits trigram The central represented to king the sincere honesty

be encountered,

The lines.

Wan

and goodness of the subject of the hexagram, whose mind was sharpened and made penetrating by contact with danger, and who

THE

I2O

Y! KING.

XXX. THE

Ll indicates

that, (in

TEXT.

Li HEXAGRAM.

regard to what

it

denotes),

be advantageous to be firm and correct, and that thus there will be free course and success. it

will

manner worthy

acted in a the

Thwan

of his character.

It is implied, though would get out of the danger. the bottom of the figure, and has no correlate

does not say

it,

that he

Line i is weak, at above, no helper, that is, beyond itself. All these things render the case of its subject hopeless. He will by his efforts only involve himself more deeply in danger. Line 2 is strong, and in the centre. Its subject is unable, indeed, to escape altogether from the danger; but he does not it like the involve himself more deeply subject of i, and obtains

m

some

ease.

Line 3

is

is

in

subject

Line 4

weak, and occupies the place of a strong an evil case.

line.

Its

weak, and will get no help from its correlate in i. Its not one who can avert the danger threatening himself and others. But his position is close to that of the ruler in 5, subject

is

is

whose intimacy he cultivates with an unostentatious sincerity, symbolled by the appointments of the simple feast, and whose intelligence he cautiously enlightens. In consequence, there will be no error.

The subject of line 5 The waters of the defile

on the eve of extrication and deliverance. long have free vent and disappear, and the ground will be ^veiled and made smooth. The line is strong, in a proper place, and in the place of honour. is

will ere

The

case of the subject of line 6 is hopeless. When danger its highest point, there he is, represented by a weak The ' thicket of thorns ' line, and with no proper correlate below.

has reached

is

taken as a metaphor for a prison ; I have been unable to find it.

a history,

but

if

the expression has

SECT.

Let

THE

I.

L?

HEXAGRAM.

121

subject) also nourish (a docility like that of) the cow, and there will be good fortune. (its

The

first line, undivided, shows one ready to But he treads at the with confused steps. same time reverently, and there will be no mistake. 1.

move

The second

2.

in

line,

his place in yellow.

shows its subject There will be great good

divided,

fortune. 3. The third line, undivided, shows its subject in a position like that of the declining sun. Instead of playing on his instrument of earthenware, and

singing to of eighty.

The

4.

of

he utters the groans of an old will be evil.

it,

fourth line, undivided, shows the

How

its

fire,

5.

abrupt subject's coming. with death, to be rejected (by all)

The

man

There

fifth

line,

it is,

manner as with

!

shows its subject as torrents, and groaning in

divided,

one with tears flowing in There will be good fortune. sorrow.

XXX. Li is the name of the trigram representing fire and light, and the sun as the source of both of thete. Its virtue or attnbute But Li has is brightness, and by a natural metaphor intelligence. also the meaning of inhering in, or adhering to, being attached to. Both these significations occur in connexion with the hexagram, and make it difficult to determine what was the subject of it in the minds of the authors. If we take the whole figure as expressing the subject, we have, as in the treatise on the Thwan, 'a double brightness/ a phrase which is understood to denominate the ruler. If we take the two central lines as indicating the subject, we have weakness, In either case there are dwelling with strength above and below. from the a strict adherence to what is correct, and subject required

a docile humility. '

jze says

:

much more

The so.

On

the second

nature of the ox

The

member of the is

subject of the

docile,

and

Thwan

Kh&n%cow is

that of the

hexagram adhering

closely to

122

The topmost

6.

its

THE

Y! KING.

line,

undivided, shows the king

subject in

employing Achieving admirable

TEXT*

his punitive

expeditions.

(merit), he breaks (only) the chiefs (of the rebels). Where his prisoners were not their associates, he does not punish. There will be no error.

he must be able to act in obedience to it, as docile and then there will be good fortune.' Line i is strong, and at the bottom of the trigram for fire, the Its subject therefore will move nature of which is to ascend. in of so coaisely and vehemently. and is danger doing upwards, But the lowest line has hardly enteied into the action of the figure, and this consideration operates to make him reverently careful of his movements and there is no error. Line 2 is weak, and occupies the centre. Yellow is one of the five correct colours, and here symbolises the correct course to which the subject of the line adheres. Line 3 is at the top of the lower trigram, whose light may be considered exhausted, and suggests the symbol of the declining sun. The subject of the line should accept the position, and resign himself to the ordinary amusements which are mentioned, but he groans and mourns instead. His strength interferes with the lowly contentment which he should cherish. The strength of line 4, and its being in an even place, make its

what

is

correct,

as a cow,

;

subject appear in this unseemly manner, disastrous to himself. Line 5 is in the place of honour, and central. But it is weak, Its position between the strong 4 and 6 fills its is its correlate. subject with anxiety and apprehension, that expiess themselves as But such demonstrations are a proof of his inward is described.

as

adherence to right and his humility. There will be good fortune. Line 6, strong and at the top of the figure, has the intelligence

denoted by vigour.

its

trigrams in the highest degree, and his own proper these his achievements are great, but his generous

Through

consideration

is

equally conspicuous, and he

falls

into

no

error.

SECT.

THE HSIKN HEXAGRAM.

II.

TEXT. XXXI.

Hsien

SECTION

12'

II.

THE HSIEN HEXAGRAM.

indicates that, (on the fulfilment of the there will be free course it),

conditions implied in

and

success.

Its

the being firm and correct, (as) in

There

lady. 1.

The

will

depend on marrying a young

advantageousness

will

be good fortune.

first line,

divided,

shows one moving his

great toes. 2.

The second

line,

divided,

shows one moving

the calves of his leg. There will be evil. If he abide (quiet in his place), there will be good fortune. 3.

The

shows one moving and keeping close hold of those whom Going forward (in this way) will cause

third line, undivided,

his thighs, he follows. regret. 4.

The

fourth

line,

correctness which will

undivided, shows that firm lead to good fortune, and

If its subject occasion for repentance. in be unsettled his movements, (only) his friends

prevent

all

will follow his purpose.

The

undivided, shows one the flesh along the spine above the heart. will be no occasion for repentance. 5.

fifth

line,

moving There

T HE vf KING.

124 6.

The

sixth line, divided,

TEXT.

shows one moving his

jaws and tongue. XXXI. With of the Text. should be

the 3151

hexagram commences the Second Section say why any division of the hexagrams the student tries in vain to discover any con-

It is difficult to

made

here, for

tinuity in the thoughts of the author that is

now

broken.

The

First

Section does not contain a class of subjects different from those which ue find in the Second. That the division was made, how-

from the sixth Appendix on the Sequence of the Hexagrams, where the writer sets foith an analogy between the first and second figures, representing heaven and eaith, as the originators of all things, and this figure and the next, representing (each of them) husband and wife, as the originators of all ever, at a very early time, appears

the social relations. to is

my

mind.

The

a fact of which

1

is far from carrying conviction Text of the Yi into two sections

This, however, division of the

am

unable to give a satisfactory account.

Hsien, as explained in the treatise on the Thwan, has here the meaning of mutual influence, and the duke of A'au, on the various lines, always uses Kan for it in the sense of moving or influencThis is to my mind the subject of ing to movement or action/ '

'

c

*

Influence ; the different hexagram considered as an essay, ways of bringing it to bear, and their issues/ The Chinese character called hsien is gfr, the graphic symbol the

for 'all, together, jointly/ Kan, the symbol for 'influencing,' has in it as its phonetic constituent (though the changes in pronunciation make it hard for an English reader to appieciate this),

hsien

with the addition of h sin, the symbol for 'the heart/

Thus

^

or influence,' =Efe+Aj)" anc* lt may ^ ave been that while the name or word was used with the significance of

kan, 'to

affect

'influencing/ the fQ was purposely dropt fiom it, to indicate the most important element in the thing, the absence of all purpose or motive. I venture to think that this would have been a device

worthy of a diviner. With regard to the idea of husband and wife being in the teaching of the hexagram, it is derived fiom the more recent symbolism of the eight trigrams asciibed to king Wan, and exhibited on p. 33

The more ancient usage of them is given in the plate III. paragraph on the Gieat Symbolism of Appendix II. The figure consists of Kan ( ). 'the youngest son/ and over it Tui ("~ """">. 'the youngest daughter/ These are 'happy union/

and

m

SECT.

THE HANG HEXAGRAM.

II.

XXXII.

H&ng

125

THE HANG HEXAGRAM.

indicates successful progress

and no error

what

it denotes). But the advantage will come (in from being firm and correct and movement in any direction whatever will be advantageous. ;

The

i.

first line,

divided,

shows

(desirous)

of long continuance.

No

it is

its

subject deeply with firm

Even

powerful and constant as that between and where these are young, it is especially Hence it is that Hsien is made up of Kan and Tui. All active. this is to me very doubtful. I can dimly apprehend why the whole line (' was as assumed the symbol of strength and authority, ) and the broken line as that of weakness and submission. Beyond influence,

husband and wife

this I still

said, is so ;

cannot follow Ffl-hsi in his formation of the tugrams; and can I assent to the more recent symbolism of them ascribed

less

Wan. Coming now

to king

mutual influence in

and

itself,

for

and its lines, the subject is that of and the author teaches that that influence, correct , correct ends, is sure to be effective. He gives an

to the figure,

the case of a

instance,

man manying

a young lady, the legulations

which have been laid down in China from the earliest times \\ith Such influence will be effective great stiictness and particularly. and foitunate.

for

Line

i

is

weak, and

at the

con elate, yet ineffective. However much will not enable him to walk. 4 be a proper

The of the

move. and if

bottom of the hexagram.

Though

the influence indicated by it must be a man's great toes may be moved, that

move of themselves. They follow the moving The moving of them indicates too much anxiety to

calves cannot feet.

Line

2,

moreover,

is

subject abide quiet, will be good fortune. its

Neither can the thighs

weak. till

he

move of

But is

it is

also the central line,

acted on from above, there

themselves.

The

attempt to

THE

126

there will be evil

correctness

in

advantage

TEXT.

there will

;

be no

any way.

The second

2.

Y! KING.

line,

undivided, shows

all

occasion

for repentance disappearing.

shows one who does There are not continuously maintain his virtue. those who will impute this to him as a disgrace. However firm he may be, there will be ground for

The

3.

third line, undivided,

regret.

The

4.

there

fourth line, undivided, shows a field where

no game.

is

The

shows

subject conIn tinuously maintaining the virtue indicated by it. a wife this will be fortunate in a husband, evil. 5.

fifth line,

divided,

its

;

The topmost

6.

line,

divided,

shows

exciting himself to long continuance.

be

its

subject

There

will

evil.

move them

is

inauspicious.

Its

subject, however, the line being

and in an odd place, will wish to move, and follows the subHe ject of 4, which is understood to be the seat of the mind. exercises his influence therefore with a mind and purpose, which is strong,

not good.

Line 4

is

strong, but in an even place. warned to be firm

Its subject therefore is

good

issue.

If

It is the seat

and correct

of the mind.

in

order to a

he be wavering and uncertain, his influence

will

not extend beyond the circle of his friends. The symbolism of line 5 refers to a part of the heart, tive

and

is

body behind the an influence, ineffecmotive, and not needing to be

supposed therefore to indicate

indeed, but free from selfish

repented of. Line 6 is weak, and in an even place. It is the topmost line also of the trigram of satisfaction. Its influence by means of speech only be that of loquacity and not to be pointed out. will

flattery,

the evil of which needs

XXXII. The subject of this hexagram may be given as perseverance in well doing, or in continuously acting out the law of one's

SECT.

THE THUN HEXAGRAM.

II.

indicates successful progress (in

To

stances).

27

THE THUN HEXAGRAM.

XXXIII.

Thun

1

a small extent

it

will (still)

its

circum-

be advan-

tageous to be firm and correct.

The

i.

first

The

line, is

position perilous direction should be made.

being.

The

figure.

As

and

wife,

sixth

this

it

treats

is

said,

retiring

No movement

Appendix makes

that treats,

so

shows a

divided,

in

tail.

any

c

a equel of the previous it of the relation between husband

of the continuous observance of their

respective duties Hsien, we saw, is made up of Kan, the symbol of the youngest son, and Tui, the symbol of the youngest daughter, attraction

and influence between the sexes being strongest in consists of Sun, 'the oldest daughter' and A'an,

Hng

}outh. the oldest son.

The

couple are more

staid.

The

wife occupies

and the relation between them is marked by her This is sound doctrine, especially from a Chinese

the lower place

submission.

;

point of view but I doubt whether such application of his teaching in the mind of king Wan. Given two parties, an inferior and in correlation. If be continuously observant of what both superior ;

was is

and the superior and progress may be predicated of their course.

correct, the inferior being also submissive,

good

fortune

Line

i

has a proper correlate in 4

strong lines against

its

;

and

it

is

itself

subject receiving

weak.

much

;

but between them aie two

These two conditions

help from the subject of

should be quiet, and not forward for action. Line 2 is strong, but in the place of a weak

and

its

firm,

line.

are

He

Its position,

fast to

however, being central, subject holding mean, the unfavourable condition of an even place

4.

is

the due

more than

counteracted.

Line 3 is strong, and in its proper place ; but being beyond the centre of the trigram, its subject is too strong, and coming under

128 2.

The second

THE

Yi KING.

line,

divided,

TEXT.

shows

its

"subject purpose) fast as if by a (thong made from the) hide of a yellow ox, which cannot be broken.

holding

3.

(his

The

third line, undivided,

but bound,

to his distress

and

shows one

retiring

(If

he were

peril.

to deal with his binders as in) nourishing a servant it would be fortunate for him.

or concubine, 4.

The

fourth line, undivided, shows

retiring notwithstanding his likings. man this will lead to good fortune

cannot attain to

this.

The

line,

5.

retiring in

there will 6.

The

fifth

line,

shows its subject With firm correctness

undivided, shows

retiring in a noble way. in

its

subject

be advantageous

It will

every respect.

the attraction of his correlate in 6, he to

subject

undivided,

an admirable way. be good fortune. sixth

;

its

In a superior a small man

abandon

rect,

his place

and

virtue.

is

He may

supposed to be icady be fiim and cor-

try to

but circumstances are adverse to him.

strong in the place of a weak line, and suggests the of the duke of A!au. symbolism The weak 5th line responds to the strong 2nd, and may be supposed to represent a wife conscious of her weakness, and docilely

Line 4

is

which is good. A husband, however, and a man gene; has to assert himself, and lay down the rule of what is right. In line 6 the principle of perse veiance has run its course; the motive power of -ATan is exhausted. The line itself is weak. The

submissive rally,

violent efforts of

XXXIII. influence

is

its

Thun

subject can only lead to

evil.

the hexagram of the sixth month; the yin represented by two weak lines, and has made good its

footing in the year.

is

The

figure thus suggested to king

Wan

the

growth of small and unprincipled men in the state, before whose advance superior men were obliged to retire. This is the theme of his essay, how, when small men multiply and increase in power, *

SECT.

THE TA JTWANG HEXAGRAM.

II.

XXXIV. THE TA

1

29

A^WANG HEXAGRAM.

indicates that (under the conditions symbolises) it will be advantageous to be

A'wang which firm

it

and

correct.

the necessity of the time requires superior men to withdraw before them/ Yet the auspice of is not all bad. By firm correct-

Thun

ness the threatened evil

A

'

may be

arrested to a small extent.

'

retiring tail seems to suggest the idea of the subject of the hurrying away, which would only aggravate the evil and danger of the time.

lines

'

in line 2 is the purpose to withdraw. The weak 2 responds correctly to the strong 5, and both are central. The ' purpose therefore is symbolled as in the text. The yellow colour '

His purpose

'

*

of the ox

is introduced because of its being correct/ and of a piece with the central place of the line. Line 3 has no proper correlate in 6; and its subject allows himself to be entangled and impeded by the subjects of i and 2.

He

is

too familiar with them, and they presume, and fetter his compare Analects, 17. 25. He should keep them at

movements; a distance.

Line 4 has a correlate in to

belonging of strength.

its

subject.

In the Shu, IV,

v,

i,

and

The

Section

is

free to exercise the decision

line is the first in

2. 9,

the worthy 1

-Oien, symbolic

Yin

is

made

to say,

'The

minister will not for favour or gain continue in an office ' whose work is done ; and the Khang-hst editors refer to his

words as an correlate in 2,

illustration

and

its

of what

is

said

on

subject carries out the

line

5.

purpose

It

has

to retire

its '

in

an admirable way.' Line 6 Its

is

strong,

subject vigorously

hexagram.

and with no correlate to detain it in 3. and happily carries out the idea of the

THE

I3O 1.

The

first

line,

Y! KING.

TEXT.

undivided,

shows its subject But advance toes.

manifesting his strength in his

most

will lead to evil, 2.

The second

line,

certainly.

undivided, shows that with

firm correctness there will be 3.

The

good

fortune.

third line, undivided, shows, in the case of

a small man, one using all his strength and in the case of a superior man, one whose rule is not to ;

do so. Even with firm correctness the position would be perilous. (The exercise of strength in it might be compared to the case of) a ram butting against a fence, and getting his horns entangled.

The

fourth line, undivided, shows (a case in which) firm correctness leads to good fortune, and occasion for repentance disappears. (We see) the 4.

fence opened without the horns being entangled. The strength is like that in the wheel-spokes of

a large waggon. 5.

The

fifth

line,

divided, shows one

who

loses

his ram(-like strength) in the ease of his position. (But) there will be no occasion for repentance. 6. The sixth line, divided, shows (one who may be compared to) the ram butting against the fence, and unable either to retreat, or to advance as he would fain do. There will not be advantage in any respect but if he realise the difficulty (of his position), there will be good fortune. ;

XXXIV. The

strong lines predominate in

T

AVang.

It

Wan

a state or condition of things in which suggested to king there was abundance of strength and vigour. Was strength alone enough for the conduct of affairs ? No. He saw also in the figure that which suggested to him that strength should be held in subordination to the idea of right, and exerted only in harmony with it.

SECT.

THE SIN HEXAGRAM.

II.

XXXV. THE

3iN HEXAGRAM.

we see a prince who secures the tranquilthe lity (of people) presented on that account with numerous horses (by the king), and three times in In Sin

a day received at interviews. This in the

is

Line

i

Khien,

The

the lesson of the hexagram, as sententiously expressed

Thwan. is

the

strong, in

its

hexagram of

correct place, and also the and the first line in

strength,

idea of the figure might

hence we have

seem

first

line in

Ta ^wang.

to be concentrated in

it

;

and

'strength in the toes/ or

'advancing/ symbolised by But such a measure is too bold to be undertaken by one in the lowest place, and moreover there is no proper correlate in 4. Hence comes the evil auspice. Line 2 is strong, but the strength is tempered by its being in an even place, instead of being excited by it, as might be feaied. Then With firm correctness there will be the place is that in the centre.

good

it

fortune.

and

It is at the top moreso symbolled will use his strength to For him the position the utmost; but not so the superior man. is beyond the safe middle, and he will be cautious ; and not injure

Line 3

over of

is

strong,

in its

proper place.

A small man

-Oien.

himself, like the ram,

by exerting his strength. Line 4 is still strong, but in the place of a weak line ; and this gives occasion to the cautions with which the symbolism commences.

The

subject of the line going forward thus cautiously, produce good effects, such as are described.

his strength will

Line 5 is weak, and occupies a cential place. Its subject \\ill cease therefore to exert his strength ; but this hexagram does not forbid the employment of strength, but would only control and

THE

132

The

Yi KING.

TEXT.

shows one wishing to advance, and (at the same time) kept back. Let him be firm and correct, and there will be good fortune. If trust be not reposed in him, let him maintain a large and generous mind, and there will be no 1.

first line,

divided,

error. 2. The second line, divided, shows its subject with the appearance of advancing, and yet of being If he be firm and correct, there will be sorrowful.

good

He

fortune.

will receive this great blessing

from his grandmother. 3.

The

third

trusted

line,

divided,

all

by (around him). pentance will disappear.

shows

its

subject All occasion for re-

4. The fourth line, undivided, shows its subject with the appearance of advancing, but like a marmot. However firm and correct he may be, the position is

one of 5.

peril.

The

fifth line,

shows how

divided,

for repentance disappears (from let fail

in

its

occasion

all

subject).

(But)

him not concern himself about whether he shall To advance will be fortunate, and or succeed. every way advantageous.

6.

The topmost

undivided, shows one adBut he only uses them to punish

line,

vancing his horns. the (rebellious people of his own) direct

it.

All that

is

said about

him

is

city.

The

that he will give

position

no occasion

for repentance.

Line 6 being the top of

.A^n, the symbol of movement, and at subject may be expected to be active in

at the top of

Ta ATwang,

its

exerting his strength and through his weakness, the result would be as described. But he becomes conscious of his weakness, re;

flects

and

rests,

and good fortune

prosecution of his unwise

efforts.

results,

as he desists from the

SECT.

is

THE SIN HEXAGRAM.

IT.

perilous,

however

133

will be good fortune. and correct he may be, there

but there

firm

(Yet) will

be

occasion for regret.

XXXV. The Thwan more It is

fully

and

of

this

hexagram expresses

plainly than that of

any of the previous

its

subject

thirty-four.

about a feudal prince whose services to the country have The king's favour has been acceptable to his king.

made him

shown to him by gifts and personal attentions such as form the theme of more than one ode in the Shih; see especially III, iii, 7.

The symbolism of the &in means

dimly indicates the qualities of such advance/ Hexagrams 46 and 53 agree m being called by names that indicate progress and advance. The advance in 3 in 1S like that of the sun, 'the shining light, shining more and more to the perfect day/ a prince. with this

Line

to

weak, and in the lowest place, and its correlate in 4 is This indicates the small

is

i

lines

'

neither central nor in Us coirect position. and obstructed beginnings of his subject.

But by

his firm correct-

ness he pursues the way to good fortune; and though the king does not yet believe in him, he the more pursues his noble course.

Line

2 is

cential

weak, and

has

therefore

and

still

to

its

correlate in 5

mourn

in

also weak.

obscurity.

and he holds on

correct,

is

But

his way,

The symbolism

Its

subject

his

till

position is success comes

'

says he receives it from his grandmother ; and readers will be startled by the extraordinary statement, as I was when I first read it. Liteially the Text says 'the ere long.

'

'

Istam magnam felicitatem mother/ as P. Regis lendeied it, He also tries to give the name a historical a matre regis reupit. Thaito TMi-^iang, the grandmother of king Wan reference king's

5

;

;

Zan, his mother ; or to Thai-sze, his wife, and the mother of king Wu and the duke of -ATau, all famous in Chinese history, and celeBut 'king's father* and 'king's mother' are brated in the Shih. well-known Chinese appellations for 'grandfather' and 'grandThis is the view given on the passage, by -AT^^ng-jze, the Khang-hsi editors, the latter of whom, indeed, and Hsi, account for the use of the name, instead of 'deceased mother,' which we find in hexagram 62, by the regulations observed in the mother.'

.ATfi

These authorities, moreover, all agree in saying ancestral temple. that the name points us to line 5, the correlate of 2, and the lord '

of the hexagram/ at length

Now

the subject of line 5

is

acknowledges the worth of the feudal

the sovereign, lord,

who

and gives him

E Yt KING.

134

XXXVI.

THE MING

1

TEXT.

HEXAGRAM.

indicates that (in the circumstances which denotes) it will be advantageous to realise the

Ming it

1

the great blessing.

The

'

New

Digest of

Comments on

the

Yi

paiaphrase of the line, has, 'He receives at last this I am not sure great blessing from the mild and compliant ruler.' that motherly king' would not be the best and fairest translation (1686),' in

its

'

of the phrase.

Canon McClatchie has a very

on the name, 'That is, the wife

astonishing note

which he renders 'Imperial Mother'

(p.

164):

" throne of the diaoccupies the gram," viz. the fifth stroke, which is soft and therefore feminine. She is the Great Ancestress of the human race. See Imp. Ed.

of Imperial Heaven (Juno),

vol.

iv,

Sect, v, p. 25,

who

Com/

such additions to the written

Why

word? is weak, and in an odd place ; but the subjects of i and possessed by the same desire to advance as the subject of common trust and aim possess them ; and hence the not

Line 3 2 are this.

A

unfavourable auspice.

Line 4 It

is

strong, but

it

suggests the idea of a

is

in

an even place, nor

marmot

(?

or

Nothing could be more opposed to the

is it

rat), stealthily

central.

advancing.

ideal of the feudal lord in

the hexagram. line 5 that lord and his intelligent soveieign meet happily. holds on his right course, indifferent as to results, but things are so ordered that he is, and will continue to be, crowned with

In

He

success.

and suggests the idea of its subject to the last and that not only with firm correctness, but with strong force. The horns are an emblem of threatening strength, and though he uses them only in his own state, and Line 6

is

strong,

continuing his advance,

*

'

against the rebellious there, that such a prince should have any

occasion to use force

is

matter for regret

SECT.

THE MING

II.

difficulty (of the

f

HEXAGRAM.

position),

135

and maintain firm

cor-

rectness.

The

undivided, shows its subject, (in the condition indicated by) Ming 1, flying, but with 1.

first line,

When

drooping wings.

volving) his going away, he

without

may be

Wherever he

eating.

man

the superior

(is

re-

for three days

the

goes,

people

speak (derisively of him).

there

may The second

2.

line,

divided,

shows

its

subject,

(in the condition indicated by) Ming f, wounded in He saves himself by the strength of the left thigh.

a

horse

(swift)

The

3.

;

and

is

fortunate.

third line, undivided,

shows

its

subject,

the condition indicated by) Ming 1, hunting in the south, and taking the great chief (of the darkHe should not be eager to make (all) correct ness). (in

(at once).

The

4.

fourth line, divided, shows its subject (just) left side of the belly (of the dark (But) he is able to carry out the mind appro-

entered into the land).

priate (in the condition indicated by) Ming 1, quitting the gate and courtyard (of the lord of darkness).

The

5.

fifth line,

divided,

shows how the count of

Ki

fulfilled

will

be advantageous to be firm and

The

6.

there

had

is

the condition indicated by

sixth line, divided,

no

light,

Ming

t.

It

correct.

shows the case where

but (only) obscurity.

(Its subject)

ascended to (the top of) the sky; his future shall be to go into the earth. at

first

XXXVI.

In this hexagram

we have

the representation of a good

going forward in the service of his country, notwithstanding the occupancy of the throne by a weak

and

intelligent minister or officer

THE

136

XXXVII.

For ZSn,

Yi KING.

TEXT.

THE Kik ZAN HEXAGRAM.

(the realisation of what is taught in) (or for the regulation of the family), what

and unsympathising sovereign.

Hence comes

its

name

of

is

Ming I,

or 'Intelligence Wounded/ that is, injured and repressed. The treatment of the subject shows how such an officer will conduct The symbolism of the figure himself, and maintain his purpose. treated of in the same way in the first and second Appendixes. Appendix VI merely says that the advance set forth in 35 is sure to meet with wounding, and hence Qin is followed by Ming I. is

Line

i is

and in its right place; its subject should be But the general signification of the hexagram be wounded. The wound, however, being re-

strong,

going forward. supposes him to ceived at the very

commencement of

its

action,

is

but

slight.

And

hence comes the emblem of a bird hurt so as to be obliged to droop its wings. The subject then appears diiectly as 'the superior man/ He sees it to be his course to desist from the struggle for a time, and is so rapt in the thought that he can fast for three

When he does withdraw, opposition days and not think of it. him but it is implied that he holds on to his own good

follows

;

purpose.

Line 2 is weak, but also in its right place, and central ; giving us the idea of an officer, obedient to duty and the right. His wound in the left thigh may impede his movements, but does not disable him. He finds means to save himself, and maintains his

good purpose. Line 3, strong and in a strong place, is the topmost line of the lower trigram. It responds also to line 6, in which the idea of

emblemed by the upper trigram, is concentrated. is the emblem of light or brightness, the idea of which again is expressed by the south, to which we turn when we look at the sun in its meridian Hence the subject of the height. the sovereign,

The

lower trigram

SECT.

THE

II.

^AN HEXAGRAM.

fflA

most advantageous

is

that the wife

137

be firm and

correct. 1.

The

first

line,

undivided, shows

its

subject

establishing restrictive regulations in his household. Occasion for repentance will disappear. 2.

The second

shows

divided,

its

subject taking nothing on herself, but in her central place attending to the preparation of the food. Through line,

her firm correctness there

The

will

be good fortune.

shows its subject (treating) the members of the household with stern There will be occasion for repentance, severity. there will be peril, (but) there will (also) be good fortune. If the wife and children were to be smirkand ing chattering, in the end there would be occa3.

third line, undivided,

sion for regret. 4.

line

The

fourth

line,

divided,

becomes a hunter pui suing

good

officer will

over eager to put

be successful all

his

shows

game, and

in his struggle

;

its

subject

successfully.

but

let

The

him not be

things right at once.

Line 4 is weak, but in its right place. Kb Hbi says he does not understand the symbolism, as given in the Text. The translation indicates the view of line

it

commonly

evidently escapes from

his

accepted.

The

subject of the

position of danger with

little

damage. Line 5 should be the place of the ruler or sovereign in the hexagram; but 6 is assigned as that place in Ming I. The officer occupying 5, the centre of the upper trigram, and near to the sovereign, has his ideal in the count of

Xt

t

whose action appears

He

in the Shu, III, pp. 123, 127, 128. is a historical personage. Line 6 sets forth the fate of the ruler, who opposes himself to

the officer

who would do him good and

intelligent service.

Instead

of becoming as the sun, enlightening all from the height of the I can well believe sky, he is as the sun hidden below the earth. that the writer

had the

last

king of Shang in his mind.

THE

138

enriching the family.

Yl KING.

There

TEXT.

be great good

will

fortune. 5. The fifth line, undivided, shows the influence There need of the king extending to his family. be no anxiety there will be good fortune. ;

The topmost

6.

line,

undivided, shows

its

subject

possessed of sincerity and arrayed in majesty. the end there will be good fortune.

XXXVII. ^ia Zan, '

a household/ or

'

the

In

the name of the hexagram, simply means members of a family/ The subject of the

essay based on the figure, however, is the regulation of the family, by the co-operation of husband and wife in their

effected mainly several spheres,

and only needing to become universal to secure good order of the kingdom. The important place occupied by the wife in the family is seen m the short sentence of the Th wan. That she be firm and correct, and do her part well, is the first thing the

necessary to

its

regulation.

It suggests the necessity strong, and in a strong place. of strict rule in governing the family. Regulations must be estab-

Line

lished,

i

is

and

Line

2

their observance strictly insisted on.

is

weak, and in the proper place for

it,

the centre, more-

It fitly represents the wife, and what is over, of the lo\\er tngram. said on it tells us of her special sphere and duty ; and that she should be unassuming in regard to all beyond her sphere ; always

being firm and correct. Line 3 is strong, and the strength

See the Shih, III, 350. an odd place. If the place were central,

in

would be tempered

;

but the subject of the

line, in the

topmost place of the trigram, may be expected to exceed in severity. But severity is not a bad thing in regulating a family ; it is better than laxity and indulgence.

Line 4 is weak, and in its proper place. The wife is again suggested to us, and we are told, that notwithstanding her being confined to the internal affairs of the household, she can do much to enrich the family. The subject of the strong fifth line appears as the king. This may be the husband spoken of as also a king ; or the real king

whose merit is revealed first in his family, as often in the Shih, where king Wan is the theme. The central place here tempers the display of the strength and power.

SECT.

THE

JTJyWEI

XXXVIII.

THE

II.

HEXAGRAM.

139

AJTWEI HEXAGRAM.

indicates that, (notwithstanding the condition of things

there will

(still)

which it denotes), be good success.

in small matters

The

first line, undivided, shows that (to its He occasion for repentance will disappear. subject) has lost his horses, but let him not seek for them 1.

;

will return

they with bad men, he will not err with them). 2.

The second

line,

In the third

line,

(in

communicating

undivided, shows

meet with happening There will be no error. to

3.

Should he meet

of themselves.

its

subject

his lord in a bye-passage.

divided,

we

see one whose

dragged back, while the oxen in it are pushed back, and he is himself subjected to the shaving of his head and the cutting dff of his nose. There is no good beginning, but there will be a carriage

is

good end. 4.

The

fourth line, undivided,

shows

its

subject

solitary amidst the (prevailing) disunion. (But) he meets with the good man (represented by the first

it

Line 6 is also strong, and being in an even place, the subject of might degenerate into stern severity, but he is supposed to be

sincere, complete in his personal character and hence his action will only lead to good fortune.

self-culture,

and

THE

140

Yf KING.

TEXT.

and they blend their sincere desires together. The position is one of peril, but there will be no

line),

mistake.

The fifth line, divided, shows that (to its subWith for repentance will disappear. occasion ject) his relative (and minister he unites closely and 5.

he were biting through a piece of skin. When he goes forward (with this help), what error can there be ?

readily) as

6.

if

The topmost

line,

undivided, shows

its

subject

(In the solitary amidst the (prevailing) disunion. subject of the third line, he seems to) see a pig

bearing on its back a load of mud, (or fancies) there is a carriage full of ghosts. He first bends his bow

and afterwards unbends it, (for he discovers) that he is not an assailant to injure, but a near relative. Going forward, he shall meet with (genial) rain, and there will be good fortune. him,

against

XXXVIII. A^wei mutual alienation

denotes a social state in which division and

and the hexagram teaches how in small may be healed, and the way prepared for the

pievail,

matters this condition

cure of the whole system. The writer 01 writers of Appendixes I and II point out the indication in the figure of division and disunion according to their views. In Appendix VI those things appear as a necessary sequel to the regulation of the family; while impossible to discover any allusion to the family in the Text.

it

is

Line i is strong, and in an odd place. A successful course might be auspiced foi its subject ; but the correlate in line 4 is also strong; and therefore disappointment and repentance are likely to

ensue.

In the condition, however,

where people have a

Through

the

good

common

sei vices

indicated

virtue, they will

of 4, the other will

His condition may be emblemed by a which return to him of themselves.

by Khviti,

help one another. not have to repent.

traveller's loss

of his horses,

Should he meet with bad men, however, let him not shrink from Communication with them will be of benefit. His good

them.

SECT.

THE *IEN HEXAGRAM.

II.

XXXIX. THE

14!

A"IEN HEXAGRAM.

In (the state indicated by) A^ien advantage will be found in the south-west, and the contrary in the north-east.

may overcome

It will

their evil,

be advantageous and

at least

it

will

(also) to

meet

help to silence their

slanderous tongues.

Line 5 is weak, and its subject is the proper correlate of the strong 2. They might meet openly ; but for the separation and disunion that maik the time. casual, as it were a stolen, inter-

A

view, as in a bye-lane or passage, lead on to a bettei understanding.

however

will

be useful, and

may

it ought to be strong. Its correlate, howand relation between them might seem the strong, what it ought to be. But the weak 3 is between the strong lines in 2 and 4 and in a time of disunion there ensue the checking and At the same time the subject of repulsion emblemed in the Text. line 6 inflicts on that of 3 the punishments which are mentioned. It is thus bad for 3 at first, but we are told that in the end it will be well with him ; and this will be due to the strength of the sixth line. The conclusion grows out of a conviction in the mind of the author that what is right and good is destined to triumph over what is wrong and bad. Disorder shall in the long run give place to order, and disunion to union. Line 4 has no proper correlate, and might seem to be solitary. But, as we saw on line i, in this hexagram, con elates of the same Hence the subjects of 4 and i, meeting class help each other. with work good will and success. together,

Line 3

ever, in

6

is

weak, where

is

;

The

place of 5

is

odd, but the line

might arise occasion for repentance.

itself is

But

weak, so that there is a proper

the strong 2

Five being the soveieign's place, the subcorrelate to the weak 5. ject of 2 is styled the sovereign's relative, of the same surname

THE

142

Y! KING.

TEXT.

with the great man. (In these circumstances), with firmness and correctness, there will be good fortune. 1.

From

the

first

line,

advance (on the part of

divided, its

we

learn

that

subject) will lead to

while remaining stationary will

(greater) difficulties, afford ground for praise. 2.

The second

divided,

line,

shows the minister

of the king struggling with difficulty on and not with a view to his own advantage.

The

third line,

difficulty,

undivided, shows

its

shows

its

subject to He difficulties. (but advancing, only) (greater) remains stationary, and returns (to his former 3.

associates). 4.

The

fourth

divided,

line,

subject

He advancing, (but only) to (greater) difficulties. remains stationary, and unites (with the subject of the line above).

The

fifth line, undivided, shows its subject with the greatest difficulties, while friends struggling are coming to help him. 5.

6.

The topmost

line,

going forward, (only to

divided,

shows

increase)

its

the

subject

difficulties,

with him, and head of some branch of the descendants of the royal It is as easy for 5, so house. supported, to deal with the disunion

of the time, as to bite through a piece of skin. Line 6 is an even place, and yet the line is strong

;

what can

its

subject effect ? He looks at 3, which, as weak, is a proper correlate ; but he looks with the evil eye of disunion. The subject of 3 appears

no

better

than a

filthy pig,

carriage-load of ghosts.

He

nor more real than an impossible bends his bow against him, but he

unbends it, discovering a friend in 3, as i did in 4, and 5 in 2. He acts and with good luck, comparable to the falling rain, which results from the happy union of the yang and yin in nature.

SECT.

THE

II.

JSTIEN

HEXAGRAM.

143

while his remaining stationary will be (productive

There will be good fortune, and be advantageous to meet with the great man.

of) great (merit). will

XXXIX. Kitn

it

the symbol for incompetency in the feet and

is

legs, involving difficulty in

walking

;

hence

it

is

used in

this

hexa-

kingdom which makes the government this task may be successfully performed,

to indicate a state of the

gram

How

of it an arduous task.

now by

the part of the ruler, and now by a discreet this is what the figure teaches, or at least gives hints inactivity: about. For the development of the meaning of the symbolic activity

on

character from the structure of the lineal figure, see Appendixes I

and

II.

The

Thwan

seems to require three things attention to place, the presence of the great man, and the firm observance of correctness in order to cope successfully with the difficulties of the

The

situation.

first

thing

is

enigmatically expressed, and the lan-

guage should be compared with what we find in the Thwan of hexagrams 2 and 40. Referring to Figure 2, in Plate III, we find that, according to Win's arrangement of the trigrams, the southwest is occupied by Khwan ( \ and the north-east by .ffan - \ The former represents the champaign country; the (The former is easily traversed latter, the mountainous region. and held; the latter, with difficulty. The attention to place thus

becomes transformed

into a calculation of circumstances

that promise success in

tage

and those

of,

that

;

those

an enterprise, which should be taken advanthreaten difficulty and failure, which should

be shunned.

This

is

the

The Khang-hsf

generally accepted view of this difficult passage. I have been editors have a view of their own.

myself inclined to find less symbolism in it, and to take the southwest as the regions in the south and west of the kingdom, which we know from the Shih were more especially devoted to Wan and his house, while the strength of the kings of

and

Shang

lay in the north

east.

'The

idea of "the great man," Mencius's "minister of Heaven/" by the strong line in the fifth place, having for its cor-

is illustrated

weak line in 2. But favourableness of circumstances and and the presence of the great man do not dispense from the observance of firm correctness. Throughout these essays of relate the

place,

the

Yl

this is

always insisted on.

THE Y * KING

144

THE

XL.

TEXT

-

-

KIE.H HEXAGRAM.

In (the state indicated by) A'ieh advantage will be found in the south-west. If no (further) operations be called for, there will be good fortune in the old conditions). If some operations be called for, there will be good fortune in the

coming back

(to

early conducting of them.

The

i.

will

first line,

commit no

divided,

shows that

its

subject

error.

it ought to be strong as being in an odd subject advance, he will not be able to cope with the difficulties of the situation, but be overwhelmed by them. Let him

Line

i

is

If

place.

weak, whereas

its

a more favourable time.

\\ait for

Line

2 is

weak, but in

its

proper place.

Its correlation

with the

strong 5, and consequent significance, are well set forth. Line 3 is strong, and in a place of strength but its correlate in 6 is weak, so that the advance of its subject would be unsupported. ;

He

waits therefore for a better time,

who

the two lines below,

Line 4

do

little

and cherishes the subjects of

naturally cling to him.

is weak, and, though in its proper place, its subject could of himself. He is immediately below the king or great

man, however, and for the time

cultivates his loyal

when he

shall

attachment to him, waiting

be required to

act.

the king, the man great and strong. He can cope with the difficulties, and the subjects of 2 and the other lines of the

Line 5

is

lower trigram give their help.

The

action of the

forward to

?

hexagram

is

over

Let him abide where he

immediately below him. action at least.

So

shall

;

where can the weak 6 go and serve the great man

is,

he also be great

;

in meritorious

SECT.

THE

II.

2.

The second

HEXAGKAM.

JSTIEH

line,

undivided, shows

= golden)

With

arrows.

its

subject

and obtain the yellow

catch, in hunting, three foxes, (

145

firm correctness there will

be good fortune. 3.

The

third line, divided,

shows a porter with

He

will (only) his burden, (yet) riding in a carriage. tempt robbers to attack him. However firm and

he may

correct

(try to) be, there will

be cause for

regret. 4.

(To the subject *

(it is said),

of) the fourth line, undivided,

Remove your

come, between you and

toes.

whom

Friends

will (then)

there will be mutual

confidence/

The fifth line, divided, shows (its = superior man ( the ruler), executing 5.

subject), the

his function

of removing (whatever is injurious to the idea of the hexagram), in which case there will be good fortune,

by

and confidence

in

him

will

be shown even

the small men.

6.

In the sixth

prince (with his

line,

bow)

divided,

of a high wall, and hitting action) will

be

in

we

it.

(The

a feudal

see

shooting at a falcon

on the top

effect

of his

every way advantageous.

XL.

jSTieh is the symbol of loosing, untying a knot or unravela and as the this hexagram, it denotes name of ling complication ; a condition in which the obstruction and difficulty indicated by the

preceding j&Tien have been removed. The object of the author is to show, as if from the lines of the figure, how thi? new and better state of the

Thwan

kingdom

is

to be dealt with.

See what

is

said

on

the

'

the advantage to be found in the south-west.' If further active operations be not necessary to complete the subju-

of -ffien for

gation of the country, the sooner tilings fall into their old channels the better. The new masters of the kingdom should not be anxious to change all the old manners and ways. Let them do, as the duke of jffau actually did do with the subjugated people of Shang. If

THE

146

Yf KING.

TEXT.

THE SUN HEXAGRAM.

XLI.

denoted by) Sun, if there be sincerity (in him who employs it), there will be great good fortune freedom from error firmness and correctness that can be maintained and advantage in every In (what

is

:

;

;

further operations be necessary, let out delay. Nothing is said in the

them be

carried through withabout the discountenancing unworthy mmisteis or officers; but

Th wan

and removal of small men, that subject appears in

There

is

a weak

more than one of

for

this is

the lines.

line, instead of a strong, in the

first

compensated strong correlate in 4. by Hst says he does not understand the symbolism

Kb The

place is even, but the line fore is modified or tempered.

We

in 5.

are to look to

place

;

but

its

under

line 2.

strong; the strength theie2 is the con elate of the ruler

itself is

And

subject therefore for a minister striving to realise the idea of the hexagram, and pacify the subdued king-

He becomes

dom.

its

a hunter,

and disposes of unworthy men,

represented by 'the three foxes.' He also gets the yellow arrows, the instruments used in war or in hunting, whose colour is 'correct,' and whose form is ' straight/ His firm correctness will be good.

Line 3 it

is

does, the

weak, when

it

symbolism of a porter in a carriage. he get there

?

The

People

things cannot be his

and plunder him.

attack

and occupying, as

should be strong;

topmost place of the lower tngram,

The

The

suggests the ' How did

own/

And

robbers

will

subject of the line cannot protect

himself, nor accomplish anything good. What is said on the fourth line appears in the

to

it

will say,

an even Such a union

form of an address

and i, its correan odd place. will not be productive of good. In the symbolism i becomes the toe of the subject of 4. How the friend or friends, who are to come to him on the removal its

subject.

late, is

weak

in

line is strong in

place,

of this toe, are represented, I do not perceive. Line 5 is weak in an odd place ; but the place is that of the ruler, to whom it belongs to perfect the idea of the hexagram by

SECT.

THE SUN HEXAGRAM.

II.

movement

147

In what shall this

that shall be made.

the exercise of Sun) be employed? (sincerity (Even) in sacrifice two baskets of grain, (though there in

be nothing

The

1.

may be

else), first

presented.

undivided,

line,

suspending his own

shows

its

subject

and hurrying away (to of the the He will commit fourth subject line). help no error, but let him consider how far he should contribute of what is his (for the other). affairs,

2. The second line, undivided, shows that it will be advantageous for its subject to maintain a firm correctness, and that action on his part will be evil.

He

can give increase

(to his correlate)

without taking

from himself.

The

3.

third line, divided,

shows how of three

men walking together, the number is diminished by one and how one, walking, finds his friend. 4. The fourth line, divided, shows its subject ;

diminishing the ailment under which he labours by making (the subject of the first line) hasten (to his

and make him glad.

help), 5.

The

(the stores of) its

will

be no

error.

shows

parties adding to subject ten pairs of tortoise shells,

fifth line,

and accepting no

There

divided,

refusal.

There

will

be great good

fortune. removing kingdom.

all

that

It will

is

contrary to the peace and good order of the to remove especially all the small men

be his duty

which he can do with the help of

represented by the divided

lines,

his strong correlate in 2.

Then even

their ways,

Line 6 ruler.

out the

is

and

the small

men

will

change

repair to him.

the highest line in the figure, but not the place of the it appears as occupied by a feudal duke, who carries

Hence

idea of the figure against small men, according to the

symbolism employed.

THE

148

The topmost

TEXT.

Y! KING.

undivided, shows its subject giving increase to others without taking from him6.

line,

be no error. With firm correctThere will be ness there will be good fortune. in movement that shall be made. every advantage He will find ministers more than can be counted by

There

self.

will

their clans.

XLI. The great

interpretation of this

Sun

hexagram

is

encompassed with

the symbol for the idea of diminishing what is said in Appendix I has made it to

difficulties.

is

diminution; and be accepted as teaching the duty of the subject to take of what is his and contribute to his ruler, or the expenses of the government under which he lives in other words, readily and cheerfully or

;

to

pay minuere

his .

.

.

Regis says, 'Sun seu (vectigalis causa) est valde utile ;' and Canon McClaJchie in translating P.

taxes. .

Appendix 'Diminishing (by taxation for instance) .... is very lucky.' Possibly, king Wan may have seen in the figures the subject of taxation ; but the symbolism of his son takes a much I has:

My own reading of the figure and Text comes near jOang-jze, that 'every diminution and repression of what we have in excess to bring it into accordance with right and reason is comprehended under Sun/ wider range.

to the view of

Let there be sincerity

in

this,

doing

and

it

will

lead to the

It will lead to great success in great happiest results. things ; and if the correction, or it may be a contribution towards it, appear to

be very small, yet it will be accepted; as in the most solemn This is substantially the view of the hexagram religious service. the approved by Khang-hst editors. Line

i is

strong,

and

its

correlate in 4

wish to help the subject of 4

own undone

in doing so.

;

Nor

but

is

weak.

Its subject will

not leave anything of his he diminish of his own for the will

will

other without due deliberation.

Line 2

is

of a weak

strong,

line,

and

and its

But it is in the place should maintain his position without subject in the central place.

to help his correlate in 5.

moving rectness

is

the best

Maintaining his

own

firm cor-

to help him.

full of obscurity. Kb Hsf, adopting says that the lower trigram was originally three undivided lines, like 'three men walking together/

Paragraph 3 the view in >

way

is

to

my mind

Appendix

I,

SECT.

THE

II.

XLII.

Y!

HEXAGRAM.

149

THE Yi HEXAGRAM.

Yl indicates that (in the state which it denotes) there will be advantage in every movement which shall be undertaken, that it will be advantageous (even) to cross the great stream. i.

The

first line,

advantageous

undivided, shows that

that the third line, taken

line,

or the third, *

will

for its subject in his position to

and was

it

m what was

away and made

originally

away of one man

Khwan,

to be the

be

make

topmost

three divided lines,

'

and that then the change of and their proper correlation, was, continued while 6, place by 3 they one going away, and finding his friend. I cannot lay hold of any the putting

thread of reason in

;

this.

Line 4 is weak, and in an even place ; like an individual ailing and unable to perform his proper work. But the correlate in i is

The 'joy' of the line strong; and is made to hasten to its iclief. shows the desire of Us subject to do his part in the work of the hexagram. Line 5 is the seat of the

ruler,

who

is

here humble, and welcomes

the assistance of his correlate, the subject of 2. He is a ruler whom all his subjects of ability will rejoice to serve in every possible

way

;

and the

result will

be great good fortune.

Line 6 has been changed from a weak into a strong line from line 3 ; has received therefore the greatest increase, and will carry out the idea of the hexagram in the highest degree and style. But he can give increase to others without diminishing his own resources, and of course the benefit he will confer will be incalculable. Ministers will come to serve him ; and not one from each clan Such is the substance of what is said on this merely, but many. last

paragraph.

I confess that I only discern the

meaning darkly.

THE

I5O a great movement.

blame 2.

will

If

be imputed

The second

to the stores of

line,

its

Y! KING.

it

TEXT.

be greatly fortunate, no

to him.

divided,

shows

parties

adding

subject ten pairs of tortoise shells

Let him peroracles cannot be opposed. severe in being firm and correct, and there will be good fortune. Let the king, (having the virtues thus

whose

distinguished), employ them in presenting his offerings to God, and there will be good fortune.

The

shows increase given to its subject by means of what is evil, so that he Let shall (be led to good), and be without blame. him be sincere and pursue the path of the Mean, (so shall he secure the recognition of the ruler, like) an officer who announces himself to his prince by 3.

third line, divided,

the symbol of his rank.

The

fourth line, divided, shows its subject the due course. His advice to his prince pursuing is followed. He can with advantage be relied on in such a movement as that of removing the capital. 4.

5. The fifth line, undivided, shows its subject with sincere heart seeking to benefit (all below). There need be no question about it the result will ;

be great good fortune. (All below) heart acknowledge his goodness. 6.

In the sixth

line,

whose increase none will

undivided,

will

seek to assail him.

will

with sincere

we

see one to

contribute, while

He

many

observes no regular

rule in the ordering of his heart.

There

will

be

evil.

XLII. Yl has the opposite meaning to Sun, and is the symbol of addition or increasing. What king Wan had in his mind, connexion with the hexagram, was a ruler or a government operating

m

SECT.

THE KWAI HEXAGRAM.

II.

THE KwAi HEXAGRAM.

XLIII.

Kwcii requires

151

(in

him who would

fulfil

its

mean-

ing) the exhibition (of the culprit's guilt) in the royal court, and a sincere and earnest appeal (for symso as to dispense benefits

to,

and increase the resources of

all

the people. Two indications are evident in the lines ; the strong line in the ruler's seat, or the fifth line, and the weak line in the

Whether theie be other indications in place of 2. the figure or its component trigrams will be considered in dealing with the Appendixes. The writer might well say, on general correlative

grounds, of the ruler

whom

cessful in his enterpiises

he had in mind, that he would be sucand overcome the greatest difficulties.

low position might seem to debar its subenterprise. Favoured as he is, however, according ject to the general idea of the hexagram, and specially responding to the proper correlate in 4, it is natural that he should make a movement Line

i is

strong, but

its

from any great

;

and great success will make his rashness be forgotten. With paragraph 2 compare paragraph 5 of the piecedmg hexagiam. Line 2 is weak, but in the centre, and is the correlate of 5. that is,' says Friends give its subject the valuable gifts mentioned Kwo Yung (Sung dynasty), men benefit him the oracles of the divination are in his favour, spirits, that is, benefit him ; and Heaven finally, when the king sacrifices to God, He accepts. confers benefit from above/ '

;

'

;

Line 3 is weak, neither central, noi in its correct position. It would seem therefore that its subject should have no increase given But it is the time for giving increase, and the idea of his to him.

That such leceiving it by means of evil things is put into the line. things serve for reproof and correction is well known to Chinese moralists.

Line 4 subject

is

But the paragraph goes on also

to caution

and admonish.

Its the place for a minister, near to that of the ruler. weak, but his place is appropriate, and as he follows the

is

THE

152

Y! KING.

TEXT.

pathy and support), with a consciousness of the peril He should (involved in cutting off the criminal).

make announcement

(also)

that

it

will

in his

own

city,

not be well to have recourse at once to

(In this way) there will be

arms.

whatever he

The

and show

go forward

shall

advantage

in

to.

undivided, shows its subject in (the pride of) strength advancing with his toes. He goes forward, but will not succeed. There will 1.

first line,

be ground

for blame.

The second

2.

line,

undivided, shows

its

subject

full

of apprehension and appealing (for sympathy

and

help).

Late at night hostile measures may be (taken against him), but he need not be anxious about them. 3.

The

(about looks.

shows its subject with advance) strong (and determined) There will be evil. (But) the superior man, third line, undivided,

to

bent on cutting off (the criminal), will walk alone and encounter the rain, (till he be hated by his

he were contaminated (by the (In the end) there will be no blame against

proper associates) as others).

if

him. due course,

his ruler will listen to him,

and he

will

be a support in

the most critical movements.

place was

Changing the capital from place to That of Shang, frequent in the feudal times of China.

which preceded Aau, was changed five times. Line 5 is strong, in its fitting position, and of the

central.

It is the seat

who

has his proper correlate in 2. Everything good, according to the conditions of the hexagram, therefore, may be said as is done. of him ; ruler,

Line 6

is

also strong; but

topmost place of the

it

should be weak.

Occupying the

concentrate his powers in the increase of himself, and not think of benefiting those below him ; and the consequence will be as described. figure, its

subject will

SECT.

THE KWAl HEXAGRAM.

II.

153

The

4.

fourth line, undivided, shows one from buttocks the skin has been stripped, and who

whose

walks slowly and with difficulty. (If he could act) like a sheep led (after its companions), occasion for repentance would disappear. But though he hear these words, he will not believe them. 5.

The

fifth

like)

a bed of purslain,

men

line,

shows (the small which ought to be

undivided,

(The uprooted with the utmost determination. such his the line of determination), subject having will lead in with central his action, harmony position, no error or blame.

to

The

6.

sixth line, divided,

out any (helpers) on

be

whom

shows

subject with-

its

to call.

His end

will

evil.

Kwai we

have the hexagram of the third month, when and dark, of winter, represented by the sixth line, is about to disappear before the advance of the warm and In the ym line at the bjight days of the appioaching summer. a small Wan saw of or bad man, a feudal the top king symbol

XLIII. In

the last remnant, cold

prince or high minister, lending his power to maintain a corrupt government, or, it might be, a dynasty that was waxen old and

ready to vanish away

;

and

in the five undivided lines

he saw the

representatives of good order, or, it might be, the dynasty which was to supersede the other. This then is the subject of the hexa-

gram, how bad men, statesmen corrupt and yet powerful, are to be put out of the way. And he who would accomplish the task

must do so by the force of his character more than by foice of arms, and by producing a general sympathy on his side. The Thwan says that he must openly denounce the criminal in the court, seek to a \\aken general sympathy, and at the same time go about his enterprise, conscious of its difficulty and danger.

Among

his

own

he must make

Then

let

Line

i

it

adherents, moreovei, as

understood

how

is

strong, the

first line

But

it is

were

in his

own

city,

unwillingly he takes up arms.

him go forward, and success

the idea of strength.

if it

will

attend him.

of that trigram, which expresses The stage of

in the lowest place.

THE

154

XLIV.

Y ^ KING.

TEXT.

THE KAu HEXAGRAM.

Ku will

shows a female who is bold and strong. not be good to marry (such) a female.

the enterprise

is

victory certain.

too early, and the preparation too small to Its subject had better not take the field.

It

make

Line 2 is strong, and central, and its subject is possessed with But his the determination to do his pai t in the work of removal. eagerness is

is

cautious,

tempered by his occupancy of an even place; and he and no attempts, however artful, to harm him will take

effect.

strong, and its subject displays his purpose too eagerly. beyond the central position, moreover, gives an indication of

Line 3

Being

is

Lines 3 and 6 are also proper correlates ; and, as elsewhere in the Yf, the meeting of and yang lines is associated with falling The subject of 3, therefore, communicates with 6, in a way rain. evil.

ym

that annoys his associates; but nevei theless he commits no enoi, and, in the end, incuis no blame. Line 4 is not in the centre, nor in an odd place, appropriate to it

as undivided.

Its subject therefore will

not be at

rest,

nor able to

do anything to accomplish the idea of the hexagram. He is symbolised by a culprit, who, according to the ancient and modern custom of Chinese courts, has been bastinadoed till he presents the appearance in the Text. Alone he can do nothing; if he could follow others, like a sheep led along, he might accomplish something, but he will not listen to advice. Purslam grows in shady places, and

hence we find

close contiguity to the topmost line, which ruler's

seat,

evil

may come

strenuous efforts must be

to

made

him from to

it

here in

yin. As 5 is the such contiguity, and

is

prevent such an

evil.

The

subject of the line, the ruler in the central place, will commit It must be allowed that the symbolism in this line error.

not easily managed. The subject of the 6th

posed

of.

line,

standing alone,

may

no is

be easily dis-

SECT.

THE KAU HEXAGRAM.

II.

1.

The

2.

The second

155

shows how its subject should be kept (like a carriage) tied and fastened to a metal drag, in which case with firm correctness there will be good fortune. (But) if he move in evil will He will be (like) any direction, appear. a lean pig, which is sure to keep jumping about. first line,

with a wallet of it

will

divided,

line,

There

fish.

not be well

undivided, shows

to let (the

will

be no

its

subject

error.

subject of the

But

first line)

go forward to the guests. undivided, shows one from 3. The third line, whose buttocks the skin has been stripped so that he walks with difficulty. The position is perilous, but there will be no great error. 4.

The

fourth

undivided, shows

line,

with his wallet, but no

fish in

it.

This

its

will

subject give rise

to evil.

The

fifth line,

undivided, (shows its subject as) a medlar tree overspreading the gourd (beneath it). 5.

he keep his brilliant qualities concealed, issue) will descend (as) from Heaven. If

(a

good

The

sixth line, undivided, shows its subject others on his horns. There will be occareceiving sion for regret, but there will be no error. 6.

XLIV. The

single, divided, line at the top of Kwai, the hexathe third month, has been displaced, and -Oien has ruled over the fourth month of the year. But the innings of the divided the hexagram of line commence again; and here we have in

gram of

Kau

the

fifth

month, when

light

and heat are supposed both

to begin

to be less.

In that divided line

worthy man, beginning

Wan

saw the symbol of the small or ungovernment

to insinuate himself into the

THE

156

XLV.

In (the

state

Yf KING.

TEXT.

THE SHUI HEXAGRAM.

denoted by) 3hui, the king will It will be advan-

repair to his ancestral temple.

His influence, if unchecked, would go on to grow, of the country. and he would displace one good man after another, and fill the vacant seats with others like-minded with himself. The object of

Wan

tn his

Thwan,

encroachment of

this

was

therefore,

to

enjoin resistance to the

bad man.

K&u is defined as giving the idea of suddenly and casually So does the divided line appear encountering or meeting with. And this significance of the name rules all at once in the figure. in the interpretation of the lines, so as to set

on one

side the

more

common

interpretation of them according to the correlation ; how the meaning of the figures was put into them from the showing minds of Wan and Tan in the first place. The sentiments of the

Text are not learned from them often fantastically, and forth of themselves.

made

;

but they are forced and twisted,

to appear to give those sentiments

Here the first line, divided, where it ought to be the contrary, becomes the symbol of a bold, bad uoman, who appears unexpectedly on the scene, and wishes to subdue or win all the five strong lines to herself. No one would contract a man mge with such a female ; and every good servant of his country will try to repel the entrance into the

government of every

officer

who can be

so

symbolised.

Line

i

represents the

bte

noire of the

figure.

If its subject

can be kept back, the method of firm government and order will If he cannot be restrained, he will become disgusting proceed.

and dangerous. It is not enough for the carriage to be stopt by the metal drag; it is also tied or bound to some steadfast Internal and external restraints should be opposed to the object. bad man.

The

'

wallet of fish

'

under

line 2 is

supposed to symbolise the

SECT.

THE 3HUI HEXAGRAM.

II.

157

tageous (also) to meet with the great man and then there will be progress and success, though the advan;

must come through firm correctness. The use of great victims will conduce to good fortune and in whatever direction movement is made, it will tage

;

be advantageous.

The

shows

subject with a sincere desire (for union), but unable to carry it out, so that disorder is brought into the sphere of i.

first line,

his union. correlate),

divided,

its

he cry out (for help to his proper once (his tears) will give place

If

at

all

subject of line i. 2, by virtue of the

has

It

come

into the possession of the subject of

name Kdu, which I have pointed With his strength therefore he can repress the advance of i. He becomes in fact the lord of the hexagram/ and all the other strong lines are merely guests and especially is it important that he should prevent i from approaching them. This is a common It seems farexplanation of what is said under this second line. fetched ; but I can neither find nor devise anything better. With what is said on line 3, compare the fourth paragraph of the duke's Text on the preceding hexagram. Line 3 is strong, meaning of the

out.

'

;

has no correlate above by the intervening 2. It cannot do much but its aim being to repress that, theie will be

but has gone beyond the central place

and

cut off from

is

therefore against no great error.

Line

i is

2.

him may

Line 5

is

,

but it has already met and ; therefoie stands alone; and of 4 subject be looked for.

the pioper correlate of 4

associated with evil to

i

;

;

i

The

strong,

and

in the ruler's place.

like that of a forest tree to the

Its relation to i is

spreading gouid.

But

let

not

its

subject use force to destroy or repress the growth of i ; but let him restrain himself and keep his excellence concealed, and Heaven will set its seal to his virtue.

The symbolism

of line 6

is difficult to

meaning of what is said is pretty observe The subject of this line '

:

drawn from time

;

the world.

but his person

clear. is like

understand, though the

The Khang-hsl editors officer who has with-

an

He can accomplish no service for the removed from the workers of disorder. 1

is

THE

158

He

need not mind (the temporary diffias he goes forward, there will be no error.

to smiles. culty)

;

TEXT.

Y! KING.

The second

shows its subject led forward (by his correlate). There will be good There is entire fortune, and freedom from error. sincerity, and in that case (even the small offerings 2.

of)

line, divided,

the vernal sacrifice are acceptable.

3.

The

third

line,

divided,

shows

its

subject

union and seeming to sigh, yet nostriving where finding any advantage. If he go forward, he will not err, though there may be some small cause after

for regret. 4.

The

fourth line, undivided, shows

its

subject

such a state that, if he be greatly fortunate, he will receive no blame. in

The

undivided, shows the union (of There all) under its subject in the place of dignity. will be no error. If any do not have confidence in 5.

fifth line,

him, let him see to

that (his virtue) be great, longfirmly correct, and all occasion for

continued, and

it

repentance will disappear. 6.

The topmost

sighing and weeping

XLV.

3 hui

shows its subject but there will be no error.

line, ;

divided,

denotes collecting together, or things so collected

;

hexagram concerns the state of the kingdom when a happy union prevails between the sovereign and his ministers, between high and low and replies in a vague way to the question how this state is to be preserved by the influence of religion, and and hence

this

;

;

the great man, who is a sage upon the throne. ' He, the king/ will repair to his ancestral temple, and meet in Whatever he does, spirit there with the spirits of his ancestors.

being correct and

His religious services and splendour. His victims

right, will succeed.

be distinguished by

their dignity

will

will

SECT.

THE SHANG HEXAGRAM.

II.

XLVI.

THE SHANG HEXAGRAM.

indicates that (under

ShSng

159

its

conditions) there

be great progress and success.

will

Seeking by

be the best that can be obtained, and other things mony with them.

will

be in har-

Line

i is weak, and in the It has a place of a strong line. in 4, but is separated from him by the intervention conelate pioper of two weak lines. The consequence of these things is supposed to

be expressed

in the first part of the

symbolism

;

but the subject of

possessed by the desire for union, which is the theme of the hexagram. Calling out to his correlate for help, he obtains the line

it,

and

his

Line in 5,

is

sonow

is

turned into joy.

pioper place, and responds to the strong ruler He encourages and helps the advance of its subject

2 is in its

who

possesses also the sincerity, proper to him in his cential position; and though he were able to off< r only the sacrifice of the spring, small

compared with the

fulness of the sacrifices in

summer and

autumn, it would be accepted. Line 3 is weak, m the place of a stiong line, and advanced from The topmost line, moreover, is no pioper the central place. correlate. But its subject is possessed by the desire for union ; and though 2 and 4 decline to associate with him, he presses on to 6,

which

them

together, notwithstanding 3

is

That common desire brings and 6 are both divided lines ; and

also desirous of union.

with difficulty the subject of 3 accomplishes his object. [But that an oidinaiy rule for interpreting the lineal indications

may be thus overruled by much of fancy there is in on

extraordinary considerations shows how the symbolism or in the commentaiies

it.]

Line 4 has

its

correlate in

i,

and

is

near to the ruling line in

5.

We may

expect a good auspice for it ; but its being strong in an odd place, calls for the caution which is insinuated.

Line 5

is

strong, central,

and

in its correct position.

Through

THE

160

Y! KING.

meet with the great Advance to subject need have no anxiety.

(the qualities implied in

man,

TEXT.

its

it)

to

the south will be fortunate. 1.

The

2.

The second

shows its subject advancing upwards with the welcome (of those above There will be great good fortune. him). first

line,

divided,

undivided, shows

its

undivided, shows

its

subject with that sincerity which will make even the (small) There offerings of the vernal sacrifice acceptable. will 3.

be no

The

line,

error.

third line,

ascending upwards 4.

The

fourth

employed by

mount KM.

subject

an empty city. divided, shows its subject

(as into) line,

the king to present his offerings on There will be good fortune there will ;

be no mistake. 5.

The

fifth line,

divided,

shows

its

subject firmly

and therefore enjoying good fortune. ascends the stairs (with all due ceremony). correct,

6.

The

sixth line, divided,

shows

its

He

subject ad-

be found vancing upwards blindly. Advantage in a ceaseless maintenance of firm correctness. will

subject there the hexagram.

its

Line for

6,

union

in 5.

;

may

be expected the

of the idea of

weak, and at the extremity of the figuie, is still anxious but he has no proper correlate, and all below are united

mourns his solitary condition preserve him fiom error and blame.

Its subject

feeling will

XL VI.

full realisation

;

and

his

good

The character Shang

is used of advancing in an upward and And here, as the name direction, 'advancing ascending/ of the hexagram, it denotes the advance of a good officer to the

The second line, in the centre highest pinnacle of distinction. of the lower trigram, is stiong, but the strength is tempeied by its being in an even place. As the lepresenl alive of the subject of the

SECT.

THE KHWAN HEXAGRAM.

II.

THE KHWAN HEXAGRAM.

XLVII.

KhwSn

In (the condition denoted by) be) progress and

(yet

l6l

there

For the

success.

firm

may and

shows him to be possessed of modesty and force. Then fifth place, is occupied by a divided line, indiThe officer therefore cating that he will welcome the advance of 2. both has the qualities that fit him to advance, and a favourable

hexagram,

it

the ruler's seat, the

opportunity to do so. It is said that

in 5,

after

The result of his advance will be fortunate. he has met with the ruler, the great man '

'

'advance to the south

will

JTu Hsi and other

be fortunate.' '

' say that advancing to the south is equivalent simply to The south is the region of brightness and advancing forwards. warmth advance towards it will be a joyful progress. As P. Regis

critics '

1

;

explains the phrase, the traveller will proceed ilh qua itur ad austiates felicesque plagas.'

'

via recta simillima

Line i is weak, where it should be strong its subject, that is, is humble and docile. Those above him, therefore, welcome his advance. Another interpretation of the line is suggested by Appen;

which deserves consideration. As the first line of Sun, moreover, it may be supposed to concentrate in itself its attribute dix I;

of docility, and be the lord of the tngram. See on the second line of 3h u i. Line 2

is

strong,

and the weak

proper correlate. We have a strong officer serving a weak ruler he could not do so unless he were penetrated with a sincere and devoted loyalty. 5

is

its ;

Paragraph 3 describes the boldness and fearlessness of the advance of the third line. According to the Khang-hsl editors, who, I think, are right, there is a shade of condemnation in the line.

Its subject is

too bold.

Line 4 occupies the place of a great minister, in immediate contiguity to his ruler,

highest

who

confides in him, and raises

distinction as a feudal

prince.

him

The mention

to the

of mount

1

THE

62

TEXT.

Y! KING.

correct, the (really) great man, there will If will fall into no error. fortune.

He

be good he make

words cannot be made good. 1. The first line, divided, shows its subject with bare buttocks straitened under the stump of a tree. He enters a dark valley, and for three years has no prospect (of deliverance). speeches, his

2.

The second

line,

undivided, shows

and viands.

straitened amidst his wine

its

subject

There come

him anon the red knee-covers be well for him (to maintain

(of the ruler). his sincerity as) in sacrificing. Active operations (on his part) will lead to evil, but he will be free from blame.

to

It will

third line, divided, shows its subject 3. The straitened before a (frowning) rock. He lays hold of He enters his palace, and does not see his thorns. wife.

There

be

will

evil.

The

fourth line, undivided, shows its subject proceeding very slowly (to help the subject of the 4.

first line),

who

is

by the carriage adorned There will be occasion

straitened

with metal in front of him. for regret, but the

end

will

be good.

\, at the foot of which was the capital of the lords of -ffau, seems to take the paragraph out of the sphere of symbolism into that of 'The king' in it is the last sovereign of Shang; the history.

feudal prince in it is Wan. In line 5 the advance has reached the highest point of dignity, and firm correctness is specially called for. ' Ascending the steps

of a

1

stair

may

intimate, as A*u

Hsi

says, the ease of the

or according to others (the Khang-hsJ editors

among

advance;

them),

its

ceremonious manner.

What can

the subject of the

gained all his wishes, and advance is blind and foolish will

still

hexagram want more ? he

is

for

He

going onwards.

has

His

and only the most exact correctness ; save him from the consequences.

SECT.

THE KHWAN HEXAGRAM.

II.

The

163

undivided, shows its subject with He is straitened by (his his nose and feet cut off. 5.

fifth line,

He

ministers in their) scarlet aprons.

is

leisurely

movements, however, and is satisfied. It will be well for him to be (as sincere) as in sacrificing (to in his

spiritual beings). 6.

The

sixth line, divided,

shows

bound with creepers dangerous position, and saying ened, as

move,

I

errors,

if

shall repent it.' If there will be good

;

subject strait-

its

or in a high and '

(to himself),

If

I

he do repent of former fortune in his going

forward.

XLVII. The for

character

an enclosure

tree within

want of room

to spread its

'

;

'a

Khwan '

;

a

presents us with the picture of a

* according to Williams, fading allowed to Tai not accoiding Tung,

plant,'

'

tree,'

branches/

However

this be, the

term conveys the

idea of being straitened and distressed ; and this hexagram indicates a state of things in which the order and government that would

conduce

to the well-being of the country

ment, which, by

and

others,

Looking

skilful

is finally

management on

can hardly get the developthe part of

'

the great

man

'

secured for them.

at the figure

strong lines

we

see that the

but 2

is

two central plaoes are i and 3, both

confined between

; occupied by of which are weak, and 5 (the luler), as well as 4 (his minister), is covered by the weak 6 ; all which peculiarities are held to indicate

the repression or straitening of

which the same view

Appendix

is

good men by bad.

For the way

in

derived from the great symbolism, see

II, in loc.

concluding sentence of the Th wan is literally, If he speak, ' he will not be believed ; but the Khang-hst editors give sufficient reasons for changing one character so as to give the meaning in

The

*

the translation.

'Actions,' not words, are

what are required

in

the case.

The symbolism

of

'

'

buttocks

is

rather a favourite with the duke

chacun a son gout.' The poor subject of line i sitting on a mere stump, which affords him no shelter, is indeed badly off. The line is at the bottom of the trigram indicating peril, and 4, which is its proper correlate, is so circumstanced as not to be able of A!au

'

;

THE

1 64

a town to render

it

(we think

at) 3\ng,

may be help

;

TEXT.

THE SING HEXAGRAM.

XLVIII.

(Looking

Y! KING.

how

of)

(the site of)

changed, while (the fashion of)

hence comes the unfavourable auspice.

used, as often, for a long time. years' The three strong lines in the figure (2, 4,

'

its

Three

is

'

represent

superior

persons or estates,

men

'

and

and

5) are

all

held to

being straitened is not in their but in their principles which are denied develop;

their

ment

Hence the subject of 2 is straitened while he fares sumptuHis correlate in 5, though not quite proper, occupies the ruler's place, and comes to his help. That it is the ruler who comes appears from his red or vermillion knee-covers, different from the scarlet knee-covers worn by nobles, as in paragraph 5. ously.

Let 2 cultivate his sincerity and do the work of the hexagram as

he were sacrificing to all will be well.

For to

'

a

spiiitual '

full

explanation

what Confucius

is

beings

and

;

of paragraph 3

made

to say

on

it

J5TA

in

if

then, if he keep quiet,

Hsi

refers his readers

Appendix

The

reader, however, will probably not find The Khang-hsi editors say here : passage.

'

III,

ii,

35.

much light in that The subjects of the

three divided lines (i, 3, and 6) are all unable to deal aright with The first is at the the straitened state indicated by the figure.

bottom, sitting and distressed. The second, occupies the third place, where he may either advance or retreat ; and he advances

and

is distressed.

finds

none

Wounded

to receive

him

;

abroad, he returns to his family, and so graphically is there set forth the

which reckless action brings.' Line 4 is the proper correlate of i, but it is a strong line in an even place, and its assistance is given dilatorily. Then i is overridden by 2, which is represented by a chariot of metal.' It is difficult for the subjects of i and 4 to come together, and effect much ; but 4 is near 5, which is also a strong line. Through a distress

'

SECT.

THE SING HEXAGRAM.

II.

165

no change. (The water of a well) never disappears and never receives (any great) increase, and those who come and those who go can draw and enjoy the benefit. If (the drawing) have nearly been accomplished, but, before the rope has

wells undergoes

quite reached the water, the bucket

is

broken, this

is evil.

The men

1.

that

first line,

divided,

not drink of

will

shows a well so muddy it; or an old well to

which neither birds (nor other creatures) resort 2. The second line, undivided, shows a well from which by a hole the water escapes and flows away to the shrimps (and such small creatures among the grass), or one the water of which leaks away from a broken basket.

The

3.

third line, undivided,

has been cleared out, but are sorry for out and used.

both he and

common

this, for

well,

which

Our

hearts

the water might be drawn intelligent,

receive the benefit of

sympathy, the subject of 5

So the symbolism of

cess.

shows a

not used.

king were (only)

If the

we might

is

this

have a measure of suc-

will

line

it.

has been explained,

not

very satisfactorily.

Line 5 below

is

repressed by 6, and pressed is

its

wounded.

subject Especially minister in 4, with his scarlet knee-covers.

is

Tui, with the quality of complacent

on by

4.

Above and

he straitened by the But the upper trigram

is

satisfaction.

And

this indi-

of 5 gets on notwithstanding his This explanation is not more straits, especially by his sincerity. than the last. satisfactoiy

cates,

it

is

Line 6

said, that the subject

is

at the top of the figure,

to reach

supposed perilous summit.

moved his

its

height

But

will

distress

;

be fortunate.

and

if

may be

appears bound and on a

his extremity is also his opportunity.

to think of repenting

doing so

where the

Its subject

He

is

he do repent, and go forward,

1

THE

66

The fourth

4.

of which

is

line,

The

6.

The topmost

TEXT.

shows a well, the There will be no error.

divided,

well laid.

5.

Y! KING.

lining

undivided, shows a clear, limpid well, (the waters from) whose cold spring are (freely) drunk. fifth line,

divided,

line,

shows

(the water

from) the well brought to the top, which is not allowed to be covered. This suggests the idea of

There

sincerity.

will

XLVIII. Sing, which

be great good fortune.

gives

its

name

to this hexagram,

is

the

symbol of a well. The character originally was pictorial (4t), intended to represent a portion of land, divided into nine paits, the central portion belonging to the government, and being cultivated by the joint labour of the eight families settled on the other In the centre of it, moreover, was a well, which was the divisions. joint

property of

What

all

the occupants.

on 3i n g might be

styled 'Moralisings on a well/ or 'Lessons to be learned from a well for the good order and

said

is

government of a country.' What a well is to those in its neighbourhood, and indeed to men in general, that is government to a people. If rulers would only rightly appreciate the principles of government handed down from the good ages of the past, and faithfully apply them to the regulation of the present, they would be blessed themselves and their people with them.

Thwan we

have the well, substantially the same through of society ; a sure source of dependance to men, for their refreshment and for use in their cultivation of the ground Its In the

many changes

form is what I have seen in the plains of northern China; what may be seen among ourselves in many places in Europe. It is deep, and the water is drawn up by a vessel let down from the top ; and the value of the well depends on the water being actually raised. And so the principles of government must be actually earned out. Line or

is

i

,

being weak, and

made

to suggest, the

very bottom of the figure, suggests, symbolism of it. Many men in authority at the

are like such a well

; corrupt, useless, unregarded. strong, and might very well symbolise an active spring, ever feeding the well and, through it, the ground and its cultivators ;

Line 2

but

it

is

is

in

an inappropriate place, and has no proper correlate.

SECT.

THE KO HEXAGRAM.

II.

XLIX.

(What takes place in

only after

it

THE Ko HEXAGRAM.

as indicated by)

K o is believed

There will Advantage will come

has been accomplished.

be great progress and success. from being firm and correct. (In that case) occasion for repentance will disappear.

The

undivided, shows its subject (as if he were) bound with the skin of a yellow ox. i.

Its cool

first

line,

waters cannot be brought to the top.

So important

is

it

that the ministers of a country should be able and willing rightly to administer its government. In the account of the ancient Shun it is

stated that

he once saved his

life

by an opening

in the lining of

a well.

Line 3 is a strong line, in its proper place and must represent an able minister or officer. But though the well is clear, no use is made of it. I do not find anything in the figure that can be connected with this fact. The author was wise beyond his lines. After the first sentence of the paragraph, the duke of K&m ceases from his function of making emblems; reflects and moralises. Line 4 is weak, but in its proper place. Its subject is not to be condemned, but neither is he to be praised. He takes care of ;

himself, but does nothing for others. is strong, and in its right place. The place is that of the and suggests the well, full of clear water, which is drawn Such is the good Head of up, and performs iis useful work. government to his people.

Line 5

ruler,

Line 6 is in its proper place, but weak. If the general idea of the figure was different, a bad auspice might be drawn from it. But here we see in it the symbol of the water drawn up, and the Then top uncovered so that the use of the well is free to all. the mention of 'sincerity' suggests the inexhaustibleness of the

elemental supply.

1

68 2.

The

second

THE

Yl KING.

line,

divided,

TEXT.

shows

its

subject

changes after some time has passed. There will be Action taken will be fortunate.

making

no

his

error. 3.

The

taken by firm

shows that action be evil. Though he be

third line, undivided, its

and

subject will

correct,

his position

is

perilous.

If the

change (he contemplates) have been three times fully discussed, he will be believed in. 4.

The

fourth line, undivided, shows occasion for

repentance disappearing (from its subject). Let him be believed in; and though he change (existing) ordinances, there will be 5.

man when

The

fortune.

good

undivided, shows the great (producing his changes) as the tiger (does Before he divines he) changes (his stripes). fifth

line,

(and proceeds to action), faith has been reposed him.

in

6.

man

The

sixth

line,

shows the superior

divided,

producing his changes as

the leopard (does spots), while small men

when

he) changes (his change their faces (and show their obedience). go forward (now) would lead to evil, but there be good fortune in abiding firm and correct.

XLIX. The of changing. alive or dead,

character called

Ko orKeh

is

To will

used herein the sense

Originally used for the skin of an animal or biid, it received the significance of changing at a very

Its earliest appearance, indeed, in the first Book of the early time. in is that sense. the transition was made from the idea Shu,

How

of a skin or hide to that of entered on here.

occurring

The

called for

greatest scale.

The

change

is

a subject that need not be

author has before him the subject of changes in the state of the country ; it may be on the

necessity of

them

is

recognised, and hints are

SECT.

THE TING HEXAGRAM.

II.

THE TING HEXAGRAM.

L.

Ting

169

gives the intimation of great progress and

success.

The

i.

first line,

thrown and

its

given as to the

spirit

divided,

shows the caldron over(But) there will be

feet turned up.

and manner

in

which they should be brought

about.

For the way

in

which the notion of change

is

brought out of

It is assumed the trigrams of the figure, see Appendixes I and II. in the Thwan that change is viewed by people generally with When suspicion and dislike, and should not be made hastily.

made

as a necessity, and

its

good

be and a

effects appear, the issues will

A

great and good. proved necessity for firm correctness in the conduct of them

:

them beforehand

;

these are the conditions

by which changes should be regulated. Line i, at the bottom of the figure, may be taken as denoting change made

at

too early a period.

Hence helper, moreover, above. up, unable to take any action.

It

its

has no proper correlate or

subject

is

represented as tied

Line 2, though weak, is in its correct place. It is in the centre also of the trigram L!, signifying brightness and intelligence, and has a proper correlate in the strong 5. Let its subject take action in the

way

of change.

The symbolism and and

of paragraph 3

in the coirect position, but

it

is

twofold.

The

line is strong,

has passed the centre of Sun

These conditions may dispose its and violent changing which would be bad. But if he act cautiously and with due deliberation, he may take action, and he will be believed in. Line 4 is strong, but in the place of a weak line. This might vitiate any action of its subject in the way of change, and give occasion for repentance. But other conditions are intimated that is

on

its

outward verge.

subject to reckless

THE

I7O

Y! KING.

TEXT.

advantage in its getting rid of what was bad in it. (Or it shows us) the concubine (whose position is improved) by means of her son. There will be

no

error.

2. The second line, undivided, shows the caldron with the things (to be cooked) in it. (If its subject can say), My enemy dislikes me, but he cannot '

approach me/ there 3.

The

third line,

with (the places of) its

be good fortune. undivided, shows the caldron

will

its

The progress The fat flesh of

ears changed.

is

(of (thus) stopped. subject) the pheasant (which is in the caldron) will not be But the (genial) rain will come, and the eaten.

grounds for repentance will disappear. be good fortune in the end. 4.

with

The

fourth line, undivided,

broken

feet

its

;

and

There

will

shows the caldron

contents, designed for

its

the ruler's use, overturned and spilt. Its subject will be made to blush for shame. There will be evil. will have a contrary effect ; and if he have further secured general confidence, he may proceed to the greatest changes, even to change the dynasty, with good fortune/ The conditions favourable to '

his action are said to

be such as these

:

The

line

has passed from

the lower trigram into the upper ; water and fire come in it into contact ; the fourth place is that of the minister immediately below the ruler's seat. subject of 4 in

All these considerations

demand

action from the

the idea of the hexagram. Line 5 has every quality proper to ' the lord of the hexagram/ and his action will be in every way beneficial. He is symbolled by

harmony with

the tiger; and the changes which he makes by the bright stripes of the tiger when he has changed his coat.

Line 6

is

weak, but

hexagram.

If

'the gieat

man/

its subject is penetrated with the spirit of the subject be a superior man, only inferior to immediately below, the changes he makes will be

its

inferior only to his.

submissive.

The

If he be a small

man, he

lesson for him, however, correct without taking any action of his own.

will is

be compliant and

to abide firm

and

SECT.

THE TING HEXAGRAM.

II.

17!

The

fifth line, divided, shows the caldron with ears and rings of metal in them. There will yellow be advantage through being firm and correct. 5.

The

shows the caldron with rings of jade. There will be great good fortune, and all action taken will be in every way 6.

sixth line, undivided,

advantageous. L. Ting was originally a pictorial character, representing a caldron with three feet and two ears, used for cooking and preparing food for the table (the mat in old times) and the altar. The picture

has disappeared from the character, but it is said that in the hexaoutline from which fancy may construct the

gram we have an vessel.

The

lower

represents its feet ; lines 2, 3, 4, body of it ; line 5, divided, represents its two ears; and line 6, undivided, the handle by which it was VI makes Ting earned, or suspended from a hook. Appendix all

line, divided,

undivided, represent the

Ko in the order of the hexagrams, because theie is no changer of the appearance and character of things equal to the furnace and caldron

follow

!

two hexagrams named from and ; they are both descriptive of the government's work of nourishing. There are three hexagrams

Ting and 3 ing

(48) are the only

men

things in ordinary use with

is the theme, i (27), under which we are told in Appendix I that the sages nourished men of worth, by means of them to reach to the myriads of the people/ 3*ng treats of the nourish-

of which that

'

ment of

by the government through its agriTing treats of the nourishment of men of talents and virtue; and that being understood, it is said, without more ado, that it intimates great progress and success/ The Text that follows, however, is more difficult to interpret than cultural

the people generally and other methods; '

that of

3ing.

weak, and little or nothing can be expected from its it has a proper correlate in the strong 4 ; and the disastrous overthrow, causing the feet to be directed towards 4, is

Line

is

i

But

subject.

understood to be lucky, as accelerating the co-operation of their two lines The overturned caldron is thereby emptied of bad stuff !

had accumulated in it which comes to the same

that

than a wife,

!

!

The

thing.

writer uses another illustration,

A

concubine

like the ovei thrown caldron.

But

is less

if

honourable

she have a son,

THE

172

Yf KING.

TEXT.

THE A'AN HEXAGRAM.

LI.

gives the intimation of ease and developWhen (the time of) movement (which it

ment.

indicates) comes, (the subject of the

hexagram) will be found looking out with apprehension, and yet while the proper wife has none, he will be his father's heir, and the mother, the concubine, will share in the honour of his position. Thus the issue of what was so unpromising is good. At least 'there is no mistake/ The above is what is found in the best commentaries on the paragraph. I give it, but am myself dissatisfied with

Line

it. '

2 is strong.

The enemy Ms

the

first line,

which

solicits i.

and the whole paragraph gives a good auspice. The personal pronoun seems to show that the whole was, or was intended to be, understood as an oracular response in divination. This paragraph is rhymed, moreas i are also and over, 4 3, One, however,

able to resist the solicitation;

is

:

,

'

In the caldron

See

my

is

good

fare,

foe with angry glare;

But touch

me

he does not dare/

Line 3 is also strong, and in the proper place and if its correlate were the divided 5, its auspice would be entirely good. But instead of 5, its correlate is the strong 6. The place of the ears at 5 has been changed. Things promise badly. The advance of 3 is ;

The good meat in the caldron which it symbolises will stopped. not be eaten. But 3 keeping firm 5 will by and by seek its The yin and the yang will mingle, and their union will society !

be followed by genial rain. The issue will be good. Line 4 is in the place of a great minister, who is charged with the most difficult duties, which no single man can sustain. Then the strength of 4 late is the

is

weak

weakened by being z in

in

the lowest place.

an even

place,

and

its

corre-

Its subject is insufficient

of

SECT.

THE *AN HEXAGRAM.

II.

smiling and

1

When

talking cheerfully.

73

the move-

ment

(like a crash of thunder) terrifies all within a hundred 11, he will be (like the sincere worshipper) who is not (startled into) letting go his ladle and

(cup of) sacrificial

The

1.

when

first

spirits.

line,

undivided, shows

its

subject,

movement approaches, looking out and

the

around with apprehension, and afterwards smiling and talking cheerfully. There will be good fortune.

The second

2.

when

He

his

(in

shows

divided,

movement approaches,

the

peril.

line,

it

judges

possession),

in

its

subject,

a position of

better to let go the articles and to ascend a very lofty

There is no occasion for him to pursue height. in seven days he after (the things he has let go) ;

will find

them.

The

3.

third line, divided,

shows

subject dis-

its

If traught amid the startling movements going on. those movements excite him to (right) action, there will

be no mistake.

himself for his work, and he has no sufficient help

be

will

;

and the

result

evil. '

'

says the Daily Lecture, praises the ruler as con' Yellow has the to worthy with his humble virtue/ descending ' ' occurred repeatedly as a correct colour ; and here the yellow

Paragraph

5,'

'

'

ears

and strong rings of metal

'

are intended to intensify our appreis divided, a caution is

As the line ciation of the occupant of 5. added about being firm and correct.

strong, but the strength is tempered by its being in an It is this which makes the handle to be of jade, which, is supposed to have a peculiar and rich softness hard, very

Line 6

is

even place.

though its own.

' The great auspice of the line is very good. minister/ it is said, the subject of 6,' performs for the ruler, the subject of 5, in helping his government and nourishing the worthy,

of

The

'

the part which the handle does for the caldron.

TH E

174 4.

The

Yf KING.

TEXT.

fourth line, undivided, shows

amid the

startling movements, in the mud. (deeper)

The

its subject,

supinely

sinking

divided, shows its subject going and coming amidst the startling movements (of but perhaps he the time), and always in peril will not incur loss, and find business (which he can 5.

fifth line,

;

accomplish). 6.

The topmost

line,

divided,

shows

its

subject,

amidst the startling movements (of the time), in breathless dismay and looking round him with If he take action, there will trembling apprehension. be evil. If, while the startling movements have not

own person and his neighbourhood, (he were to take precautions), there would be no error, though his relatives might (still) speak against him. reached his

LI. -flfan to

among

the trigrams represents thunder, and, according significance of them, the oldest son.'

W&n's arrangement and

'

It is a phonetic character in which the significant constituent is Yu, meaning rain, and with which are formed most characters that denote atmospherical phenomena. The hexagram is formed of the trigram A"an redoubled, and may be taken as representing the crash or peal of thunder; but we have seen that the attribute or virtue of the trigram is moving, exciting power;' and thence, symbolically, the character is indicative of movement taking place in society or This is the meaning of the hexagram and the in the kingdom. c

;

such subject is the conduct to be pursued in a time of movement as insurrection or revolution by the party promoting, and most It is shown how he ought to be aware interested in, the situation.

how by precaution and the regulaovercome them.

of the dangers of the time, and tion of himself he

The posed

may

indication of a successful issue given by the figure is supto be given by the undivided line at the bottom of the

The subject of it must be superior to the subjects of the trigram. two divided lines above. It is in the idea of the hexagram that he should be moving and advancing ; and what can his movement be but successful ?

SECT.

THE KAN HEXAGRAM.

II.

THE KAN HEXAGRAM.

LI I.

When

one's resting

he loses The

all

175

is like

that of the back,

and

when he walks

consciousness of self;

next sentence shows him sensible of the danger of the

The concluding senoccasion, but confident and self-possessed. tence shows him rapt in his own important affairs, like a sincere worshipper, thinking only of the service in which he is engaged. Such a symbol is said to be suggested by Win's significance of

K&n

as

'

the oldest son (page 33).'

It is his to

succeed to his

father, and the hexagram, as following Ting, shows him presiding over the sacrifices that have been prepared in the caldron. This

too fanciful.

is

What

is

said

on

line i is little

principal part of the Th wan. auspice of good fortune. '

more than a

The

repetition of the

line is undivided,

and gives the

'

The

to the subject of line 2 is suggested, as position of peril Appendix II says, by its position, immediately above i. But the Hsi says he does not rest of the symbolism is obscure, and

Kb

understand

The common

interpretation appears in the version. The subject of the line does what he can to get out of danger; and finally, as is signified by the central position of the line, the issue is it.

better than could have 1

seven days/ see what

On

been expected. is

On

said in the treatise

the specification on the

Thwan

of of

The places of ^ing-jze says a diagram amount to 6. The number 7 is the first of another. When the movement symbolised by -AT a n is gone by, things will be

hexagram

24.

its

'

use here

:

as they were before/

Line 3

is

divided,

and where an undivided

line

should be

;

but

if

move on

to the fourth place, which would be right for subject him, the issue will not be bad. its

The 4th line, however, has a bad auspice of its own. It is undivided in an even place, and it is pressed by the divided line on

THE

176

TEXT.

Yf KING.

and does not see any there will be no error.

in his courtyard,

sons) in 1.

it,

The

divided, shows

first line,

There

its

(of the per-

subject keep-

be no error; but it will be advantageous for him to be persistently firm and correct.

ing his toes at rest.

2.

The second

3.

The

will

line, divided, shows its subject of his legs at rest. the calves He cannot keeping help (the subject of the line above) whom he follows, and is dissatisfied in his mind.

third

line,

undivided, shows

keeping

its

subject

and separating the

his loins at rest,

ribs

The situation is perilous, (from the body below). and the heart glows with suppressed excitement. 4.

The

keeping 5.

fourth

line,

The

fifth line,

There

jawbones Occasion orderly.

The

either

side,

in the

mud.

divided,

shows its subject will be no error.

shows

its

at rest, so that his

ing his

6.

divided,

his trunk at rest.

its

(all)

for repentance will disappear.

sixth line,

hence

subject keep-

words are

undivided, shows

subject

is

its

subject

represented as supinely sinking

Line 5 is divided, in an odd place, and that in which the action of the hexagram may be supposed to be concentrated. Hence its subject is always in peril ; but his central position indicates safety in the end.

Line 6 is weak, and has to abide the concluding terrors of the movement. Action on the part of its subject is sure to be evil. If, however, he were to take precautions, he might escape with only the censures of his

relatives.

But

I

do not see anything

in

the figure to indicate this final s)mbolism. The writer, probably, had a case in his mind, which it suited; but what that was we do

not know.

SF.CT.

THE KAN HEXAGRAM.

II.

177

devotedly maintaining his restfulness.

There

will

be good fortune. LII.

The

trigram

Kn represents

a mountain.

the surface of the earth,

up grandly from

and

their

Mountains rise rest on it to arrest the on-

masses

and solemn majesty and they serve also ward progress of the traveller. Hence the attribute ascribed to K&n is twofold; it is both active and passive resting and arresting.

in quiet

The

;

character

As

cations. teristic

is

used in

the

name

hexagram with both of those

this

of the figure,

of resting in what

is

it

right;

signifi-

denotes the mental characespecially resting, as

it

is

expressed by Chinese critics, 'in principle,' that which is right, on the widest scale, and in the absolute conception of the mind ;

and that which

is

can be placed.

right in every different position in which a man find this treated of in the Great Learning

We

(Commentary, chapter 3), and in the Doctrine of the Mean, This is the theme of the hexachapter 14, and other places. giam; and the symbolism of it is all taken from different parts of the human body, as in hexagram 31, and the way in which Several of the paragraphs are certainly not easy to translate and interpret. The other parts of the body, such as the mouth, eyes, and ears,

they are dealt with.

have their appetencies, which lead them to what is without themThe back alone has nothing to do with anything beyond itself hardly with itself even ; all that it has to do is to stand

selves.

straight free

and strong.

So should

it

be with

us, resting in principle,

thoughts and external objects. realises the idea of the hexagram is still

from the intrusion of

selfish

Amidst society, he who alone, and does not allow himself to be distracted from the conHe is not a recluse, howtemplation and following of principle. but his distinction is that ever, who keeps aloof from social life ;

he maintains a supreme regard to principle, when alone, and when mingling with others. In the symbolism the author

rises

from one part of the body to

The first line at the bottom of the figure fitly suggests the toes/ The lesson is that from the first men should rest in, and be anxious to do, what is right in all their affairs. The

the other. '

and its being in an odd place give occasion which the paragraph concludes. Above the toes are the calves, represented by the second line,

weakness of the

line

for the caution, with

weak, but in

its

proper place.

Above

this,

again, are the loins, Line a

represented by 3, strong, and in danger of being violent.

THE

THE

LI 1 1.

Y! KING.

TEXT.

A'IEN HEXAGRAM.

suggests to us the marriage of a young There lady, and the good fortune (attending it). will

be advantage

The

i.

first

being firm and correct.

in

divided,

line,

shows the wild geese

A

gradually approaching the shore. (in similar circumstances) will

be

danger, and be spoken against

no

;

officer

young

a position of but there will be in

error.

follows

and should help

3,

it

;

but

is

unable to do so

;

and

there

results dissatisfaction.

When harm

the calves are kept at rest, advance is stopped, but no other Not so when the loins are kept at rest, and unable

ensues.

to bend, for the connexion between the upper and lower parts of body is then broken. The dissatisfaction increases to an angiy

the

heat.

is

Paragraph 3

difficult.

unusually

For

'

'

loins

P. Regis has

scapulae, and for ribs renes; Canon McClatchie says: 'Third Nine is stopping at a limit, and separating what is in continued succession

Line 4

the backbone); thus the mind/ &c. a weak line resting in a proper place ; hence

(i.e.

is

it

gives

a good auspice. The Khang-hsi editors, however, call attention to the resting of the trunk as being infeiior to the resting of the back in the Thwan.

The

place of the

weak

fifth

accounts for the mention of

however, there

The

is

line is not its

proper for

it

;

and

not occasion.

third line of the trigrams,

and the sixth of the hexagram, is symbol of a mountain. The

what makes

Kan

subject of

therefore will carry out the resting required

it

this

subject 'repenting/ for which,

what

it

whole figure in the highest

is,

style.

the

by the

SECT.

THE

ii.

The second

2.

JTIEN

line,

HEXAGRAM. divided,

179

shows the geese

gradually approaching the large rocks, where they eat and drink joyfully and at ease. There will be fortune.

good

The third line, undivided, shows them graduadvanced to the dry plains. ally (It suggests also the idea of) a husband who goes on an expedition from which he does not return, and of a wife who is There pregnant, but will not nourish her child. will be evil. (The case symbolised) might be advan3.

tageous in resisting plunderers.

The

4.

fourth

line,

divided,

shows the geese

They may light gradually advanced to the trees. on the flat branches. There will be no error.

The

undivided, shows the geese gradually advanced to the high mound. (It suggests the idea of) a wife who for three years does 5.

fifth

line,

not become pregnant but in the end the natural cannot be prevented. There will be good ;

issue

fortune.

The

undivided, shows the geese gradually advanced to the large heights (beyond). Their feathers can be used as ornaments. There 6.

will

sixth

be good fortune.

LIII. JTien there

The

line,

is

ordinaiily used in the sense of

gradually; but

connected with that the idea also of progress or advance. element of meaning in the character is the symbol of water; is

and the whole of it denotes gradual advance, like the soaking in of water. Three hexagrams contain in them the idea of advance, 3in (35), Shing (46), and this jff'ien; but each has its peculiarity of meaning, and that of -STien is the gradual manner in which the

The subject then of the hexagram is the to offices in the state, how it should take place

advance takes place. advance of

men

gradually and by successive steps, as well as

on

certain other

THE

l8o

LIV.

TEXT.

Y! KING.

THE KWEI MEI HEXAGRAM.

Kwei Mei which

indicates that (under the conditions denotes) action will be evil, and in no wise

it

advantageous. may be gathered from the Text. P. Regis gives this of the exposition subject, as taken by him from the symbolism, Viri probi, seu republica digm, which he ascribes to Confucius in virtutis soliditate instituendi sunt a sapiente, bonisque regulis conditions that

'

:

ut

radicibus firmandi, nee

altis

magnum

ad rempublicam tractandam

alii

qui paulatim per varios minoresque gradus ad hoc regimen penculo facto ascendere digni sint.' He

promovendi,

nisi

'

then illustrates this sentiment by the words of Pliny Eligetur multis experiments eruditus, et qui futura possit ex praeteritis :

praevidere.'

But how does the

the idea of a gradual attempted in the Great Symbolism to get this from the component trigrams. The account there is not satisfactory ; and still less so is what else I have been

We

advance?

lineal

shall see

figure give

how

it

is

on the subject. E.g., the trigrams weie originally and Kh\zn\ but the third line of Khwan and the first of A'/fcien have changed places; and the trigrams now denote 'the youngest son/ and 'the eldest daughter/ If all this, which is a mere farrago, were admitted, it would not help us to the idea of an advance. able to find

Khwin

Again, the lines

2, 3, 4,

5 are

gradual steps of the advance. viction with

Wn,

for

it

to the

mind.

reasons which

We

in the places

all

as strong or weak ; we ascend by top of the hexagram ; and this, it

them is

as

proper to them

by regular

steps to the of the

said, gives the notion

But neither does this carry conmust leave the question. King

we cannot

discover, or

without such

reasons, determined that the hexagram A'ien should denote the gradual advance of men to positions of influence and office.

The an

marriage of a young lady is mentioned in the Thwan as of an important event taking place with various

illustration

SECT.

THE KWEI MEI HEXAGRAM.

It.

The

i.

first

line,

married off

sister

wife.

(It

in

l8l

undivided, shows the younger a position ancillary to the real

suggests the idea of) a person lame on

preliminary steps, continued from

its initiation to its consummation. But all must be done in an orderly and correct manner. And so must it be with the rise of a man in the service of the state.

The goose from

the

most ancient times played an important

part in the marriage ceremonies of the Chinese ; and this may have suggested the use of it in the symbolism of the different lines. Its habits as

a bird of passage, and flying in processional order,

admirably suited the writer's purpose. In paragraph for the fiist time in the season approaching the shore.

i

it

appears

Then comes

the real subject of the line ; and the facts of its being weak, and without a proper correlate, agree with, if they do not suggest, what is said about him, and the caution added.

The

geese have advanced in line 2, and so has the officer, though he is not mentioned. The line is weak or humble, and Hence comes the good central, and has a proper correlate in 5. auspice.

Line 3

is

strong,

and has passed the central

place, to the top of

Its subject the lower trigram, and has not a proper correlate in 6. is likely to be violent and at the same time unsuccessful in his

movements. or a wife

He

is like

who does

his strength in the

a husband

who does not

not care for her child.

end would be

care for his wife,

But in the case supposed,

useful.

The

web-footed goose is not suited for taking hold on the branches ; but on flat branches it can rest. Line 4, weak, but in an even place, does not promise a good auspice for its subject ; but it

is

the

first line

that he will not

fall

in the trigram of humility,

and

it

is

concluded

into error.

Line 5 is a strong line in the ruler's seat ; and yet it appears Somehow its subject has been at here as the symbol of a wife. variance with, and kept in disgrace by, calumniating enemies such as the plunderers of paragraph 3 ; but things come right in the end. The wife, childless for three years, becomes at last a mother ; and there

is

The There he

good

fortune.

subject of line 6 has reached the top of the hexagram. is

may

no more advance for him ; and he has no correlate. But do some good work for the state, and verify the auspice

still

derived from the ornamental plumes of the geese.

1

THE

82

Y! KING.

TEXT.

one leg who yet manages to tramp along. forward will be fortunate.

The

Going

undivided, shows her blind of one eye, and yet able to see. There will be advantage in her maintaining the firm correctness 2.

second

line,

of a solitary widow.

The third line, divided, shows the younger sister who was to be married off in a mean position. 3.

She

returns and accepts an ancillary position.

The fourth line, undivided, shows the younger sister who is to be married off protracting the time. She may be late in being married, but the time will 4.

come. 5.

The

fifth

line,

marrying of the younger

when the

reminds

divided,

sister

sleeves of her the

us of the

of (king)

princess

Tl-yl,

were not

equal to those of the (still) younger sister who accompanied her in an inferior capacity. (The case suggests the thought of) the moon almost full.

There

will

The

be good fortune.

shows the young lady bearing the basket, but without anything in it, and the gentleman slaughtering the sheep, but without blood flowing from it. There will be no advantage in any way. 6.

sixth line, divided,

Kwei is a common way of saying that a young lady If the order of the married, or, literally, 'is going home.' characters be reversed, the verb kwei will be transitive, and the phrase will signify 'the marrying away of a daughter/ or 'the LIV. Mei

is

giving the

Kwei

is

young lady

used with

in marriage/

name of this hexagram, But Mei means a younger

In the

this transitive force.

'

and not merely a young lady or a daughter. Kwei Mei might be equivalent to our 'giving in marriage ;' but we shall find

sister/

SECT.

THE FANG HEXAGRAM.

II.

183

THE FANG HEXAGRAM.

LV.

F Sng intimates progress and development When a king has reached the point (which the that the special

name denotes)

term has a special appropriateness.

The Thwan

makes the hexagram give a bad auspice concerning its subject; and for this the following reasons are given According to Win's :

symbolism of the trigrams, Tui, the lower trigram here, denotes the youngest daughter, and ^an, the upper trigram, the oldest son.

And

as the action of the

lower trigram,

we have

the marriage represented She goes to her future

First,

hexagram begins with

that of the

two violations of propriety. initiated by the lady and her

in the figure

friends.

is

home

instead of the bridegroom

Second, the parties are unequally matched. coming There ought not to be such disparity of age between them. Another reason assigned for the bad auspice is that lines 2, 3, 4, and 5 are to fetch her.

all

in places not suited to

ponding

them, quite different from the corres-

lines in the

preceding hexagram. Is then such a marriage as the above, or marriage in general, the theme of the hexagram ? I think not. The marriage comes in, With all the as in the preceding essay, by way of illustration.

abuses belonging to

it

as an institution of his country, as will

imme-

diately appear, the writer acknowledged it without saying a word in deprecation or correction of those abuses; but from the case

he selected he wanted to set forth some principles which should obtain in the relation between a ruler and his ministers. This view

is

insisted

on the Yf

A

on

in

Wan

'

king's

New

Collection of

Comments

(A.D. 1686).'

feudal prince

was said

to

marry nine

ladies at once.

The

principal of them was the bride who was to be the proper wife, and she was attended by two others, virgins from her father's harem ; a cousin, and a half-sister, a daughter of her father by

another mother of inferior rank.

Under

line i the

younger

sister

THE

184

Yl KING.

TEXT.

no occasion to be anxious (through fear of a change). Let him be as the sun at noon. there

is

of the hexagram appears in the inferior position of this half-sister. But the line is strong, indicative in a female of firm virtue. The mean condition and its duties are to be deplored, and give the

auspice of lameness

;

but notwithstanding, the secondary wife will

There

in a measure discharge her service.

be good fortune.

will

Notwithstanding apparent disadvantages, an able his ruler

good

officer

may do

service.

The proper correlate is 5, weak, and in the place of a strong line. With which, however, such a correlate, the able lady in 2 cannot do much in the disLine 2

is

strong,

and

in the centre.

is

charge of her proper work.

widow who

like the

tion will have

But

if

will die rather

its effect

she yet manages to see.

and

its

And

she think only of her husband, than marry again, such devo-

reward.

Though

blind of one eye,

so devoted loyalty in an officer will

compensate for many disadvantages. Line 3 is weak, where it should be strong and the attribute of pleased satisfaction belonging to Tui culminates in its subject. She turns out to be of so mean a character and such a slave of She returns and accepts the passion that no one will marry her. ;

position of a concubine.

Line 4 is strong, where it should be weak but in the case of a female the indication is not bad. The subject of the line, howShe waits, and the good time will come. ever, is in no haste. has been King Tf-yl already mentioned under the fifth line of hexagram n, and in connexion with some regulation which he ;

made about sister

here

the mairiage of daughters of the royal house. His honourably mentioned, so as to suggest that the

is

adorning which she preferred uas 'the ornament of the hidden man of the heart/ The comparison of her to the moon almost ' I am ready to hail as an instance where the duke of K&u is full '

for

once

symbol full.

-Oing-jze, however, did not see poetry, but a ' is not full/ he says, but only nearly wife ought not to eclipse her husband!' However, the poetical.

in

A

'

it.

The moon

sister of

Ti-yi gets happily married, as she deserved to do, being represented by the line in the place of honour, having its proper correlate in 2.

Line 6

is

weak, at the top of the hexagram, and without a proper

its auspice is evil. The marriage-contract is broken, accoiding to JTu Hsi, and does not take effect. The

correlate.

Hence

SECT.

THE FANG HEXAGRAM.

II.

185

The

first line, undivided, shows its subject with his mate. meeting Though they are both of the same character, there will be no error. Advance 1.

will call forth approval. 2. The second line, divided, shows its subject surrounded by screens so large and thick that at midday he can see from them the constellation of

he go (and try to enlighten his ruler who is thus emblemed), he will make himself to be viewed with suspicion and dislike. Let him the Bushel.

If

cherish his feeling of sincere devotion that he may thereby move (his ruler's mind), and there will be

good

fortune.

The

line, undivided, shows its subject with an (additional) screen of a large and thick banner, through which at midday he can see (the small) Mei star. (In the darkness) he breaks his 3.

right

arm

third

but there will be no error.

;

The

fourth line, undivided, shows its subject in a tent so large and thick that at midday he can 4.

see from

it

the constellation of the Bushel.

But he

meets with the subject of the (first) line, undivided There will be good fortune.

like himself.

The

divided, shows its subject bringhim men of brilliant ability. There around the ing will be occasion for congratulation and praise. There will be good fortune. 5.

6.

fifth line,

The topmost

line,

divided,

shows

its

subject

panics mentioned in the paragraph appear engaged in the temple, But the offering or sacrificing to the spirits of their ancestors.

woman's basket which should contain her offerings (The Shih, I, h, ode 4) is empty, and the man attempts to perform his part in slaying the victim (The Shih, II, vi, ode 6. 5) without effect.

1

THE

86

made

with his house

Y! KING.

TEXT.

but only serving as a screen to his household. When he looks at his door,

nobody about it. For three be seen. There will be evil.

and there

it is still,

years no one

LV. The

to

is

character

large,

is

Fng

is

the symbol of being large

and

name of this hexagram, denotes a condition of abundant prosperity. In the changes of human affairs a condition

abundant, and, as the

of prosperity has often given place to one of an opposite character. The lesson of the hexagram is to show to rulers how they may preserve the prosperity of their state and people. The component trigrams have the attributes of intelligence and of motive force, and the second is under the direction of the first. A ruler with these

crown and proswell be said that the figure intimates progress The king is told not to be anxious, but to study

attributes is not likely to fail in maintaining his perity,

and

it

may

and development.

how he may always be and enlightening

like the

sun in his meridian height, cheering

all.

The explanation of the Th wan is thus natural and easy. It will be found that a change is introduced in explaining the symbolism of the lines, which it is as well to point out here. Thus far we have found that to constitute a proper correlation between two one of them must be whole, and the other divided. Here two undivided lines make a correlation. The law, evidently lines,

made for the occasion, goes far to upset altogether the doctrine of correlated lines. I have been surprised that the rules about the lines stated in the Introduction, pp. 15, 16, have held

good so often. There have been various deviations from them, but none so gross as that in this hexagram.

Line i is strong, and in an odd place. Its correlate is 4, which would in other figures be deemed unfortunate. But here even the Text calls 4 (for the reference must be to it) the mate of i, and

makes their belonging to different categories of no account. The lesson taught is that mutual helpfulness is the great instrument for the maintenance of prosperity. The subject of line i is encouraged to

go forward. Line 2

is divided, and in its proper place. Occupying the centre of the trigram of brightness, the intelligence of it should be concentrated in its subject ; but his correlate is the weak 5, weak and in an improper place, so that he becomes the benighted ruler, and

darkness

is

shed from him

down on

2,

which

as

strangely symbolised.

SECT.

THE

II.

LVL THE

Lli

intimates

HEXAGRAM.

Lt)

Ltf

that (in

187

HEXAGRAM.

the condition which

it

denotes) there may be some little attainment and If the stranger or traveller be firm and progress. correct as

The

i.

he ought to be, there first

mean and meanly brings on himself

The

divided,

line,

occupied.

be useful

shows the stranger It is thus that he

(further) calamity.

subject of 2 therefore,

his ruler,

be good fortune.

will

if

he advance,

will

not be acceptable to

and will not be employed. The only way in which he can by developing the light that is in him is pointed out in the

conclusion.

The

constellation of the Bushel corresponds to our

Ursa Major, or perhaps part of Sagittarius. Line 3 is strong, in its proper place. It

is

the last line more-

over of the

All these conditions are trigram of Brightness. favourable to the employment of its subject ; but its correlate is

weak 6, which is at the extremity of the trigram of movement. Theie is no more power therefore in 6, and the subject of 3 has no one to co-operate with him. His symbolism and auspice are worse than those of 2 but his own proper goodness and capacity will save him from error. Mei is a small star in or near the Bushel. The symbolism of line 4 is the same as that of 2, till we come to the last sentence. Then there is the strange correlation of the two in i and the issue is good. lines and 4 strong the

;

;

The

subject of line 5 is in the ruler's place, himself weak, but ' the lord of the trigram of movement. He can do little unhelped, but if he can bring into the work and employ in his service the '

talents of i, 3,

and

4,

and even of

2, his correlate,

the results will

Nothing consolidates the prosperity of a country so as the co-operation of the ruler and able ministers.

be admirable.

much

All the conditions of line 6 are unfavourable, left

to himself without

undone.

The

any

helpers.

issue is only evil.

He

is

and

its

subject is

isolated for long,

and

1

THE

88

The

Y! KING.

TEXT.

shows the stranger, occupying his lodging-house, carrying with him his means of livelihood, and provided with good and 2.

second

line,

divided,

trusty servants.

The

vants.

third line, undivided, shows the stranger, his lodging-house, and having lost his serHowever firm and correct he (try to) be,

he

be

3.

burning will

in peril.

The

fourth line, undivided, shows the traveller in a resting-place, having (also) the means of liveli4.

hood and the in my mind/

*

axe, (but

still

saying),

I

am

not at ease

The fifth line, divided, shows its subject shoota He will lose his arrow, but in the pheasant. ing end he will obtain praise and a (high) charge. 3.

6.

The

sixth line, undivided, suggests the idea

of a bird

burning

represented),

has

first

its

nest.

The

laughs and then

stranger, (thus cries out.

lost his ox(-like docility) too readily will be evil.

and

He

easily.

There

LVI. The name Lti denotes people travelling abroad, and is often by strangers/ As early as the time of king Wan, there was a class of men who went about fiom one state to another, pursuing their business as pedlars or travelling mei chants; but in Mencius II, i, chap. 5. 3, it is used for travellers generally, whatever it was that took them out of their own states. Confucius himself is adduced as a travelling stranger ; and in this hexagram king Wan

translated

'

is supposed to have addressed himself to the class of such men, and told them how they ought to comport themselves. They ought to cultivate two qualities, those of humility and integrity (firm correctness). By means of these they would escape harm, and would make some little attainment and progress. Their rank was

too low to speak of great things in connexion with them.

It is

interesting to find travellers, strangers in a strange land, having thus a place in the Yf.

For the manner

in

which the component trigrams are supposed

SECT.

THE SUN HEXAGRAM.

II.

189

THE SUN HEXAGRAM.

LVII.

Sun

it

intimates that (under the conditions which denotes) there will be some little attainment and

There

progress.

will

to give the idea that is in is

an endeavour

their relation to

Line

i

Lu, see Appendix II. In Appendix I there Thwan by means of the lines and

in an odd place, and at the very bottom or the hexagram. These conditions are supposed

to account for the unfavourable

is

2

is

symbolism and auspice.

proper place. That place, moi cover, Hence the traveller and he might here very well be

weak, but

the central.

movement

one another.

commencement of Line

in

to explain the

weak,

is

be advantage

in its

a travelling merchant is represented in the symbolism as provided with everything he can require; and though the auspice is not

mentioned, we must understand it as being good. Line 3 is stiong, and in an even place. But it occupies the and its stiength may be topmost place in the lower tngram ;

expected to appear as violence.

So

it

does in the symbolism, and

It seems unreasonable to suppose, extraordinary violence as well. as in the conclusion, that one so described could be in any way correct. The Khang-hsi editors remark that the subjects of 2 and 3

are represented as having lodging-houses,' and not any of those of the other lines, because these are the only two lines in the places *

proper to them Line 4 is sti ong, but !

'a lodging-house

;'

in

an even place. Hence

its

subject has not

but has found a situation wheie he has shelter,

though he is exposed to perils. Hence he is represented as having an axe, which may be available for defence. Still he is not at peace in his mind. The Khang-hsi editois obseive well that the mention of an axe makes us think of caution as a quality desirable in a traveller.

Line

5,

though weak,

is

in the centre of the

upper trigram, which

THE

190

onward

TEXT.

Yi KING.

whatever direction. It geous (also) to see the great man.

will

in

The

be advanta-

shows its subject (now) It would be advantaadvancing, (now) receding. for him the have firm correctness of a to geous 1.

brave

first line,

divided,

soldier.

The second line, undivided, shows the representative of Sun beneath a couch, and employing diviners and exorcists in a way bordering on confu2.

There

sion.

The

3.

will

be good fortune and no

error.

shows its subject by violent and repeated efforts.

third line, undivided,

penetrating (only) There will be occasion for regret.

The

4.

for

shows

all

occasion

He

its

subject) passed away. for its threefold use in his hunting.

repentance

takes 5.

fourth line, divided,

game The fifth

(in

line,

undivided,

firm correctness there will be

shows that with

good fortune

(to its

has the quality of brightness and elegance. It is held to be the lord of the trigram Li ; and lines 4 and 6 are on either side in loyal duty

and help. Then the shooting a pheasant is supposed to be suggested ; an elegant bird, by the trigram of elegance. When an officer was travelling abroad in ancient times, his gift of intro-

to defend

duction at any feudal court was a pheasant. The traveller here emblemed is praised by his attached friends, and exalted to a place of dignity by the ruler to whom he is acceptable. It will be seen how the idea of the fifth line being the ruler's seat is dropt here as being alien from the idea of the hexagram, so arbitrary is the interpretation of the symbolism. Line 6 is strong, in an even place, at the extremity of

the whole hexagram.

Li and

of

be arrogant and violent ; the should be ; and the issue will be evil

Its subject will

opposite of what a traveller The symbolism must be allowed to be extravagant. What bird ever ' burned its nest ? And the character for ' ox is strangely used for *

ox-like docility.'

SECT.

THE SUN HEXAGRAM.

II.

subject).

All

19!

occasion for repentance will disap-

pear, and all his movements will be advantageous. There may have been no (good) beginning, but there will be a (good) end. Three days before

making any changes, (let him give notice of them) and three days after, (let him reconsider them). There will (thus) be good fortune.

;

6.

The

sixth

line,

undivided, shows the repre-

sentative of penetration beneath a couch, and having

axe with which he executed his decisions. However firm and correct he may (try to) be, there will be evil. lost the

LVII. With Sun as the

become

familiar.

It

fifth

we have wind and wood; and has

of the Ffi-hsi trigrams

symbolises both

the attributes of flexibility (nearly allied to docility) and penetration. In this hexagram we are to think of it as representing

wind with its penetrating power, finding its way into every corner and cranny. Confucius once said (Analects 12. 19): 'The relation between superiors and inferiors is like that between the wind and the grass. The grass must bend when the wind blows upon it.' In accordance with this, the subject of the hexagram must be understood as the influence and orders of government designed to remedy what is

The 'Daily Lecture* says that the upper the orders denotes issuing from the ruler, and the lower trigram the obedience rendered to them by the people ; but this view is in the people.

wrong

hardly borne out by the Text. '

But how is it that the figure represents merely some little attainThis is generally explained by taking the first line of the ment ? But over the trigram as indicating what the subject of it can do. weak first line are two strong lines, so that its subject can accomplish but little. The Khang-hsl editors, rejecting this view, contend '

that, the idea

of the whole figure being penetration, line

i,

the

symbol of weakness and what is bad, will not be able to offer much resistance to the subjects of the other lines, which will enter and its influence. They illustiate this from processes of nature, education, and politics ; the effect they say is described as small, because the process is not to revolutionise or renew, but only to

dispel

THE

THE Tui HEXAGRAM.

LVIII.

Tui

TEXT.

Yt KING.

intimates that (under

its

conditions) there will

be

requires

the

be progress and attainment. (But) advantageous to be firm and correct. will

and impiove. Snch as it operation of the strong and virtuous, ciiticism is not entiiely satisfactory.

correct

is, '

however,

the great

it

it

man/ Even

all this

Line i is weak, where it should be strong. The movements of Us subject are expressive of perplexity. He wants vigour and decision.

Line 2

is

and

strong,

in the right place,

and has a good auspice.

hidden beneath a couch or bed; and the subject of the line appears as searching for them. He calls in divi-

Things are placed

01

nation to assist his judgment, and exorcists to expel for him what is The work is great and difficult, so that he appears almost bad. distracted

by

it

nation of the writer of the

which was

;

For this successful explais good. indebted to the Khang-hsf editors. The

but the issue

line, I

am

Text believed of course

and exorcism

in divination

;

his misfortune rather than his fault or folly.

Line 3 is in the light place for a strong line. But its position at the top of the lower trigram is supposed to indicate the icstlessness, and here the vehemence, of its subject. And 6 is no proper coi relate.

All the striving

is

ineffective,

and there

is

occasion for

regret.

Line 4 is weak, as is a weak line, and

and central

5.

good auspice

its

correlate in i.

it

is

a proper place

rests

;

is

obtained.

into three portions

:

the

The game caught

hunting was divided for use in sacrifices the second for

first

the entertainment of visitors

A

But 4

under the shadow of the strong Hence the omens of evil are counteracted and a

for

;

in

;

and the

hunt which yielded enough for

third for the kitchen generally.

all

these purposes

was deemed

very successful.

On

line

'

5 A%Lng-jze says

:

It is the seat

of honour, and the

SECT.

THE TUI HEXAGRAM.

II.

The

1.

undivided, shows the pleasure

first line,

There

of (inward) harmony. 2.

The second

3.

The

will

be good fortune.

line, undivided, shows the pleasure from There will be good arising (inward) sincerity. fortune. Occasion for repentance will disappear.

third

shows

divided,

line,

its

subject

bringing round himself whatever can give pleasure.

There 4.

be

will

The

evil.

fourth line, undivided, shows

its

subject

deliberating about what to seek his pleasure in, and not at rest. He borders on what would be injurious, but there will be cause for joy. 5.

The

fifth

trusting in one who tion is perilous. 6.

of

its

undivided,

line,

The topmost

shows

would injure him.

line,

its

subject

The

situa-

shows the pleasure

divided,

subject in leading and attracting others.

place for the lord of Sun, from whom there issue all charges and commands. It is central and correct ; we must find in its subject the qualities denoted by Sun in their greatest excellence. But

those qualities are docility and accordance with what is right ; and the advantage of firm correctness is insisted on. With this all will

be right/ With the concluding sentence compare the conclusion

of the

The

Th wan evil

of hexagram 18.

that paragraph

6 concludes with would arise from

Sun

being carried to excess. I have followed the in editors Khang-hsi adopting a change of one character in the received Text.

the quality of

LVIII. The trigram Tui symbolises water as collected in a marsh or lake; and its attribute or virtus is pleasure or comIt is a matter of some difficulty to determine placent satisfaction. in one's mind how this attribute came to be connected with the

The Khang-hsf editors say : When the airs of spring trigram. the of from water on the earth the to collections blow, begin '

moistening vapours rise up (and descend again) ; so, when the breath of health is vigorous in a man's person, the hue of it is

THE Y * KING.

194

TEXT.

LIX. THE HWAN HEXAGRAM.

Hwdn

intimates that (under

its

conditions) there

be progress and success. The king goes to his ancestral temple and it will be advantageous to

will

;

Akin to this is the significance of displayed in his complexion. the hexagram Tui representing a marsh, as denoting pleasure. Although the y in lines give it its special character they owe their power and effect to the yang; so when the qualities of mildness and harmony prevail in a man, without true-heartedness and integrity to control and direct them, they will fail to be correct, and may degenerate into what is evil. Hence it is said that it will be advantageous to be firm and correct '

!

The feeling then of pleasure is the subject of this hexagiam. The above quotation sufficiently explains the concluding characters of the Thwan but where is the intimation in Tui of progiess and ;

attainments

?

It is

supposed to be

in the

one weak

line

surmount-

Fancy ing each trigram and supported by the two strong lines. sees in that mildness and benignity energised by a double portion of strength. Line above,

i, is

strong in the place of strength, with no proper correlate thus confined to itself. But its subject is sufficient for

There

will be good fortune. by the rule of place, should be weak, but it is strong. Without any proper correlate, and contiguous to the weak 3, the subject of it might be injuriously affected, and there would be cause for repentance. But the sincerity natural in his central position

himself.

Line

2,

counteracts

The

all this.

view of the third paragraph that appears in the translation

derived from the Khang-hsi editors. The evil threatened in it would be a consequence of the excessive devotion of its subject to

is

pleasure. *

The

'

bordering on what is injurious in paragraph 4 has reference to the contiguity of line 4 to the weak 3. That might have

SECT.

THE HWAN HEXAGRAM.

II.

cross the great stream. be firm and correct.

The

It will

195

be advantageous

to

shows its subject enthe rescuing (from impending evil) and gaged having (the assistance of) a strong horse. There 1.

first

line,

divided,

in

will

be good fortune.

2.

The second

amid the (for

undivided, shows

line,

dispersion, hurrying

to

All occasion for

security).

its

subject,

contrivance

his

repentance will

disappear.

The

third

shows

its

subject

discarding any regard to his own person. will be no occasion for repentance.

There

3.

4.

The

divided,

line,

fourth

line,

divided,

shows

its

subject

scattering the (different) parties (in the state) which leads to great good fortune. From the dispersion ;

(he collects again

good men standing out, a crowd) is what ordinary men would

mound, which not have thought of.

like a

5.

The

fifth

line,

undivided,

shows

its

subject

amidst the dispersion issuing his great announce-

ments as the perspiration (flows from

his

body).

an injurious effect; but the subject of 4 reflects and deliberates before he will yield to the seduction of pleasure, and there is cause for joy.

The danger

whom

to the subject of line 5 is from the

weak 6 above,

in

Possibly his own strength represented as trusting/ and sincerity of mind may be perverted into instruments of evil ; but possibly, they may operate beneficially.

he

'

is

The symbolism

of paragraph 6

is

akin to that of

3,

though no

The subject of line 3 attracts others expressed. round itself for the sake of pleasure ; the subject of this leads them to follow himself in quest of it. positive auspice

is

THE

196

He

scatters

abroad

royal granaries.

Y! KING.

(also)

There

TEXT.

the accumulations in the

will

be no

error.

The topmost

line, undivided, shows its subject disposing of (what may be called) its bloody wounds, and going and separating himself from its anxious fears. There will be no error. 6.

LIX. Hwan, the name of dissipation or dispersion.

It

this

hexagram, denotes a

state

of

descriptive primarily of men's This alienation right and good.

is

minds alienated from what is sure to go on to disorder in the commonwealth and an attempt is made to show how it should be dealt with and remedied. The figure is made up of one of the trigrams for water and over it that for wind. Wind moving over water seems to disperse it, and awakes naturally in the beholder the idea of dissipation. is

;

The

intimation of progress and success is supposed to be given the by strong lines occupying the central places. The king goes to the ancestral temple, there to meet with the spirits of his ancestors.

His

manifestation.

filial

Those

piety

moves them by the sincerity of its come and are present. Let filial

spirits

in our language, let sincere religion piety and there will be no alienation in them from

rule in

what

is

men's minds, and good

right

And if the state of the country demand a or hazardous But whatever great enterprise, let it be undertaken. is done, must be done with due attention to what is right, firmly or from one another.

and

correctly.

Line

i, at

the

commencement of the hexagram,

tells

us that the

has not yet made great progress, and that dealing with it will be easy. But the subject of the line is weak, and in an odd place. He cannot cope with the evil himself. He must have help, and he

evil

finds that in a strong horse,

which description

is

understood to be

symbolical of the subject of the strong second line. Line 2 is strong, but in an even place. That place

is, indeed, the central, but the attribute of the lower trigram Khan is peril. These conditions indicate evil, and action will be dangerous ; but the subject of 2 looks to i below him, and takes shelter in union

with its subject. Since the commentary of -ff^&ng-jze, this has been the interpretation of the line. Line 3 is weak, and in an odd place. A regard for himself that would unfit its subject for contributing any service to the work of

SECT.

THE

II.

LX.

HEXAGRAM.

JTIEH

THE

-fifiEH

1

97

HEXAGRAM.

A'ieh intimates that (under its conditions) there be progress and attainment. (But) if the regulations (which it prescribes) be severe and difficult, they cannot be permanent. will

The

i.

the will

first line,

undivided, shows

subject not

its

hexagram might be feared but he discards that regard, and do nothing to be repented of. There is a change of style in ;

the Chinese text at this point.

As Wang ShSn-jze

(Ytian dynasty)

'

Here and henceforth the scattering is of what should be scattered, that what should not be scattered may be collected/ Line 4, though weak, is in its correct place, and adjoins the

says

:

strong 5, which

is

in the ruler's seat.

The

whom

subject of 4, therefore,

belongs to do a great And of this he does. the evil He dispersion. remedying brings dissentient partizanship to an end ; and not satisfied with that, he collects multitudes of those who had been divided into

will fitly represent the minister, to

it

part in

a great body so that they stand out conspicuous like a hill. Line 5 gives us the action of the ruler himself; by his proclamations,

and by

his benevolence.

Kb

Hsf and other

critics

enlarge

the symbolism of the perspiration, which they think much to P. Regis avoids it, translating the point. 'Hie, magnas leges facit ut Canon McClatchie has an ?).' dissipans, penetrent(ur

on

ingenious and original, so far as my Chinese reading goes, note As sweat cures fevers, so do proclamations cure rebelupon it Both of these translators miss the meaning of the other lions.' '

:

instance of the king's work. is occupied by a strong line, which has a proper correlate The subject but 3 is at the top of the trigram of peril. of 6 hurries away from association with the subject of it, but does

Line 6

in 3

;

so in the

spirit

of the hexagram, so that there

attaching to him.

is

no

error or

blame

THE

198

TEXT.

Vf KING.

There

quitting the courtyard outside his door.

be no

error.

The second

2.

line,

undivided, shows

its

not quitting the courtyard inside his gate. will

be

3.

will

subject

There

evil.

The

third line, divided,

shows

its

subject with

no appearance of observing the (proper) regulations, in which case we shall see him lamenting. But there will be no one to blame (but himself). 4.

The

fourth

line,

divided,

shows

quietly and naturally (attentive to all) There* will be progress and success.

its

subject

regulations.

The

fifth line, undivided, shows its subject and sweetly acceptably enacting his regulations. There will be good fortune. The onward progress with them will afford ground for admiration. 5.

6.

The topmost

line,

divided,

shows

enacting regulations severe and difficult. firmness and correctness there will be

its

subject

Even

But

evil.

though there will be cause for repentance,

with

it

will

(by and by) disappear.

LX. The primary application of the character .ATieh was to denote the joints of the bamboo it is used also for the joints of the human frame ; and for the solar and other terms of the year. ;

Whatever makes regular there enter into

division

may

be denominated a JCieh

;

the ideas of regulating and restiammg; and the subject of this hexagram is the regulations of government enacted for the guidance and control of the the constituent people. trigrams are supposed to suggest or indicate this meaning will be it

How

seen in Appendix

Kb

II.

Hsf

anticipates that symbolism in trying to account for the statement that the figure gives the promise of success and attainment ; but the ground of this is generally made out by referring to the equal division of the undivided and divided lines and our having in 2 and 5, the central places, two undivided lines. An

SECT.

THE ffUNG F# HEXAGRAM.

II.

THE AJUNG

LXI.

HEXAGRAM.

(moves even) pigs and fish, and leads There will be advantage in cross-

Fft

to

Fti

199

fortune.

good

'

regulations' is brought out in the conthat they must be adapted to circumstances,

important point concerning clusion of the

Thwan,

and not made too Line

is

i

strict

strong, and

and

severe. Its subject therefore

in its correct place.

would not be wanting in power to make his way. But he is supposed to be kept in check by the strong 2, and the correlate 4 is the

in the

first line

fore

to

is

keep

tngram of

The

still.

peril.

The

course of wisdom there-

character here rendered door

is

that

belonging to the inner apartments, leading from the hall into which entrance is found by the outer gate, mentioned under line 2.

The

courtyard outside the door and that inside the gate is one and ' The ' Daily Lecture says that the paragraph tells an

the same. officer

not to take office rashly, but to exercise a cautious judgment

in his measures.

Line

2

is

strong, in the

con elate. Its subject keeps There will be evil. doing.

wrong place; nor has it a proper still, when he ought to be up and

Line 3 should be strong, but

it

is

weak.

It

is

neither central

has no proper correlate, and it is the topmost line Its subject will not in the trigram of complacent satisfaction. receive the yoke of regulations ; and he will find out his mistake,

nor correct.

when

it is

Line 4

It

too is

late.

weak, .as

it

ought to be, and

the authority of the strong ruler in 5.

and

its

subject has respect to

Hence

its

good symbolism

auspice.

Line 5

is

Its subject regulates strong, and in its correct place. no correlate ; but he is lord of the hexagram, and

himself, having

his influence is

everywhere beneficially

felt.

THE

500

Yi KING.

There

ing the great stream.

TEXT.

will

be advantage

in

being firm and correct.

The

shows its subject will There be good fortune. resting (in himself). If he sought to any other, he would not find rest. 1.

first

undivided,

line,

The

second line, undivided, shows its subject the crane (like) crying out in her hidden retirement, and her young ones responding to her. (It is as if 2.

were

it

'

said),

I

have a cup of good '

the response were), 3.

The

4.

The

I

will

partake of

(and with you/

spirits/

it

shows its subject Now he beats his drum, having met with his mate. and now he leaves off. Now he weeps, and now he sings. (like)

the

third

line,

fourth

moon

divided,

line,

divided,

nearly

and

chariot) whose fellow error.

full,

shows (like)

its

There

disappears.

subject (in a

a horse

will

be

no

The

undivided, shows its subject and perfectly sincere, linking (others) to him in closest union. There will be no error. 5.

6.

fifth

line,

The topmost

line,

undivided, shows its subject mount to heaven. Even

in chanticleer (trying to)

with firm correctness there will be Line 6

is

weak, in

its

proper place.

evil.

The

subject of the top-

must be supposed to possess an exaggerated desire for enacting regulations. They will be too severe, and the effect will be evil. But as Confucius (Analects 3. 3) says, that is not so great a fault as to be easy and remiss. It may be remedied, and cause

most

line

for repentance will disappear.

LXI. JSTung Fu, the name of this hexagram, may be represented by Inmost Sincerity/ It denotes the highest quality of man, and gives its possessor power so that he prevails with spiritual It is the beings, with other men, and with the lower creatures. in English

'

SECT.

THE HSIAO KWO HEXAGRAM.

II.

THE HsiAo Kwo HEXAGRAM.

LXII.

Kwo

HsiSo which

it

indicates that (in the circumstances

implies) there will

subject of the

'

2OI

Doctrine of the

be progress and

Mean 'from

attain-

the 2ist chapter onwards,

where Remusat rendered it by Ma peifection,' Ma perfection morale/ and Intorcetta and his coadjutors by 'vera solidaque perfectio.' The lineal figure has suggested to the Chinese commentators, from the author of the first Appendix, two ideas in it which deserve to be pointed out. There are two divided lines in the centre and two undivided below them and above them. The divided lines in the centre are held to represent the heart or mind free from all pre-occupation, without any consciousness of self; and the undivided lines, on each side of it, in the centre of the constituent tngrams are held to denote the solidity of the virtue of one so free from selfishness. There is no unreality in it, not a single flaw.

The

'

Thwan

Daily Lecture

'

at the conclusion of its paraphrase

refers to the history of the ancient

of the

Shun, and the wonder-

ful achievements of his viriue. The authors give no instance of ' the affecting of pigs and fishes by sincerity, and say that these names are symbolical of men, the rudest and most unsusceptible of *

being acted on.

The Text

cerity will succeed in the

says that the

mo>t

man

thus gifted with sin-

difficult enterprises.

Remarkable

is

the concluding sentence that he must be firm and correct. Here, as elsewhere throughout the Yf, there comes out the practical character which has distinguished the Chinese people and their best teaching all

along the line of history.

The

translation of paragraph

by the Khang-hsf editors. whom the subject of line

i

according to the view approved oidinary view makes the other to

i is

The

looks or might look to be the subject

but they contend that, excepting in the case of 3 and 6, the force of correlation should be discarded from the study of this

of 4

;

THE

2O2

TEXT.

be advantageous to be firm and (What the name denotes) may be done in

But

ment.

Yl KING.

correct.

it

will

but not in great affairs. (It is like) the to notes that come down from a bird on the wing small

affairs,

;

descend this 1.

There

will

(in

way) be great good fortune.

The

divided, suggests (the idea of) flying, (and ascending) till the issue is evil

a bird 2.

better than to ascend.

is

first line,

The

second

passing by

shows its subject and meeting with his

divided,

line,

his grandfather,

hexagram ; for the virtue of sincerity is all centred in itself, thence derived and thereby powerful. For paragraph 2, see Appendix III, Section i, 42. It is in rhyme, and I have there rendered it in rhyme. The young ones of the crane* are represented by line i. In the third and fourth sentences we have the symbolism of two men brought together by '

their

sympathy in

virtue.

of sincerity. ' The mate of line 3 in. Sincerity, not left to

The

subject of the

paragraph

the

is

effect

'

The

is 6.

principle of correlation

comes

influenced from without, and hence come the changes and uncertainty in the state and moods of the subject of the line.

Line 4

is

itself, is

weak, and in

discarded the correlate in

its

i,

correct place.

and hastens on

The

subject of it has to the confidence of

the ruler in 5, being symbolised as the moon nearly full. The other symbol of the horse whose fellow has disappeared has refer-

ence to the discarding of the subject of i. Anciently chariots and carriages were drawn by four horses, two outsides and two insides. Lines i and 4 were a pair of these team, and 4 goes on and joins 5.

;

but

i

disappears here from the

Line 5 is strong and central, in the ruler's place. Its subject must be the sage on the throne, whose sincerity will go forth and bind all in union with himself. Line 6 should be divided, but is undivided ; and coming after 5,

what can the subject of

it

He

do ?

His

efforts will

be

and

ineffectual, *

symbolised by a cock literally, the plumaged voice/ But a cock is not fitted to fly high, and in attempting to do so will only suffer hurt.

injurious to himself.

is

SKCT.

THE HSlAO KWO HEXAGRAM.

II.

grandmother; not attempting anything against his There will ruler, but meeting him as his minister. be no error. 3.

The

shows

third line, undivided,

its

subject

taking no extraordinary precautions against danger;

and some assail and

The

consequence finding opportunity to There will be evil. injure him. in

undivided, shows its subject falling into no error, but meeting (the exigency of his situation), without exceeding (in his natural 4.

fourth

line,

If he go forward, there will be peril, and he must be cautious. There is no occasion to be

course).

using firmness perpetually. 5.

The

fifth

line, divided,

dense clouds, but no in the west.

rain,

(suggests the idea) of

coming from our borders

(shows) the prince shooting his arrow, and taking the bird in a cave. 6.

The

It also

shows

subject not of his situation), and ex-

sixth line, divided,

meeting (the exigency ceeding (his proper course). of) a bird flying far aloft.

case

is

what

produced

is

called

(It

its

suggests the idea

There will be evil. The one of calamity and self-

injury.

LXII. The name Hsiao

Kwo

is

explained both by reference

to the lines of the hexagram, and to the meaning of the characters. The explanation from the lines appears immediately on comparing them with those of Kwo, the 28th hexagram. There the first

Ta

and

sixth lines are divided,

and between are four undivided

lines

;

here the third and fourth lines are undivided, and outside each of them are two divided lines. The undivided or yang lines are

great, the divided or yin

lines are called

small.

In

Hsido

Kwo

the divided or small lines predominate. But this peculiar structure of the figure could be of no interest to the student, if it were not for the

ing in

'

' meaning of the name, which is small excesses or exceedwhat is small/ The author, accepted by us as king Win, '

THE

2O4

THE Kl

LXIII.

Ki

3i

matters.

had Is

it

in his

ever

Y! KING.

3f

TEXT.

HEXAGRAM.

intimates progress and success in small There will be advantage in being firm

mind our good

essentialsand non-essentials. what is recognised as the established

distinction of

to deviate from

course of procedure ? The reply is never in the matter of right ; but in what is conventional and ceremonial in what is nonessential

good.

the deviation may be made, and will be productive of The form may be given up, but not the substance. But

the thing must be done very carefully, and in small matters.

The symbolism

of the bird

is

humbly and

rather obscure.

reverently,

The whole

of

it

intended to teach humility. It is better for the bird to descend, keeping near to where it can perch and rest, than to hold on ascending into the homeless regions of the air. is

weak, in an odd place, and possessed by the idea of which exceeding,' belongs to the hexagram. Its correlate is the strong 4, belonging to the trigram A^n, the attribute of which is

Line

'

i is

There is nothing to repress the tendency of i rather and hence the symbolism. ; Line 2 is weak, but in its proper place, and in the centre. Its correlate is 5, which is also a weak line. The lines 3 and 4 between them are both strong and are supposed to represent the father and grandfather of the subject of 2 ; but he or she goes past them, and movement.

it is

;

stimulated

;

meets with the grandmother in 5. Again, 5 is the ruler's seat. The subject of 2 moves on to him, but not as an enemy ; but humbly and loyally, as his minister according to the attributes of a weak line in the central place.

symbolism and

its

must be allowed that this view of the and strained. too confident in his own strength, and

It

interpretation is obscure

The subject of line 3 is too defiant of the weak and small enemies that seek his hurt.

SECT.

and

THE

II.

The

1.

a driver)

may be

there

;

HEXAGRAM.

2O5

There has been good fortune

correct.

beginning

K\ 3?

in the

disorder in the end.

undivided, (shows its subject as drags back his wheel, (or as a fox)

first line,

who

which has wet

his

tail.

There

will

be no

error.

The second line, divided, (shows its subject as) who has lost her (carriage-)screen. There is

2.

a wife

no occasion she

will find

to

go

in pursuit

of

In seven days

it.

it.

The third line, undivided, (suggests the case Kao of) 3ung who attacked the Demon region, but was three years in subduing it. Small men should 3.

not be employed Line 4

is

(in

such enterprises).

also strong, but the exercise of his strength

by

its

tempered by the position in an even p'ace. He is warned, however, to continue quiet and restrain himself. Line 5, though in the ruler's seat, is weak, and incapable of is

subject

Its subject is called king or duke because doing anything great of the ruler's seat and the one whom in the concluding sentence he is said to capture is supposed to be the subject of 2. ;

The

first

Thwan

part of the

under hexagiam

symbolism 9, q. v.

is

the

same as

that of the

that

I said there

it probably gave a testimony of the merit of the house of A!au, as deserving the throne rather than the kings of Shans:. That was because the Thwan contained the sentiments of Wan, while he was yet only lord of Jfau. But the symbolism here was the work of the duke

of Aau, after his brother king Wfi had obtained the throne. How did the symbolism then occur to him ? May we not conclude that at

least

the

hsiang of

this

hexagram was

written during the

troubled period of his regency, after the accession of

Kh&n% ? The Khang-hsf

Wu's

son,

king

editors find in the concluding * The duke, leaving birds

symbolism an

on

the wing, is ' content to use his arrows against those in a cave Line 6 is weak, and is at the top of the trigram of movement. He is possessed by the idea of the hexagiam in an extreme degree,

incentive to humility

:

I

and

is

incapable of keeping himself under restraint.

THE

2O6

The

4.

fourth line, divided, shows

rags provided against any leak his

guard

TEXT.

Vf KING.

all

its

subject with

(in his boat),

and on

day long.

5. The fifth line, undivided, shows its subject (as) the neighbour in the east who slaughters an ox (for but this is not equal to the (small) his sacrifice) of the neighbour in the west, whose sacrifice spring ;

sincerity receives the blessing.

The topmost

6.

line,

divided,

with (even) his head immersed.

shows

The

its

subject is

position

perilous. LXI1I. The character called

K\

is

used as a symbol of being

3* denotes primarily crossing a stream, past and has the secondary meaning of helping and completing. or

completed.

The two characters, combined, will express the successful accomIn dealing with plishment of whatever the writer has in his mind. this lineal figure, king Wan was thinking of the condition of the kingdom, at length at rest and quiet. The vessel of the state has The been brought safely across the great and dangerous stream. distresses of the kingdom have been relieved, and its disorders have been repressed. Does anything remain to be done still? Yes, in small things. The new government has to be consolidated. Its ruler must, without noise or clamour, go on to perfect what has been wrought, with firmness and correctness, and ever keeping

m

the instability of all human affairs. hexagram is in its correct place, and has

mind

That every its

line

of the

proper correlate

also supposed to harmonize with the intimation of progress success.

Line

the

i,

first

of the

is

and

hexagram, represents the time im-

mediately after the successful achievement of the enterprise it denotes ; the time for resting and being quiet. For a season, at Hence we have the symleast, all movement should be hushed.

bolism of a driver trying to stop his carriage, and a fox wet his tail, and will not tempt the stream again.

Line

2 is

correlate 5

occupies

;

its

who has

weak, and in its proper place. It also has the strong and might be expected to be forward to act. But it correct

and

central place,

a lady whose carriage has

lost

its

and suggests the symbol of She will not advance

screen.

SECT

THE WEI

II.

LXIV.

Wei

HEXAGRAM.

8i

THE WEI

it

HEXAGRAM.

3i

and success

3t intimates progress

circumstances which

2O7

see) a

(We

implies).

fox that has nearly crossed (the stream), tail

in

There

gets immersed.

will

(in

the

young

when

its

be no advantage

any way.

further so soon after success has

hidden and

been achieved but keep herself Let her not try to find the screen. When it is find this after seven days/ the meaning seems ;

retired.

'

said that she will

to be simply this, that the period of

Ki 3f

will

then have been

exhausted, the six lines having been gone through, and a period, when action will be propei shall have commenced.

new

.

The

strong line

3, at

the top of the lower trigram, suggests for

The writer subject one undertaking a vigorous enterprise. thinks of Kdo 3 un g> the sacrificial title of Wu Ting, one of the its

ablest sovereigns of the Shang dynasty (B.C. 1364-1324), who undertook an expedition against the barbarous hordes of the cold and bleak regions north of the Middle States. He is mentioned again under the next hexagram. He appears also in the Shu, IV, ix, and in the Shih, IV, iii, ode 5. His enterprise may have been

good, and successful, but cludes with a caution.

Line 4

is

it

was

tedious,

and the paragraph con-

weak, and has advanced into the trigram for water. be cautious, and prepare for evil, as in the sym-

Its subject will

bolism, suggested probably by the nature of the trigram. ' The neighbour in the East is the subject of line 5, and ' the neighbour in the West is the subject of the correlate 2, the former '

'

Line 5 is strong, and 2 is quarter being yang and the latter yin. weak ; but weakness is more likely to be patient and cautious than strength.

They

are

compaied

to

two

men

sacrificing.

presents valuable offerings; the other very poor ones.

The one But the

THE

208

The

1.

first line,

TEXT.

Y! KING.

divided, shows

a fox) whose tail gets immersed. occasion for regret.

its

subject (like

There

will

be

The second

line, undivided, shows its subject With firmness back his dragging (carriage-)wheel. and correctness there will be good fortune. 2.

The third line, divided, shows its subject, with of things) not yet remedied, advancing on state (the which will lead to evil. But there will be advantage 3.

;

in (trying to) cross the great stream.

The fourth line, undivided, shows its subject firm correctness obtaining good fortune, so that occasion for repentance disappears. Let him

4.

by all

stir

himself up, as

if

he were invading the

Demon

region, where for three years rewards will come him (and his troops) from the great kingdom.

to

5- The fifth line, divided, shows its subject by firm correctness obtaining good fortune, and having no occasion for repentance. (We see in him) the

brightness of a superior man, and the possession of sincerity. 6.

The

There

be good fortune. topmost line, undivided, shows

second excels in

will

sincerity,

and

his

small offering

its is

subject the

more

acceptable.

The topmost

line is

weak, and on the outmost edge of

Khan,

the trigram of peril. His action is violent and perilous, like that one attempting to cross a ford, and being plunged overhead into the water.

LXIV. Wei 3f is the reverse of K\ 3f. The name tells us that the successful accomplishment of whatever the writer had in his mind had not yet been realised. The vessel of the state has not been brought across the great and dangerous stream. Some have wished that the Yf might have concluded with K$ 3? and the last

hexagram have left us with the picture of human affairs all brought to good order. But this would not have been in harmony with the

SECT.

THE WEI

II.

3!

HEXAGRAM.

2O9

of confidence and therefore feasting (quietly). There will be no error. (If he) cherish this con-

full

book of change. Again and again it has in it no idea of a perfect and abiding seasons of the year change and pursue an ever-

idea of the Yf, as the

been pointed out that we find

state. Just as the The reign of recurring round, so is it with the phases of society. order has been, and has terminated ; and this hexagram calls us to It treats of how see the struggle for its realisation recommenced.

those engaged in that struggle should conduct themselves with a

view to secure the happy consummation. How the figure sets forth the state of things by trigrams

will

supposed

to

in

II.

A

similar

its

constituent

indication

is appear Appendix be given by the lines, not one of which is in the corthe strong lines being all in even places, and the weak

rect place ; lines in odd. late;

At the same time each of them has a proper correand so the figure gives an intimation of some successful

progress.

See also Appendix

The symbolism of

the

I.

young fox suggests a want of caution on

the part of those, in the time and condition denoted by the hexagram, who try to remedy prevailing disorders. Their attempt is

not successful, and they get themselves into trouble and danger. Whatever can be done must be undertaken in another way.

suppose a fox to be intended by the symbolism of line i, Some of the combringing that animal on from the Thwan. I

mentators understand it of any animal. The line is weak, at the bottom of the trigram of peril, and responds to the strong 4, which is not in its correct Its subject attempts to be doing, but place. finds cause to regret his course.

The himself,

good

subject of line

strong,

his

and

in the centre,

is

able to repress

carnage from advancing; and there

is

fortune.

The Khang-hs! what

2,

and keep back

editors say that

it

is

very

difficult to

understand

said under line 3 ; and many critics suppose that a negative has dropt out, and that we should really read that ' it will not be is

advantageous to try and cross the great stream/ Line 4, though strong, is in an even place; and vitiate the

endeavours of

its

this

might

subject to bring about a better state of correct. He is in the fourth place more-

But he is firm and and immediately above there is his ruler, represented by a weak line, humble therefore, and prepared to welcome his endeavours. Let him exert himself vigorously and long, as Kao 3 un did in his things.

over,

THE

2IO fidence,

till

immersed,

he it

(is

Yt

KING

like the fox

of what

will fail

TEXT.

his

who) gets

head

is right.

famous expedition (see last hexagram, line 3), and he will make Expeditions beyond the frontiers in progress and have success. those days weie not very remote. Intercourse was kept up between the

army and

necessary to

the court.

Rewards,

distinctions,

and whatever

encourage the army, were often sent to

Line 5 is weak, in an odd place. But its subject humble and supported by the subject of the strong 2 the auspice

is

\\as

it.

is ;

the ruler,

and hence

very good.

The

subject of line 6, when the work of the hexagram has been done, appears disposed to remain quiet in the confidence of his own

pouer, but enjoying himself; and thereby he the contrary, he will peiil

go on

will

to exeit his powers,

of the situation, the issue

will

be bad.

do right. If, on and play with the

THE APPENDIXES.

THE APPENDIXES. APPENDIX on

Treatise

Thwan,

the

Win's Explanations of the

or king

entire

Hexagrams.

SECTION 1.

i.

Vast

indicated

beginning

is

the

*

I.

I.

great and originating (power)' All things owe to it their

by A^ien! :

it

contains

the meaning belonging

all

name) heaven. The clouds move and the rain

to (the 2.

is

distributed;

the various things appear in their developed forms. 3. (The sages) grandly understand (the connexion between) the end and the beginning, and how

(the indications of) the six lines (in the its season.

hexagram)

are accomplished, (each) in ingly)

they mount

(the carriage)

dragons at the proper times,

(Accord-

drawn by those six and drive through

the sky. 4.

The method

of

A^ien

is

to

change and trans-

form, so that everything obtains its correct nature as appointed (by the mind of Heaven) and (there;

after the conditions of) great harmony are preserved in union. The result is what is advantageous, and *

correct

and firm/

5. (The sage) appears aloft, high above and the myriad states all enjoy repose.

The name Thwan, and

the

meaning of

are sufficiently established. The nations of the entire hexagrams.

Thwan It

all things,

the character so-called,

are king

Win's expla-

seems impossible now to

THE APPENDIXES.

214 II.

i.

is

Complete '

indicated

(capacity) it their birth

it

;

SECT.

I.

'great and originating All things owe to

the

by Khw5n

!

receives obediently the influences

of Heaven.

and contains all things. Its excellent capacity matches the unIts comprehension is limited power (of jOien). The various things wide, and its brightness great. 2.

KhwSn,

obtain (by 3.

it)

in its largeness, supports

their full development.

The mare

is

a creature of earthly kind.

(power of) moving on the earth is without is mild and docile, advantageous and firm the course of the superior man. The

how

treatise

the character arose,

on the

Thwan

is

and how

it

;

such

:

ascertain

Its

limit

it

is

was named Thwan.

ascribed to Confucius; and

I

have

considered in the Introduction, p. 30, whether the tradition to this effect may to any extent be admitted. I.

The hexagram JOien

is

made up of

six

undivided

lines,

or

of the tiigram -Oien, Fu-hst's symbol for heaven, repeated. The Thwan does not dwell upon this, but starts, in its exposition, from the

word

*

heaven,' supposing that the hexagram represented all meaning which had ever been intended by that term. In paragraphs i, 2, 4 the four attributes in Wan's Text (2 being occupied the

uith the second, though it is not expressly named) are illustrated by the phenomena taking place in the physical world. In paragraphs 3 and 5, the subject is the sage. He is not

named indeed; and Khung Ying-ti (A.D. 574-648) does not intioduce him till paragraph 5, when the meaning necessitates the presence of a human agent, who rules in the world of men as heaven does in that of nature. The connexion between the end *

and the beginning/ which he sees, is that of cause and effect in the operations of nature and the course of human affairs. The various steps in that course are symbolised by the lines of the hexagram ; the ideal sage, conducting his ideal government, taking his measures accordingly, is represented as diiving through the sky in

and

a carriage drawn by six dragons. the sage is Heaven, and Heaven

JFti

'

like this in the text.

is

Hsi extravagantly says that

the sage

'

;

but there

is

nothing

HFX.

APPENDIX

3.

'

4.

'

he goes astray he If he course. follow,' he proper

he take the

If

misses, that

is,

215

I.

initiative,

:

*

his

and gets into his regular (course). In the he will be walking south-west he will get friends In the north-east he with those of his own class. will lose friends but in the end there will be '

is docile,

'

:

'

'

:

ground *

5. '

ness

for congratulation.

The good

fortune arising from resting in firmcorresponds to the unlimited capacity of the

earth. III.

In K\\v\

i.

we have

the strong (A^ien) and

the

weak (Khw&n) commencing

and

difficulties arising.

Movement

2.

in

the midst of peril gives rise to

'great progress and success, rectness/

By

3.

their intercourse,

(through)

firm

cor-

the action of the thunder and rain, (which

II. As the writer in expounding the Th wan of hexagram i starts from the word 'heaven/ so here he does so from the symbolic meaning attached to earth/ What I have said on the Text about the '

difference with which the

and

same

attributes are ascribed to

K h w an, appears clearly in paragraph

i

It is

.

jOien

the difference ex*

power' and capacity/ pressed by the words that I have supplied, A'^ien originates; Khwan produces, or gives birth to what has *

been

oiiginated.

The

'

penetrating,' or developing ability of

Khwan,

as displayed

The in the processes of growth, is the subject of paragraph 2. ' brightness refers to the beauty that shines forth in the vegetable '

and animal worlds. Paragraph 3

to the course of

and

symbol of the mare/ to lead the mind the superior man/ the good and faithful minister

treats of the *

'

servant.

See the note, corresponding to paragraph ing in firmness' is the normal course of pursued, the good effect will capacity of the earth.

4,

on

the Text.

Khwan.

*

Where

Restit

is

be great, great as the unlimited

THE APPENDIXES.

216

are symbols of ATcln and

and earth)

Khan),

all

SECT.

I.

(between Heaven

But the condition of the up. Feudal time is full of irregularity and obscurity. princes should be established, but the feeling that rest and peace have been secured should not be filled

is

indulged (even then). IV,

Mang we

In

i.

mountain, and below a stream in

it.

have (the trigram for) a that of a rugged defile with conditions of peril and arrest

it

The

Jun

is made up of the trigrams K&n and Khan; but III. according to the views on king Win's arrangement of the trigrams, as set forth especially in Appendix V, chap. 14, the six others come from .A!^ien and Khwan, and are said to be their children. On

Khwan to
application of

first

first line

Khitn

taking the place of that of

Khwin.

'The Thun (Aun) diagram

McClatchie renders

and the and bringing forth ' But there is nothing in the Yf from the beginning with suffering to the end, to justify such an interpretation. Nor do I see how, from any account of the genesis by the component trigrams, the idea of the result as signifying a state of difficulty and distress can here:

soft (air)

represents the hard

beginning to have sexual intercourse, !

,

be readily made out. In paragraph 2 there

is

an attempt from the virtues or attributes make out the result indicated in the

assigned to the trigrams to

To move

Thwan. ness

is

produce great stances

and excite

the quality of

Khan.

is

the quality of ^an; perilousto move is likely to

The power

to do this in perilous ; firmness and correctness.

effects

requires

and difficult circumBut neither is this

explanation very satisfactory. The first part of paragraph 3 depicts a condition of trouble and disorder in the natural world occasioned by the phenomena that are symbols of the significance of JST&n and Khan ; but this is symbolical again of the disorder and distress, political and social, characteristic of the time. Good princes throughout the nation

would help resign

itself

to

remedy

that; but the

supreme authority should not

to indifference, trusting to them.

HEX.

APPENDIX

4.

217

T.

of progress (suggested by these) give (the idea

in)

Ming. '

2.

that there will be progress and for there is development at work in it,

MSng indicates '

success

and

its

:

time of action

is

exactly what

do he seeks When he '

is right.

not seek the youthful and inexperienced me so does will respond to will. '

'

:

I

;

shows

(the sincerity that marks) the first recourse ' to divination, I instruct him for possessing the :

qualities of the undivided line and being in the central place, (the subject of the second line thus '

A

second and third application create annoyance, and I do not instruct so as to create speaks).

annoyance (he means)

annoyance:'

to the ignorant.

(The method of dealing with) the young and rant

is

them)

IV.

;

ignoto nourish the correct (nature belonging to this accomplishes the service of the sage.

The

trigram

Kn has

for its

symbol

in the natural

world a

mountain, which stands up frowningly, and stops or arrests the progress of the traveller. Stoppage, understood sometimes actively,

and sometimes

by

passively, is called the

Khan,

it.

as I said

form of

on

p. 32,

virtue or attribute indicated

has water for

its

symbol, and

Here, however, the water appears as a stream in a difficult defile, such as ordinarily appears on an approach to a mountain, and suggesting perilousness as the attribute of such a position. From the combination of these symbols especially in the

rain.

and

their attributes the writer thinks that he gets the idea of the character (not the entire hexagram) Ming, as symbolical of igno' rance and inexperience. See on ' the Great Symbolism below.

Down

to the last sentence of

intended to show success. line's

how

The whole

paragraph

2,

all

that is said is

that the figure indicates progress and representation is grounded on the undivided it is

being in the central place. It is the symbol of active effort teaching of the ignorant in the proper place and time ;

for the

this being responded to by the divided fifth line, representing the * ignorance to be taught as docile, will responds to will/ But the

THE APPENDIXES.

2l8 V.

i.

peril in

SFCT.

I.

Hsu

denotes waiting. (The figure) shows front but notwithstanding the firmness and ;

strength (indicated by the inner trigram), its subject does not allow himself to be involved (in the danger-

ous

defile)

is

it

:

right he should not be straitened

or reduced to extremity. 2.

When

it

is

said that, 'with the sincerity de-

there will be brilliant success, and

clared in Hsti,

with firmness there will be good fortune/ this is shown by the position (of the fifth line) in the place

assigned by Heaven, and its being the correct posi'It will be advantion for it, and in the centre.

tageous to go through the great stream;' that is, going forward will be followed by meritorious achievement.

subject of line 2 requires sincerity in the applicant for instruction, feels that he must make his own teaching acceptable and All this serves to bring out the idea of progress and agreeable.

and

success.

Then

finally in the

a moral state

made

young and ignorant

his efforts to bring out will

be

and nourish

'

'

great

V. Hsti

is

the service

;

The

for goodness.

done

there

that, the

will

'a correct nature/

is

efficient teacher directing

progress and success '

be worthy of a sage/

composed of -Oien, having

the quality of strength,

and of Khan, having the quality of perilousness. The strong one might readily dare the peril, but he restrains himself and waits. This is the lesson of the hexagram, the benefit of action well considered, of plans well matured. The fifth line, as we have observed

more than once

already,

is

the place of honour, that due to the ruler or king. It is here called * the Heavenly or Heaven-given seat/ the meaning of which expresis clear from its occurrence in the Shih, III, i. Five i, ode 2. an odd number, and the fifth is therefore the correct place for an undivided line ; it is also the central place of the trigram, indi-

sion

'

is

cating

how

its

occupant

further the notes

is

'

sure to walk in the due mean.

on the Text,

p. 68.

See

HEX.

APPENDIX

6.

VI.

i.

The upper

219

I.

portion of

Sung

is

tri-

(the

gram representing) strength, and the lower (that representing) peril. (The coming together of) and peril gives (the idea in) Sung. strength 2. Sung intimates how, though there is sincerity in one's contention, he will yet meet with but if he cherish an opposition and obstruction apprehensive caution, there will be good fortune :' a strong (line) has come and got the central place '

;

(in 1

the lower trigram).

he must prosecute the contention to the (bitter) contention is not a thing to end, there will be evil :' be carried on to extremity. It will be advantageous to meet with the great what he sets a value on is the due mean, man and the correct place. It will not be advantageous to cross the great one (attempting to do so) would find stream himself in an abyss. If

'

'

:

1

'

:

VI. Paragraph

i

here

is

much

sentence in the notes on the

to the

Thwan

same

effect as the first

of the Text.

It is said,

'

Strength without peril would not produce contention out strength would not be able to contend/

;

peril with-

A

'

this strong line has come and got the central place : sentence has given rise to a doctrine about the changes of trigrams 2.

'

and hexagrams, which has obscured more than anything interpretation of the Yi. from ? From a hundred

Tun

V

(

lines of the

results

_

The

Where has critics we

reader will see that

lower trigram there be ,

or Sung.

The

else the

come

the strong second line * receive the answer,

made

if

to

the second

and

From third

change places, theie

doctrine of changing the figures

by

the manipulation of the stalks did spring up between the time of Wan and his son and that of the composition of the Appendixes ;

but there

is

any scheme

no

trace of

it

in the real

Text of the Yf and ;

it

renders

for the interpretation of the figures impossible.

The

THE APPENDIXES.

22O

SECT.

X.

(The name) Sze describes the multitude The firmness and correctness' (which (of the host). VII.

i.

*

the hexagram indicates) refer to (moral) correctness (of aim). When (the mover) is able to use the

multitude with such correctness, he

may attain

to the

royal sway.

There

2.

is

(the

symbol

of) strength in the centre

(of the trigram below), and

it is

responded to (by

its

The action gives rise to proper correlate above). but is in accordance perils, (with the best sentiments of men). (Its mover) may by such action distress the country, but the people will follow him; there will be good fortune, and what error should

all

there be

VIII. '

tune

:

the

in

?

'Pi indicates that there (the name) Pi denotes help

is

i.

figure)

inferiors

;

good

we

(and

following

docilely

for-

see

(their

superior).

Yf allow this, and on the present passage discard the doctrine entirely, referring to the language of the T h wan on and 12 as fatal to it. See the notes there, and the hexagrams

editors of the imperial

n

Introduction, pp.

'A strong

1-16.

1

line

has

come

'

is

to be taken as

equivalent simply to 'a strong line is there/ What ' the great man sets a value on being the due

mean and

the correct place/ his decision in any matter of contention to be right.

VII. That the

'

multitude

'

name Sze

is

given here as

arose, probably, line in the figure. That is the

if it

is

sure

were the meaning of

from there being but one undivided

symbol of the general,

all

the other

suggest the idea of a multitude obedient to his orders. general's place in the centre of the lower trigram, with the

lines, divided,

The

proper correlate in line 5, suggests the idea of firmness and correctness that dominates in the hexagram. But in the last sentence it is the ruler, and not the of the host, who is the subject. general

Compare what 5,

&c.

is

said of

him with Mencius,

I,

i,

chap. 3

;

ii,

chap.

HEX.

APPENDIX

6.

221

I.

*

Let (the principal party intended in it) reexamine himself, (as if) by divination, whether his virtue be great, unintermitting, and firm if it be error there will be no all this follows from so, 2.

;

:

the position of the strong line in the centre (of the Those who have not rest will come upper trigram). '

'

him high and low will respond to its subject. With those who are (too) late in coming it will be

to 4

:

'

them) the way (of good fortune here cated) has been exhausted. ill

:

(for

IX.

In Hsicio

i.

Khb

the

weak

(proper) position, and (the lines) respond to it. Hence comes the

its

Khh 2.

(Small Restraint). (It presents the symbols

Strong

flexibility.

and the

Thus

it

indi-

line occupies

above and below

name

Hsi&o

of

strength

of)

and

lines are in the central places,

will (of their subjects) will

indicates that there will

have free course. be progress and

success. '

3.

ment '

Dense clouds but no

(of the strong lines)

Perilousness

'

is

rain' indicate the

move-

going forward.

The

still

the attribute of

Khan,

the lower trigram,

and

Khwn,

the upper. 'docility/ or 'accordance with others/ that of War is like 'poison' to a country, injurious, and threatening ruin to it, and yet the people will endure and encounter it in behalf of the sovereign

whom

VIII. There

is

they esteem and love.

some

error in the text here,

as

all

the critics

I have adopted the decision of Kb. Hsi, which by acknowledge. a very small change makes the whole read consistently, and in The inferiors harmony with other explanations of the Th wan. '

'

are the subjects of

all

rior, represented in the 1

the other lines gathering round their supefifth line.

The way has been exhausted

and enjoy union

till it

is

too

late.

' :

The

they do not seek to promote sentiment is the same as that

in the lines of Shakespeare about the tide in the affairs of

men.

THE APPENDIXES.

222 '

Commencing

SECT.

I.

'

at our western border

indicates that

the (beneficial) influence has not yet been widely displayed.

X.

In LI

i.

we have

(the

symbol

of)

weakness

treading on (that of) strength.

(The lower trigram) indicates pleasure and satisfaction, and responds to (the upper) indicating Hence (it is said), He treads on the strength. tail of a tiger, which does not bite him there will 2.

'

;

be progress and success/

(The

3.

fifth

'The weak

IX.

because

it

is

the part of

line

is)

strong, in the centre,

in

line' is said to

occupy 'its proper position/ an even place. The responding on the other lines above and below is their submitting '

'

in the fourth,

all

and

by it; and this arises simply from the meaning which king Win chose to attach to the hexagram. But the restraint can only be small. 1 he attributes of the two to be restrained

parts of the figure

do not indicate anything else. The undivided and activity, and such a line is in the middle There cannot but be progress and success.

line lepresents vigour

of each trigram.

not easy to explain the symbolism of the last paragraph in

It is

harmony with

the

appended explanations.

Wang

FSng, and other scholars say

figure,

continuing in operation

What

AT/&ng-jze,

Dense clouds ought to give rain. That they exist without doing so, shows the But the restraining influence of the hexagram to be still at work. other and active influence is, according to the general idea of the ;

is

to this effect

:

there will be rain ere long.

And

was taking place in the western regions subject to the House of JTiu, which still was only a fief of Shang. It was not for the this

inferior

House

to rule the superior.

Alu was

for a time restrained

Let

their positions be reversed by JP&u by Shang. superseding and the rain of beneficent government would descend on Shang, all the kingdom. This seems to be the meaning of the paragraph. This is the answer to the riddle of it. Confucius, in his treatise on

the

Thwan,

declare

it

hints at

fully.

it,

but no Chinese

critic

has the boldness to

HEX.

its

APPENDIX

ii.

correct place.

(Its

223

I.

subject) occupies the Goddistress or failure;

(given) position, and falls into no (his) action will be brilliant.

XI. 'The little come and the great gone in Th&i, and its indication that there will be good fortune with progress and success show to us heaven and earth in communication with each other, and all things in consequence having free course, and (also) the high and the low, (superiors and inferiors), in communication with one another, and possessed by the same aim. The inner (trigram) is made up of the strong and undivided the lines, and the outer of the weak and divided inner is (the symbol of) strength, and the outer '

;

of docility the inner (represents) the superior man, and the outer the small man. (Thus) the way of ;

1

X. '(The symbol of) weakness

in

paragraph

i,

according to

urged by the two strong Wang Sh&n-jze (Ytian dynasty), lines below, and having to encounter the three strong lines above. Hu Ping-wan (also of the Ytian dynasty) says that the whole of is

line 3,

the lower trigram, Tui, partaking of the y in nature, is the symbol of weakness, and the whole of .Oien that of strength. The jffeh-

A*img editors say

that, to get the full

meaning, we must hold both

views.

explained on the Th wan itself. Paragraph 3 has also been explained ; but there remains some-

Paragraph

been

2 has

sufficiently

the Chinese text for 'occupies the GodCanon given position,' or, literally, 'treads on the seat of Tf/ ' The imperial throne is now occupied/ I think McClatchie has

thing to be said

'

on

Tl

'

'

synonymous with the seat of Heaven/ in 2 of this treatise on hexagram 5. If Confucius, or whoparagraph ever was the writer, had before him the phrase as it occurs in the Shu, I, 1 2, the force of Ti will depend on the meaning assigned to That the fifth line occupies the place of it in that part of the Shu. that

the seat of

authority

is

is

here the only important point.

THE APPENDIXES.

224

SECT.

I.

the superior man appears increasing, and that of the small man decreasing.

XII. 'The want of good understanding between the (different classes of) men in Phi, and its indication as unfavourable to the firm and correct course of the superior man; with the intimation that the all this great are gone and the little come '

:

springs from the fact that in it heaven and earth are not in communication with each other, and all

things in consequence do not have free course and that the high and the low (superiors and inferiors) ;

with one another, and there are no (well-regulated) states under the sky. are not in communication

The

inner (trigram) is made up of the weak and divided lines, and the outer of the strong and

undivided

the inner

is

(the symbol of) weakness, and the outer of strength the inner (represents) the small man, and the outer the superior man. :

;

Thus

the

way of the small man appears

increasing,

and that of the superior man decreasing.

XL There Thwan here

is nothing to be said on the explanation of the beyond what has been noticed on the different para-

Canon McClatchie translates Heaven and Earth have now conjugal

graphs of the Text.

means

that

' :

The Thwan

intercourse with

each other .... and the upper and lower (classes) unite together/ But in both clauses the Chinese characters are the same. Why did '

he not go on to say

the upper and lower classes have conjugal

'

intercourse together ; or rather, why did he not dismiss the idea of such intercourse from his mind altogether? make the Yt

Why

appear to be gross, when there it?

The paragraph side,

and of

not the shadow of grossness in

here well illustrates

the antinomies of the

one

is

Yf

inferiority

is

how

that of authority

the ruling idea in

all

and strength on the

and weakness on the

other.

XII. All the symbolism here springs from the trigram Khwan occupying in the figure the inner or lower place, and -Oien the outer or upper.

It is for

the inner trigram to take the initiative

;

HEX.

APPENDIX

14.

XIII. the

place

(above)

;

the

weak

the central

(of influence), to (the corresponding

responds '

Thung ZSn

In

i.

225

I.

hence comes

its

name

of

line

(line)

has

place,

and

A^ien

in)

Thung Z&n

(or

Union of men'). 2. 3.

we

Thung ZSn The

find

says '

language, in (the

it)

:

Thung ZSn

remote

appears here (as

districts of) the country,

indicating progress and success, and that it will be advantageous to cross the great stream/ is moulded by its containing the strength (symbolled) in ATA i en. (Then) we have (the trigram indicating) elegance and intelligence, supported by (that indicating) strength; with the line in the central, and its correct,

and

position,

responding (to the corres-

representing) the correct It is only the superior course of the superior man. man who can comprehend and affect the minds of

ponding

all

line

above)

:

(all

under the sky.

XIV.

i.

In

T

place of honour,

is

Yfi the

weak

has

(line)

the

grandly central, and (the strong

lines) above and below respond to its name of TS, Yd (Having what

it.

is

Hence comes Great).

how can earth (symbolised by Khwan) take the place of heaven (symbolised by A^ien)? As in nature it is heaven that originates and not earth, so in a state the upper classes must take the initiative,

but

and not the lower. XIII. is

To

understand the various points in

this

commentary,

correlate of line 2

sponds

to (the corresponding line in)

-Oien.'

The

it

The proper

only necessary to refer to the Text is line 5, and I have said therefore that of the hexagram.

'

it

re-

editors of the

Khang-hsi edition, however, would make the correlate to it all the lines of A^ien, as being more agreeable to the idea of union. The I do not think that a second paragraph has been lost.

THE APPENDIXES.

226

SECT.

I.

The

attributes (of its component trigrams) are and vigour with elegance and brightness. strength (The ruling line in it) responds to (the ruling line in the symbol of) heaven, and (consequently) its 2.

In this way at the proper times. said to) indicate great progress and success.

action

is (all)

XV. It

is

ficial

i.

the

is

jOien way

influences It

indicates progress and success. of heaven to send down its bene-

below, where they are brilliantly the way of earth, lying low, to

is

displayed. its influences

upwards and

send

It is the

2.

(it

(there) to act.

of heaven to diminish the

way

full

and augment the humble. It is the way of earth to overthrow the full and replenish the humble. Spiritual Beings inflict calamity on the full and bless the humble.

It

the

is

way of men

to hate

and love the humble. Humility in a position of honour makes that still more brilliant and in a low position men will not (seek to) pass beyond Thus it is that 'the superior man will have a it. the

fall

;

1

(good) issue (to his undertakings).

'Thung Zan

says' is merely a careless repetition of the three characters of paragraph i. concluding

XIV. The

position in the

fifth

place indicates the dignity, and

being central, in the centre of the upper trigram, indicates the virtue, of the lord of the figure.

its

The and

strength of the lord, moreover,

is

directed

by

intelligence

;

his actions are always at the proper time, like the seasons

of heaven.

XV. The Thwan on

this

hexagram was so

brief, that the writer

here deals generally with the subject of humility, showing how it is valued by heaven and earth, by spirits and by men. The descent

of the* heavenly influences, and the low position of the earth in paragraph i, are both emblematic of humility. The heavenly influences have their

'

*

display

in the

beauty and

fertility

of the earth.

APPENDIX

HEX. 16.

227

I.

we see the strong (line) rethe others, and the will (of him sponded by whom it represents) being carried out; and (also) XVI.

In Yii

i.

to

all

employing movement (for its pur(From these things comes) Yii (the Condiposes). tion of harmony and satisfaction).

docile obedience

2.

In this condition

employing movement

we have

docile

obedience

(for purposes), and therefore it is so as between heaven and earth how much more will it be so (among men) in 'the setting up of feudal princes and putting the hosts in motion its

;

'

!

Heaven and

show that docile obedience connexion with movement, and hence the sun and moon make no error (in time), and the four seasons do not deviate (from their order). The sages show such docile obedience in connexion with their movements, and hence their punishments and penalties are entirely just, and the people acknowledge it by 3.

earth

in

Great indeed are the time and

their submission.

significance indicated in Yii!

The way of heaven and the waning of the fall of the year.

is

seen, e.g. in the daily declining of the sun, after it is full ; the way of earth in the

moon

On

the

meaning of

Sh&n),' see the Introduction, pp. 34, 35. idea the writer attached to the name. appreciation of humility

XVI. What

is

is

'

Beings

Spiritual

(Kwei

say what he says of man's

It is difficult to

What

striking, and, I believe, correct.

said in paragraph

about the lines has been

i '

'

Obedience is the attribute pointed out in the notes on the Text. of Khwan, the lower trigram, which takes the initiative in the action of the figure ; and here makes use of the the attribute of -dfan, the upper trigram.

movement, which

is

I

can hardly trace the connexion between the

different parts of

paragraph 2. Does it not proceed on the harmony produced by the thunderous explosion between heaven and earth, as declared

THE APPENDIXES.

228

XV

I

L

In Sui

i.

we

see the

SECT.

strong

(trigram)

under the weak we see the two) the attributes of movement and pleasure

come and place

itself

I.

(in

;

:

this gives (the idea of) Sui. 2.

'

There

be great progress and success and heaven

will

;

through firm correctness no error:' all under will be found following at such a time. 3.

Great indeed are the time and significance

indicated in Sui.

XVIII.

In

i.

above, and the

KA

we have

the strong (trigram)

weak one below

we have

(below) these give the (above) stopping: idea of Kfl (a Troublous Condition of affairs vergpliancy,

;

and

ing to ruin). '

'

Kti indicates great progress and success (through the course shown in it), all under heaven, 2.

:

there will be

good

order.

'

There

will

be advantage

in crossing the great stream:' he who advances will encounter the business to be done. '(He should in Appendix II ? and human and

Then

the analogy between natural comes into play.

phenomena

social experiences also tantalising.

Paragraph 3 is Why does the writer introduce the subject of punishments and penalties ? Aie they a consequence of putting the hosts in motion ?

XVII. The trigrams JTan and Tui are distinguished as strong and weak, TT&n representing, on king WSn's scheme, the eldest son,' and Tui, the youngest daughter.' But the strong here may '

'

mean the strong 3ung-wan (Sung

'

'

As Wang 'The yang and strong line line, as we find it here. That in Sui the himself the low, and the noble below is, high places below the mean:' esteeming others higher than himself, and line,

the lowest in the hexagram.

dynasty) says: should not be below a yin and weak

K&n

Then denotes the production giving the idea of following. or excitement of motion, and Tui denotes pleasure ; and the union of these things suggests the same idea.

HEX.

APPENDIX

20.

229

I.

well, however, the events of) three days before (the turning-point), and those (to be done) three the end (of confusion) is the begindays after it

weigh

'

:

ning (of order)

XIX.

such

;

is

the procedure of Heaven.

Lin (we see) the strong gradually increasing and advancing. In

i.

(lines)

(The lower trigram is the symbol of) being The pleased, and (the upper of) being compliant. and is is in central the strong (line) position, pro2.

to.

perly responded '

There

great progress and success, along with firm correctness this is the way of Heaven. 3.

is

'

:

'

4.

In the eighth

advancing power)

XX. place

month there

will

will

be

'

evil

(the

:

decay after no long time.

The great Manifester occupies an upper the figure), which consists of (the trigrams

i.

(in

XVIII. The symbolism here is the opposite of that in Sui. The upper trigram A'an is strong, denoting, according to king Wan, the youngest son; and the lower, Sun, is weak, denoting 'the eldest For the eldest daughter to be below the youngest son daughter.' is eminently coirect, and helps to indicate the auspice of great success. The attribute of Sun is pliancy, and that of K$.n stoppage '

'

or arrest. tain gives

'

The

feeble pliancy confronted by the arresting evil state implied in Ku.

'Three days before and and after

three days before ' the earthly stems

the

moun-

an idea of the

meaning of

'

after

the

turning-point'

M/ K& being the

name

is,

literally,

of the

first

of

'

among the cyclical characters. Hence it has beginning/ and here denotes the turning-point, at '

which disorder gives place to order. of Heaven/ history

is

According to the procedure a narrative of change, one condition of affairs '

A

kingdom that constantly giving place to another and opposite. ' cannot be moved does not enter into the circle of Chinese ideas.

XIX. See what has been said on the fourth paragraph in pp. 98, 99 on the Text. The other paragraphs need no explanation beyond what appears in the supplemented translation.

THE APPENDIXES.

230

SECT.

I.

He

is attributes are) docility and flexibility. in the central position and his correct place, and thus

whose

exhibits (his lessons) to

Kwan

*

2.

shows

who has washed

all

under heaven.

subject like a worshipper

its

his hands, but not (yet) presented

with sincerity and an appearance of (all) beneath dignity (commanding reverent regard): his offerings

;

'

look to him and are transformed.

When we

Heaven, we

contemplate the spirit-like way of see how the four seasons proceed with-

out error.

The

3.

accordance with

in

sages,

(this)

way, laid down their instructions, and under heaven yield submission to them. spirit-like

XXI.

i.

The

all

existence of something between

Ho

the jaws gives rise to the name Shih (Union the of means biting through intervening article). by 2.

The Union by means

intervening article indicates (denoted by the hexagram)/

*

of biting through the the successful progress

The

strong and weak (lines) are equally divided the Movement is denoted (by the lower (in figure). trigram), and bright intelligence (by the upper) ;

thunder and lightning uniting

'

The

great Manifester

them, and having

The weak

brilliant manifestation.

XX.

in

(fifth) line

is

in

'

is the ruler, the principal subject of the hexagram, and represented by line 5, near the top of the figure. In that figure the lower trigram is Khw&n, representing the earth,

with the attribute of docility, and the upper is Sun, icpresenting wind, with the attributes of flexibility and penetration. As is the place of line 5, so are the virtues of the ruler. '

The

spirit-like

way of Heaven

'

is

the invisible

and unfathomable

agency ever operating by general laws, and with invariable regularity, in what \\e call nature. Compare with this paragraph, the definition of

Shn or Spirit in Appendix III,

of the agency of

God, taught

in

i,

32

Appendix VI,

;

and

8, 9.

the doctrine

HEX.

APPENDIX

22.

231

I.

the centre, and acts in its high position. Although it is not in its proper position, this is advantageous for the use of legal constraints.

XXII.

i.

(When

said that) Pi indicates that

it is

there should be free course (in what 2.

see) the

(We

weak

line

it

denotes)

:

coming and ornament-

ing the strong lines (of the lower trigram), and hence (it is said that ornament) 'should have free

On

the other hand, the strong line above ornaments the weak ones (of the upper trigram),

course/

and hence

'

there will be

little advanto advance be allowed (and take (ornament) tage, the lead)/ (This is illustrated in the) appearances that ornament the sky. (it is

said) that

if

3.

Elegance

and

intelligence

by the (denoted by

(denoted

lower trigram) regulated by the arrest the upper) suggest the observances that adorn

human

(society).

We

look at the ornamental figures of the sky, and thereby ascertain the changes of the seasons. We look at the ornamental observances of society, and understand how the processes of transformation are accomplished all under heaven. 4.

'

XXI. The equal division of the strong and weak lines is seen by taking them in pairs, though the order in the first pair is different *

fiom

that in the

two others.

This

is

supposed to indicate the in-

telligence of the judgments in the action of the hexagram. -ATan, the lower trigram, symbolises movement; Li, the upper, intelli-

The fifth line's acting in its high position does not intimate the formation of the figure from Yf, the 42nd hexagram, but calls * attention to the fact that a weak line is here lord of judgment/ gence.

This does not seem natural, but the

effect is

good

;

judgment

is

tempered by leniency.

XXII. The

paragraph

is

either superfluous or incomplete.

The language of paragraph

2

has naturally been pressed into the

first

THE APPENDIXES.

232

XXIII. overthrown.

Po

i.

We

SECT.

I.

denotes overthrowing or being see (in the figure) the weak lines

(threatening to) change the one of themselves).

strong line (into

(last)

That 'it will not be advantageous to make movement in any direction whatever' appears

2.

a

from the fact that the small men are (now) growing and increasing. The superior man acts according to (the exigency of the time), and stops all forward

movement,

the

at

looking

of

(significance

the)

He values the symbolic figures (in the hexagram). processes of decrease and increase, of fulness and decadence,

(as

seen)

in

movements of the

the

heavenly bodies. service of the doctrine of changing the figures on paragraph 2 of the

by divining manipuof hexagram 6. the weak line coming and

Thwan

lation; see p. 219,

'

But as the Khang-hsf editors point out, ornamenting the two strong lines simply indicates how substanthe strong line tiality should have the help of ornament, and above (or ascending) and omamenting the two weak lines' indicates that ornament should be restrained by substantiality. Ornament has its use, but it must be kept in check. The closing sentence has no connexion with what precedes. Some characters are wanting, to show how the writer passes on to speak of the ornamental figures of the sky.' The whole should then be joined on '

*

*

The figures of the sky to paragraph 3. bodies in their relative positions and various '

day and night, heat and cold, &c.

The

'

are

all

the heavenly

movements, producing

observances of society are

and performances which regulate and beautify the intercourse of men, and constitute the transforming lessons of sagely wisdom. the ceremonies

XXIII. 'The symbolic below,

the

figures in the

representative of

and

Kan,

the

docility,

hexagram' are Krnvan, acting

as

circumstances

mountain, which superior man of the

of a

require; representative arrests the progress of the traveller. The topmost line thus interprets them, and acts accordingly. Yet he is not left without hope. Winter is followed by spring ; night is

HEX.

APPENDIX

25.

XXIV.

'

233

I.

and prothe coming back

Ffi indicates the free course

i.

'

it is gress (of what it denotes) of what is intended by the undivided :

(Its subject's) actions

2.

line.

show movement directed Hence 'he finds no exits and entrances/ and

by accordance with natural order. one 1

him

to distress

come

friends

He

'

3.

in his

to him,

and no error

and repeat

will return

seven days comes his return

in

is

committed.'

his proper course

'

such

:

;

the move-

is

ment of the heavenly (revolution). There will be advantage in whatever direction 4. movement is made the strong lines are growing c

'

:

and increasing.

Do we

5.

and earth

XXV.

not see in

FO

the mind of heaven

?

In

Wu Wang

we have

the strong

(first)

come from

the outer (trigram), and become in we the inner trigram lord (of the whole figure) line

;

have (the attributes of) motive power and strength we have the strong line (of the fifth place) in the ;

succeeded by day; the moon wanes, and then begins to wax again. So will it be in political life. As we read in the Hebrew prophet '

Isaiah,

In returning and

in confidence shall be

XXIV.

'

ye be saved

rest shall

your

;

in quietness

and

strength.'

The movement of the heavenly

'

revolution

in

paragraph

3 has reference to the regular alternations of darkness and light, and of cold and heat, as seen in the different months of the year. HSu

Thang dynasty) refers to the expressions in the the i, Shih, I, xv, days of (our) first (month), second (month),* as the use of day for month, as we have it here ; &c., illustrating but that is to explain what is obscure by what is more so ; though Hsing-kwo

(of the

ode

'

I believe, as stated

to

'

1

on the Text,

'

that

seven days

'

is

here equivalent

seven months/

The mind

of heaven and earth

'

is

the love of

life

and of

goodness that lules in the course of nature and providence.

all

THE APPENDIXES.

234

SECT.

I.

and responded to (by the weak there will be great progress proceeding second) from correctness; such is the appointment of Heaven. If (its subject and his action) be not correct, he will fall into errors, and it will not be advantageous for him to move in any direction whither can he (who thinks he is) free from all insincerity, (and yet is as here described) proceed ? Can anything be done (advantageously) by him whom the (will and) appointment of Heaven do not help ? central

position,

'

:

1

'

:

In (the trigrams composing) T Khh we have (the attributes) of the greatest strength and of substantial solidity, which emit a brilliant

XXVI.

light

T.

and indicate a

;

the subject of

daily renewal of his virtue (by

it).

The

strong line is in the highest place, and suggests the value set on talents and virtue there is power (in the upper trigram) to keep the strongest 2.

;

in restraint

all this

:

*

shows the great correctness

'

(required in the hexagram).

The good

'

3.

fortune attached to the subject's

not seeking to enjoy his revenues in his

shows how

talents

own

family'

and virtue are nourished.

XXV. The advocates of one Ingrain's changing into another, uhich ought not to be admitted, we have seen, into the interpretation of the Yi, make Wang to be derived from Sung (No. 6), the second line there being manipulated into the first of this; but this

Wu

representation is contrary to the m ords of the text, which make the strong first line come from the outer trigram, i.e. from Khizn. And so it does, as related, not very intelligibly, in Appendix y, 10, '

lower trigram here, being the eldest son,' resulting from The three peculiarities application of Khwan to -Oien.

JSTan, the

the

first

in the structure of the figure afford the auspice of progress

success

;

and very

that such progress

and emphatic the appointment of Heaven/

striking is the brief '

is

and

declaration,

HEX.

APPENDIX

27.

*

4.

stream

235

I.

be advantageous to cross the great

It will '

(the fifth line, representing the ruler,) is responded to by (the second, the central line of :

A'^ien, representing) Heaven.

XXVII.

i.

'1 indicates that with firm correctness '

there will be good fortune when the nourishing is correct, there will be good fortune. 'We must :

we

look at what

are seeking to nourish :' look at those whom we wish to nourish.

we must '

We

must

by the exercise of our thoughts seek the proper aliment:' we must look to our own nourishing of ourselves. 2.

Heaven and

nourish

earth

all

The

things.

sages nourish men of talents and virtue, by them to reach to the myriads of the people. Great is (the

work intended by

this)

nourishing in

its

time

!

In paragraph i, Ta Khh evidently means the 'grand of virtue, indicated by the attributes of its compoSubstantial solidity may very well be given as nent trigrams.

XXVI.

accumulation

'

'

'

the attribute of mountains. '

'

The

strong line in the highest place of paragraph 2 is line 6, \\hose subject is thus above the ruler represented by 5, and has the

open firmament

for his range in

doing

his

ability to repress the strongest opposition,

This, and his

work. sho\K

how he

is

sup-

ported by all that is correct and right. In a kingdom where the object of the government is the accumulation of virtue, good and able men will not be left in obscurity.

What

will

not a high and good purpose, supported by the

greatest stiength, be able to

XXVII. Many appropriately to

In illustration

Ydo and Shun,

do?

of the critics, in illustration of paragraph

Mencius, VI, of paragraph

sage

rulers,

i,

i,

refer

chap. 14.

2 they refer to the times and court of from whose cherishing and nourishing

came

Yti to assuage the waters of the deluge, 3* to teach the people agriculture, Hsieh as minister of instruction, Kao Ydo as minister of

crime,

and others ;

all to

do

the

work of nourishing

the people.

THE APPENDIXES.

236

XXVIII. i. T = the undivided ( 2.

both

In

'

the

Kwo

SECT.

shows the

I.

ones

great

lines) in excess.

beam

in the lowest

that

is

weak

'

we

and the topmost

see weakness (lines).

The

strong lines are in excess, but (two of in The action (of are the central positions. them) the hexagram is represented by the symbols of) 3.

and satisfaction. (Hence it is There will be advantage in moving in any tion whatever; yea, there will be success/

said),

flexibility

*

Great indeed

is (the time. very extraordinary

4.

XXIX.

i.

Khan

work

to be

done

direc-

in) this

repeated shows us one defile

succeeding another. 2.

This

is

the

of water; it flows on, as to (so overflow) a withdefile, dangerous through

nature

without accumulating

way

its

true (nature).

That the mind *

3.

volume

its

it

pursues out losing

its

the strong

(line)

in

;

'

penetrating is indicated by the centre. That action (in is

'

'

accordance with this) will be of high value tells us that advance will be followed by achievement. 4.

The dangerous

ascended

;

(height) of heaven cannot be the difficult places of the earth are moun'

In the Great Symbolism ' wood appears as the natural object symbolised by Sun, and not wind/ which we find more commonly. The attiibute of 'flexibility/ however, is

XXVIII. Paragraph

3.

*

Sun, whether used of wind or of wood. Such a time, it is said, was that of Y&o and Shun, of Thang the Successful, and of king Wu. What these heroes did, however, was all called for by the exigency of their times, and not the quality of

Paragiaph

by whim or prominent.

4.

principle of their

own, which they wished

to

make

HEX.

APPENDIX

30.

237

I.

and mounds. Kings and princes arrange, by means of such strengths, to maintain their territories. Great indeed is the use of (what tains, rivers, hills,

is

here) taught about seasons of

peril.

XXX. i. Ll means being attached to. The sun and moon have their place in the sky. All the grains, grass, and trees have their place on the earth. The double brightness (of the two trigrams) adheres to what is correct, and the result is the transforming and perfecting all under the sky. The weak

(second line) occupies the middle and correct position, and gives the indication of a 2.

'

and successful course

free

'

'

and, moreover,

;

ing (docility like that of) the

cow

nourish-

'

will lead to

good

fortune.

XXIX. On

2

paragraph

Liang Yin says

proper time, and moves of the course of the superior

at the pioper time.

On self in

man

' :

Water stops at the an emblem

Is not this

in dealing with

'

danger ?

paragraph 4 the Khang-hsi editors say that to exercise one's

meeting

difficulty

strengthen the chaiacter,

seen in

all

and and

peril

is

the

way

to

establish

and

that the use of such experience is

measures for self-defence, there being no helmet and faith, and no shield and tower

mail like leal-heartedness and good like propriety

and righteousness.

XXX. The '

discussed.

and

me

Some

brighter.

ministers,

'

double brightness

combining

the better.

in

paragraph

i

has been

much

*

means the ruler,' becoming brighter Otheis say that it means both the ruler and his say that

The

it

The former view seems to the natural objects and a between analogy

their brightness.

transforming and perfecting lule

is far '

fetched.

and correct position in paragraph 2 can be said second the of line, and not of the fifth, where an undivided line only would be more correct. The 'and moreover* of the translation is therefore in the original ; but I cannot make out the force and

The

central

'

suitability

'

of that conjunction.

THE APPENDIXES.

238

SECTION

XXXI.

Hsien

i.

SECT.

II.

II.

here used in the sense of

is

Kan, meaning (mutually) influencing. 2. The weak (trigram) above, and the strong one below their two influences moving and respond;

ing to each other, and thereby forming a union the repression (of the one) and the satisfaction (of the ;

other)

(with

;

male

their

relative

below

position),

the

where the

female:

all these placed things convey the notion of a free and successful course (on the fulfilment of the conditions), while the advantage will depend on being firm and correct, is

'

as in marrying a fortune/ 3.

young

Heaven and

lady,

and there

will

be good

earth exert their influences, and

there ensue the transformation and production of all things. The sages influence the minds of men,

and the If

sky.

harmony and peace all under the we look at (the method and issues) of those

result

is

influences, the true character of

and of

things can be seen.

all

XXXII. The

heaven and earth

i.

HSng

denotes

long

continuance.

strong (trigram) is above, and the weak one (they are the symbols of) thunder and wind,

below

;

XXXI. Paragraph 2. Tui, the upper trigram, is weak and and Kan, the lower, is strong and yang see Appendixes III,

yin ii,

;

4,

;

and V,

10.

Kan

is

below Tui; whereas the subject of the

lower trigram should always take the

initiative in these figures.

HEX.

APPENDIX

32.

which are

mutual communication

in

and motive

qualities of) docility

and weak

(lines)

these things are 2.

(When

239

I.

all all

it is

(they have the force ; their strong ;

respond, each to the other

found

in

said that)

'

:

H&ng.

Hang

indicates success-

progress and no error (in what it denotes) but the advantage will come from being firm and correct/ this indicates that there must be long continuance in its way of operation. The way of heaven and earth is to be long continued in their operation with-

ful

;

out stopping. ?.

(When

is

it

direction

whatever

plies that

when

(the

said will

*

that)

Movement

be advantageous/

moving power)

is

in

any

this

im-

it

will

spent,

begin again. 4.

The sun and moon,

realising in themselves

(the course of Heaven), can perpetuate their shining. The four seasons, by their changing and trans-

forming, can perpetuate their production (of things).

The

sages persevere long in their course, and all under the sky are transformed and perfect. When we look at what they continue doing long, the natural tendencies of heaven, earth, and

all

things

can be seen.

XXXII. as leading

All the conditions in paragraph to the indication of progress

i must be understood and success, which is

explained in paragraph 2, and illustrated by the analogy of the course of heaven and earth. '

Movement

in

any direction/ as explained

in

paragraph

3, indi-

cates the ever-occurring new modes and spheres of activity, to which he who is firm and correct is called.

Paragraph meditative

on

the

4,

and

Thwan.

and

especially its concluding sentence, are of a uncommon in the treatise

reflective character not

THE APPENDIXES.

24O

XXXIII. gress:'

that

is,

denotes there is

'Thun

i.

is

in the

SECT.

successful

indicates

very retiring which

The

such progress.

in the

ruling place, (the responded to (by the second

The

line).

pro-

Thun

strong (line)

and

fifth),

II.

is

properly

action takes

place according to (the requirement of) the time.

'To a

small extent it will (still) be advanbe firm and correct (the small men) are gradually encroaching and advancing. 2.

'

tageous to

:

Great indeed is the significance of (what is required to be done in) the time that necessitates 3.

retiring.

XXXIV. is

i.

Td ^wang we

In

great becoming strong.

denoting

strength

see that which have the (trigram) that which denotes

We

directing

movement, and hence

is

(the whole)

expressive of

vigour. 2.

'Ta A^wang

tageous to

indicates that

be firm and correct:'

it

will

be advan-

that which

is

great

Given correctness and greattheir ness (in highest degree), and the character and tendencies of heaven and earth can be seen. (should be) correct.

XXXIII.

'

The

superior man,'

it is

c

said,

advances or withdraws

according to the character of the time. The strength and correct position of the fifth line show that he is able to maintain himself;

and as it is responded to by the weak second line, no opposition to what is correct in him would come from any others. He might but looking at the two weak lines, i and therefore keep his place 2, he recognises in them the advance and irrepressible progress of small men, and that for a time it is better for him to give way and withdraw from the field. Thus there is successful progress ;

even in his retiring/

XXXIV. first

place,

Paragraph i. 'That which is great' denotes, in the the group of four strong lines which strikes us on

HEX.

APPENDIX

36.

XXXV. 2.

3 in denotes advancing.

i.

3 in we have) the bright

(In

241

I.

above the earth

(sun) appearing

symbol of) docile submission to that the of Great brightness and the cleaving weak line advanced and moving above all these us the of the idea a secures who things give prince tranquillity (of the people), presented on that account with numerous horses (by the king), and three (the

;

;

:

'

times in a day received at interviews/

XXXVI.

Earth and that of Brightness entering into the midst of it give the idea of

i.

Ming

The

t

(The,symbol (Brightness

of) the

wounded or

obscured).

(trigram) denotes being accomplished and bright the outer, being pliant and submissive. The case of king Wan was that of one 2.

inner

;

looking at the figuie, and then the superior man, or the strong men in positions of power, of whom these are the representatives.

jOien

tugram of strength, and ./fan that of movement. ' that That which is great (should be) correct Paragraph the should be must be supplied in the translation appears from is

the

'

2.

:

'

'

'

the paragraph is intended to illustrate the text that it will be advantageous to be firm and correct/ The power of man this, that

becomes then a in nature,

1

impartially,

XXXV. To the

reflexion of the great

c

those

power which we see working

*

unselfishly/

who advocate

the view that the hexagrams of

Yf have been formed by changes of the

lines in manipulating with the divining stalks, the words of paragraph 2, that we have in ' the figure the weak line advanced and moving above/ suggest the derivation of &in from Kwan, whose 4th and 5th lines are made

to change places

I

zz:

as

I.

But we have seen

that that view

is

inadmissible in the interpretation of the Yt. And a simple explanaAs Hsiang An-shih tion of the language at once presents itself.

(Sung dynasty) says, 'Of the three "daughter" trigrams it is only Li which has its divided line occupying the central place of honour,

when

it is

the

upper trigram

in a hexagram.'

THE APPENDIXES.

242

who

SECT.

II.

with these qualities was yet involved in great

difficulties. '

3.

It will

be advantageous to

realise the difficulty '

(of the position), and maintain firm correctness that is, (the individual concerned) should obscure :

The

his brightness.

case of the count of

Ki was

that of one who, amidst the difficulties of his House,

was able

(thus)

maintain his

to

aim and mind

correct.

XXXVII.

K\& ZZn

has

her

correct place in the inner (trigram), and the That man his correct place in the outer.

man

In

i.

woman occupy heaven and

of)

In

2.

tative

correct

their

righteousness shown

(in

is

and

the great

places the relation and positions

earth.

K\. Zan we have

ruler;

the wife

the idea of an authori-

namely,

that,

represented

by the

parental authority. 3.

son

;

Let the father be indeed father, and the son let the elder brother be indeed elder brother,

and the younger brother younger brother; let the husband be indeed husband, and the wife wife then will the family be in its normal state. Bring the family to that state, and all under heaven will be established. :

XXXVI. The sun disappearing, as we say, below the earth/ or, as the Chinese writer conceives it, into the midst of, or within the *

earth/ sufficiently indicates the obscuration or wounding of brightthe repression and resistance of the good and bright. ness,

King

Wan

was not of the

his line

came

line of

Shang.

Though opposed and

sovereign, he could pursue his own course, till in the end to supersede the other. It could not be

persecuted by

its

so with the count of JE1, who was a member of the House of Shang. He could do nothing that would help on its downfall.

XXXVII.

Paragraph

i

first

explains the

statement of

the

APPENDIX

HEX. 38.

243

I.

XXXVIII.

i. In Khwei we have (the symbol of) when tends Fire, which, moved, upwards, and that of a Marsh, whose waters, when moved, tend down-

We

(also the symbols of) two sisters living together, but whose wills do not move in the same direction.

wards.

(We

2.

have

see

harmonious

how

the inner trigram expressive of) is attached to (the outer

satisfaction

intelligence; (we see) the advanced and acting above, and how it occupies the central place, and is responded to by

expressive of) bright

weak

line

the strong (line below). These indications show that 'in small matters there will (still) be good fortune/ 3.

the

Heaven and earth are separate and apart, but work which they do is the same. Male and

female are separate and apart, but with a common will they seek the same object. There is diversity between the myriad classes of beings, but there is

an analogy between their several operations. Great indeed are the phenomena and the results of this condition of disunion and separation. Thwan,

about the wife, represented by line

2

;

and then proceeds

to the husband, represented by line 5. The two trigrams become the wide world without it of the and family circle, representative In the reference to heaven and earth it is not supposed that they

are really husband and wife; but in their relation and positions they symbolise that social relation and the individuals in it.

Paragraph

Z&n

there

is

more

closely rendered, an authoritative ruler is a 2,

would be

'

That

way of naming

in J5Tia

father

and

Does the writer mean was indispensable in a family, that authority must have combined in it both foice and gentleness?

to say that while the assertion of

mother/

authority

XXXVIII. In paragraph meaning of

Khwei

i

we have

first

from the symbolism of

an explanation of the Fft-hsi.

Then

follows

THE APPENDIXES.

244

XXXIX.

i.

Kien. denotes

difficulty.

SECT.

II.

There

is

trigram expressive of) perilousness in front. When one, seeing the peril, can arrest his steps (in (the

accordance with the significance of the lower gram), is he not wise ?

tri-

will of) ATien, that 'advantage the south-west/ refers to the (strong That fifth line) advanced and in the central place. the in 'there will be no advantage north-east/ 2.

(The language

be found

in

way (of dealing with the Jien That it will be advantageous state) is exhausted. to see the great man/ intimates that advance will intimates that the

*

lead to achievement. That the places (of the different lines after the first) are those appropriate to them indicates firm correctness and good fortune,

with which the regions (of the kingdom) are brought to their normal state. Great indeed is the work to

be done

in the time of

A"ien

!

an explanation from that ascribed to king Wan, where Tui represents the youngest daughter and LJ the second. The Khang-hst editors observe that in many hexagrams we have two daughters dwelling together, but that only in this and 49 is attention called to

The reason, they say, is that in those two diagrams the sisters are the second and third daughters, while in the others one of them

it.

is the eldest, whose place and superiority are fixed, so that between her and either of the others there can be no division or collision.

About what is said, in paragraph 2, on the weak line, as advanced and acting above, see the note on hexagram 35. The lesson of paragraph 3 is not unity in diversity, but union with diversity.

upper or front trigram is Khn, the attribute of perilousness; the lower is Kan, of which the arresting,

XXXIX. The which

is

We

actively or passively, of movement or advance is the attribute. how the union of these attributes gives the ideas of

can understand difficulty

and prudent caution.

The explanations in paragraph

2 of the phraseology of the

Th wan

HEX.

APPENDIX

40.

XL.

i.

In A^ieh

we have

245

I.

(the trigram expressive

of) peril going on to that expressive of movement. By movement there is an escape from the peril (this is the meaning of) A^ieh. :

'

In (the state indicated by) A^ieh, advantage will be found in the south-west:' the movement 2.

(thus) intimated will win good fortune in coming

That

all.

'

there will be

back (to the old condishows that such action is that of the due tions)' medium. That if some operations be necessary, there will be good fortune in the early conducting of them shows that such operations will be successful. '

'

When

heaven and earth are freed (from the grasp of winter), we have thunder and rain. When these come, the buds of the plants and trees that produce the various fruits begin to burst. Great 3.

indeed are the phenomena in the time intimated

by A-ieh. are not

all easily

of the south-west

followed. is

It is said that

due to the central

the advantageousness ; but if we are to

line in 5

look for the meaning of south-west in Khwan, as in the diagram of king Win's tngrams, there is no strong central line in it. May Khdn, as a yang trigram, be used for Khwan?

XL.

The meaning of the hexagram

i.

well in paragraph i

by means of

is

brought out

sufficiently

the attributes of the constituent

trigrams.

How

2.

will

'

win

say that

'

it is

that the

movement

indicated in the

first

condition

editors does not immediately appear. The Khang-hsl ' moving to the south and west' is the same as returning

'

all

back to the old conditions/ and that 'winning all' and acting according to the due medium are descriptive of the effect and method without reference to the symbolism. Another explanation '

'

might be devised; but I prefer to leave the matter in doubt. in nature 3. Paragraph 3 shows the analogy of what takes place

and political changes described done very frequently in this Appendix.

to the beneficent social

as

is

in the text,

THE APPENDIXES.

246

XLI.

i.

In

Sun

SECT.

II.

(we see) the lower (trigram)

diminished, and the upper added to. (But) the method (of action) implied in this operates also above (or, mounts upwards (also) and operates). '

2.

If there

be sincerity

method of dimi-

in this

nution, there will be great good fortune freedom from error; firmness and correctness that can be ;

and advantage in every movement In what shall this (sincerity that shall be made. in the exercise of Sun) be employed? (Even) in sacrifice, two baskets of grain, (though there be for these two nothing else), may be presented There baskets there ought to be the fitting time. a time should the be when is diminished, and strong Diminution and the weak should be strengthened. these take increase, overflowing and emptiness maintained;

'

:

:

place in

harmony with the conditions of the time.

XLI. i. All that we see is two undivided lines in the lower trigram, and then a divided one, and exactly the opposite in the upper. But the whole figure could not but have this form fiom the process of its formation, whether by the gradual addition of the two primitive lines, or by the imposition of the whole trigrams on one another. To say that the upper lines of ^T^ien and Khwan changed places to express the idea of subjects contributing in taxes to the maintenance of their ruler is absurd and if that thought were in the mind of king Wan (which I very much doubt), it would only show how he projected his own idea, formed independently of the figure, ;

into

its lines.

On

the second sentence, the Khang-hst editors say When a minister devotes his life in the service of his lord, or the people '

:

undertake their various labours in behalf of their government, these are instances of the ministering of those below to increase those

But

in this way the intercourse of the two becomes close aims become the same does not the method of action of those below communicate itself to those above ? In paragraph 2 the subject of contribution, such as the payment of

above.

and

their

;

'

APPENDIX

HEX. 42.

XLII.

i.

In

Yl we

see

247

I.

the

upper

(trigram)

The satisdiminished, and the lower added to. faction of the people (in consequence of this) is without limit. What descends from above reaches to

all

its

below, so great and brilliant

is

the course (of

operation). '

That there

be advantage in every movement which shall be undertaken appears from the central and correct (positions of the second and fifth lines), and the (general) blessing (the dispensing of which they imply). 2.

will

'

That

'

be advantageous (even) to cross the great stream appears from the action of wood (shown in the figure). it

will

'

3.

of)

Yl is made up of (the trigrams expressive movement and docility, (through which) there

advancement to an unlimited extent. We (also) in it heaven dispensing and earth producing, leading to an increase without restriction is

daily

have

taxes, passes into the 4

What

is

background.

meant by diminishing

The Khang-hsf in this

editors say

hexagram

is

:

the regu-

This lation of expenditure or contribution according to the time. would vary in a family according to its poverty or wealth ; and in a according to the abundance or scantiness of its resources. it is said that there must be sincerity along with a diminu-

state

When tion,

it

what

is

means

that though such a diminution cannot be helped, yet

given should be given sincerely.

A

small sacrifice sincerely

In the language, " There is a time when the accepted. and the weak be strengthened/' we are be diminished should strong " The not to find the two baskets in the diminution of the strong. offered

is

strong" is what is essential, in this case sincerity; "The \\eak" the amount and manner of the offering. is what is unimportant, If one supplement the insufficiency of his offering with the abun-

dance of

his sincerity, the insignificance of his

be despised/

two baskets

will

not

THE APPENDIXES.

248 of place.

Everything

SECT.

method of

in the

II.

this increase

proceeds according to the requirements of the time. XLII.

i.

The

process of the formation of the trigrams here

the reverse of that in the preceding

hexagram

and

;

is

open

is

to the

remarks I have made on

that.

complacency and pleasure

in the labours of their ruler for their

Of

course the people are

full

of

good. 2.

The mention

of 'the action of wood' has reference to the

upper trigram Sun, which is the symbol both of wind and wood. From wood boats and ships are made, on which the great stream may be crossed. In three hexagrams, this, 59, and 61, of which Sun is a part, we find mention made of crossing the great stream.

^an

also symbolises generally said that the lower trigram that is but a obtained roundabout -/Tan occu; by process. the in of cast the Win's of the place arrangement pies trigrams ; but the east symbolises spring, when the growth of vegetation It is

wood

begins; and therefore AT&n may symbolise \\oodl It was stated the doctrine of the five elements does not appear p. 33, that '

'

on

increase

wood

-Oing-jze takes

in the Yf.

(^

mu),

'as a misprint for

(^yi)/

3. The words 'heaven dispensing and earth producing' are based on the fancied genesis of the figure from .Oien and

Khwan

:

(

I the

was the author of that

this

first

in

lines

each changing places.

Appendix, probably, who

absurd notion in connexion

with

the

first

It

introduced

formation of

Sun

andYl.

One rhyme

runs through and connects these three paragraphs

thus: '

Y! spoils the high, gives to the low The people feel intense delight.

Down The

from above to

all

below,

blessing goes, so large

Success Central

will its

every

source,

;

and

bright.

movement mark, its

course aright.

The

great stream even may be crossed, When planks of wood their strength unite.

Yi movement shows and docile feet, Which progress day by day invite. Heaven gives; productive earth responds; Increase crowns every vale and height;

HEX.

APPENDIX

43*

XLIII.

Kwii

i.

We

removing.

is

see

(lines) displacing the attributes of) strength

displacement, but '

249

I.

the symbol of displacing or the figure) the strong (in

weak. (We have in it the and complacency. There is

harmony

(continues).

The

exhibition (of the criminal's guilt) in the is royal courtyard suggested by the (one) weak (line) mounted on the five strong lines. 2.

'

'

There is an earnest and sincere appeal (for sympathy and support), and a consciousness of the peril '

it is the realisation (involved in the undertaking) of this danger, which makes the method (of compassing the object) brilliant. :

*

He

city,

should

make an announcement

and show that

it

recourse at once to arms

in his

own

not be well to have

will '

have recourse to (if he what he will be exhausted. arms), prefers (soon) There will be advantage in whatever he shall when the growth of the strong go forward to (lines) has been completed, there will be an end :

'

'

:

(of the displacement).

And XLIII.

The

i.

it hastens on, season's gifts quick to requite.'

ceaselessly

Each

last clause

of paragraph

i is

good

in itself,

show-

ing that the strong and worthy statesman in removing a bad man from the state is not actuated by any private feelings. The sentiment, however, as it is expressed, can hardly be said to follow from the symbolism.

Paragraph

2.

The same may be

said of all the notes

to the different clauses of this second paragraph.

Hu

appended Ping-wan

'If but a single small man be left, he is the superior man anxious ; if but a single inordinate desire be left in the mind, that is sufficient to disturb the

(Ydan dynasty) says: sufficient to

make

harmony of heavenly

principles.

The

must be complete, before the labour

is

eradication in both cases

ended.'

THE APPENDIXES.

25O

XLIV.

i.

Kdu

has the

pectedly coming on.

(We

SECT.

II.

significance of unexsee in it) the weak

coming unexpectedly on the strong ones. 2. It will not be good to marry (such) a female one (so symbolised) should not be long (line)

'

'

:

associated with.

Heaven and

3.

represented),

all

earth meeting together (as here the variety of natural things become

fully displayed.

When

4.

a strong

(line) finds itself in

and correct position, (good government) prevail all under the sky.

the central will greatly

Great indeed is the significance of what has to be done at the time indicated by Kfiu! 5.

XLV.

i.

3hui

indicates (the condition of union,

We

or) being collected. docile obedience going

have in it (the symbol of) on to (what is expressed by There is the strong line in

that of) satisfaction. the central place, and rightly responded comes the (idea of) union. '

2.

The king will

XLIV. On paragraph line

line, that is,

that of the minister

on

'

repair to his ancestral temple the

Khang-hsi editors say

* :

"

" ;

The case is like plays the principal part. the power of deciding for himself

who assumes

measures, or of a hen's announcing the morning ; is not the of (shameless) boldness rightly applied to it ? Hence nothing

all

name more

:

The weak

meets with (or comes unexpectedly on) the strong ones

weak

the

i

Hence

to.

is

said about the

symbol of the bold female ; but attention

is

called to the second part of the Thwan/ Paragraph 2 needs no remark. Paragraphs 3, 4, and 5 all speak of the importance of powers and parties meeting together, in the

world of nature, and in the sphere of human affairs. But I do not see how this sentiment is a natural sequel to that in i and 2, nor that

it

has any connexion with the teaching of the

Symbolism.

Thwan

and

HEX.

APPENDIX

46.

251

I.

filial piety he presents his offerings his the of (to spirits ancestors). It will be advantageous to meet the great man,

with the utmost '

and there

will

then be prosperity and success:'

the union effected by him will be on and through

what 1

correct.

is

The

fortune

use of great victims will conduce to good ;

and

in

whatsoever direction movement

done accordance with the ordinances of Heaven. made,

3.

it

be advantageous:'

will

When we

look at the

way

all

is

is

in

which the gather-

in

ings (here shown) take place, the natural tendencies (in the outward action) of heaven and earth and of all

things can be seen.

XLVI.

(We

i.

find) the

weak

(line),

as

it

finds

the opportunity, ascending upwards. 2.

We

have

of obedience

and that (below) and

(the attribute) of flexibility

we have

the strong line these things indicate that proper correlate above there will be great progress and success/ ;

its

:

'

XLV. The is

lower trigram in

3hui

pleased satisfaction.

Khwan, whose

is

docile obedience; and the upper

is

Then we have

Tui, whose

attribute

attribute is

the strong line in 5,

and

proper correlate in 2. These things may give the idea of union. They might also give the idea of other good things.

its

The Khang-hsi

'

though all is done in accordance with the ordinances of Heaven' follows the concluding clauses of the

Th wan,

editors say that

yet the sentiment of the words must be extended ' \vell. JST&Lng-jze says that the ordinances of

to the other clauses as

Heaven'

are simply the natural and practical outcome of 'heavenly ' in this case what should and may be done according principle ; So do the critics to the conditions and requirements of the time. ' of China try to shirk the idea of personality in Heaven/ With paragraph 3, compare the concluding paragraphs of the

Thwan

A' wan on hexagrams 31, 32.

THE APPENDIXES.

252

SECT.

'Seeking (by the qualities implied

3.

in

II.

Sh&ng)

meet with the great man, its subject need have no there will be ground for congratulation. anxiety 'Advance to the south will be fortunate:' his aim will be carried out. to

'

:

XLVII.

In

i.

KhwSn

(we see) the strong

(lines)

covered and obscured (by the weak).

We

2.

have

in

it

going on to that of

man

(the attribute of) perilousness

satisfaction.

Who

is it

but the

though straitened, still does not making progress to his proper end ? For the firm and correct, the (really) great man, there will be good fortune this is shown by the

superior

that,

fail in c

'

:

central positions of the strong (lines). If he make speeches, his words cannot be *

'

be fond of arguing or pleading to be reduced to extremity.

good

to

to

:

is

made

the

way

XLVI. The explanation of the first paragraph has given occasion much difference of opinion. Some will have the weak (line) to '

'

be 4

The

some 5 ; and some the whole of Khwan, the upper tngram. ; advocates of 4, make it come fiom hexagram 40, the weak 3

of which ascends to the strong 4, displaces it, and takes its place ; but we have seen repeatedly the folly of the doctrine of changing lines and figures. The great symbolism of Appendix II suggests the proper explanation.

not

wind

but

wood.

The lower trigram, Sun, represents here The first line, weak, is the root of a tree

Its gradual growth symbolises the planted beneath the earth. advance upwards of the subject of the hexagram, fostered, that is, by the circumstances of the time.

XLVII.

i.

One

lines in the figure

;

sees the relative position of the strong and weak but to deduce from that the idea expressed by

Khwan was 2.

requires a painful straining of the imagination. That idea in the mind, and then the lines were interpreted accordingly. '

Perilousness

'

is

the attribute of the lower trigram, and

'

faction

that of the upper.

The

superior

man, however

*

satis-

straitened,

HEX.

APPENDIX

49.

253

I.

the symbol of) wood in the water and the raising of the water which (gives us the idea of) a well. well supplies nourishment

XLVIII.

i.

(We have

;

A

and

is '

2.

not

(itself)

The

exhausted.

of a town

site

its

this is indicated

changed, while

by

wells undergoes no change the central position of the strong :

second and

lines (in the

may be

'

the fashion of

'The drawing

fifth places).

nearly accomplished, but the rope has not yet reached the water of the well its service has not yet been accomplished. is

'

:

1

The bucket

is

'

broken

:

it

this that occa-

is

sions evil.

XLIX.

Ko

(we see) water and fire extinguishing each other; (we see also) two daughters dwelling together, but with their minds directed to i.

In

remains master of himself, and pursues the proper end of principle mind.

settled in his

Why

should the subject of

Khwan make

arguing or pleading,

them is

'

literally,

as the characters say, setting a value on the mouth

found in the trigram denoting

The men

party in the extremity of pleased with him.

'

speeches, be fond of we could translate

if '

The

?

satisfaction/ or

Kh wan

yet wishes

reply to this

*

being pleased.'

and

tries to

make

XLVIII. ^ang Khang-J5^ang says: 'Khin, the upper trigram, This wood denotes represents water, and Sun, the lower, wood. the water-wheel or pulley with its bucket, which descends into the

mouth of

the spring, and brings the water

up

to the top/

This

may be a correct explanation of the figure, though the reading of it from bottom to top seems at first to be strange. Paragraph 2. That the fashion of the well does not undergo any (great) change is dwelt upon as illustrating the unchangeableness of the great principles of human nature and of government. But that this truth may be learned from the strong and central lines only produces a smile. So do the remarks on the other two sentences of the

Thwan.

THE APPENDIXES.

254 different objects: is

called (the

SECT.

II.

(on account of these things)

it

hexagram

of)

Change.

believed in (only) after it has been when the change has been made, accomplished 'It

2.

is

'

:

accorded to

faith is

it.

have) cultivated intelligence (as the basis of)

(We

pleased satisfaction, (suggesting) great progress and success/ coming from what is correct. When change thus takes place in the proper way, occasion for repentance disappears/ '

'

3. Heaven and earth undergo their changes, and the four seasons complete their functions. Thang of to the the line Hsi appointment (of changed

WA

the throne), and (that of the line of Shang), in accordance with (the will of) Heaven, and in response to (the wishes of) men. Great indeed is what takes place in a time of change. L.

of a

Ting we have (symbolically) the caldron. (We see) the (symbol of) wood i.

In

ing into that of

figure enter-

which suggests the idea of cook-

fire,

XLIX. Paragraph i. Li, the lower trigram, represents fire, and Tui, the upper, represents water. Water will extinguish fire, and fire again will dry up water. Each, to all appearance, produces a in other. the Again, according to king Win's scheme of change the trigrams, as shown on p. 33, and in Figure i, Plate III, Li is the Their wills are likely to second, and Tui the youngest daughter. differ in love and other things; but this symbolism does not so readily suggest the idea of change. 2.

The

first

sentence suggests

part of people generally

The second

suggests

and giving general

ducted

how

the dislike to change on the

overcome.

how change proceeding from

intelligence

satisfaction will be successful.

tells us how the greatest natural and the greatest changes are equally successful and admiiable when con-

Paragiaph 3 political

is

aright.

HEX.

APPENDIX

51-

I.

The

sages cooked their offerings in order to present them to God, and made great feasts to nourish ing.

their wise

and able

(ministers).

2. We have (the symbol of) flexible obedience, and that (which denotes) ears quick of hearing and eyes clear-sighted. (We have also) the weak (line) advanced and acting above, in the central place, and

responded to by the strong

things give the idea of great progress LI.

i.

A"an

All these

(line below).

'

and success/ and

(gives the intimation of) ease

development.

'When

2.

the

indicates) comes,

(time

movement (which

of)

(its subject) will

it

be found looking

'

that feeling of dread leads to happiness. And yet smiling and talking cheerthe issue (of his dread) is that he adopts fully

out with apprehension

:

*

'

:

(proper) laws (for his course). 4

The movement

L.

i.

(like

a crash of thunder)

See the notes on the Text of the

figure of a caldron in

Ting.

Its

Thwan

terrifies

about the

component trigrams are Sun

representing wood, and Li lepresenting fiie; which may very well The last sentence of the paragraph suggest the idea of cooking. The Khangis entirely after the style of the Great Symbolism/ '

hsi editors say that the distinction between 3 in gand Ting appears here very clearly, the former relating to the nourishment of the They add people, and the latter to the nourishing men of worth. that the reality of the offerings to

God

'

such nourishing. God McClatchie translates the First

is here Shang Ti, which Canon Emperor/ adding in a note, The Chinese gods and men '

'

is

'

Jupiter, the

Emperor of

'

!

2.

The

first

sentence deduces the sentiment of the

Thwan from

the attributes or virtues of the trigrams with considerable amplificaThe second line of Li, as being divided, tion of the virtue of LI.

hexagrams the same notice as here. It is the and being responded to by the gives an indication of the 'great progress and success/

calls forth in other

most important strong

2,

line in the figure,

THE APPENDIXES.

256 all

SECT.

'

within a hundred H

it

:

II.

and

startles the distant

frightens the near.

'He

will

be

like the sincere worshipper,

he makes

spirits:'

his ancestral

temple

is

not

sacrificial

his appearance, and maintains and the altars of the spirits of

the land and grain, as presiding at

K&n

who

and oup of

startled into letting go his ladle

all sacrifices.

denotes

stopping or resting; time the to rest, and acting when resting it is the time to act. When one's movements and LII.

i.

when

it is

restings all take place at the proper time for them, his way (of proceeding) is brilliant and intelligent.

Resting in one's resting-point is resting in The upper and lower (lines of one's proper place. the hexagram) exactly correspond to each other, but 2.

hence it is said that are without any interaction (the subject of the hexagram) has no consciousness ;

6

of self; that when he walks in his courtyard, he and that does not see (any of) the persons in it there will be no error.' ;

LI. Paragraph 2.

way

i.

See what

The

explanations of the deduced from the figure.

3.

The

is

on the Text.

said

Thwan

here are good; but in no

portion of the text printed in a different type

is

supposed

to have dropt out of the Chinese copies. The explanation of it that follows is based on Wan's view of -ATan as representing the

oldest son.

See on the Text.

The Khang-hsl

editors give their opinion that what is sentence of this paragraph, after the explanation of the name, illustrates the first sentence of the Thwan, and that the other sentence illustrates the rest of the Thwan. It may be so,

LII.

i.

said in the

first

but the whole of the 2.

The hexagram is

being

same

appears in paragraph

made up of Kan and

as 4, 5,

6.

2.

repeated, lines

But not a proper correlation among them

are of course the

there

Thwan

it

will

all.

I

i, 2,

3

be seen that

do not

see,

APPENDIX

HEX, 54.

LI II.

The advance

i.

the marrying of a

indicated

by K\ en

young lady which

is (like)

attended

is

fortune.

by good 2.

257

I.

(The

as they advance get into

lines)

their

this indicates the achievements of correct places a successful progress. :

The advance (the

is

made according

of the

subject

to correctness

hexagram) might

:

rectify

his

we

see

country.

the places (of the hexagram) the strong undivided line in the centre. 3.

Among *

In (the attributes of) restfulness and flexible penetration we have (the assurance of) an (onward) 4.

movement LIV.

that

is

inexhaustible.

By Kwei Mei

i.

(the

marrying away of

sister) the great and righteous relation between heaven and earth (is suggested to us). If heaven and earth were to have no intercommunication, things would not grow and flourish as they do. The marriage of a younger sister is the end (of her maidenhood) and the beginning (of her mother-

a younger

hood). 2.

We

have

(in

the

hexagram the

desire

of)

however, that this furnishes any ground for the entire obliviousness of self, which the Th wan makes out to be in the figure. LIII.

The

first

sentence of paragraph 2 describes the lines from

getting into their proper places, as has been pointed out the Text, and that sentence is symbolical of what is said in the

2 to 5

on

all

'

second.

The

rectification

of the country

'

is

the reality of

'

the

successful progress.' 1

The

strong undivided line

'

in

paragraph 3

is

the

fifth

of the

figure.

Out of

rest

comes movement

be succeeded by

rest again

;

to

go on

for

an

indefinite time,

as says paragraph 4.

and

THE APPENDIXES.

258

SECT.

movement

pleasure and, on the ground of that,

The marrying away

following.

is

II.

of a younger

sister. '

3.

Any

lines) are *

It will

and

(third

LV.

i.

action will be evil

the places (of the

not those appropriate to them. be in no wise advantageous

'

:

fifth lines)

are

has

FSLng

It is

great.

'

:

mounted on strong

the

made up of

signification

weak

the

lines.

of

being

the trigrams (representing)

LIV. i. Kwei Mei in this Appendix has the meaning simply of marriage, and for Mei we might substitute N(i, 'daughter* or young lady.' This appears from the writer's going on to point out, as elsewhere, the analogy between the growth of things in '

nature from the interaction of heaven and earth and the increase

of mankind through marriage.

There

is

no grossness

He

does

in the original

this with

a delicate touch.

any more than

there

is

in the

translation.

But how are we to reconcile this reference to the action of heaven and earth with the bad auspice of the Thwan? The Khang-hs? editors felt the pressure of this difficulty, and they adduce a similar inconsistency in the account of hexagram 44 in this adding, 'From this we may say that the interaction of the yin and yang cannot be dispensed with, but that we ought to be careful about it in the beginning in order to prevent mischief in treatise,

the end. it

is

This

is

the doctrine of the Yi/

no solution of the

difficulty.

The

This

is

very well, but

editors could not admit

that the author of the

deal

fairly

with the

Appendix did not understand or did not Text; for that author, they thought, was

Confucius. 2.

The same

editors say that paragraph 2 implies both that the and that she was

desire for the marriage originated with the lady, aware that the gentleman was older than herself.

3. The position of a divided line above an undivided is always represented as an evil omen; it is difficult to understand why. There is less of an appearance of reason about it than in some

other things which are said about the lines. The lines are where they cannot but be from the way in which the figures were formed.

APPENDIX

HEX. 56.

intelligence

'

and movement directed by that

It is

ligence.

259

I.

thus that

it

has that

intel-

signification.

The king

has reached the condition (denoted still to make it greater. he has by FSng):' There is no occasion to be anxious. Let him be as the sun at noon it is for him to cause his light to shine on all under the sky. 2.

'

:

When the sun has reached the meridian height, it begins to decline. When the moon has become full, 3.

it

The (interaction of) heaven and now vigorous and abundant, now dull and

begins to wane.

earth

is

scanty, growing and diminishing according to the seasons. much more must it be so with (the

How

operations of) men! the spiritual agency!

LVI.

i.

How much

more

'Lii indicates that there

also with

may be some

'

small attainment and progress the weak (line) occupies the central place in the outer (trigram), :

and of

is it).

obedient to the strong (lines on either side (We have also the attributes of quiet)

resting closely attached to intelligence (in the com-

LV. The Khang-hs? editors remark that paragraph i is not so much explaining the meaning of the name Fng, as accounting for composed of Lf and A^n, having such a meaning. Paragraph 3 seems rather contrary to the lesson of the hexagram. According to it, prosperity cannot be maintained, any more than we can have the other seasons without winter or perpetual the hexagram,

day without night ; but the object of the essay is to exhort to the maintenance of prosperity. Is it the case that the rise of every commonwealth and cause must be followed by its decay and fall ?

The mind refuses to admit the changes of the seasons, &c., as a true analogy for all moral and intellectual movements. See an important remark on the concluding sentence in the Introduction, PP- 34, 35-

THE APPENDIXES.

SECT.

II.

ponent trigrams). Hence it is said, There may be some small attainment and progress. If the stranger or traveller be firm and correct as he ought to be, there will be good fortune.' '

Great is the time and great to be taken as intimated in Lii 2.

is

the right course

!

LVII. ance with 2.

(We

i.

The

double

Sun shows

how,

in accord-

(governmental) orders are reiterated.

it,

see that) the strong

(fifth line)

has pene-

trated into the central and correct place, and the will (of its subject) is being carried into effect (we ;

see also) the weak (first and fourth lines) both obedient to the strong lines (above them). It is '

There will -be some little attainment and progress. There will be advantage in movement onward in whatever direction. It will be hence

said,

advantageous also to see the great man.'

LVI. What is said in paragraph i is intended to explain Thwan, and not to account for the meaning of the name L 0. is assumed that Lii means a stranger and the writer from ;

the It

the

position of the fifth line, and from the attributes of the component trigrams, derives the ideas of humility, docility, a quiet restfulness,

and

intelligence as the characteristics proper to a stranger, likely to lead to his attaining what he desires,

which are

and and

then advancing.

LVII.

i.

The language

of

this

paragraph has often occurred to

me

in reading commands and addresses issued China, such as the essays on the precepts in

Sacred Edict, the reiteration employed

in

by the emperors of what is called the many of which is re-

markable. ' Paragraph 2. The obedience of the weak lines to the strong ' ones grows, in a way not very perceptible, from the idea of the hexagram, and the quality of the trigram as denoting penetration

and

flexibility.

HEX.

APPENDIX

59.

LVIII.

Tui has

i.

261

I.

the meaning of pleased satis-

faction.

the

the strong (lines) in the centre, and (lines) on the outer edge (of the two tri-

(We have)

2.

weak

grams), (indicating that) in pleasure what is most advantageous is the maintenance of firm correctness.

be found an accordance with a correspondence with (the and heaven, feelings of) men. When (such) pleasure goes before the people, (and leads them on), they forget their when it animates them in encountering diffitoils this there will

Through

(the will of)

;

culties, is

in

(the

they forget (the risk of) death.

LIX.

way

the people

'Hwan

i

great

of) this pleased satisfaction, stimulating

power

such a

How

!

intimates

progress and success

that there

will

be

'

(we see) the strong line (in of the lower trigram, and not :

the second place) suffering any extinction

weak

line

occupying

and uniting 4

2.

(its

is

;

and

(also)

the

place in the outer trigram,

action) with that of the line above.

The king goes

king's (mind) 3.

its

there

to his ancestral temple without any deflection.

'

:

the

be advantageous to cross the great (the subject of the hexagram) rides in

'It will

stream:'

LVIII. The feeling of pleasure going before the people and toil and encounter death must be supposed to be produced in them by the example and lessons of their

leading them on to endure ruler. '

When

Lti Fau-hsien paraphrases this portion of the text thus : the sage with this precedes them, he can make them

without any wish to decline it, and go with him into and difficulty danger without their having any fear/ I think this was intended to be the teaching of the hexagram, but the positive

endure

toil

expression of

it

is

hardly discernible.

THE APPENDIXES.

262 (a vessel of)

wood

SECT.

II.

(over water), and will do so with

success.

LX.

i.

'A^ieh

intimates

progress

and

attain-

the strong and weak (lines) are equally divided, and the strong lines occupy the central

ment:'

places. f

2.

be

A^ieh prescribes) they cannot be perma-

If the regulations (which

and

severe

difficult,

'

nent to

course (of action) will in that case

its

:

come

an end.

(We have

the feeling of) pleasure and satisfactipn directing the course amidst peril. (We have) all regulations controlled (by authority) in its proper 3.

place. central

(We

have) free action proceeding from the

and correct

position.

4. Heaven and earth observe their regular terms, and we have the four seasons complete. (If rulers)

frame their measures according to (the due) regulations, the resources (of the state) suffer no injury, and the people receive no hurt. LIX. i. This paragraph has been on the Thwan. The second

notes

partially anticipated in the line

is

said to suffer

'no

extinction,' because the lower trigram is that of peril. The Khanghs! editors say that the former part of this paragraph shows how

the root of the latter part

how

work of the hexagram is strengthened, and work is secured.

the

the execution of that

The

conclusion of paragraph 2 is, literally, ' The king indeed in the middle/ This does not mean, as some say, that the king

middle of the temple, but that his mind or heart set on the central truth of what is right and good.

in the

is

is is

exactly

The upper

To trigram Sun represents both wind and wood. the explain meaning of Hwan, the significance of wind is taken; the writer here seizes on that of wood, as furnishing materials for a boat in which the great stream can be crossed. LX. Paragraph

i.

See what

is

said

on

the

Text of die Thwan.

APPENDIX

HEX. 6l.

LXI.

263

I.

Kung FA we

have the (two) weak lines in the innermost part (of the figure), and strong lines occupying the central places (in the (We have the attributes) of pleased trigrams). satisfaction and flexible penetration. Sincerity (thus In

i.

symbolled) will transform a country. Pigs and fish (are moved), and there will be fortune sincerity reaches to (and affects good 2.

*

'

:

even) pigs and 1

There

fishes.

be advantage

will

the great

in crossing

'

(we see in the figure) one riding on (the emblem of) wood, which forms an empty boat. stream

3.

:

(the exercise of the virtue denoted by) Fti, (it is said that) there will be advantage

In

'

A'ung

being firm and correct

in

we have '

Its

'

in that virtue

:

indeed

the response (of man) to Heaven.

course

will

come

to

an end

'

is

the opposite of the intima-

tion in A"ieh of progress and attainment. In paragraph 3 the writer returns to

this intimation of the

of the trigrams; by the appropriate figure: positions of lines 4 and 5 ; and by the central and correct place of 5-

by the

Paragraph 4 to rule

and

attributes

illustrates the

by reference

importance of doing things according and the enactments

to the operations of nature

institutions of sage rulers.

LXI. i. The structure of the lineal figure which is here insisted on has been pointed out in explaining the Thwan. On what is further said as to the attributes of the trigrams and their effect, AV&ng-}ze observes: 'We have in the sincerity shown in the upper trigram superiors condescending to those below them in accordance uith their peculiarities, and we have in that of the lower those below delighted to follow their superiors. The combination of these two things leads to the transformation of the country and state.' Paragraph

a.

The two

divided lines in the middle of the figure

are supposed to give the semblance of an

empty

boat,

and an

THE APPENDIXES.

264

LXII.

Hsiao

In

i.

Kwo

SECT.

II.

(we see) the small

and (giving the intima(lines) exceeding the others, tion of) progress and attainment. *

Such exceeding, in order to its being advantageous, must be associated with firmness and correctthat is, it must take place (only) according ness 2.

'

:

to (the requirements of) the time.

The weak

3.

hence (it be done

are in the central places, and what the name denotes) may small affairs, and there will be good (lines)

said that

is

in

fortune.

Of

is not in its proper not central, hence it is said (the other) place, that (what the name denotes) should not be done

4.

the strong (lines one)

and

is

'

in great affairs/

(In the hexagram) we have 'the symbol of a bird on the wing, and of the notes that come down from such a bird, for which it is better to descend 5.

than

to

fortune

ascend, '

thereby leading

to ascend

contrary to able in the case, while to descend :

is

to great good is reason-

what is

natural

and

right.

empty

The

A

boat,

trigram

said (with doubtful truth), is not liable to be upset.

Sun

symbolises both wind and wood.

good commentary on paragraph 3

sages of is

it is

the

'

is

supplied in

the Doctrine of the

Mean/ e.g. chap. 20. 18 The attainment of sincerity

way of Heaven.

many

pas-

'

:

is

Sincerity the way

of men.'

LXII. Paragraph

ment

is less clear.

hexagram '

That the small

i.

appears at a glance.

The

Compare

lines

exceed the others

of progress and attainparagraph of Appendix I to

intimation the

first

33.

The requirements of

the time

f

in

paragraph 2 cannot make

APPENDIX

HEX. 64.

LXIII. '

cess

3l intimates progress and sucis, there will be that

'ATI

i.

265

I.

in small matters, that

:

progress and success. '

2.

be advantage in being firm and the strong and weak (lines) are correctly

There '

correct

:

will

arranged, each in '

3. '

ning

:

appropriate place.

There has been good fortune in the beginthe weak (second line) is in the centre.

'In the end

4.

its

1

there

a cessation (of

is

effort),

'

'

and disorder arises the course and order) is (now) exhausted. :

LXIV.

'Wei

3i intimates progress and sucthe circumstances which it implies) the i.

'

cess (in

weak

:

in (fifth) line is '

2.

(that led to rule

The young

the centre.

has

fox

crossed

nearly

the

*

but he has not yet escaped from the stream midst (of the danger and calamity). :

wrong or wrong right ; but they may modify the conventional course to be taken in any particular case. It is easy to explain paragraphs 3 and 4, but what is said in them

right

no conviction

carries

The which

to the mind.

sentiment of paragraph 5

is

is

good, apart from the symbolism,

only perplexing.

LXIII. For paragraphs

i

and

2,

see the note

on the Text of the

Thwan. It is difficult to

see the concatenation in paragraph 3 between Thwan and the nature of the second line.

the sentiment of the

The Khang-hs!

editors

compare

this

hexagram and

ii and 12, observing that the goodness of Tha*i trated, as here, in the second line.

The with,

the next with

(n)

is

concen-

sentiment of paragraph 4 is that which we have often met move on with a constant process of change.

that things

Disorder succeeds to order, and again order to disorder.

THE APPENDIXES.

266 '

Its

tail

There

immersed.

gets

SECT.

be

will

II.

no

not at the end

any way/ there advantage a continuance (of the purpose) at the beginning. Although the places (of the different lines) are not in

is

those appropriate to them, yet a strong (line) and a weak (line always) respond to each other.

LXIV. Paragraph line, divided,

which

The

i.

is

indication is derived

in the ruler's place.

place, has for its correlate the strong 2,

the

ym trigram

and

from the

fifth

occupies a strong itself in the centre of

It is

Li.

Line

A

'

the young fox/ strong midst of the trigram of peril, its subject will be restless ; and responding to the ruler in 5, he will be forward and incautious

Paragraph

2.

2

represents

line in the

in taking action.

The

from the beginning. further

how Wei 3i

issue will

What

is

be

evil,

and

the latter

end

different

said in the last sentence

indicates progress.

shows

APPENDIX

II.

Treatise on the Symbolism of the Hexagrams, and of the duke

of Aau's Explanations of the several Lines.

SECTION

I.

the idea of) The superior man, in accordance with strength. nerves himself to ceaseless activity. this, I.

Heaven,

in

its

The dragon

*

1.

motion,

lies

hid in the deep;

the time for active doing

strong and undivided

(gives

'

being

in the lowest place. '

The dragon

*

appears in the field sion of virtuous influence has been wide. 2.

the diffu-

:

'

*

Active and vigilant all the day (this refers the treading of the (proper) path over and over

3.

to)

not

appears from) the

(this

:

line's

is

it

:

again.

He

'

4. '

deep

*

seems to be leaping up, but is still he advance, there will be no error.

in the

if

:

'

The dragon is on the wing in the sky the man rouses himself to his work. The dragon exceeds the proper limits :

5.

great '

6.

;

'

a state of there will be occasion for repentance fulness, that is, should not be indulged in long. :

'

7.

The same

undivided line

is

used

f

(in all

the

of hexagram), heaven (thereby denoted) should not (always) take the foremost place. places

of this

but the

Like the Text under each hexagram, what this treatise

on

its

symbolism

is

is

attribute

said under each in

divided into two portions.

The

THE APPENDIXES.

268

The

II.

SECT.

I.

and sustaining) power of the denoted by Khwin. The superior

(capacity

earth

is

what

man,

in

accordance with

is

this,

with his large virtue

supports (men and) things. *

1.

will

He

the strong ice treading on hoarfrost; the cold (air) has begun to (by and by) is

'

come

:

Allow

take form. nature,

and

The movement

2.

go on

quietly according to its (the hoarfrost) will come to strong ice. to

it

indicated

'

by the second

line,

from the straight (line) '(Its operation), without repeated effort, in every way advantageous/ shows the brilliant result of the divided,

to the square/

is

of earth.

way

He

keeps his excellence under restraint, but at the proper time he will firmly maintains it *

3.

'

:

manifest

'He may have

it.

occasion to engage in great is the glory of his

'

the

service

king's

:

wisdom. first is called 'the Great Symbolism,' and is occupied with the tngrammatic composition of the hexagram, to the statement of which is always subjoined an exhibition of the use which should be, or has been, made of the lesson suggested by the meaning of the whole figure in the administration of affairs, or in self-

government.

If the treatise be rightly ascribed to Confucius, this

practical application of the teaching of the symbols is eminently characteristic of his method in inculcating truth and duty ; though we often find it difficult to trace the connexion between his premiss

and conclusion.

This portion of the treatise will be separated by a double space from what follows, 'the Lesser Symbolism,' in the of the several lines. explanations

Kh\en

is formed by redoubling the trigram of the same In the case of other hexagrams of similar formation, the That is not done here, repetition of the trigram is pointed out.

I.

name.

according to A'u Hsi, because there is but one heaven.' But the motion of heaven is a complete revolution every day, resumed '

again the next ; so moves the unwearied sun from day to day/ making it a good symbol of renewed, untiring effort. '

HEX.

APPENDIX

2.

'

4.

A

sack tied up

there will be no error

;

shows how, through

this

269

II,

carefulness,

no injury

' :

will

be received.

'The yellow lower-garment; there will be this follows from that ornagreat good fortune 5.

'

:

mental (colour's) being in the right and central place. 6.

'

'

The dragons

fight in

ward) course (indicated by

the wild

Khw&n)

is

:

the (onpursued to

extremity. 7.

'(The

lines

are

all

weak and

divided,

as

'

but appears from) the use of the number six (those who are thus represented) becoming perpetually correct and firm, there will thereby be a :

great consummation. II.

Khwan

is

name and having

formed by redoubling the trigram of the same As in the former 'the earth for its symbol.'

hexagram, the repetition is emphatic, not otherwise affecting the As there is but one heaven/ says meaning of the hexagram. A'u Hst, ' so there is but one earth/ The first part of ' the Great '

Symbolism' appears

in

Canon McClatchie's

version as

'Khwan

'

' the generative part of earth/ By generative part he probably means 'the productive or prolific faculty/ If he mean anything

is

else, there

comes out a conclusion antagonistic

The

the 'mythology' of the Yf. lates '

the

by

1

'

generative part,

virility

were so

of males/

is

Such

to his

own view of

character Shi, which he trans-

defined in Dr. Williams' dictionary as If it is the special significance of it.

would be masculine. what the wiiter meant by 'The superior man, in accordance with this, and with his large nature, supports (men and) things/ Lin Hsf-ytian (Ming dynasty) says 'The superior man, in his single person, sustains the burden of all iised here, the earth

It is difficult

to say exactly

:

under the sky.

and enjoyment.

The common people depend on him

for their rest

Birds and beasts and creeping things, and the

kingdom, depend on him for the fulfilment If he be of a narrow mind and cold virtue, how can he help them ? Their hope in him would be in vain/ tribes of the vegetable

of their destined being. '

The

Smaller Symbolism on the Text.

'

is

sufficiently dealt

with in the notes

THE APPENDIXES.

27O

SECT.

I.

(The trigram representing) clouds and (that The superior representing) thunder form ATun. man, in accordance with this, (adjusts his measures III.

of government) as in sorting the threads of the warp and woof.

Although 'there

1.

is

a

difficulty in

the mind (of the subject of the line)

what

is

correct.

While

noble, he

is

advancing/

set

on doing

humbles himself to

the mean, and grandly gains the people.

The

2.

difficulty (to the

divided, arises

line,

from

subject of) the second its

place

over the un-

it. 'The union and children shows things resuming their regular

divided line below *

after ten years course.

One pursues the deer without the (guidance of the) forester:' (he does so) in (his eagerness The superior man gives up to) follow the game. the chase, (knowing that) if he go forward he will '

3.

4

'

regret

it

:

he would be reduced to extremity.

'

Going forward after such a search helper)' shows intelligence. 4.

'

Difficulty

5.

(for

a

experienced (by the subject of the bestowing his rich favours

is

'

the

fifth

line) in

:

extent to which they reach will

not yet be con-

spicuous.

He weeps tears of blood in streams:' can the state (thus emblemed) continue long ? '

6.

how

Khan

represents water, especially in the form of rain. symbol is a cloud. The whole hexagram seems to place us in the atmosphere of a thunderous sky overhung with thick and III.

Here

its

gloomy clouds, when we not a bad emblem of the

When

feel

oppressed and distressed. This is mind of the writer.

political state in the

the thunder has pealed,

and the clouds have discharged

their

HEX.

APPENDIX

4.

271

II.

IV. (The trigram representing) a mountain, and it that for a spring issuing forth from Ming.

beneath

The

superior man, in accordance with this, strives be resolute in his conduct and nourishes his

to

virtue. 'It will

1.

be advantageous to use punishment:'

the object being to bring under the influence of correcting law.

'A son

2.

able to (sustain the burden of) his as appears from the reciprocation between

'

family

:

this strong line

and the weak

(fifth line).

A

woman (such as is here represented) should 3. not be taken in marriage her conduct is not '

'

:

agreeable to what '

4.

chains

of this

is

right.

The '

is

regret arising from ignorance bound in due to the special distance of (the subject

line)

from the

solidity

(shown

in lines 2

and

6).

The good fortune belonging to the simple lad 5. without experience' comes from his docility going '

on to humility.

and there is a feeling of connexion between the symbolism and the lesson about the superior man's admini-

burden of

rain, the

But

relief.

I fail

atmosphere

is

cleared,

again to discern clearly the

stration of affairs.

The subject of the first line of the Smaller Symbolism is represented by the undivided line, and therefore is firm and correct. He is noble, but his place is below the divided lines, symbols of the

weak and mean

Line

now

2.

*

(see Appendix IV, i, i). Things resume their regular course

' :

the subject

is

seek a union with the subject of line 5, according Lines i and 4, 2 and 5, 3 and 6, to the rules of the symbolism. at liberty to

the corresponding lines of the trigrams, are correlates. The subject of line 4 naturally recurs to the correlate in line

He

is

the natural helper in the case,

and he has the

ability.

i

.

THE APPENDIXES.

272 '

6.

Advantage

will

SECT.

come from warding

I.

off in-

subject of this line) above and (the ignorant) below, all do and are done to in accordance with their nature.

jury:'

(the

V. (The trigram *

for)

clouds ascending over that '

The

spring here issuing forth is different from the defile with a stream in it, in the explanation of the Thwan; different

IV.

moreover from

1

'rain,

mentioned also as the phenomenon which

is

the natural symbol of Khan. The presence of water, however, is common to the three. But the water of the spring, or of the stream, would flow

and not be stopped by it ; and inexperience denoted it is not suitable. Hsf Kb by Mang says that the water of a is sure to move This may serve on and advance.' spring gradually as

an emblem

away from

the

hill,

therefore of the ignorance

'

as a symbol of the general process and progress of education, though it gives no account of the symbolism of the hill. It serves also to explain in part the transition of the writer to the subject of the superior man, and his dealing apparently with himself.

Does

line i set forth the use

of punishment as the dernier resort,

undesirable, but possibly unavoidable, to bring to law?

men

in subjection

The

force of line 2 comes out fully in the Thwan. That a woman such as is represented in line 3 should not be taken in marriage is clear enough but I do not see the bearing of the illustration on the proper lesson in the hexagram. Line 3 separates 4 from 2, and 5 separates it from 6. Weak in itself, it is farther removed than any other from the two strong lines in the hexagram, and is represented as cribbed in its ignorance. The fifth is the most honourable place in the figure, and here is occupied by a weak line. This looks, however, to the occupant of line 2, less honourable than itself, and is marked by the two attributes that are named. Compare what is said on line 2. A strong line in the topmost place must represent, according to the scheme of the hexagram, one who uses force in the cause of but the force is put forth not on the ignorant, but on education those who would keep them ignorant, or increase their ignorance. ;

'

'

;

The

subject of this line, therefore, acts according to his nature, subjects of all the weak lines below are cared for as is best

and the

for them.

HEX.

APPENDIX

5-

2/3

IT.

for the sky forms Hsii. The superior man, in accordance with this, eats and drinks, feasts and enjoys himself (as if there were nothing else to

employ him).

'He

1.

is

waiting in the (distant) border:' he to encounter rashly the diffi-

makes no movement

*

It will be culties (of the situation). for him constantly to maintain (the

advantageous purpose thus be no error he '

shown), in which case there will will not fail to pursue that regular course. '

He

:

'

he occupies his waiting on the sand position in the centre with a generous forbearance. Though he suffer the small injury of being spoken 2.

is

:

*

(against)/

He

he

will

bring things to a good issue. '

calamity is (close waiting in the mud: at hand, and as it were) in the outer (trigram). He if he be himself invites the approach of injury:' '

3.

is

'

reverent and careful, he will not be worsted. '

He

'

he waiting in (the place of) blood accommodates himself (to the circumstances of the 4.

time),

is

:

and hearkens to

(its

requirements).

The appliances of a feast, and the good for5. tune through being firm and correct/ are indicated *

by

(the position in) the central

and correct

place.

'Guests come unurged (to give their help), and (the subject of the line) receive them respectfully, 6.

if

'

there will be good fortune in the end though the occupant and the place are not suited to each other, :

there has been no great failure (in

what has been

done). V.

'

The

cloud/

it

is

has nothing more to do

'

said, till it

that has risen to the top of the sky, called on, in the harmony of heaven

is

THE APPENDIXES.

274

SECT.

I.

VI. (The trigram representing) heaven and (that representing) water, moving away from each other,

The

form Sung.

superior man, in accordance with good counsel

this, in the transaction of affairs takes

about his '

first steps.

He

does not perpetuate the matter about which (the contention is) contention should not be prolonged. Although he may suffer the small 1.

'

:

*

(injury) of

being spoken against/ his argument

is

clear. 2. 'He is unequal to the contention he retires and keeps concealed, stealthily withdrawing from it for him from his lower place to contend with (the stronger one) above, would be to (invite) cala* mity, as if he brought it with his hand to himself. ;

'

:

'

3.

and

He

confines himself to the support assigned

earth, to discharge

the idea of waiting

;

its

This gives to the writer is supposed to be taught he is waiting for the while time,

store of rain/

and the superior man

symbolism to enjoy his idle approach of danger and occasion for this

by

'

The

'

regular course

deteimmation to

action. i seems to be the from danger, the proper time

of the subject of line

wait, at a distance

to act.

The

subject of line

is

thereby bearance.

shown

to

2,

which

is

undivided and in the centre,

be possessed of a large and generous

for-

The recognition of the circumstances of the time, and hearken' ing to its requirements, explain, in paragraph 4, the retreat from which is not here from the the cavern/ Text. The line repeated being weak and divided,

its

subject

knows

his

own

incompetency, prudent step. Kb says that he does not understand what is said under line 6, that the occupant and the place are not suited to each other, for

and takes

this

the yin line being in the sixth, an even place, seems to be where it are only surprised that cases of inconsistency in ought to be.

We

these explanations are not

more numerous*

HEX.

APPENDIX

7.

275

II.

'

him of old (thus) following those above him, he will have good fortune.

to

:

He

'

returns to (the study of Heaven's) ordinances, changes (his wish to contend), and rests in ' he does not fail (in doing being firm and correct 4.

:

what

is

right).

'He

5.

this

in

being '

6.

He

receives

but

:

his holding the

the correct place.

'

tion

and with great fortune:' due mean and

contends;

shown by

is

still

he

robe through his contennot deserving of respect.

the is

VII. (The trigram representing) the earth and in the midst of it that representing water, form Sze. The superior man, in accordance with this, nourishes

and educates the people, and collects (from among them) the multitudes (of the hosts). *

i .

The

host goes forth according to the rules if those rules be not obsuch a movement '

(for)

:

served, there will be evil.

The symbolism

VI. the

We

Thwan.

here

have the

is

different

visible

from that

in the

Text of

sky ascending and water or ram

descending, which indicate, one hardly sees how, opposition and The lesson as to the course of the superior man is a contention.

good one, but might with equal propriety be deduced from many other hexagrams.

Hsiang An-shih (Sung dynasty) says 2 is all to

graph

that the first part of parabe taken as the language of the duke of A^u, the

characters being varied

;

the rest

is

the

remark of the writer of

this

treatise.

observed that the returning to (the study of Heaven's) ordinances, and changing the wish to contend, in paragraph 4, are It is

not two things, but only one

what

is

right in principle/

principle,

The

and '

is

* ;

The

the ordinances

(ming) meaning

wish to contend was wrong in

now abandoned.

f takes the place of the leathern sash' in paragraph 6; but the sash was merely an appendage of the robe. (

robe

THE APPENDIXES.

276

SECT.

I.

He is in the midst of the host, and there will be good fortune:' he has received the favour of Heaven. 'The king has thrice conveyed to him the '

2.

myriad '

3.

'

(the king) cherishes the regions in his heart.

orders (of) his favour

The

:

host with the possibility of '

idle

many

leaders

be

will

great

:

its

having

want of

its

success. 4.

'The host

is in

retreat

;

but there

no error:

is

1

there has been no failure in the regular course. *

5.

The

oldest son leads the host

ments are directed by him position in the centre. their positions the *

:

in

'

its

:

move-

accordance with his

Younger men idly occupy employment of -such men is '

improper. 6.

The

great

ruler

his

delivers

'

charges Small men :

'

thereby he rightly apportions merit. should not be employed they are sure to throw the states into confusion. '

:

VII.

'

The Great Symbolism

'

here

is

not more satisfactory than

paragraphs of it which have already come before us. AT& ' Hsf says As the water is not outside the earth, so soldiers are not

in other

:

Therefore if (a ruler) be able to nourish the Is the meaning people, he can get the multitudes (of his hosts)/ that the are one and soldiers this, originally body ; that people outside the people.

a portion of the people are taken out from among the mass, as occasion requires, to do the duty of soldiers and that the nourishment and education of the people is the best way to have good ;

soldiers ready for use

on any emergency ?

Compare

the saying

of Confucius in Analects XIII, xxx.

What

on the second

'

the general has received the favour of Heaven,' refers of course to the entire confidence In this reposed in him by the ruler or king, the subject of line 5. is

said

line, that

way Thien here is equal to Thien wang, so frequent in the 'Spring and Autumn/ and meaning 'King by the grace of

HEX.

APPENDIX

8.

277

II.

VIII. (The trigram representing) the earth, and over it (that representing) water, form Pi. The ancient kings, in accordance with this, established the various states and maintained an affectionate relation to their princes. 1.

From

shown

'the

seeking union with

1

its

in the first line, divided, there will

object

be other

advantages. 2.

'

The movement towards union and attachment '

proceeds from the inward (mind) (the party conis proper to himself. in fail what not does cerned) :

Union

is

Union

is

sought with such as ought not to be but will not injury be the result? associated with :' '

3.

'

sought (by the party intended here) with one beyond himself, and (in this case) with a 4.

'

worthy object

:

he

is

following (the ruler) above

him.

The good

fortune belonging to the most illustrious instance of seeking union and attachment* '

5.

appears in the correct and central position (of the fifth line,

undivided).

(The king's) neglecting (the animals) confronting him (and then fleeing), and (only) taking those who present themselves as

it

were obediently,

is

seen in

But the great powers given to the general are from the wish through him to promote the good of all the nation. king's In military operations there must be one ruling will and mind. Heaven.'

A

'

'

But a retreat is no divided authority is sure to be a failure. When advance would lead evidence of failure in a campaign. to disaster, retreat

is

the regular course to pursue.

Other ways can be found to reward small men. They ought not to be placed in situations where the condition of others will

depend on them.

THE APPENDIXES. 4

'

SECT.

his allowing the escape of those in front of That the people of his towns do not warn

I.

him/ one

prevent such escape)/ shows how he, in his high eminence, has made them pursue the due

another

(to

course.

He seeks union

*

6.

and attachment without taking there is no possi(step to such an end) '

the

first

:

of a (good) issue.

bility

IX. (The trigram representing) the sky, and that representing wind moving above it, form HsieLo Khb. The superior man, in accordance with this, adorns the outward manifestation of his virtue.

He

returns and pursues his own path right that there should be good fortune. *

1.

'

2.

line)

By

'

it is

:

the attraction (of the subject of the former (to its own course)/ and is in the

he returns

central place

:

neither will he err in

what

is

due

from him. '

3.

Husband and

averted eyes: '

VIII.

emblem

on each other with

(the subject of line three

Water upon the

is

like

a

'

is supposed to be an mere fact of close union this may Some illustration, and of its completeness.

of close union.

be accepted as a

wife look

1

fair

face of the earth

Of

the

other symbolism might set forth better the tendency of parties to What is said about the ancient kings union, and their seeking it. is more pertinent to the meaning of the hexagram than in many other applications in the Great Symbolism/ The king appears in not only as the centre, but as the cause, of union. '

it

'

The

'

under line i refer to all the benefits that and union, which are in themselves good. It is hardly possible to make what is said under line 5, on the with the account of them on the same royal huntings, agree given line in the duke of J&T&u's text. I suspect that there is some The two verbs 'neglecting' and 'taking' corruption of the text. seem to be used, the one for the other. other advantages

will result

from

sincerity

HEX. 9

APPENDIX

.

279

II.

husband who) cannot maintain correctly his relations with his wife. '

He

possessed of sincerity his (ground for) (the subjects of the apprehension is dismissed 4.

is

;

'

:

above agree

lines)

He

in

aim with him.

possessed of sincerity, and draws others he does not use only his own to unite with him *

5.

is

'

:

rich resources. '

6.

The

and

rain has fallen

onward progress)

(the

'

the power (denoted in the figure) has If the superior man prosefull. he will find cute his measures, there will be evil :' is

stayed

:

*

accumulated to the

himself obstructed.

The

IX.

the wind.

suitability

of the symbolism here

'Wind/ says

Aft, 'is

simply the

is

air,

made

all

to turn

on

without solid sub-

The wind moves in the but not for long/ The then for and ceases. a time, process of thought from the sky Is it meant to say that is not easily traced. lesson the to symbol stance

;

it

can

restrain,

in the carriage

virtue manifesting itself outwardly

however good, but a small matter, admirable a feudal lord, but that

nation

we look

for

more

in

an

and speech officer,

in a king, the

is,

or even

Head

of a

?

A^ng-jze

calls attention to the addition to the

duke of Aau's

' explanation in the notice on line 2, that it is in the central place,' adding that this explains how ihe subject of the line restrains him-

and does not go beyond what is due from him. half of the symbolism in the Text of line 3 is taken up Line i, it is said, is far from line 4, the mauvais sujet of here. self,

Only

the hexagram, and

the centre, suffers centre,

little

little

comes under

;

affected

by

it; line

line 3 is close

its evil

influence

;

2

is

nearer, but, being in

on

in the it, and, not being while line 6 gives no help.

Line 4 is weak, and in an even place, appropriate to it; and hence its subject is said to have sincerity.' Being the first line, moreover, of Sun, the two others take their character from it. Line 5, being undivided, and occupying the most important place '

in the figure, according to the value usually attached to the lines, is

THE APPENDIXES.

28O

SECT.

I.

X. (The trigram representing) the sky above, and below it (that representing the waters of) a marsh, form Ll. The superior man, in accordance with this, discriminates between high and low, and gives settlement to the aims of the people.

'He

1.

treads his accustomed path and goes for-

'

ward

and exclusively he

singly

:

carries out his

(long-cherished) wishes. '

A

quiet and solitary man, to whom, being firm and correct, there will be good fortune holding 2.

'

:

the due mean, he will not allow himself to be thrown into disorder.

'A

one-eyed man (who thinks that he) can he is not fit to see clearly. *A lame man one cannot (who thinks that he can) tread well walk along with him. 'The ill fortune of being bitten arises from the place not being the proper A (mere) bravo acting the part of a one for him. 3.

'

see

:

'

:

1

'

'

great ruler

this is

:

owing

to his aims being (too)

violent.

'He becomes

4.

in the

takes

end there

full

of apprehensive caution, and be good fortune his aim '

will

:

effect. '

He

and though he be firm and this is due to his being in the position that is correct and appropriate to him. 5.

treads resolutely correct, there is peril

;

'

:

said

'

to be rich/ or

'

to

have rich resources/

with the 'subjects' of line 4 to effect their

Under

line

6

we

With these he

common

are told that the restiaint

is

unites

object.

at its height,

and

the restrained should keep still for a time. The paragraph is metrical. The paragraphs to lines i, 2, So 3, all rhyme together. do those to 4, 5 ; and now under 6, we have a couplet : ' Lo ! rain, lo 1 rest, the power is full !

Good man

!

hold hard.

Obstructions rule/

HEX.

APPENDIX

II.

'

28l

II.

be great good fortune/ and that in the occupancy of the topmost line this is great matter for congratulation. 6.

There

will

:

XL (The trigrams for) heaven and earth in communication together form Thfii. The (sage) sovereign, in harmony with this, fashions and completes regulations) after the

(his

and

earth,

courses of heaven and

assists the application of the adaptations

furnished by them,

in

order to benefit the people.

'The good fortune of advance, (as suggested emblem of) the grass pulled up/ arises from

1.

the

by

the will (of the party intended) being set on what external to himself. '

is

He

bears with the uncultivated, and proves himself acting in accordance with the due mean 2.

'

:

for (his intelligence

is)

bright and (his capacity

is)

great. *

There

no going away so that there shall not be a return refers to this as the point where the interaction of heaven and earth takes place. 3.

is

'

c

4.

'

X.

He

The '

JiT^&ng- jze,

comes

fluttering (down), not relying

on

sky above and a marsh lying below it is true/ says in nature and reason ; and so should be the rules of

This symbolism is far-fetched ; propriety on which men tread/ and so is the application of it, if in any way drawn from it. But it is true that the members of a community or nation must keep their several places

and duties

in order to

its

being in a state of good

order.

For If

lines i, 2, 3,

we might '

and

4, see

notes on the Text.

translate the conclusion of

what

is

said

on

line 5,

him/ the by correctly appropriate meaning would be more clear, though still the assumption which I have pointed out on the Text would underlie the statement ; and as evidently as there, what is said under line 6 is but a truism. in the position

that

is

to

THE APPENDIXES.

282

'

own

his

rich resources

SECT.

I.

both he and his neigh-

:

bours are out of their real (place where they are). They have not received warning, but (come) in the

1

'

this is sincerity (of their hearts) desired in the core of their hearts. :

what they have

'

By such a course there is happiness, and there be great good fortune :' (the subject of the line) employs the virtue proper to his central position to carry his wishes into effect. 5.

will

The shows how 6.

been

'

'

back into the moat the (governmental) orders have (long)

city wall returned

in disorder.

XII. (The trigrams of) heaven and earth, not in The superior man, intercommunication, form Phi. accordance with

in

this, restrains (the

manifestation

and avoids the calamities (that threaten There is no opportunity of conferring on him him). the glory of emolument. of) his virtue,

XL bolism

It is difficult to translate '

here, so that '

says

:

A

shall

it

be

*

the application of the Great S>mintelligible to a reader. A'&ing-jze

ruler should frame his laws avail themselves

and regulations so

that the

of the seasons of heaven, and of the

people may advantages afforded by the earth, assisting their transforming and nourishing services, and completing their abundant and admirable benefits.

Thus

the breath of spring, calling forth all vegetable life, and planting ; the breath of autumn,

gives the law for sowing

completing and solidifying

and

The '

self

things, gives the law for ingathering

all

storing,' &c.

subject of line

he

:

is

i

has

'

his will

on what

is

external to him-

bent on going forward.

Kb

Hsf explains what is said on paragraph 4, that ihe upper are out of their real place where they are/ or, literally, have lost their substantiality,' by the remark that ' their proper place, as

lines

'

being weak

'

lines, is below.'

prefer another explanation,

The

editors of the imperial edition

on which

I

need not

enter.

HEX.

APPENDIX

12.

'The good

283

II.

fortune

through firm goodness, (suggested by) the pulling up of the grass/ arises from the will (of the parties intended) being bent on 1.

(serving) the ruler. '

The

great man, comporting himself as the and obstruction require, will have success*/ he does not allow himself to be disordered by the 2.

distress

herd (of small men). 3.

That

'his

shame is folded in

his breast'

is

owing

to the inappropriateness of his position. '

4.

He

acts in accordance with the ordination (of

Heaven), and commits no error:' his mind can be carried into effect. '

The good

*

The

the purpose of

man

fortune of the great from the correctness of his position. 5.

6.

'

arises

and obstruction having reached how could overthrown and removed

distress

'

its it

end,

it is

be prolonged

:

?

The Great Symbolism' here is sufficiently explained in ihe Appendix. The application, however, is here again difficult, though we may try to find in it a particular instance of the interXII.

'

first

ruption of communication, icward.

in great merit not

meeting with

its

The subject of the first line is one of the cluster of small men uho are able to change their mind, and set their hearts to love their ruler.

The

subject of the second line the place in the centre.

is

a

'

great

man/ and

occupies

The subject of the third line is weak, and does not occupy his correct position ; hence the symbolism. The fourth line is near the fifth, the ruler's place. It is a strong line in an even place ; but acting according to the will of Heaven or of the ruler,

its subject gets his purpose carried out. subject of the fifth line is the great man, the ruler in his Hence he is successful, and in the last line, we see right place.

The

THE APPENDIXES.

284

SECT.

I.

XIII. (The trigrams for) heaven and fire form T h u n g Z n. The superior man, in accordance with distinguishes things according to their kinds

this),

and

classes. *

1

of) the

(The representative

.

'

just issuing from his gate

:

who

'

2.

(The representative

appears

in relation

of)

union of

'

in

is

men

union of

the

'

with his kindred

path to regret. He hides his arms 3.

men

blame him ?

will

that

:

is

the

the thick grass:' '

For opponent. how can three years he makes no demonstration

because

of his

of the strength

'

:

he do anything 4.

'He

is

? '

mounted on

his city- wall

;

but yielding

the right, he does not proceed to make the attack (he contemplated)/ (Where it is said), There *

to

'

be good fortune/ (that shows how) he feels the strait he is in, and returns to the rule of law.

will

The first action of (the representative of) the union of men (here described) arises from his central The meetposition and straightforward character. 5.

*

ing secured by his great host' intimates that the opponents of it have been overcome. '

6.

(The representative

appears in the suburbs

'

:

of) the union of men his object has not yet

been attained. how

the distress

and obstruction are come

to

an end.

It

was

in

the order of change that they should do so.

XIII.

The

'

style

of heaven and

fire

form

Thung Z&n'

is

such

as to suggest the appearance of fire ascending up, blazing to the sky, and uniting with it. The application of the symbolism is again perplexing.

In line

i,

the party just issuing from his gate has

all

the world

HEX.

APPENDIX

14.

XIV. (The above

fire

it

285

II.

trigram for) heaven and

form

accordance with

T4

this,

The

Yfl.

of)

superior man, in

represses what

what

(that

good, in

is

evil

and

sympathy with

gives distinction to the excellent Heaven-conferred (nature).

This

1.

'

2.

A

undivided, of

first line,

approach to what large

is

is

Ti Yd

shows no

injurious.

waggon with

its

load

'

refers to the

(virtue) accumulated (in the subject of the line), so that he will suffer no loss (in the conduct of affairs). '

A

feudal prince presents his offerings to the son of Heaven small man (in such a position) 3.

:

'a

does (himself) harm. '

4.

his

He keepshisgreat resources under restraint:'

wisdom

discriminates clearly (what he ought to do).

'

Hissincerityisreciprocatedbyalltheothers:' and call out what is in their

5.

his sincerity serves to stir

The good fortune springing from a display of proper majesty' shows how they might (otherwise) feel too easy, and make no preparation (to serve him). '

minds.

before him, with which to unite. union have no place in him.

In line

For In

2,

Selfish

thoughts disposing to

union (only) with kindred implies nanowness of mind. on the Text.

line 3, see note

line 4, stress

For

line 5, see

should be laid on

*

yielding to the right.'

note on the Text.

The Khang-hsf

append the following note to the last it is said that "union in the open country indicates progress and success," while here it is only said " with union in the subuibs there is no cause for that repentance." Beyond the suburbs was the open country, and till the union reached so far, the object of the hexagiam was not attained. We was a skilful that the duke of Confucius of reader may truly say JSTau.* Of course the editors did not doubt Confucius' authorship

paragraph:

of

all

editors

'Under

the Appendixes.

line

i

THE APPENDIXES.

286 4

6.

SECT.

I.

The good

T

line of

Yti

fortune attached to the topmost arises from the help of Heaven.

'

XV. (The

trigram for) the earth and (that of) The a mountain in the midst of it form .-Oien. superior man, in accordance with this, diminishes what is excessive (in himself), and increases where

any defect, bringing about an equality, acthe nature of the case, in his treatment to cording there

is

(of himself 1.

others).

superior man who adds humility to humione who nourishes his (virtue) in lowliness.

'

is

lity

and

The

'

fortune consequent on being firm and correct, where the humility has made itself recognised/ is owing to the possessor's having (the

'The good

2.

virtue) in the core of his heart. *

3.

The

superior

and yet humble submit to him. '

4.

' :

man

of (acknowledged) merit, the myriads of the people will

One, whose action would be

in

every way '

up his humility the more advantageous, (but in doing so) he does not act contrary to the stirs

:

(proper) rule. '

5.

arms

He may

advantageously use the force of correcting, that is, those who do not submit.

'

:

XIV.

'

'

Fire above the sky will shine far ; and this is supposed to symbolise the vastness of the territory or of the wealth implied in

The superior man, in governing the possession of what is great. men, especially in a time of prosperity and wealth, must set himself is good in them, and repress what is evil. And accordance with the will of Heaven, which has given a nature fitted for goodness.

what

to develope this will

be

to all

men

AH

the

in

comment

several lines

may

that is necessary on the symbolism of the be gathered from the comments on the Text.

HEX.

APPENDIX

16.

6.

287

II.

'His humility has made itself recognised:' He all his aims have not yet been attained. '

(but)

the force of arms, (but only) in correct-

may employ

ing (his own) towns and state/

XVI. (The

trigrams for) the earth and thunder issuing from it with its crashing noise form Yii. The ancient kings, in accordance with this, com-

posed their music and did honour to virtue, presenting it especially and most grandly to God,

XV. The but

I fail to

earth

is

low,

and

in the

midst of

it is

a high mountain

;

how this can symbolise humility. Nor does Regis' Monte (ait glossa) of it much improve the case

see

'

'

:

repiesentation

quae est summe abjecta. At cum is deimago esse potest humihs modestiae.' I find the following note on the paragiaph in my copy of the Daily Lessons' (see PreThe five y i n lines above and below symbolise the earth face) " the mountain in the midst the one yang line in the centre is of 1

nihil est altius in terra,

chvis

sit,

*

'

:

;

The many yin

the earth."

lines represent

The

one

yang

this

symbolism, diminishes the multitude of

line,

heavenly piinciple.

men's desires; the

superior

man, looking

human

at

desires within

him, and increases the single shoot of heavenly principle ; so does he become grandly just, and can deal with all things evenly according to the nature of each. In whatever circumstances 01 place he is, he will

do what

is

right.'

This

is

certainly very ingenious, but

shrinks from accepting a view that

is

one

not based on the component

trigrams.

Under self.'

*

line i,

He

is all

Under

line 4,

Under

line 5,

nourishes his (virtue)'

humility. '

is, literally,

'pastures him-

That makes him what he

is.

'

the rule proper for the subject of the line in his circumstances so near the place of the ruler. the (proper) rule

*

Even

is

the refusal to submit

'

and humblest

makes an appeal

to force

and must not bear it in vain. Kb Hsi bases all that is said under line 6 on its being a weak line; so that the humble ruler is unable even at the close of the action described in the figure to accomplish all his objects, and necessary.

must

the best

limit his field

ruler bears the sword,

even in appealing to arms.

THE APPENDIXES.

288

when they 1.

'The

and '

:

'

service)

line proclaims his there will be evil his

first

;

to overflowing.

sees a thing) without waiting till it has with his firm correctness there will

(He

come

the

(at

I.

their father.

(subject of the)

pleasure and satisfaction wishes have been satisfied 2.

Him

associated with

their highest ancestor

SECT.

to pass

;

be good fortune

'

this is

:

shown by the

central

and

correct position (of the line). *

He

looks up (for favours), while he indulges the feeling of satisfaction there will be occasion for this is intimated by the position not repentance 3.

;

'

:

being the appropriate one. '

4.

From him is

the

harmony and

satisfaction

the success which he obtains

great take effect on a grand scale. '

(The subject

5.

'

complaint

this is

:

:

his

;

aims

of) the fifth line has a chronic

shown by

being mounted on lives on without dying: his

the strong (line). He still he is in the central position, (and '

past)

come

'

1

its

memories of the

have not yet perished. With darkened mind devoted to the harmony

*

6.

and satisfaction (of the time)/ as shown in the topmost (line) how can one in such a condition con:

tinue long

?

XVI. 'The Great Symbolism* here is more obscuie than usual. A thunderstorm clears the air and removes the feeling of oppression, of which one

is

conscious before

its

occurrence.

Is this all that is

meant by making the trigrams of the earth and thunder form Yd, the hexagram of harmony and satisfaction? What is meant, moreover, by making the thunder issue/ as the Chinese text says, from the earth ? Then as to the application of this symbolism, I *

can trace the author's idea but imperfectly.

To

thunder crash suggested the use of music, as some

say that the critics

do,

is

HEX.

APPENDIX

17.

289

II.

XVII. (The trigram

for the waters of) a marsh and (that for) thunder (hidden) in the midst of it form Sui. The superior man in accordance with

when

this,

rests.

'He

1.

but

getting towards dark, enters (his

is

it

house) and

is changing the object of his pursuit:' he follow what is correct, there will be good

if

'

fortune. ciates:' 2.

He goes beyond (his own) gate to find asso-

he

'He

will

not

the

fail (in

method he '

cleaves to the

little

boy

:

pursues).

he cannot be

with the two at the same time. *

3.

He

cleaves to the

man

by the decision of

ence:'

of age and experi-

his will,

he abandons

(the youth) below. '

4.

He

is

followed and

'

obtains

adherents

:

according to the idea (of the hexagram), this is evil. 'He is sincere in his course:' showing his intelligence, and leading to achievement. '

He

sincere in fostering what is excellent:' his position is correct and in the centre. 5.

is

The use of music at sacrifices, however, as assisting the absurd. union produced by those services between God and his worshippers, and the present general idea of the figure.

mind

the sacrifices

Hsiao King, chap.

and past generations, agrees with the I must suppose that the writer had in instituted by the duke of Aau, as related in the

ix.

Pleasure has operated injuriously on the subject of line

i.

He

calls attention to himself.

Only a part of the symbolism of line 2 is referred to here. Such an omission is not uncommon as in lines 3 and 4 also. With 'the memories of the past not perishing' compare Mencius, ;

II,

Section

In

i,

changing his him.

i.

6-13. of the hexagram is over. If one puts off way any longer, there remains no more hope for

chap.

line 6 the action evil

THE APPENDIXES.

29O '

6.

The

firmly held

is

sincerity

'

shown

in the

line

SECT.

and clung

to,

I.

as

(the idea of the hexa-

topmost gram) has reached its extreme development.

XVIII. (The trigram

:

a mountain, and below

for)

The superior man, in it that for wind, form Kfl. accordance with this, (addresses himself to) help the people and nourish his own virtue.

He

*

1.

work of 2.

3.

the

deals with

the

:

'He

father 4.

caused by his he holds to the course of the due mean.

deals with

'

mother

that

his father.

He

'

feels

caused by his he has entered into the

the troubles

deals with

he

father:'

' :

in the

'He

end there

troubles

troubles caused will

be no

by

his

error.

views indulgently the troubles caused by if he go forward, he will not succeed. '

his father '

5.

father,

He

:

deals with

the

and obtains praise

troubles '

he

:

the subject of line two) with

is

caused by his

responded to (by

all his virtue.

XVII. An explosion of thunder amidst the waters of a marsh would be succeeded by a tremulous agitation of those watei s ; so far there would be a following of the movement of the lower tri-

Then in the application of the symbolism we of action following the time, that is, according to the time; which is a common use of the Chinese chaiacter Sui. Neither the symbolism, however, nor its application adds much to gram by

have an

the upper.

illustration

our understanding of the

text.

two lines that rhyme and paragraphs 4 Paragraph and 6 the same. do (two lines), 5, According to Ktii Yen-wfl, 2 and but this also paragraphs 3 appears to me doubtful. rhyme i

consists of

;

;

The symbolism

of these paragraphs is sufficiently explained in the notes on the Text. Some peculiarities in their style (in Chinese) are owing to the bonds of the rhyme.

HEX.

6.

APPENDIX

19.

291

II.

He does not serve either king or feudal lord

*

but his aim

be a model

may

:'

(to others).

XIX. (The

trigram for) the waters of a marsh and that for the earth above it form Lin. The superior man, in accordance with this, has his purposes of instruction that are inexhaustible, and

nourishes and supports the people without limit. *

1.

The good

fortune through the firm correct-

ness of (the subject of the first line) advancing in company (with the subject of the second) is due to '

on doing what is right. 2. The good fortune and every possible advantage attending the advance (of the subject of the

his will being set '

(with the subject of the first)/ arises from the fact that those (to whom the advance is made) are not yet obedient to the ordi-

second

line),

in

company

nances (of Heaven). '

3.

He

(shows himself) well pleased to advance-/ If he is not that appropriate to him. *

his position

become anxious, however, about will

his action/ his error

not be continued. *

4.

The freedom from

error consequent on the

XVIII. 'When the wind,' says ^^ng-jze, 'encounters the mountain, it is driven back, and the things about are all scattered in disorder; 1

The

such

is

other lines belong to the

The

emblem

the

nourishing of virtue

subject of line

and brings

it

*

i

'

of the state denoted by Kfi/ line 6 ; all the

appears especially in helping of the people.'

has entered into the work of his father, The is looked on as blameless.

about that his father

'due mean' of

The Khang-hsi

line

2

is

according to the caution in the Text. 'he

editors inteipret the explanation of line 5 as

takes up (the course of his father) with are wrong.

1

all his virtue.

=

I think they

THE APPENDIXES. advance

in the highest

mode

f

is

SECT.

I.

due to the (various)

appropriateness of the position. '

5.

What

'

befits the great ruler

means the pur-

suing the course of the due mean. The good fortune consequent on the advance 6. '

'

of honesty and generosity is due to the will (of the subject of the line) being set on the subjects of (the first

two

lines of) the inner (trigram).

XX.

(The trigram representing) the earth, and moving above it, form Kwan. The ancient kings, in accordance with this, examined the

that for wind

(different) regions (of the

kingdom), to see the (ways

of the) people, and set forth their instructions. i.

'The looking of a lad shown by the first line, way of the inferior people.

divided,' indicates the

XIX. 'The

earth

descending or approaching the marsh'

is,

Hsf, symbolical of the approach of superiors to the inferior people, and then the two predicates about the superior man are desci iptive of him in that approach, the instruction being

according to

-ATu

symbolised by Tui, and the supporting by Khwan. The Khanghsf editors, wishing to defend the explanation of lin by ' great,' in Appendix VI, which they ascribe to Confucius, say: 'Lin means "great." The earth above the waters of the marsh shows how full those waters are, rising to the level of the earth, and thus expressing

This representation

the idea of greatness.' JSTfl

is

lame and impotent.

Hst says he does not understand what

is

said

on

line 2.

the ordinary one, but I am not The Khang-hs! editors try to solve the difficulty; satisfied with it. but I am not able to follow them.

The

interpretation in

The same

my

version

compare the conclusion of paragraph 6 in the u. What is external' there, and what the state, have, they say, the same reference,

editors

'

symbolism of hexagram is

is

internal here,'

'

namely, of the whole kingdom, the expressions diffeiing according which they are made. The view

to the different standpoints from in the translation

is

that of

balance between them.

Kb

Hsf.

The newer

It is difficult to

view, perhaps,

is

hold the

the preferable.

HEX.

APPENDIX

21.

'

2.

The

firm correctness of a

out from a door (in

'

is

293

II.

woman,

also a thing to be

in

peeping

ashamed

ol

a superior man). '

3.

He

looks at (the course of) his

advance or recede (accordingly) in the path (to be pursued). '

4.

5.

he

own will

He

be a guest

contemplates his

own

to

life,

not err

He contemplates the glory of the kingdom

(thence) arises the wish to *

' :

' :

(at court). '

life(-course)

:

he

should (for this purpose) contemplate (the condition of) the people. 6. 'He contemplates his own character:' cannot even yet let his mind be at rest.

he

XXI. (The

trigrams representing) thunder and The ancient kings, in lightning form Shih Ho. their penalties with framed accordance with this,

and promulgated

intelligence, 1.

'His '

He

and he no walking (to do

feet are in the stocks, '

of his toes 2.

their laws.

there

:

is

is

deprived

evil).

through the soft flesh, and (goes on)

bites

XX. Wind moving above

the earth has the widest sweep,

and

This penetrates everywhere. symbolism is more appropriate to the subject in hand than that of many other hexagrams. Personal influence in a ruler effects much ; nothing escapes

its

influence;

it

but the ancient kings wished to add to that the power of published instructions, specially adapted to the character and circumstances of the people. Sun, representing the wind, is well adapted to this influence ; see the Analects, XII, xix.

denote

The Line

looking in line 3.

'He will

or receding as '

and does not reach

i is superficial,

not err in the path to be pursued

far.

'

;

advancing

is best. '

The

glory of the kingdom is the virtue of the sovereign and the character of his administration. With the sentiment com-

Line

4.

pare Mencius, VII,

i,

chap. 21.2.

THE APPENDIXES.

2Q4

SECT.

(the subject of the line)

to bite off the nose:'

mounted on the strong (first line). He meets with what is disagreeable and 3. '

'

ful

his position

:

'

It will

4.

I.

is

hurt-

not the proper one for him.

is

be advantageous to him

to realise the

difficulty of his task and be firm, in which case there his light has not yet been will be good fortune '

:

sufficiently displayed.

Let him be firm and correct, realising the and there will be no error

'

5.

(of his position), will possess

tion

and

(to his posi-

task).

wears the cangue and is deprived of his he hears, but will not understand.

'

ears

every quality appropriate

he

He

*

6?

peril '

:

:

XXII. (The and that

mountain

trigram representing) a

for fire

under

form

it

Pi.

The

superior

accordance with

this, throws a brilliancy man, around his various processes of government, but does not dare (in a similar way) to decide cases of

in

criminal litigation.

XXI. JT^ng-jze- says that thunder and lightning are always found together, and hence their tngrams go together to give the Idea of union intended in Shih Ho. The one trigram symboland the other brightness or intelligence, the applicahexagram here is easier and moie natural than in many

ising majesty

tion of the

other cases. '

1.

There

is

no walking

'

:

that

is,

the subject of the line will

not dare to offend any more.

'"

Being mounted on the strong first line" means,' says ' .Oing-jze, punishing a strong and vehement man, when severity 2.

is

required, as is denoted '

4. is

still

His

by the central position of the

light has not been

something

for

him

of his position and be firm.

to

line.'

'

sufficiently

do

:

displayed

;

that

he has to realise the

is,

there

difficulty

HEX.

APPENDIX

22.

II.

295

'He can

discard a carriage and walk on foot righteousness requires that he should not ride. 1.

2.

He

*

adorns his beard

:'

(only) along with the

action

' :

he rouses himself to (subject of the) line

above. '

3.

The good

fortune

consequent on his ever

maintaining firm correctness' is due to to the end no one will insult him. '

4.

The

affords

place occupied by the fourth

ground

for

doubt

this,

line,

that

divided/

(as to its subject); but '(as

the subject of the third pursues) not as a robber, but as intent on a matrimonial alliance/ he will in

the end have no grudge against him. '

The good

fortune falling to the divided/ affords occasion for joy. 5.

'

6.

fifth

line,

The freedom from

ject of) the topmost

error attached to (the subline, with no ornament but the

(simple white)/ shows

how he

A

has attained his aim.

mountain/ says A^ing-jze, is a place where we find A fire burning below it a hundred other things. and trees, grass, throws up its light, and brings them all out in beauty; and this

XXII.

'

'

The various gives the idea of ornament, or being ornamented. processes of government are small matters, and elegance and ornament help

their course

the simple,

unornamented truth/

The ment.

subject of line

He

will

walk

i

;

but great matters of

judgment demand

does not care for and does not need orna-

in the

way of righteousness without

it.

Paiagraph 3 tells us that it is not ornament, but correct firmness, which secures the respect of others. In the fourth place, and cut off from line i by 2 and 3, we might doubt how far the subject of 4 would continue loyal to the

But he does continue subject of i. and object of the subject of 3.

loyal,

through the chaiacter

The Khang-hsi editors say: 'Line 5 occupies the place of honour, and yet prefers simplicity and exalts economy; its subject

THE APPENDIXES.

296

SECT.

I.

XXIII. (The and (above

it)

trigrams representing) the earth, that for a mountain, which adheres

to the earth, form

Po.

Superiors, in

accordance

with this, seek to strengthen those below them, to secure the peace and stability of their own position. '

1.

is

He overthrows the couch by injuring its

'

legs

:

thus (he commences) his work of ruin with what lowest (in the superior man).

'He

destroys the couch by injuring its frame: (the superior man) has as yet no associates. 2.

That 'there

'

be no error on the part of this one among the overthrowers arises from the difference between him and the others above and 3.

will

'

below. '

4.

He

has overthrown the couch, and (proceeds

to injure) the skin (of is very near at hand.

He

him who

lies

on

it)

:'

calamity

them the favour that lights on the inmates of the palace in the end there will him. no be grudge against '

5.

obtains for

'

:

'

6.

The '

riage

small

:

superior man finds himself in a he is carried along by the people.

men '

dwellings

:

car'

The own

(by their course) overthrow their they can never again be of use to

them. '

might change and transform manners and customs ; matter to say of him that he affords occasion for joy.

The

it is

a small

more of the spirit of the hexagram His being clothed in simple white ornament must be kept in a secondary

subject of line 6 has

than in most hexagrams.

crowns the lesson

that

place.

XXIII. 'A mountain,' says Ytt Fan (towards the end of the dynasty), 'stands out high above the eatth; here it appears as lying on the earth On the plainly it has been overturned.'

Han

:

APPENDIX

HEX. 24.

XXIV. (The and that

The

trigram

297

II.

representing)

the

earth

form Ffl. accordance with this, on the

for thunder in the midst of

ancient kings, in

it

day of the (winter) solstice, shut the gates of the passes (from one state to another), so that the travelling merchants could not (then) pursue their

journeys, nor the princes of their states. '

inspection

Returning (from an error) of no great extent'

1.

is

go on with the

the prelude to the cultivation of the person.

The good

'

2.

fortune attendant on the admirable '

return (of the subject of the second line) is due to his condescension to the virtuous (subject of the

below.

line)

'

Notwithstanding

3.

the perilous position of him

A

mounother hand, Liu Mfl (early in the Sung dynasty) says : If the earth be thick, the tain has the earth for its foundation. mountain preserves its height. So it is with the sovereign and '

people.' It is

The

application might be deduced from either view.

hard to

tell

supplemented as

mere

I

whether

'

the lowest

have done.

'

in

paragraph

i

should be

If not, then the explanation is

a

truism.

JT^&ng-jze tion of

is

precise and decisive in supplementing the explana2 as in the translation.

paragraph

See on the Text of

lines 3

and

4.

The paragraph 5, the Khang-hst editors say admirably : fifth line is weak, and yet occupies the most honourable place in the figure, emblematic of a queen; and as its subject leads on

On

'

the subjects of the other lines to obtain the favours given to the inmates of the palace, she, it is plain, has neither jealousy nor any other injurious temper that might incur blame for tending to

overthrow the ruler/

Paragraph 6 shows the ruler restored to the favour of the The small people, and the restoration of concord in the state. men have done their worst, and there is an end of their attempts for a time.

THE APPENDIXES.

298

who

made many

has

through

(his

I.

returns/ there will be no error

aiming after righteousness).

He moves right

'

SECT.

in the centre

(among those represented by the other divided lines), and yet returns 4.

'

alone

his object

:

*

5.

The

repentance/

noble is

is

to pursue the (proper) path.

return,

no

giving

due to (the

subject

for

ground of the

line)

striving to perfect himself in accordance with his central position. '

The

evil consequent on being all astray on the of subject returning' is because the course pursued is contrary to the proper course for a ruler. 6.

XXIV. and

of

Thunder

silent, just

'

in the midst of the earth

able to

genial stirrings of

first

the

'

make life

is

thunder shut up

So is it with the presence felt. after the winter solstice ; so is it with its

As the spring returning steps of the wanderer to virtue. has to be nursed in quietness, so also has the purpose of The ancient statutes here referred to must have been like

first life

good.

the present cessation from public and private business at the time of the new year, when all the Chinese people are for a time dissolved in festivity and joy.

Canon McClatchie

translates here

' :

The

ancient kings on this '

the seventh) closed their gates/ &c. Culculminating day ' * does not us the the well as so minating day give meaning day of the solstice;' but where does the translator find the explanatory e. (i.

'

'

the seventh/ which he puts in parentheses ? In my own ' salad days of Chinese knowledge I fancied there might be in paragraph i of the Text some allusion to a primitive sabbath ; but there is no this *

for introducing

The

san, the

'

'

seven days/ or paragraph of the Great Symbolism.

ground

virtuous subject of the first line 'the benevolent' or Moving/ It

symbolism of the Yi where we

adjective.

The

It is

emphatic here for

seventh day/ into

the

'

is

in

paragraph

2 called

the only case in all find that term used as an is

'

humanity/

man

in his ideal.

other paragraphs present nothing for remark beyond what has been said on the Text of the duke of fiu.

HEX.

APPENDIX

25.

XXV. The

299

II.

under the sky, and to (every)thing there is given (its nature), free from all insincerity. The ancient kings, in accordance with this,

thunder

rolls all

their regulations) in complete accordance

(made

with the seasons, thereby nourishing 1.

When

'he

who

any movement/ he '

is

will

all things.

from insincerity makes get what he desires. free

He

reaps without having ploughed thought of) riches to be got had not risen 2.

'

(the

:

(in his

mind).

'The passer-by

this proves a gets the ox:' calamity to the people of the neighbourhood. 3.

'

4.

he can remain firm and correct there will be he firmly holds fast (his correctness).

If

no error '

5.

:'

Medicine '

it

insincerity!

in

the case of one

should not be tried

who

is

free

from

(at all).

The

action (in this case) of one who is free from insincerity* will occasion the calamity arising from action (when the time for it is) exhausted. 6.

*

XXV. The manner

composition of the hexagram is given here in a from what we have met with in the account of

diffeient

any of the preceding figures ; and as the text is not called in question, I have made the best I could in the translation of the two commencing clauses. The application of the symbolism to what the ancient kings did

The paragiaph on

is

also hard to

comprehend.

another way of saying that in the course of things real goodness may be expected to be fortunate, by the appointment of Heaven.' line

i

is

1

2. The thought of getting rich had not risen in he did what he did, because it was right, not because '

Paragraph his

mind

' :

of the gain

it

would bring him.

paragraph 3, it is said, The superior man seeks simply to be free from insincerity, and leaves the questions of happiness and

On

calamity to Heaven.' Paragraph 5. 'Sickness

'

ought not to happen

to

one who

THE APPENDIXES.

3OO

SECT.

I.

XXVI. (The

trigram representing) a mountain, and in the midst of it that (representing) heaven, form T Khh. The superior man, in accordance largely in his memory the words and deeds of former men, to subserve the accumulation

with

this, stores

of his virtue. '

1.

He

is in

a position of peril

it

;

tageous for him to stop his advance rashly expose himself to calamity.

(He

under

'

as) a

is

'

it

:

he

position, 3.

will incur

There

no blame.

be advantage

will

he may advance is

he should not

:

carriage from which the strap has been removed being in the central

'

2.

be advan-

will

'

'

:

in

whatever direction

(the subject of) the

line

topmost

of the same mind with him. *

4.

The

great good fortune

by the

indicated

fourth line, divided/ shows that there

occasion

is

for joy. *

5.

The good

fortune indicated

divided/ shows that there

is

by the

fifth

line,

occasion for congratu-

lation. 6.

way

'

is

In

command

of the firmament of heaven

:'

the

grandly open for movement.

perfectly sincere. If it plicable will of Heaven. is

do happen, he must

As

refer

that has afflicted, so

it it

some

to

inex-

will cure.'

When a thing is over and done, submission and are what are required, and not renewed attempts at acquiescence Paragraph

6.

4

action.'

XXVI.

I

have quoted, in the Intioduction,

p.

37, JTQ fist's

remark on the Great Symbolism here. .O&ng-jze says Heaven is the greatest of all things, and its being in the midst of a moun'

:

tain gives us the idea

of a very large accumulation.

And

so great

HEX.

APPENDIX

27.

XXVII. (The and under

3OI

II.

trigram representing) a mountain

that for thunder form

it

I.

The

superior

man, in accordance with this, (enjoins) watchfulness over our words, and the temperate regulation of our eating and drinking.

'You look

1.

at

me

till

your (lower) jaw hangs

'

down

(the subject of the line) to be thought noble. :

The

'

2.

second

line,

his course

shown

unfit

advance by the subject of the divided/ is owing to his leaving in his

his proper associates.

him not take any action:' greatly opposed (to what is right).

For ten years

3.

thus

evil of

movements t

is

is

let

The good fortune attached to looking downwards for (the power to) nourish/ shows how brilliant will be the diffusion (of that power) from (the subject *

4.

of the

line's)

superior position.

The good

fortune from abiding in firmness' is due to the docility (of the subject of the line) in *

5.

following (the subject of the line) above. 6.

'

The good

fortune, notwithstanding the peril

is the labour of the superior man in learning, acquiring, bering, to accumulate his virtue/

and remem-

Paragiaph i. The 'calamity' is that of opposition from, or repression by, the subject of line 4. Paragraph 3. When the action of the hexagram has reached is done. The subject of 6 will no longer exercise with but that of 3, assisting him to advance. join repression, The line 4 has indeed occasion for joy. of Paragraph 4. subject Without the use of punishment for crimes committed, by precau-

line 6, its

woik

any trouble he has repressed evil. gives place in paragraph 5 to 'congratulation,' the people interested in the action of the ruler.

tion anticipating them, without

The

'

'joy

being

all

THE APPENDIXES.

3O2 of his

whom comes

of him from

position,

SECT.

I.

the

nourishing,' affords great cause for congratulation.

XX VI

(The trigram representing) trees hidden beneath that for the waters of a marsh forms T& 1 1.

Kwo. The superior man, in accordance with this, stands up alone and has no fear, and keeps retired from the world without regret. '

1.

He

places mats of the white

mio

grass under

'

he feels his weakness things set on the ground : and his being in the lowest place, (and uses extraordinary care). *

2.

An

association 3.

'The

weak

'

old husband and a is

arises

such

:

extraordinary.

connected with the

evil

'

young wife

from

this,

beam

that

is

that no help can be given

(to the condition thus represented). 4.

'The good

fortune connected with the '

curving upwards arises from bend towards what is below.

this,

that

it

beam

does not

5. 'A decayed willow produces flowers:' An how can this secure its long continuance ? '

but old

XXVII.

I do not think that the Great Symbolism here is anybut that of a thunderstoi m, dispersing the oppression that thing hangs over nature, and followed by genial airs, and the reviving of

But there is nothing analogous to the thunder in all vegetation. * the application. Words/ it is said, nourish virtue ; food and nourish drink the body.' '

Paragraph

i.

As Mencius

(

said,

He

that nourishes the

belonging to him is a little man.' Paragraph 2. Neither the subject of line proper associate of

The

i,

nor of line

little

6, is the

2.

other paragraphs are sufficiently illustrated in the notes

the Text.

on

HEX.

APPENDIX

29.

3O3

II.

'

and a young husband be ashamed of.

wife

this also is

:

a thing to

'

Evil follows wading with (extraordinary) boldness (through the stream) but (the act) affords no 6.

'

:

for blame.

ground

XXIX.

(The representation

of)

water flowing on

The supecontinuously forms the repeated Khan. rior man, in accordance with this, maintains constantly the virtue (of his heart)

and practises the business of

his conduct, '

it

he has missed his (proper) way, and there

:

be

of)

instruction.

In the double defile, he enters a cavern within

1. '

and (the integrity

will

evil.

He will

'

2.

'

seeks

:

get a little (of the deliverance) that he he will not yet escape from his environed

position. '

3.

Whether he comes or

goes, he

'

he will never by a defile achieve any success. :

is

confronted

such circumstances)

(in

:'

The XXVIII. .Ofcng-gze says on the Great Symbolism waters of a marsh moisten and nourish the trees. When here it is said that they destroy

and extinguish the

trees, their action is very very far-fetched ; and so is what the same scholar says on the application of it. I need not give it here, nor have I found, or myself made out, any other more

This explanation

extraordinary/

is

easy and natural.

Paragraph

2.

'Such an association

characters also imply, perhaps, that

it

is

is

extraordinary:'

the

successful.

Paiagraph 3. The beam being broken, any attempt to sustain have no effect in supporting the roof.

it

will

Paragraph

new and

5.

The

shoots produced in line 2 will grow into a The flowers here will soon decay, and the

tree.

vigorous withered trunk continue the same.

marry an old woman ? There from some mercenary object.

will

For what

will

be no children

;

a young man it can only be

THE APPENDIXES.

304

SECT.

I.

'(Nothing but) a bottle of spirits and a subsidiary basket of rice (these describe) the meeting* at this point of (those who are represented by) the 4.

'

:

weak

strong and

The water

'

5.

:

is

not

full (so

as to

(the virtue indicated by) the central not yet (sufficiently) great.

'The

6.

in the defile is

'

flow away) situation

lines.

sixth

line,

missing his (proper)

divided,

course:

1

shows its subject 'there will be evil

for three years.'

XXX.

(The trigram

The

forms LI. cultivates diffuses

for) brightness, repeated, great man, in accordance with this,

more and more

his brilliant (virtue),

and

brightness over the four quarters (of the

its

land). *

1.

The

fused steps '

reverent attention directed to his con'

is

the

way by which

error

avoided.

is

The

great good fortune (from the subject of the second line) occupying his place in yellow' is owing to his holding the course of the due mean. 2.

3.

A

how

can

'

position like that of the declining sun it

continue long

4.

'How

5.

'The good

?

abrupt is the manner of his coming none can bear with him.

XXIX. The

' :

fortune attached to the

application of the Great

Symbolism

fifth

is

'

!

line,

here more

perplexing even than usual. What is said of the superior man good, but there is no reference in it to the subject of danger.

is

The subject of line 3 goes and comes, moves up and down, backwards and forwards ; making no advance. This can be of no use in extricating him from the danger. Those represented in line 4 by the strong and the ruler and his minister.

weak

lines are

APPENDIX

HEX. 31.

divided/ is due to or a prince. '

6.

tions

the object

:

305

occupying the place of a king

its

The king employs him '

II.

to

is

in his punitive expedi-

bring the regions to a

correct state.

SECTION

II.

XXXI.

(The trigram representing) a mountain and above it that for (the waters of) a marsh form Hsien. The superior man, in accordance with this, keeps his mind free from pre-occupation, and open to receive (the influences of) others.

He moves

'

1.

on what

is

beyond '

2.

his great toe:'

Though

his

mind

set

is

(himself).

there would be evil

yet, if

;

he abide

be good fortune

(quiet) in his place, there will

'

:

through compliance (with the circumstances of his condition and place) there will be no injury. '

3.

He moves

(want

to)

'

his

'

following others low. '

:

rest in his place.

'

4.

thighs

:

he His

will

what he holds

Firm correctness

will

does not

still

lead to

set

is

in his

good

grasp

on is

fortune,

XXX. ness.

In the Great Symbolism Lf is used in the sense of brightThere was no occasion to refer to its other meaning. ' The '

great man rather confirms the interpretation of the double bright' ness in the treatise on the Thwan as indicating the ruler.

Paragraph

mean

'

2.

As

yellow

is

a 'correct' colour, so

is

the due

the correct course.

The declining sun/ say the Khang-hsf editors, Paragraph 3. is an emblem of the obscuration coming over the virtue of the '

'

mind/ '

Paragraph

4.

None can bear

with him

part of the symbolism of the line, which

is

'

refers to the

not given here.

second

THE APPENDIXES.

306

SECT.

II.

'

there has and prevent all occasion for repentance not yet been any harm from (a selfish wish to) influence. He is unsettled in his movements:' :

'

is

not yet either brilliant or

move

the flesh along the spine

to influence)

power

(his

great. '

5.

He

(tries to)

above the heart

'

his

:

'He moves

aim

is trivial.

jaws and tongue:' with loquacious mouth.

6.

talks

his

he (only)

XXXI. In various ways the waters of a marsh, placed high above the adjacent land, will descend to water and fertilise them. This symbolism agrees sufficiently well with the idea of influence passing between a superior and inferior party in relation with each

There

is nothing in the lepresentation, however, to suggest the relation between husband and wife ; and the more particularly I think of it, the more doubtful it becomes to me that king Wan

other.

intended by the trigrams of this figure to give the idea of man and wife. The application of the symbolism is sufficiently appropriate.

The commentators emptiness of

self,

see in

it

especially the lesson of humility in 01 der that the influences spirit

or poverty of

which we are subjected may have free course. Paragraph i. What is beyond one's self is represented by line a proper correlate of i. There is the desire to influence; but it

to

4, is

ineffectively exhibited. '

Paragraph 2. Compliance (with the circumstances of his condition and place)* is merely another way of 'being firm and correct.'

Paragraph 3. The language, What he holds in his grasp is low,' makes JTu Hsl and the older commentators generally understand low of lines i and 2, and their weak subjects. But following '

'

'

leads the out.

'

mind

Low

to the lines above, as the

'

Paragraph

is

4.

to

be understood

The

'

Khang-hsJ editors point mean.

in the sense of

'

1

'

being firm and correct appears here as a selfish wish to influence/

equivalent to the want of

'

The

Paragraph 5. triviality of the aim explains the ineffectiveness of the movement, but not its giving no occasion for repentance. That the mei which are moved are behind and above the

region of the

explanation.

heart

seems too mechanical and

trivial

an

HEX.

APPENDIX

32.

XXXII. (The and that in

for

trigram

II.

3O7

representing)

accordance with

this,

thunder

The

wind form H&ng.

superior man, stands firm, and does not

change his method (of operation).

The

'

1.

evil

continuance

attached to the deep desire for long the subject of the first line) arises '

(in

from the deep seeking for

it

at the

commencement

(of things). '

All occasion for repentance on the part of the subject of the second line, undivided, disappears:' he can abide long in the due mean. 2.

He

*

3. '

tue

does not continuously maintain his will he be borne with.

vir-

nowhere

:

(Going) for long to what place, how can he get game ? 4.

is

not his proper

'

Such firm correctness in a wife will be fortunate it is hers to the end of life to follow with an unchanged mind. The husband must decide what is right, and lay down the rule accordingly for him to follow (like) a wife is evil. 5.

'

:

:

'

6.

The

subject of the topmost line 1

himself to long continuance:

far will

is

exciting

he be from

achieving merit. XXXII.

How

the interaction of wind

and thunder symbolises

the lesson of the hexagram, and especially the application in this paragraph of that symbolism, is a question I have not been able to solve.

Paragraph

made

to lie

i.

on

Paragraph

2.

The

stress of

what

is

said under line

being the first line of the figure. Line 2 is in the centre of its trigram,

i

is

here

its

position, here as often elsewhere, symbolises

and that

the course of

its

subject. 1

Paragraph 3. The Khang-hsi editors make the application here= nowhere can he bear (to remain).'

THE APPENDIXES.

308

XXXIII. (The and below

it

SECT.

II.

trigram representing) the sky

that for a mountain form

The

Thun.

accordance with

this, keeps small superior man, men at a distance, not by showing that he hates

in

own

them, but by his

dignified gravity.

1. There is 'the perilousness of the position shown by the retiring tail but if no movement be made, what disaster can there be ? '

'

'

:

2.

'He

holds

a yellow ox

The

'

3.

as

it

by

thong from the hide

(a

of)

'

:

his purpose

peril

is

firm.

connected with the case of one

retiring, though bound,' is due to the (consequent) distress and exhaustion. If he were (to deal as '

nourishing a servant or concubine, it would be but a great affair cannot be fortunate for him dealt with in this way. in)

'

:

'A

4.

likings '

;

superior man retires notwithstanding his a small man cannot attain to this/

He

an admirable way, and with firm correctness there will be good fortune this is due to the rectitude of his purpose. 5.

retires in

'

:

'He

6.

a noble way, and his doing so

retires in

be advantageous in every respect:' does so has no doubts about his course.

will

From paragraph 5 The

different cases.

what

is

right in

it

appears lhat what

lesson of the

is

hexagram

he who

right will vary in is

perseverance in

each particular case.

JTft Hsl says The sky is illimitable; a mountain is but its the has limits union of these is an emblem of re; high, I do not understand such tiring/ embleming. A^&ng-jze says :

XXXIII.

'

'

:

Below the sky is a mountain. The mountain rises up below the and its height is arrested, while the sky goes up higher and In this we higher, till they come to be apart from each other. have an emblem of retiring and avoiding/ We feel somewhat as sky,

HEX.

APPENDIX

34.

XXXIV. and above

The

309

II.

trigram representing) heaven that for thunder form A"wang.

(The it

T

superior man, in accordance with this, does not is not according to propriety.

take a step which

'He

manifests his vigour in his toes:' will certainly lead to exhaustion. 1.

The second

'

this

undivided, shows that with firm correctness there will be good fortune this 2.

line,

'

:

due to

being in the centre, (and its subject exemplifying the due mean). The small man uses all his strength in the 3. is

its

'

;

case of the superior

'The

4.

'He

he

is

it is

loses his

do

so.'

opened and the horns are not

(the subject of the line)

:'

entangled 5.

fence

man

his rule not to

still

advances.

ram and hardly perceives

'

it

:

not in his appropriate place.

is

He is unable either to retreat or to advance

'

6.

this is

owing

to his

want of

'

care.

If

he

difficulty (of his position), there will be his error will not be prolonged. tune

'

:

realise the

good

for-

'

:

if

there were a

the symbolism

meaning in this but, as in many other cases, both and its application are but dimly apprehended.

The symbolism the Text.

;

is sufficiently explained on but a repetition of the Text without

of the various lines

Paragraph 5

is

additional explanation.

XXXIV.

In illustration of the symbolism of the trigrams here, 'Thunder rolling above in the ky and

JO&ng-jze says well:

making all things shake is the emblem of great power/ In passing on to its application he starts with a beautiful saying of antiquity, That this that 'the stiong man is he who overcomes himself/ on the of the in of the writer the mind was paragraph thought Great Symbolism

I

can well believe

;

but the analogy between

the natural and the moral and spiritual worlds in passing from the

phenomenon

of thunder to this tiuth

can hardly be described.

is

a thing to be

felt,

and that

THE APPENDIXES.

31O

SECT.

II-

XXXV.

(The trigram representing) the earth and that for the bright (sun) coming forth above it form Sin, The superior man, according to this, gives himself to make more brilliant his bright virtue.

He

'

1.

appears wishing to advance, but (at the '

same time) being kept back all-alone he pursues the correct course. Let him maintain a large and generous mind, and there will be no error:' he :

'

has not yet received an

'He

2. is

official

will receive this

in the central place

charge. for

he

and the correct position

for

great blessing:'

him. '

him

All (around) trust

3.

'

their

:

(common) aim

move upwards and act. 4. (He advances like) a marmot. However firm and correct he may be, his position is one of is

to

*

'

peril

his place is not that appropriate for him.

:

*

5.

Let him not concern himself whether he '

or succeeds

ground '

6.

his

:

movement

in

advance

fails

will afford

for congratulation.

He

uses his horns only to punish (the rebelhis course of procedure '

lious people of) his city is

not yet Paragraph

brilliant.

i.

follow distress

The

:

central

f

This

will lead to

exhaustion

;'

and from

that will

and other evils. position and the due moral mean

another instance of the

felt

in paragiaph 2 analogy referred to above.

In paragraph 3 nothing symbolism nothing is said.

is

added

to

the

is

Text; and on the

He is not in his appropriate place ' this is said Paragraph 5. simply because an odd place ought to be filled by a strong line. '

:

XXXV.

The sun rising above the earth, and then travelling to his meridian height, readily suggests the idea of advancing.

up

On

HEX.

APPENDIX

36.

XXXVI. and that

Ming 1

II.

311

(The trigram representing) the earth

for the bright (sun) entering within it form The superior man, in accordance with

conducts his management of men his intelligence by keeping it obscured.

this,

'The

1.

'

away

:

(in

The

'

2.

second

line,

superior

man

divided/

is

;

he shows

(is revolving his) going such a case) he feels it right not to eat. good fortune of (the subject of) the

due to the proper fashion of

his acting according to his circumstances.

With the aim represented by hunting *

3.

'

south

a great achievement

He

'

4.

has

(just)

is

accomplished.

entered into the

he is belly (of the dark land):' out the idea in his (inner) mind. *

5.

With the

of the

able to carry

be

K\l

(quite) extinguished.

He

'

had at first ascended to (the top of) the he might have enlightened the four quarters

'

sky

left side

still

firm correctness of the count of

his brightness could not 6.

in the

:

Hu Pmg-\\an (Yuan dynasty) none so strong as heaven and

the application of this symbolism, Of strong things there is says : '

hence the superior

man

;

after its pattern

bright things there is none so bright pattern he makes himself bright/ If the subject of line

when unrecognised by his his correct course

from the

office

in

makes himself strong of as the sun, and after its ;

i had received an official charge, then sovereign, and obstructed in his progress, have been to cease to advance, and retire

would which he was not allowed to carry out

his

principles.

There is nothing said on line 2 to explain particularly the symbolism of the grandmother in the Text. The course of procedure ' in paragraph 6 has still an element '

'

'

of force in to king

it,

Wan

which

is

more than

'

'

the firm correctness

the ideal character of a feudal lord,

light is not yet that of the full-orbed sun.

that

and therefore

was his

THE APPENDIXES.

312

SECT.

II.

'

His future shall be to go into of the kingdom. he has failed to fulfil the model (of a the earth '

:

ruler).

XXXVII.

(The trigram representing) fire, and that for wind coming forth from it, form K\& Zin. The superior man, in accordance with this, orders his words according to (the truth of) things, and his conduct so that

'He

1.

uniformly consistent.

establishes restrictive regulations in his '

household taken

it is

(he does so), before any change has

:

place in their wills

The good

'

2.

due to the

is

divided/

fortune attached to the second docility

its

(of

line,

subject),

operating with humility. 3.

When

*

the

members of the household

are

severity/ there has been no the (great) (in regulation of the family). When 'wife and children are smirking and chat-

treated with

stern

failure

tering/ the (proper)

economy of the family has been

lost.

The

'

4.

family

XXXVI. The itself sufficiently

appears in the

posely

fast;

plain.

He

enriched,

and there

is

great

application of the Great Symbolism here is in natural ; but this meaning of the hexagram hardly till

text,

He

'

Paragraph

is

i.

we come

thinks

it

to the sixth line.

right not to eat

when he has nothing

but

thinks

it '

right that

it

;

'he does

not pur-

to eat, he does not

com-

should be so in the case. '

The

proper fashion of acting is suggested by the weak line's being in the central place. ' The great achievement is accomplished ; ' but Paragraph 3.

Paragraph

2.

such achievement was not what prompted to action. '

The idea in his inner mind is the idea of withParagraph 4. from the drawing position and escaping; but the meaning is '

obscure.

See on the Text.

APPENDIX

HEX. 37-

313

II.

due to the docility (belonging to the subject of the line), and its being in its correct fortune:'

good

this is

place.

'The

5.

of the king extends to his the intercourse between them is that of

'

family

:

influence

mutual love. '

6.

The good '

fortune connected with the display describes (the result of) the recovery of

of majesty the true character.

XXXVII. The Symbolism here is certainly far-fetched. 'As wind/ it is said, comes first from fire, so does transforming influence emanate from the family/ But the subject of the hexagram is the regulation and not the influence of the Then the family. *

application is good for the superior man's cultivation of himself; but this again is only connected indirectly with the regulation of the family.

The sooner

preventive measures are presented to the youthful the better ; but does not prohibition imply that a change in

mind the

good

will

has taken place

?

In paragraph 2 'docility' is suggested by the weak line. 'The humility' comes out of Sun, the upper tiigram, whose attribute is pliant flexibility.

Ytt

Yen (YUan

dynasty) ingeniously observes on paragraph 4

that the riches of a family are not to be sought in its wealth, but in the affection and harmony of its members. Where these prevail, the family is not likely to be poor, and whatever it has will be

well preserved.

The mention

of mutual love

'

is

unusual in Chinese writings,

The husband,' says loves his helpmate in the house ; the wife loves him the pattern for the family.' But however admirable the

and must be considered remarkable

here.

'

'

.#Sng-jze,

who

is

sentiment

is,

drawn from

it

comes from the mind of the

writer,

and

is

not

the Text.

6. It is said on this, that the majesty is not designbut the effect of the character remoulded or put on assumed edly and peifected. The words of Mencius are aptly quoted in illusIf a man himself do not walk in the (right) tration of the lesson path, it will not be walked in (even) by his wife and children/

Paragraph

;

c

:

THE APPENDIXES.

314

SECT.

II.

XXXVIII. (The trigram representing) fireabove, and that

for (the waters of) a

The

Khwei. this,

marsh below, form

superior man, in accordance with

where there

is

a general agreement, yet admits

diversity. '

1.

He

meets with bad

with them):'

(he does so),

men

(and communicates to avoid the evil of their

condemnation. '

2.

He

happens to meet with his lord in a byebut he has not deviated (for this meet-

'

passage ing) 3.

:

from the (proper) course.

'We

indicated

see his carriage dragged back:' this is by the inappropriateness of the position

(of the line). *

There is no (good) beginning, but there will be a this arises from his (good) end meeting with the '

:

strong (subject of the topmost '

They

4.

line).

blend their sincere desires together, and

there will be no

1

error:

their

(common) aim

is

carried into effect. '

5.

and

With

his hereditary minister (he unites closely

he were biting through a piece of going forward will afford ground for

easily) as if

skin:'

his

congratulation. '

6.

The good fortune symbolised by meeting with '

(genial) rain

springs from the passing

away of

all

doubts.

XXXVIII. The application here of the Symbolism is correct, but neither of them comes up to the idea of disunion which is in

Khwei.

The various paiagraphs seem to need no what may be found in the notes on the Text.

illustration

beyond

APPENDIX

HEX. 39.

XXXIX. and above rior

it

in

man,

(The trigram representing) a mountain, that for water, form A^ien. The supeaccordance with

examines) himself, *

1

.

315

II.

and

this,

turns round (and

cultivates his virtue.

Advancing will conduct

to (greater) difficulties,

while remaining stationary will afford ground for the proper course is to wait. praise '

:

The

'

2.

minister of the king struggles with diffiin the end no blame will be difficulty '

culty on

:

attached to him.

'He

advances, (but only) to (greater) difficulty; he remains stationary, and returns to his former 3.

'

associates

they, (represented in) the inner

:

(tri-

gram), rejoice in him.

To

'

4.

advance

be to) encounter he remains stationary, and

will

(only

(greater) difficulties; unites (with the subject of the line above) that is in its proper place and has the solidity (due to it in that position). '

:

*

He

struggles with the greatest difficulties, while friends are coming (to help him): he is in the 5.

1

and possesses the requisite virtue. advance will (only) increase the difficulties,

central position, '

6.

To

while his remaining stationary will (be productive his aim is to assist the (subject of) great (merit) '

:

of the '

' :

of him.

advantageous to meet the great by his course he follows that noble (lord

will

It

man

line) inside

be

of the figure).

XXXIX. The Symbolism

is

described here a

little

differently

same We have here meaning out of it, however, in the following way a steep and difficult mountain, and again on the top of that there

from the form of

it

in

Appendix

I.

Aj&ing-jze brings the '

:

THE APPENDIXES.

3l6

SECT.

IT.

XL. (The

trigram representing) thunder and that for rain, with these phenomena in a state of maniThe superior man, in accordfestation, form A'ieh.

ance with

this,

forgives errors,

and deals gently with

crimes. 1. The strong (fourth) line and the weak line here are in correlation we judge rightly in saying that :

1

its

subject will '

commit no

The good

error/

springing from the firm correctness of the second line, undivided/ is due to its subject holding the due mean. 2.

fortune

'

For a porter with

burden to be riding in a carriage' is a thing to be ashamed of. 'It is he himself that tempts the robbers to come:' on whom besides can we lay the blame ? (See Appendix III, i, 48.) 3.

'

4.

Remove your

his

'

toes

:

the places (of this line

water; each of the two trigrams is an emblem of perilousness. is peril, both above and below, in the figure and hence it the of difficulties state.' The the represents application of the

is

There

;

symbolism is illustrated by the words of Mencius, When we do not, by what we do, realise (what we desire), we must turn inwards and examine ourselves in every point/ *

From

the lesson in paragraph 2 we saw that the moral value of ' is independent of failure or success. It is said, Though the difficulties be too great for him to overcome, the sage accepts

conduct

his desire, in order to stimulate otheis to loyal devotedness/

On

Of the three lines of paragraph 3, Khung Ying-td says : the lower trigram only the third is yang, above the two others *

which are of the yin nature. sented as

if

rejoicing in

They

cling to

it,

and are repre-

it.

The view given of paragraph 4 is The friends in paragraph 5 are

that of the

Khang-hs!

editors.

f

'

the correlate of 5,

and

the subjects of the second line, also of the two other lines of the lower

trigram.

Su Shih (A. D. 1036-1101) remarks on paragraph 6 that by 'the and the noble/ we are to understand the subject of line 5. '

inside/

H1X.

APPENDIX

41.

and of the third and

are

first)

317

II.

all

inappropriate to

them.

When

5.

'

man

the superior

executes his function

of removing (whatever is injurious to the idea of the hexagram)/ small men will of themselves retire. '

6.

A

bow

prince with his

shoots a falcon

' :

thus he removes (the promoters of) rebellion.

XLI. (The trigram beneath

The his

it

representing) a mountain and that for the waters of a marsh form Sun.

superior man, in accordance with

this, restrains

wrath and represses his desires. '

i.

He

suspends his own

affairs

and hurries away

ject of that) upper

XL.

It

is

a

common

Symbolism of the phenomena of to refer to the gentle policy of a

who

:

saying that thunder and rain clear the

atmosphere, and a feeling of oppression is paragraph of Appendix I, however, leads us

opposition of those

'

the (subwith his. wishes his (line) mingles

(to help the subject of the fourth line)

offer

spring.

relieved.

The

last

to understand the

The

application seems

conqueror forward to forgive the

no more

resistance.

The

subject of line 2 is a minister or officer ; and the Khang-hsf editors say that while straightforwardness, symbolised by the arrow, the firs>t duty of an officer, if he do not temper that quality by pursuing the due medium, which is symbolised by the yellow colour of the arrow, but proceed by main force, and that only, to remove what is evil, he will provoke indignation and rebellion. is

The

4

three foxes' are not alluded to in this second paragraph.

On

paragraph 4 the same editors say: 'The subject of this not in the central nor in an odd place; he has for his correlate the subject of line i and for his close associate that of line

is

line 3,

both of which

lines are

weak

in strong places.

Hence

it is

said, that they are all in places inappropriate to them.'

What paragraph

5 says, that

'

the small

men

retire,'

means

that

believing in the sincerity of the ruler's determination to remove all evil men, they retiie of themselves, or strive to conform to his wishes.

THE APPENDIXES.

31 8 '

2.

be advantageous for (the subject

It will

the second

SECT.

undivided, to

line,

II.

of)

maintain his firm

'

correctness

his central position gives its character

:

to his aim. *

3.

One man,

walking/ (finds his friend) among them.

when

:

three are together, doubts rise *

4.

He

diminishes the ailment under which he

*

matter for joy. The great good fortune attached to the fifth divided/ is due to the blessing from above.

labours

this is

:

'

5.

line,

*

6.

He

from what grand

gives increase to others without taking is his own he obtains his wish on a '

:

scale.

XLI. The waters of a marsh are continually rising up in vapour what is to bedew the hill above it, and thus increase its verdure taken fiom the marsh gives increase to the hill.' This is very '

;

In the application again the superior man acts only for himself; which has nothing to do with those

far-fetched.

on

himself,

and

This application, howof low degree giving to those above them. as we seen on the Text, was -Ongwith have what, ever, agrees the the view of of hexagram. meaning jze's

The explanation appended to paragraph i seems to be to account for the subject of line i hurrying away to the help of line 4. '

His aim

'

is

to abide

the exhibition of

'

where he

The Khang-hst editors men and not of

of three

is,

and help the subject of 5 by

firm correctness.'

;

observe that paragraph 3 is true indeed three men only, but of many repetitions

of thought or action.

The same

on paragraph 5 that 'the blessing from explained, by many, of the oracles obtained through divining with the tortoise-shell; but that looking at the text on line 2 of the next hexagram, and that T! (spoken of there) is the lord of " above " here is mo^t all spirits, the term naturally explained of Heaven's mind, whose acceptance cannot be gainsaid by men or above

editors say

is

spirits/

JTA&ng-jze says on paragraph 6, though I do not see the rele-

APPENDIX

HEX. 42.

319

II.

XLII. (The trigram

representing) wind and that The superior man, in accord-

thunder form Y!.

for

ance with

towards

it

when he sees what and when he sees his

this, ;

is

moves

good,

errors,

he turns

from them.

movement be

greatly fortunate, no blame will be imputed to him:' though it is not for one in so low a position to have to do with great 'If the

1.

affairs. '

2.

beyond '

3.

and

'

add to his stores they come from immediate circle) to do so.

Parties (his

:

given by means of what is evil as he has in himself (the qualities

Increase

is

difficult:'

called forth).

'His advice to his prince

4.

(only) object in

it

is

followed:'

his

being the increase (of the general

good). '

ruler) with sincere heart seeks to benefit

(The

5.

'

there need be no question (about the result). (All below) with sincere heart acknowledge he gets what he desires on a great (his goodness) (all

below)

:

'

'

:

scale. '

6.

To

his increase

none

expresses but half the assail

him

immediate

result.

'

:

they

circle)

to

will

do

f

will contribute '

Many

will

:

this

seek to

come from beyond

(his

so.

vancy of his remarks: 'Dwelling on high, and taking nothing from those below him, but on the contrary giving more to them, The the superior man accomplishes his aim on a giand scale.

aim of the superior man is simply that and nothing else.'

have

to

be increasing what others

;

XLII. The Symbolism here is different from what we gather from Sun no longer symbolises wood, but, as the former Appendix.

THE APPENDIXES.

32O

SECT.

IT.

XLIII. (The trigram representing) heaven and that for the waters of a marsh mounting above it form Kw&i. The superior man, in accordance with this, bestows emolument on those below him, and allowing his

dislikes

gifts

to

accumulate

(undis-

pensed). 1.

'Without (being able this is an error.

forward

to)

he goes

succeed,

'

:

'

measures be taken against him, he need not be anxious:' he pursues the course of the due mean. hostile

Though

2.

The

'

3.

the culprit

superior man looks bent on cutting off there will in the end be no error. '

:

'He walks

slowly and with difficulty:' not in the place appropriate to him. 4.

'

He '

them

:

*

5.

he

is

hears these words, but does not believe he hears, but does not understand.

If his action

be

in

harmony with

his central

it more commonly does, wind. Thunder and wind, it is supposed, increase each the other; and their combination gives the Then the application, good in itself, must be idea of increase.

treated very nicely, as

it

is

by the Khang-hs?

editors, in order to

make

out any connexion between it and the Symbolism. ' Paragraph i. One in a low position should not move in great ' affairs ; not a son, it is said, while his father is alive nor a min;

while his ruler governs ment, while its head directs

ister,

such an

affair,

nor a member of an official departits affairs. If such a one do initiate ;

only great success will excuse his rashness.

Paragraph 2. Line 5 is the proper correlate of 2 and its subject will be among the contributing parties. But others ' beyond will ;

'

be

won

to take part with him.

Paragraph 3. There is a soul of good even in evil ; and adversity may quicken it.

men who seem

only is

Paragraph shown, so

exhibited.

6.

As

in line 2 the attractive

in line 6

Mark

we have

power of benevolence power of selfishness

the repulsive

the 'from beyond' in both paragraphs.

HEX.

APPENDIX

44-

II.

321 '

but his standing position, there will be no error : in the due mean is not yet clearly displayed.

There

6.

to call

any

'

is

the misery of having none on

whom

the end will be that he cannot continue

:

longer.

XLIV. (The for the sky

trigram representing) wind and that

above

it

form Kdu.

The

sovereign, delivers his charges, and promulgates his announcements throughout the four

accordance with

in

this,

quarters (of the kingdom).

'Tied and fastened to a metal drag:'

i.

(this

We

can only understand the mounting of the waters of XLIII. a marsh up into the sky of the phenomenon of evaporation ; and certainly the waters so formed into clouds will be condensed, and

come down

again as rain. This may be taken as an image of not of displacement in the sense of the Text of the but dispersion,

hexagram.

The first clause of the application follows naturally enough from the above interpretation of the Symbolism. Kb. Hsi says he does not understand the second clause. Many critics adopt the view of

it

which appears in the translation.

Paragraph 2 does not mention the precautionary measures taken Text by the subject of the line, from which the conclusion

in the

would follow quite as Khang-hst

editors,

naturally as from his central position.

The

however, say that the not having recourse

due course. Line 3 responding, and alone of all the strong

lightly to force is itself the

lines responding appear at first irresolute, and not prepared for decided measures; but 'm the end' its subject does what is required of him.

to 6,

may

The bad

contiguity of line 5 to the divided 6, is supposed to have some on its subject, so that while he does what his central

effect

'If a man/ says position requires, it is not without an effort. ' cherish a single illicit desire in his mind, he has left

JT^ing-flze,

the right way.

The admonition here conveyed

is

deep/

THE APPENDIXES.

322

describes the arrest of) the vancing course. 2.

'

He

has a wallet of

SECT.

weak

it is

:

not to allow (the subject of the

in its ad-

(line)

'

fish

first

II.

right for him line) to get to

the guests. 3.

'He

walks with

have not yet been drawn

but

his

steps the first the course of (into

difficulty:'

line). 4.

'The

evil' indicated

by there being 'no

fish

to (the subject of the line)

in the wallet' is

owing keeping himself aloof from the people. '

5.

The

subject of the

fifth line, '

his brilliant qualities concealed by his central and correct position. :

'

undivided, keeps as is indicated '

(The good issue) descends (as) from Heaven aim does not neglect the ordinances (of Heaven). :

his

'

6.

He

others on

receives

his

horns

' :

exhausted at his greatest height, and there

he

is

will

be

cause for regret. XLIV. Wind, blowing ail-under the and produces its natural effect; and

sky, penetrates everywhere,

is a good application of phenomenon that follows ; but it has nothing to do with the meaning of Kdu and the interpretation of the hexagram, as taught it

this

The Khang-hsi

in the Text.

the Symbolism after a

editors perceive this,

method of

their

and deal with

own, on which

it

is

unne-

cessary to enter. ' supplement, This describes the arrest of,' is a conclusion from the whole of the Text on the line. All the commentaries have it.

Paragraph

In the

i.

My

'

'

Daily Lecture it is said that the lesson of paragraph 2 the subject of the line should make the repression of i his is that own exclusive work, and not allow it to pass on to the subject of '

any of the other indicated in 1

1

lines.

That view

is

rather different from the

one

my

supplement. His steps have not been drawn into the course of the

first

APPENDIX

HEX. 45-

XLV. (The

trigram representing the) earth and

marsh raised above

that for the waters of a

The

3hui.

323

II.

it

form

superior man, in accordance with this,

has his weapons of war put in good repair, to be prepared against unforeseen contingencies. *

In consequence disorder is brought into the his mind and aim are thrown sphere of his union 1.

'

:

into confusion. '

2.

He

is

led forward

;

there will be good fortune, (the virtue proper to)

and freedom from error:' his central place has not

undergone any change. in the If he go forward, he will not err 3. of is the line there subject humility and topmost '

'

:

condescension. '

4.

If

he be grandly

fortunate,

he

will receive

no

blame:' (this condition is necessary, because) his position is not the one proper to him. *

5.

There

is

place of dignity

yet been '

line

:

under him in the mind and aim have not

the union (of '

(but) his

:

all)

brilliantly displayed.

we have

to supply,

'

and therefore there

will

be no great

error.*

Paragraph 4. See what of the line stands alone

is

said

on the Text. But

that the subject

own owing, a he find could exercise would he forbearance, impatience. proper opportunity to check the advance of the subject of line i. is

it

is

here implied, to his

If

The

subject of line

to repress the

5,

while mindful of his task in the hexagram, i, yet keeps his wise plans

advance symbolised by

concealed till the period of carrying them into execution, determined by the ordinances of Heaven, has arrived. Then comes the successful stroke of his policy as if it were directly from Heaven. The subject of line 6 really accomplishes nothing to repress the

advance of the unworthy ; but he keeps himself from evil communication with them. He is not to be charged with blameable erroi, though more and better might have been expected of him.

THE APPENDIXES.

324

'He

6.

in his

sighs

SECT.

II.

he does not yet rest

and weeps:'

topmost position.

XLVI. (The trigram for the earth with the

representing)

wood and

wood growing

in the

that

midst

form ShSng. The superior man, this, pays careful attention to his virtue, and accumulates the small developments of it till it is high and great. of

in accord-

it

ance with

'

1.

He

welcomed

is

in his

advance upwards, and

there will be great good fortune:' (the subjects are of the same mind with the of) upper (trigram)

him.

'The

2.

sincerity of the subject of the

second

line, undivided,' affords occasion for joy. '

3.

He

advances upwards (as into) an empty he has no doubt or hesitation.

' :

city

The

king employs him to prevent his offerings such a service (of spiritual Beings) on mount KJA '

4.

'

:

is

according to (their mind).

XLV. What

has

this

Great Symbolism to do with the idea and

The question is answered in this way : preservation of union ? marsh whose waters are high up above the earth must be kept

A

by banks and dykes, to keep them together, to preserve them from So the union of a people must be preserved by precautions against what would disturb and destroy it. Of such precautions the chief is to be prepared to resist attack from without, and to put down internal sedition. in

being dispersed.

Paragraph bute

3.

The topmost

line is the last in

Tui, whose

attri-

complacent satisfaction, appearing in flexibility or docility. ' Paragraph 5. His mind and aim have not yet been brilliantly is

'

displayed

even

still

this is in explanation of the case that some not have confidence in him. :

Paragraph

6.

The topmost

position

is

subject of the line might bid farewell to gram ; but he cannot bear to do so.

may

that of the trigram ; the the work of the hexa-

all

APPENDIX

HEX. 47,

He

'

II.

325

firmly correct, and will therefore enjoy good fortune. He ascends the stairs (with all due he grandly succeeds in his aim. ceremony) 5.

is

'

:

He

'

blindly advances upwards/ and is in the but there is decay in store for him, highest place 6.

:

and he

not (preserve) his riches.

will

XLVII. (The and (below

it

trigram representing) a marsh, that for a defile, which has drained

the other dry so that there

Khwan.

The

is)

no water

in

it,

form

superior man, in accordance with order to carry out his

this, will sacrifice his life in

purpose.

He

*

1.

he,

enters a dark valley:' clear vision.

so benighted

is

and without

He

'

2.

viands

:

(but)

be ground

will

amidst

straitened

is

his

'

his position is central, for congratulation.

wine and and there

XL VI.

See what has been said on the Great Symbolism in Appendix I. The application which is made of it here may be accepted, though it has nothing to do with the teaching of the

Text about the gradual and influence.

rise

of a

good

officer to

high social distinc-

tion

Paragraph i. Instead of finding in this the three lines of Khwan and their subjects, JMng-jze makes 'the upper* denote only line 2.

Paragraph will 1

2.

The

subject of line 2 in his loyal devotion to 5 benefit many ; hence we have the words,

do much good and

affords occasion for joy.' '

Paragraph

suming

3.

He

has no doubt or hesitation

' :

but this

is

pre-

rather on his strength.

Paragraph

4.

The Khang-hsf

editors say

ment of men of worth to do service them according to their mind/ Paragraph

6.

When

should think of retiring.

' :

Such an employ-

to spiritual Beings

is

serving

one has reached the greatest height, he Ambition otherwise may overleap itself.

THE APPENDIXES.

326

He

'

3.

lays hold of thorns

SECT.

II.

'

(this is

:

suggested

line) above the strong (line). palace, and does not see his

by the position of the '

He

enters

wife:'

his

this is inauspicious.

He

*

4.

help the subject directed to (help) that

proceeds very slowly '

of the

lower place,

(to

aim is Although he is not (line). he and that other will first line)

his

:

in his appropriate (in

the

end)

be

together.

His nose and feet are cut not yet been gained. '

5.

*

He

is leisurely,

is

satisfied:'

is

correct. '

It will

however,

his position

is

off:'

his

aim has

movements, and central and (his virtue) in his

be well for him to be (as sincere so shall he receive blessing.

as) in

'

sacrificing

He

*

6.

(his spirit

:

is

straitened as

and

if

bound with

creepers:'

action) are unsuitable.

says), "If I move, I shall repent of it." does repent (of former errors), which leads to good fortune so he (now) goes on.

'(He

And he

'

:

XL VII. The first sentence of the Great Symbolism is constructed from any which has presented itself in the previous 46 hexagrams. Literally translated, it would be 'a marsh with no water is Khwan;' and this might certainly suggest to us a con-

differently

But how does this come out of the trigrams ? The upper one is Tui, representing a marsh; and the lower is Khan, representing water in a defile. The collocation of the two

dition of distress.

suggests the running of the water from the marsh or lake into the Such is the view which stream, which will soon empty the other.

occurred to myself; and it is the same as that given by A'u Hst The water descending and leaking away, the marsh above '

:

will

become

dry.'

catenation between

The it

application is good in itself, but the conand the Symbolism is hardly discernible.

HEX.

APPENDIX

48.

II.

327

XLVIII. (The trigram

representing) wood and that for water form Sing. The superior man, in accordance with this, comforts the people, and stimulates them to mutual helpfulness.

above

it

'A

1.

well so

muddy

this is

:

indicated

men

that

'

it

will

not drink of

the low position (of the

by

line). '

it

An

old well to which the birds do not

has been forsaken

'A

2.

well

in the course

from which

come

'

:

of time.

by a hole the water 1

and flows away to the shrimps: (the none this line of second has) subject co-operating with him (above). escapes,

The

*

3.

well has been cleared out, but

is

not

'

(even) passers-by would be sorry for this. A prayer is made 'that the king were intellifor then blessing would be received. gent A well the lining of which is well laid. There 4. will be no error the well has been put in good

used

:

'

:

*

'

:

repair. *

5.

drunk

The '

waters from the cold spring are (freely) by the central and correct

this is indicated

:

position (of the line). '

6.

The

So stupid

is

'

great good fortune the subject of line

i

at the topmost place

that

by

his

own

act

he increases

his distress.

The Khang-hsJ in

'

editors say that the ground for congratulation the banqueting and sacrificing/ I rather think

paragraph 2 is the measure of help, which

it is intimated the subject will the straitness distress and the of time. removing See the extract from the Khang-hsi editors on the symbolism of the third line of the Text.

it

is

give in

The 5,

attending the symbolism of the Text of lines 4, are not lightened by what we find in this Appendix.

difficulties

and 6

THE APPENDIXES.

328 indicates in the

SECT.

II.

the grand accomplishment (of the idea

hexagram).

XLIX. (The

trigram representing the waters of) a marsh and that for fire in the midst of them form

The

Ko.

superior man, in accordance with this,

regulates his (astronomical) calculations, and clear the seasons and times. '

1.

ox

makes

He

is

he

should in his circumstances be taking

' :

bound with

(the

skin

of)

a yellow

action. 2.

'He makes '

passed

:

changes when some time has what he does will be matter of admirahis

tion. 3. 'The change (contemplated) has been three to what else should attentimes fully discussed '

:

tion (now) '

4.

be directed

The good

?

fortune consequent on changing is due to the faith reposed in '

(existing) ordinances

his aims.

'The great man produces his changes tiger does when he changes his stripes beauty becomes more brilliant. 5.

as the

'

:

XLVIII. The Great Symbolism here may a well, is

it

well

being understood that the water which

that raised

by

it

for irrigation

and other

their

enough represent is

uses.

above the wood

What

is

said,

moreover, in the application is more akin to the idea of the hexagram than in most of the other cases. It is certainly one way in

which the

ruler should nourish the people.

on paragraph i Those who have a mind to do something in the world, when they look at this line, and its sym'

It is said

:

how they ought to exert themselves/ Rather in opposition to what I have said on the Text of line 4, the Daily Lecture observes here : The cultivation of one's self,

bolism, will learn

'

'

which others/

is

represented here,

'

is

fundamental to the government of

APPENDIX

HEX. 50. 6.

'The

329

II.

man produces his changes as does when he changes his spots their

superior

'

the leopard

:

beauty becomes more elegant. 'Small men change their faces:' they show themselves prepared to follow their ruler.

(The trigram representing) wood and above Ting. The superior man, in

L. it

that for fire form

accordance with

keeps his every position correct, and maintains secure the appointment (of Heaven). '

1.

The

overturned, and its feet turned but this is not (all) contrary (to what is

caldron

'

upwards

this,

:

is

right). 1

There will be advantage in getting rid of what was bad:' thereby (the subject of the line) will follow the more noble (subject of the fourth line). 2.

'There

is 1

cooked) in careful '

My

it:

the caldron with the things (to be let (the subject of the line) be

where he goes.

enemy

dislikes

me

' :

but there

will in the

end be no fault (to which he can point). There is the caldron with (the places 3. '

for) its

XLIX. Wise men, occupying themselves with the determination of the seasons and questions of time, have in all ages based their judgments on the observation of the heavenly bodies. We find this insisted

how

on

in the first

book of the

Shfi,

by

the ancient

Yao.

But

Great Symbolism really flows from it, I must confess myself unable to discover. Once, however, when I was conversing about the Yl with a high Chinese dignitary, who this application of the

was a well-read scholar

also so far as his

own

literature

cerned, he referred to this paragraph as proving that science had been known to Fft-hsi and Confucius

all

was con-

our western

!

What notes

on

is

said

on the several

the Text.

lines is sufficiently illustrated in the

THE APPENDIXES.

33O '

ears changed

II.

what was

subject) has failed in (in his situation).

:

(its

required of him '

SECT.

The

contents designed for the ruler s use are overturned and spilt how can (the subject of the 4.

'

:

be trusted

line)

'

? '

The

the central caldron has yellow ears position (of the line) is taken as (a proof of) the solid (virtue of its subject). 5.

'

6.

The

:

rings of jade

'

are at the very top

weak meet

strong and the

in their

:

the

due proportions.

LI. (The trigram representing) thunder, being repeated, forms jfifSn. The superior man, in accordance with this, is fearful and apprehensive, cultivates (his virtue),

and examines

'When

i.

(his faults).

the (time of)

movement comes, he

be found looking out with apprehension feeling of dread leads to happiness. L.

The Great Symbolism on the Thwan. Of

will

'

:

that

has come before us in the

here

the application of that symbolism I can only say that, as has been seen in many other hexagrams, while good enough in itself, it is far-fetched. treatise

The same remark may be made on of the

first

line.

I

can myself do

the explanation of the

little

more than guess

Text at its

meaning. The Khang-hst editors observe that nothing is said ' about the case of the ' concubine in the Text ; but that it is covered by the 'following the more noble/ 'so condensed and

complete are the words of the sage

The same

' !

editors find a pregnant sense in the conclusion of

' There will be no fault in me to which my enemy paragraph 2 can point, and his disposition to find fault will be diminished/ ' What was required of the caldron in the third line was that that :

line little

and

'

line 5, instead of 6,

meaning

in

should be correlates

;

but there

is

such a statement.

The subject of line 4 cannot be trusted again. doing what was his proper work.

He

has failed in

APPENDIX

HEX. 52. '

He

331

II.

yet smiles and talks cheerfully

(of his dread) is that

'

:

the issue

he adopts (proper) laws

(for his

course). '

2.

When

the

position of peril

movement approaches, he is in a (a weak line) is mounted on '

:

a strong (one). *

3.

He

distraught amid the

is

unsuitable to '

4.

Amid

(the third line)

:

is

in

move-

a position

it.

the startling movements, he sinks sumud the light in him has not yet '

pinely in the

been

startling

'

ments going on

:

brilliantly

developed.

He

5. goes and comes amid the startling movefull of risk are his ments, and (always) in peril *

'

:

doings. *

What he

has to do has to be done in his central

'

he be from incurring any loss. 6. Amid the startling movements he is in breathless dismay he has not found out (the course of) the due mean. Though evil (threatens), he will not fall into error he is afraid of being warned by his neighposition

far will

:

'

'

:

'

'

:

bours.

LI I. (Two trigrams representing) a mountain, one The superior man, in

over the other, form KSn. LI.

The account Nor does

remark.

late to fear,

and

of the Great Symbolism here

retributions in providence are taking place

haunted by the shadow of to meet it.

this

question

;

i is

Paragraph

4.

for

no

?

Commentators are

but they are unable rightly

the same as 2 in Appendix I. Compare paragraph 4 of hexagram

Paragraph

calls

the application of it ; but may it not be too order anew one's thoughts and actions when the

21,

Appendix

II.

332

THE APPENDIXES.

accordance with

this,

beyond the

He

'

1.

what

in

II.

does not go in his thoughts

which he

(duties of the) position in

keeps his toes at rest:'

is

SECT.

is.

he does not

correct (according to the

fail

idea of the

figure).

He cannot help whom he follows) '

2.

(he to him.

'He keeps

whom

him will

he follows

'

:

not retreat to listen

the loins at rest

'

the danger (from his doing so) produces a glowing heat in the 3.

:

heart.

He

f

4.

keeps the trunk of his body at rest

' :

he

keeps himself free (from agitation). '

5.

mony 6.

He

'

in harkeeps his cheek bones at rest with his central position he acts correctly.

*

:

There

is

good fortune through

his devotedly

'

maintaining his restfulness himself generous and good.

L1L According

to

the

:

end he shows

to the

view of the Khang-hst

application should be translated ance with this, thinks anxiously

editors,

the

The how he '

superior man, in accordshall not go beyond the duties of his position/ It is difficult to decide between this shade of the meaning, and the more common one which I have :

followed.

The

toes play a great part in walking ; but they are here kept

and so do not lose the correct idea of Kan. There is no correlation between lines 2 and 3, and thence the sub-

at rest,

of 3

hold on

its upward way without condescending to 2. an unsatisfactory auspice in paragraph 4. Line 4 represents a great minister who should be able to guide all to rest where they ought to be ; but he can only keep himself from

ject

will

.AT^ang-flze finds

agitation.

Pan (Ming dynasty) says on paragraph 5 Words should not be uttered rashly. Then, when uttered, they will be found Yti

*

:

APPENDIX

HEX. 53-

333

II.

LI 1 1. (The trigram representing) a mountain and above it that for a tree form A'ien. The superior man, in accordance with this, attains to and maintains his extraordinary virtue, and makes the manners of the people good. '

1.

The danger

in the first line)

matter of what '

2.

They

'

of a small officer (as represented is owing to no fault of his in the

is right.

eat and drink joyfully and at ease

but not without having earned their food. husband goes and does not return 3. '

A

'

might be advantageous

It

in

resisting indicated men as here by acting preserve one another. '

:

'

They may

4. is

her

she has failed in her (proper) course.

child:'

derers

he

:

separates himself from his comrades. 'A wife is pregnant, but will not nourish '

' :

docility (in

light

on the

flat

branches

plun-

would

'

:

there

the line) going on to flexible pene-

tration.

'In the end the natural issue cannot be prevented. There will be good fortune (the subject 5.

'

:

of the line) will get what he desires. Their feathers can be used as ornaments. 6. *

There

will

be

'

good fortune

character of the subject of

object

(the

:

the

line)

and

cannot be

disturbed.

accordant with principle.

belonging to the due

But

it

only the master of the virtue

is

mean who can

attain to this.'

LIII. The Khang-hsi editors, to bring out the suitability of ' tree springing the Great Symbolism and its application, say : tree on a hill up on the ground is a tree as it begins to grow.

A A

is

high and large.

Every

tree

when

it

begins to grow, shows

its

THE APPENDIXES.

334

SECT.

II.

LIV. (The trigram representing the waters of) a marsh and over it that for thunder form Kwei Mei.

The

superior man, in accordance with this, having regard to the far-distant end, knows the mischief

(that '

1.

may be done The younger

at the beginning).

married off in a position

sister is

'

ancillary to that of the real wife

practice (for such a case). Lame on one leg, she

it is

:

the constant '

*

is

able to tramp along

:

she can render helpful service. *

2.

There

will

be advantage

in

firm correctness of a solitary widow:*

maintaining the (the subject of

Every morning and and when the tree is high and

branches and twigs gradually becoming long. every evening show some

difference

;

be of an ordinary or extraordinary size, it has taken years to reach its dimensions. This illustrates the difference between the advance in Shang (46) and that in JCien. Then the

great,

whether

it

maintenance of extraordinary virtue in the application and the improvement of manners is a gradual process. The improvement of the manners, moreover, flows from the maintenance of the extraordinary virtue ; which implies also a gradual operation and progress.'

Paragraph i. The danger is the result of circumstances; the small officer has not brought it on himself. Paragraph 2. Only the geese appear in this paragraph ; but the writer is thinking of the advancing officer. I cannot but think

and sentiment also there is an echo of the ode 6. ' separation from his comrades has respect to line 3 not

that in the language

Shih King,

The finding

'

its

I, ix,

correlate in 6.

'

The

wife's failing in

her proper course

'

has respect to the line being undivided and not in the centre.

-Oing-jze will find rest

says,

on paragraph

and peace

humility and right-doing and circumstances.

4, that

in all places

Paragraph 5. The natural issue cannot be prevented will have a child ; minister and ruler will meet happily. '

'

:

Paragraph

6.

See on the Text.

aptness of the symbolism.

But

it

is

difficult to

the wife

see the

APPENDIX

HEX. 55-

335

II.

the line) has not changed from the constancy (proper to a wife).

The younger sister who was to be married off this is shown by the improa mean position '

3.

'

is

in

:

prieties (indicated in the line). '

*

protracting the time is that, after waiting, the thing may be done (all the better). 4.

(The purpose '

in)

The

sleeves of the younger sister of (king) Tl-yl, when she was married away, were not equal to those of her (half-)sister, who accompanied her: 5.

1

such was her noble character, indicated by the central position of the line. said in) the sixth line, divided, about there being nothing in the basket' shows that the subject of it is carrying an empty basket. 6.

'(What

is

LV. (The trigrams lightning combine

man,

in

gation, .

Though they

and

The

superior decides cases of liti-

are both of the

be no error

LIV. Thunder the

this,

thunder

and apportions punishments with exactness.

there will

in

form Fang.

accordance with

'

i

to

representing)

rolling

'

above

waters of the marsh

if

:

is

same

character,

the subject of this

supposed to produce movement The combination of this

below.

symbolism in Kwei Mei is recognised as an evil omen in the The application of it is not incase which the name denotes. appropriate.

Paragraph i. 'It is the constant practice (for such a case)' seems to mean that an ancillary wife has no right to the disposition Thus it is that the mean of herself, but must do what she is told. position of the she can render.

The

younger

sister

addition to the Text of

does not interfere with the service c

'

the purpose in paragraph 4 is to show that the putting marriage off is on the part of the lady and not on the other side.

THE APPENDIXES.

336

SECT.

seek to overpass that similarity, there

line

II.

be

will

calamity. '

Let him cherish

2.

tion, that

it

shall

sincerity that the

his feeling of sincere

appear being put forth

mind

3. 'There is an and thick banner

is

it

:'

is

by

affected.

a large

(additional) screen of '

devo-

great things should not be

:

attempted (in such circumstances). He breaks his right arm in the end he not be fit to be employed. '

'

:

He

'

4.

is surrounded by a screen large and the position of the line is inappropriate. midday he sees the constellation of the

'

thick

will

:

'At

'

there is darkness and no light. meets with the subject of the line, undivided like himself. There will be good fortune action be taken. may

Bushel 1

:

He

'

:

5.

'The good fortune is

divided/ 6.

*

He

the congratulation (that

has

made

his

He

about

'

it

:

he

(only)

by the

which

fifth line,

sure to arise).

is

house large

his pride) to the heavens. looks at his door, '

indicated

'

:

is still,

he soars

(in

with no one

keeps himself withdrawn from

all others.

LV. Lightning appears here as the natural phenomenon of is the symbol. The virtues attiibuted to the two trigrams

which Lt

are certainly required in the application of them which is subjoined ; but that application has little or nothing to do with the explanation

of the hexagram supplied by the Text. I hardly

lation of

it

understand the conclusion of paragraph i. My transis according to the view of Kb Hsi, if I rightly under-

stand that. It is by such sincerity 2. mind of the ruler occupying

Paragraph that

is,

the

that the line 5.

mind

is

affected,

APPENDIX

HEX. 56.

337

II.

LVI. (The trigram representing) a mountain and above it that for fire form Ltt. The superior man, in accordance with this, exerts his wisdom and caution in the use of punishments and not allowing litigations to continue.

'The

1.

is

stranger

mean and meanly

occu-

'

his aim is become of the lowest character, pied and calamity will ensue. He is provided with good and trusty ser2. vants he will in the end have nothing of which :

'

'

:

to complain. '

The

and stranger burns his lodging-house he himself also suffers hurt thereby. When, as a stranger, he treats those below him (as the line '

3.

:

indicates), the right relation

between him and them

is lost.

'The

4.

stranger

is

in

a resting-place:'

but he

has not got his proper position. He has the means of livelihood, and the axe but his mind is not at ease.

'

'

'In the end he

5.

'

charge

will

obtain praise and a (high)

he has reached a high

:

:

place.

'

Considering that the stranger is here at the very height (of distinction),' with the spirit that possesses him, it is right he (should be emblemed by a bird) burning (its nest). 6.

Line 3 has a correlate in 6, which is weak, and as it were out of the game. The light in 3 moreover is hidden. Hence the symbolism ; and through the blindness of its subject his hurt, which

him

be employed. undivided like 4 is i ; perhaps we might translate He meets with the subject of the parallel line.' No one but himself has any confidence in the subject of line 6. He

unfits

The

(

to

line

holds himself aloof from others, and they leave him to himself.

THE APPENDIXES.

338 '

SECT.

II.

He

loses his ox(-like docility) too readily and to the end he would not listen to (the easily truth about the course to be pursued). '

:

LVII. (Two trigrams representing) wind, followThe superior man, in ing each other, form Sun. accordance with this, reiterates his orders, and secures the practice of his i.

'(Now) he advances, (now) he recedes:'

mind *

affairs.

is

perplexed.

would be advantageous

It

LVI.

Different

attempts

are

for

made

to

travelling stranger out of the trigrams

of them

his

is

satisfactory.

Let

Khung

him

to

bring

the

Kan

have the idea

of

a

and Li; but none

Ying-ta's view seive

as a

A fire on a mountain lays hold of the grass, specimen of them and runs with it over the whole space, not stopping anywhere long, such is the emblem of the traveller/ The and soon disappearing '

:

;

may be

derived well enough from the attributes of the application trigrams ; but does not fit in with the lessons of the Thwan and

Hsiang.

The meanness of the subject of line i does not arise from the nature of his occupation ; but from his mind and aim being emptied of all that is good and ennobling. Strong and trusty servants are the most impoitant condition

and pi ogress of resumed and expanded.

the comfort

the traveller;

and therefore

The

subject of line 3 treats those below him with violence arrogance, which of course alienates them from him. '

for

alone

it

is

and

'

He

has not got into his proper position seems to say no more than that 4 is a strong line in an even place. '

* say what he has reached a high place means. The fifth line is not in this hexagram the ruler's seat ; but by his qualities and gifts the subject of it attracts the attention and regard

It is difficult to

of his friends and of his

luler.

The

spirit that possesses the subject of line 6 is one of haughty arrogance, with which the humility that ought to characterise him

cannot co-exist. against

all

His careless

lessons of wisdom.

self-sufficiency

has shut his mind

HEX.

APPENDIX

57.

firmness of a brave soldier

339

II.

'

his

:

mind would

in

that case be well governed.

The good

fortune springing from what borders on confusion is due to the position (of the line) in the centre. '

2.

'

'The

regret arising from the violent and repeated efforts to penetrate shows the exhaustion of the will. 3.

'

He

'

4.

takes

game '

threefold use of '

The good

*

The

it

in his hunting,

enough

for the

he achieves merit.

:

fortune of (the subject of) the fifth line, undivided/ is owing to its correct position and its being in the centre. 5.

6.

'

a couch

:

representative of penetration is beneath though occupying the topmost place, his

powers are exhausted. He has lost the axe with which he executed his decisions though he try to be correct, there will be evil. *

'

:

LVII.

I

have said on the

Th wan that

some commentators make

the upper trigram symbolical of the ordinances of the ruler and the lower symbolical of the obedience of the people. E. g., jOing-jze '

says

:

harmony with the duty of inferiors, issue their harmony with the wishes of their supeAbove and below there are that harmony and is the significance of the redoubled Sun. When

Superiors, in

commands

;

riors, follow

deference

;

inferiors, in

them.

and

this

governmental commands and

business are in accordance with what

they agree with the tendencies of the minds of the people follow them.'

is right,

who

Paragraph 2 seems to say that the sincerity of purpose indicated by the central position of the second line conducts its subject to the right course, despite the

many

considerations that might dis-

tract him. 4

The '

efforts

will is

exhausted' in paragiaph 3 intimates that 'the repeated its subject have exhausted him. He can now only

made by

regret his failures.

THE APPENDIXES.

34O

SECT.

II.

LVIII. (Two symbols representing) the waters of a marsh, one over the other, form Tui. The superior man, in accordance with this, (encourages) the conversation of friends and (the stimulus of) their

(common)

practice.

'The good

fortune attached to the pleasure of (inward) harmony' arises from there being nothing in the conduct (of the subject of the line) to awaken 1.

doubt.

'The good

fortune attached to the pleasure arising from (inward sincerity)' is due to the confidence felt in the object (of the subject of the line). 2.

'

3.

The

evil predicated of one's bringing

around

himself whatever can give pleasure' is shown by the inappropriateness of the place (of the line). 4.

'The joy

the fourth

line,

connexion with (the subject of)

in

undivided,'

is

due to the happiness

(which he will produce). 5.

'He *

6.

one who would injure him:' which is correct and appropriate.

trusts in

his place is that

The topmost

shows the pleasure and attracting others

line, divided,

'

its

subject) in leading

(of his (virtue) is not yet brilliant.

What

is

Text from to

said in paragraph 6 proceeds that

which

I

:

on a

different

view of the

have followed.

LVIII. The application of the Great Symbolism here will many readers the Hebrew maxims in Proverbs xxvii. 17,19.

sentiment of

however, does not readily the hexagram as set forth in the Text. it,

fit

recall

The

in to the teaching of

There is nothing in the conduct of the subject of line i to awaken He has as yet taken no action ; but it was not necessuspicion. sary to say anything like this about the subject of line 2, his central position being an assurance that he doubtful character.

would never do anything of a

APPENDIX

HEX. 59.

II.

341

LIX. (The

trigram representing) water and that for wind moving above the water form Hwfin.

The

ancient kings, in accordance with this, presented offerings to God and established the ancestral temple.

'The good

1.

divided/

fortune attached to the

first line,

due to the natural course (pursued by

is

its

subject). 2. 'Amidst the prevailing dispersion, he hurries to his contrivance (for security) he gets what he '

:

desires.

'He

3.

aim

i

'

4.

state),

He

*

what

scatters

and there

and great 5.

has no regard to his own person:'

s directed to

is

the (different) parties (in the brilliant great good fortune '

is

:

(are his virtue

The

his

external to himself.

and

service).

accumulations of the royal (granaries) are

dispersed, and there

is

no error:

1

this is

due to

the correctness of the position.

'His bloody wounds are gone:' removed from the danger of injury. 6.

he

is

far

Line 3 should be strong, and the desire of pleasure which is the idea of the hexagram leads its weak subject to the course which is so emphatically condemned.

Paragraph 5 is incomplete. Does the correctness and appropriateness of the position of the subject of the line afford any explanation of his trusting the subject of the weak line above, who would only injure him

?

It

ought to keep him on the contrary from doing

The commentators have seen this, and say that the paragraph is intended by way of caution. The action of the hexagram should culminate and end in line 5. But the subject of it has not made brilliant attainment in the so.

firmness and correctness by which the love of pleasure should be controlled.

LIX. The remedy the

'

in

accordance with

state of things thus

'

this

must be equivalent to

symbolised/

What follows

c

to

certainly

THE APPENDIXES.

342

SECT.

II.

LX. (The

trigram representing) a lake, and above The superior man, that for water, form ^Tieh.

it

accordance with

this, constructs his (methods of) and measurement, and discusses (points numbering of) virtue and conduct.

in

1.

'He

does not quit the courtyard outside his he knows when he has free course and

door:'

when he '

2.

He

does not quit the courtyard inside his will be evil he loses the time (for '

There

gate.

action) to 3.

obstructed.

is

:

an extreme degree.

In 'the lamentation for

(proper) regulations/

observing the there be to blame ?

not

who should

The progress and success of the quiet and natural (attention) to all regulations is due to the deference which accepts the ways of (the ruler) '

4.

'

above. '

5.

The good

fortune arising from the regulations

enacted sweetly and acceptably

amounts

'

is

due to (the

line)

to this, that the ancient kings considered the services of

and earnestly attended to, as calculated to counteract the tendency to mutual alienation and selfishness in the minds

religion, sinceiely

of men.

How

not

Nor

told.

in the

they operated to have this beneficial effect we are easy to account for the extension of what is said

is it

Text about the establishment of the ancestral temple

to the

presentation also of offerings to God. Probably the writer had the same idea in his mind as in the Great Symbolism of hexagram 1 6,

q. v.

1

The

natural course

'

pursued by the subject of

bably, that required by the time. What the subject of line 2 desired'

would be

line i

is,

pro-

his success in

counteracting the prevailing tendency to disunion. The view given of paragraph 5 is that propounded by JSTft Hst. For paragraph 6 see the note on line 6 under the Text.

APPENDIX

HEX. 6l.

343

II.

occupying the place (of authority) and being in the centre.

'The

regulations are severe and difficult. with firm correctness there will be evil the

6.

'

Even

:

course (indicated by the hexagram)

come

is

to

an

end.

LXI. (The trigram representing the waters of) a marsh and that for wind above it form A\ing Fft.

The superior man, in accordance with this, deliberates about cases of litigation and delays (the infliction of) death. 'The

1.

first

line,

undivided, shows

its

subject

resting (in himself). There will be good fortune:' no change has yet come over his purpose. from the 2. 'Her young ones respond to her:'

(common) wish of the inmost

Now

'

3.

he beats his drum, and now he leaves

the position (of the

off:'

one for

line)

is

the appropriate

it.

LX. Various explanations of E.

attempted.

marsh

heart.

*

g.,

.Oang-gze says

will contain is limited to

flowing in exceed that,

JTieh/ What

the Great

is

it

:

Symbolism have been

The water which a

a certain quantity.

overflows.

lake or

If the

water

This gives us the idea of

found on the application of it

is

to

my mind

equally

unsatisfactory.

The subject of line i knows when he might have free course and when he is obstructed, and acts accordingly. He is regulated by a consideration of the time.

The

subject of line i ought not to act, and he ought to act, and he also is still.

ject of line 2 effect

of

The

it

is still.

The

The

sub-

error and the

are great.

subject of line 3 shows

by

his lamentation

how he blames

himself.

The said

other three paragraphs are sufficiently explained in what

on the Text.

is

THE APPENDIXES.

344

SECT. H.

4. 'A horse the fellow of which disappears:' he breaks from his (former) companions, and mounts

upwards. '

5.

him

He

is

perfectly sincere,

union

and

links others to

'

the place (of the line) correct and appropriate one. in closest

*

6.

how

Chanticleer

can (such an

is

:

mount

(tries to)

effort)

heaven

continue long

LXII. (The trigram that for thunder above

to

but

?

representing) it

'

:

the

form Hsido

a

hill

Kwo.

and

The

superior man, in accordance with this, in his conduct

exceeds in humility, in mourning exceeds in sorrow, and in his expenditure exceeds in economy.

'There

1.

is '

result is evil

:

a bird flying (and ascending) till the nothing can be done to avoid this

issue.

'He

2.

does not attempt to reach his ruler:'

LXI.

Dissatisfied with previous attempts to explain the Great Symbolism, the Khang-hs? editors say: 'The wind penetrates

The

things.

tossed by

it ;

grass and trees of the level ground are shaken and the rocky valleys and caverns in their sides have it

blowing round about them

;

and

it

acts also

on the depths of

the

collected waters, the cold of which disappears and the ice is melted before it. This is what makes it the emblem of that perfect sincerity

which penetrates everywhere. The litigations of the people are like the deep and dark places of the earth. The kings examine with discrimination into all secret matters connected with them, even those which are here mentioned, till there is nothing that is not penetrated by their perfect sincerity/ But all this is greatly strained. The symbolism of the eight trigrams gets pretty well played out in the course of the 64 hexagrams.

is,

'

No

change has come over the purpose perfect in itself and of itself, continues.

1.

2.

One bond

young

;

' :

the sincerity, that

of loving regard unites the mother bird and her so answers the heart of man to man.

HEX.

APPENDIX

63.

345

II.

a minister should not overpass the distance (between

and

his ruler

himself).

'Some

consequence find opportunity to how There will be evil assail and injure him. will it be! great He meets the exigency (of his situation), with4. out exceeding (the proper course):' (he does so), the 3.

in

'

:

'

position being inappropriate (for a strong line). If he go forward, there will be peril, and he '

must

'

be cautious the result would be that his course would not be long pursued. 5. 'There are dense clouds, but no rain:' (the :

high a place. does not meet the

line) is in too '

He

exigency (of his situation), (his proper course) (the the habit of position indicates) domineering. 6.

'

and exceeds

:

LXIII. (The trigram representing) fire and that above it form Ki 3i. The superior

for water

LXII. The Khang-hsl

endeavour to show the appro-

editors

' When thunder priateness of the Great Symbolism in this way : from issues the earth, the sound of it comes with a rush and is loud ;

but

when

is small.'

it

reaches the top of a

There

is

hill

it

has begun to die away and

nothing in the Chinese about the hills being

will only smile at the attempted explanation. The of the application symbolism, or rather of the idea of the hexagram, is good, and in entire accordance with what I have stated that idea

high

and readers

;

to be.

Nothing can be done to avoid the issue mentioned for the subject of the line brings it Paragraph 2 deals only with the

what

is

stated under line 2.

on

in

paragraph

i,

himself.

symbolism

The writer

in the conclusion of

takes the view which I have

given on the Text.

For paragraphs 3 and 4 see

the notes

In line 5 the y in line is too high. auspice would be different.

on the Text. If the line were

yang, the

THE APPENDIXES.

346

accordance with

in

man,

this,

SECT.

thinks of evil (that

may come), and beforehand guards against *

1.

He

drags back his wheel:'

judge, there will be no mistake. 2. In seven days he will find

as

the

is

that indicated

by the

it.

we may

'

pursued

II.

rightly

for the course

it:'

central position (of

line). *

3.

He was

'

three years in subduing

it

enough

:

make him weary.

to

'

4.

He

'

on

is

his

guard

all

the day

he

:

is

in

doubt about something. *

5.

in

The

the east

slaughtering of an ox by the neighbour not equal to (the small sacrifice of) the

is

neighbour in the west

'

because the time

:

more important and fit). His sincerity receives the blessing:' tune comes on a great scale.

(in

the

latter case is *

'His head

6.

ous

'

how

:

is

man,

in

among

fire

;

the position

is

could such a stale continue long

LXIV. (The that for

immersed

good

trigram

above

it

representing)

form

accordance with

Wei

peril-

?

water

and

The

3i.

this, carefully

(the qualities of) things,

for-

superior discriminates

and the

(different)

positions they (naturally) occupy. i.

'His

tail

gets immersed:'

this

is

the very

height of ignorance. LXIII. Water and

fire

coming together as

here, fire

under the

water, each element occupies its proper place, and their interaction will be beneficial. Such is the common explanation of the Great

Symbolism ; but the connexion between it and the application of which also is good in itself, is by no means clear.

it,

The

notes

on

the different lines piesent nothing that has not been on the Text.

dealt with in the notes

HEX.

APPENDIX

64-

347

II.

The second line, undivided, shows good forit is tune arising from being firm and correct in the central place, and the action of its subject 2.

'

'

:

thereby becomes correct. 3. (The state of things '

Advancing is

will lead to evil:'

not that appropriate for '

4.

By

not yet remedied. the place (of the line)

is)

it.

firm correctness there

is

cause for repentance disappears subject of the line) is carried into

good '

fortune,

and

the aim (of the

:

effect.

(We see) the brightness of a superior man :' diffusion of that brightness tends to good '

5.

the

fortune.

'He

drinks and gets his head immersed:* he does not know how to submit to the (proper) 6.

regulations.

LXIV. In this last hexagram we have water below and fire above, so that the two cannot act on each other, and the Symbolism may icpresent the unregulated condition of general affairs, the different classes of society not harmonising nor acting together. cation follows naturally.

The

appli-

Kb

Hsi and others suspect an error in the text of paragraph z ; meaning comes from it as it stands. The Khang-hs! editors observe on paragraph 2 that an undivided

yet a tolerable line in the

second place, and a divided

both incorrect, and yet

it

is

rectness in their subjects there will be virtue of the central position.

the

line in

often said of

them

fifth place, are that with firm cor-

good fortune

This pimciple

is

;

such

at last clearly

is

the

enun-

ciated in this paragraph.

The subject of line 4 has the ability which the -OJing-jze says time requires, and possesses also a firm solidity. He can carry out '

:

There will be good fortune, therefore his purpose. The smiting of the for repentance will disappear.

and

all

demon

cause region

was the highest example of firm correctness/ Both the symbols in paragraph 6 indicate a want of caution, and an unwillingness to submit one's impulses to the regulation of reason and prudence.

APPENDIX THE GREAT Chapter earth

is

(with their (in

Heaven

SECTION

I.

and honourable; A^^ien and KhwSn, (Their symbols), respective meanings), were determined

I.

low.

APPENDIX.

III.

i.

accordance with

is

lofty

this).

Things low and high appear displayed in a similar relation. The (upper and lower trigrams, and the relative position of individual lines, as) noble mean, had their places assigned accordingly.

1

and

Movement and

rest are the regular qualities (of their respective subjects). Hence comes the definite distinction (of the several lines) as the strong and

the weak. (Affairs) are

arranged together according to their tendencies, and things are divided according to their classes. Hence were produced (the interpretations in the Yl, concerning) evil [or unlucky].

what

is

good

[or lucky]

and

In the heavens there are the (different) figures there completed, and on the earth there are the (different) bodies there

formed.

(Corresponding to

them) were the changes and transformations exhibited (in the Yl). 2. After this fashion a strong and a weak line were manipulated together (till there were the eight trigrams), and those eight trigrams were added, each to itself and to all the others, (till the sixty-four

hexagrams were formed).

CHAP.

APPENDIX

i.

349

III.

We

have the exciting forces of thunder and lightning the fertilising influences of wind and rain and the revolutions of the sun and moon, which give rise to cold and warmth. 3.

;

;

by A^ien the male; those expressed by Khwin 4.

The

attributes expressed

constitute

constitute

the female.

A^ien

(symbolises Heaven, which) directs the great beginnings of things; KhwSn (symbolises Earth, which) gives to them their completion. 5.

by the ease with which it proceeds that .A^ien directs (as it does), and by its unhesitating 6.

It is

response that 7.

(He who

Khwan

exhibits such ability.

attains to this) ease (of

Heaven)

will

be easily understood, and (he who attains to this) freedom from laborious effort (of the Earth) will be He who is easily understood will easily followed.

have adherents, and he who achieve success.

He who

is

easily followed will

has adherents can con-

and he who achieves success can become To be able to continue long shows the great. virtue of the wise and able man to be able to become great is the heritage he will acquire. tinue long,

;

8. With the attainment of such ease and such freedom from laborious effort, the mastery is got of all principles under the sky. With the attainment

of that mastery, (the sage) makes good his position in the middle (between heaven and earth).

Chapter I is an attempt to show the correspondency between the phenomena of external nature ever changing, and the figures of the

Yi King

ever varying.

The

first

four paragraphs,

it is

said,

show,

from the phenomena of production and transformation in external

THE APPENDIXES.

35

SECT.

I.

The

sages set forth the diagrams, in them, and inspected in this way the good appended their explanations II. 9.

Chapter

emblems contained

the

;

fortune and

bad (indicated by them) were made

clear.

10.

other,

The strong and the weak (lines) displace each and produce the changes and transformations

the figures).

(in

Therefore the good fortune and

11.

evil

(men-

tioned in the explanations) are the indications of the

and wrong (in men's conduct of affairs), and the repentance and regret (similarly mentioned) are the indications of their sorrow and anxiety. right

on which the figures of the Yf were made. sixth paragraphs show, particularly, how the attri-

nature, the principles

The

fifth

and

butes represented by the figures

found

in (the operations of)

Kh\tn and Khwan are to be earth. The last two para-

heaven and

graphs show both those attributes embodied or realised

in

man.

The

realisation takes place, indeed, fully only in the sage or the ideal man, who thus becomes the pattern for all men.

In

3 we have five of the six derivative tiithe six 'children/ according to the nomenclature of the

paragraph

grams;

WSn

arrangement.

ning'

for If

khan

(~

*

Thunder' stands \ 'wind* for sun

(

for (

k&u (^E-^E) 'light). and 'lain' for also an emblem of li,

V 'The sun,' however, is and 'the moon* one of kan ( ). generally said to represent

'mountains,' while tui (~" *"*"). representing 'collections of water/ has no place in the enumeration. Kb Hsf says that in paragraph 3 we have the natural changes seen in the phenomena

of the sky, while in 4 figure

on the

we have such changes

as find body

and

earth.

Paragraphs g and 6 have both been misunderstood from neglect of the peculiar meaning of the character ih ( and from 4^1 ), ' Both comtaking it in its common acceptation of knowing/ mentaries and dictionaries point out that it is here used in the

sense of

resumes

'

'

directing/ its

presiding over/

ordinary significancy.

In paragraph

7,

however,

it

CHAP.

1

2.

APPENDIX

2.

The changes and

III.

351

transformations (of the lines)

emblems of the advance and retrogression Thus what we call (of the vital force in nature). the strong and the weak (lines) become the emblems The movements which take of day and night. in the six places (of the hexagram) show the place are the

course of the three extremes

Powers

(i.e.

of the three

in their perfect operation).

13. Therefore what the superior man rests in, in whatever position he is placed, is the order shown in the Yt; and the study which gives him the

greatest pleasure several lines.

is

that of the explanations of the

superior man, when living the emblems and studies the quietly, contemplates when initiating any moveexplanations of them 14.

Therefore the

;

ment, he contemplates the changes (that are made in divining), and studies the prognostications from them. Thus is help extended to him from Heaven there will be good fortune, and advantage in every *

;

movement/ Chapter II, paragraphs 9-14, is divided into two parts. The former contains paragraphs 9-12, and tells us how the sa^es, king W3n and the duke of Aau, proceeded in making the Yi, so that the good fortune and bad of men's courses should be indicated by in harmony with right and wrong, and the processes of nature. Paragraphs 13, 14 form the second part, and speak of the study of the Yi by the superior man, desirous of doing what is right and increasing his knowledge, and the advantages flowing from it.

it

fiist two statements of parathe writer are concerned, though ideas of the far as so graph 12, the changes of the lines of between asserting any coirespondence

I

can follow to some extent the

the diagrams, and the operations of external nature, as in the sucI cession of day and night, is merely an amusement of the fancy. all

but

fail,

however, to grasp the idea in the

trigram, the

first line

represents earth

;

last

statement.

the second,

man

;

In the

and the

THE APPENDIXES.

352

Chapter

III. 15.

SECT.

The Thwan speak

I.

of the em-

blematic figures (of the complete diagrams). The Yfio speak of the changes (taking place in the several lines).

The

expressions about good fortune or bad are used with reference to (the figures and lines, as) 1

6.

being right or wrong (according to the conditions of time and place) those about repentance or regret ;

refer to small faults (in the satisfying those conwhen it is said there will be no error/ or ditions) *

;

1

no

blame/ there is reference to (the subject) repairing an error by what is good. 17. Therefore the distinction of (the upper and lower trigrams and of the individual lines) as noble or

mean

decided by the (relative) position (of the the regulations of small and great are found lines) in the diagrams, and the discriminations of good is

;

and

bad fortune

appear

in

the

(subjoined)

ex-

planations.

Anxiety against (having occasion for) repentance or regret should be felt at the boundary The stirring up the line (between good and evil). thought of (securing that there shall be) no blame arises from (the feeling of) repentance. 1

8.

third,

heaven;

in the

hexagram, the

first

and second

lines are

assigned to earth ; the third and fourth, to man ; and the fifth and These are the three Powers, and each Power sixth, to heaven. has ' a Grand Extreme/ where its nature and operation are seen in their highest ideal. This is to some extent conceivable; but when I try to follow our author, and find an analogy between the

course of these extremes and the movements in the places of the For the condiagrams, I have no clue by which to trace my way. cluding sentence of paragraph 14 see the duke of line of hexagram 14.

ASu on

the last

CHAP.

APPENDIX

4-

III.

353

19. Thus of the diagrams some are small, and some are great and of the explanations some are Every one of startling, and some are unexciting. ;

those explanations has reference to the tendencies (indicated by the symbols).

The Yl was made on

a principle of accordance with heaven and earth, and shows us therefore, without rent or confusion, the course (of

Chapter IV. 20.

things) in

heaven and

earth.

accordance with (the Yl), looking up, contemplates the brilliant phenomena of the heavens, and, looking down, examines the defi21.

(The

in

sage),

arrangements of the earth causes of darkness (or, what

nite

thus he knows the

;

is obscure) and light traces things to their be(or, bright). thus he ginning, and follows them to their end life. knows what can be said about death and (He

what

He

is

;

Chapter III, paragraphs 15-19, gives additional information about the constituent parts of the Yi, that is, the Text of the classic as

we have

say that

it

it

Wan

and

his son.

The

imperial editors

meaning of the fourth paragraph, the third does do so, but this account hardly covers all

expands the

of chapter 2. us contents.

To

from king It

understand the names

'

small and great/ as used of the diagrams in paragraphs 17 and 19, it should be noted that hexagrams to which the divided or yin line gives their character are termed 'small/ and those where the undivided or yang line rules are called

(12,

'

great.'

_.

)

Alu

(44,

===)> Thun (33, ==), and Phei

are instances of the former class; Ffi (24,

Lin (19,= SE), and Thii (" observed by 3hai

It is

terms

'

'

diagrams

'

-Oing

==

=

f)

J

(early in the

EE

EE),

of the other.

Ming

dynasty) that the

'

and explanations must be understood not only

of the \\hole figures but also as embracing the several

lines.

THE APPENDIXES.

354

SECT.

I.

how the union of) essence and breath form and the (disappearance or) wandering away things, of the soul produces the change (of their constituthus he knows the characteristics of the tion) anima and animus. 22. There is a similarity between him and heaven and earth, and hence there is no contrariety in him His knowledge embraces all things, and to them. his course is (intended to be) helpful to all under and hence he falls into no error. He acts the sky perceives

;

;

according to the exigency of circumstances without being carried away by their current he rejoices in ;

Heaven and knows position,

ordinations

He

has no anxieties.

and

its

cherishes

;

rests in his

(the

spirit

and hence he can

benevolence;

and hence he

own

(present)

of)

generous

love (without

reserve).

(Through the Yi), he comprehends as in a mould or enclosure the transformations of heaven and earth without any error by an ever-varying adaptation he completes (the nature of) all things without exception he penetrates to a knowledge of the course of day and night (and all other connected 23.

;

;

thus that his operation is spiritlike, unconditioned by place, while the changes which he produces are not restricted to any form.

phenomena)

;

it is

Chapter IV, paragraphs 20-23, i s intended still more to exalt the Yt, and seems to say that the sage by means of it can make an exhaustive study of all principles and of human nature, till he attains to the

knowledge of the ordinances of Heaven. Such is the account of the chapter given by Kb Hsi but the second character in paragraph 21 must be understood in the signification which it has in all the ;

sixty-four sentences

which explain the emblematic structure of the and not ' by means of.' The

hexagrams, as=' in accordance with

'

CHAP.

APPENDIX

5.

III.

355

Chapter V. 24. The successive movement of the and active operations constitutes what is

inactive

called the course (of things).

append to their statement of j^ft's account, that it must be borne in mind that the sages had not to wait till the Yf was made to conduct their exhaustive study. They had done that befoie, and the Yf may be considered as a talk on the results, drawn out in its own peculiar style. It holds the mirror up to

imperial editors

but its authoi s knew nature before they made it. ; 1 In paragiaph 21, 'the brilliant phenomena of the heavens are the various shining bodies of the sky, with their rising and setting ; 'the definite anangements of the earth' are the diffeient situations

nature

its parts according to the points of the compass, and its surface as diversified by mountain and valley ; and by the study of these

of

the causes of day and night are known as being the expansion and The same thing produces contraction of the elementary ether. the facts of birth or

life

and death

3ing, which I have translated 'essence/ denotes the more subtle and pure part of matter, and belongs to the grosser form of the elementary ether; M, or 'spirit,' is the breath, still material, but purer than the jing, and belongs to the finer, and more active form of the ether. Here kht is 'the breath of life.' In the hwun

or 'soul (animus)/ the kh\ predominates, and the jing in the pho or animal soul. At death the hw un wanders away, ascending,

and the pho descends and is changed into a ghostly shade. So did the ancient Chinese grope their way from material things to the concept and representation of what was immaterial. For

my

'characteristics of the

anima and animus/

Dr.

hurst lendered 'the circumstances and conditions of the

Shins' (Theology of '

the

Kwei Shins

Med-

Kwei

the Chinese, pp. 10-12); but he observes that

in the passage are evidently the

expanding and

contracting principles of human life.' The k wei shins are brought about by the dissolution of the human frame, and consist of the

expanding and ascending shin, which rambles about in space, and of the contracted and shrivelled kwei, which reverts to earth and It is difficult to express one's self clearly on a subject treated so briefly and enigmatically in the text. must understand that the subject of the predicates in this ' and the next two paragraphs is the sage/ who has endeavoured to

nonentity.

We

give a transcript of his views

and doings

in the

Yf.

The

character,

THE APPENDIXES.

356 25.

SECT.

That which ensues as the is

movement)

goodness

;

I.

(of their

result

that which shows

in its

it

completeness is the natures (of men and things). 26. The benevolent see it and call it benevolence.

The

wise see

and

it

call

The common

wisdom.

it

people, acting daily according to it, yet have no knowledge of it. Thus it is that the course (of things), as seen by the superior man, is seen by few.

manifested in the benevolence (of its it conceals and stores operations), up its resources. It gives their stimulus to all 27.

It

is

and (then again)

things, without sess the sage.

having the same anxieties that posComplete is its abundant virtue and

the greatness of 28. 6

Its

its

the greatness of

which

it

29.

its

produces

dance of

stores

!

rich possessions

stores

what

is

what

is J ;

is

intended by the daily renovation is

meant by

'

the abun-

virtue/

its

Production and reproduction

(the process of)

is

what

is

called

change

The

formation of the semblances (shadowy forms of things) is what we attribute to A^ien; the 30.

giving to them their specific forms bute to Khwiin. 31.

The

ters

the

;

in

and

Holy

'

'

spirit-like It is

The Chinese/ says P. Regis (vol. ii. p. 445), the soul, true angels, and the genii of idolanaming the Christian Chinese use it when they speak of God, of

factorily ascertained. it

attri-

in paragraph 23, is different shan, a character of the phonetic primary material signification has not been satis-

class, while its

use

what we

exhaustive use of the numbers (that turn

which I have translated by from kht in paragraph 21.

1

is

Spirit,

could they do ?

'

'

of angels, and of the soul of man.

For what

else

CHAP.

APPENDIX

5.

III.

357

and (thereby) knowing (the character of) coming events, is what we call prognosticating the comprehension of the changes (indicated leads us to) what we call the business (to be done). 32. That which is unfathomable in (the movement of) the inactive and active operations is (the

up

manipulating the

in

stalks),

;

presence of a) spiritual (power). Chapter V, paragraphs 24-32,

Yi

shows us the

still

fashioned

so as to give a picture of the phenomena of the external universe but the writer dwells more on the latter, and the different para;

graphs give an interesting view of his ideas on the subject. He supposes a constant change from rest to movement and from

movement

now

to rest, through

which

all

things are foimed,

now

still,

now

expanding, now contracting. It is customary to speak of two forms of an original ether as the two elementary principles, but they are really one and the same ether, in a twofold in motion,

condition, with a twofold action. the

phenomena

of existence are

By

their successive

produced,

what

I

movement have called

'

1

It is attempted, however, the course (of things) in paragraph 24. native scholars and some by by many sinologists, to give to to, ' the last character in that paragraph, the meaning of reason/ that which intelligently guides and directs the movements of the two

elements.

But

this

view

is

not in

chapter, nor can the characters be such an interpretation.

The

the scope of the construed so as to justify

harmony with fairly

imperial editors say that the germ of the Mencian doctrine human nature is in paragraph 25 ; but it

about the goodness of says

more

ideal as

graph 1

is good/ according to its yin and yang. But few, the next paracan understand the measure of this goodness.

widely, that 'every creature

from the

tells us,

plastic

'

The

benevolent operations in the course of things in paragraph 27 are illustrated from the phenomena of growth and beauty and the cessation of these in autumn and in spring and summer ;

a concealing and storing them up/ seems to state the origin of the name 29 Paragraph

winter

may

be called

'

applied to the book, the Yi King. In paragraph 30 the names JTAien and

Khw&n

Yi

as

take the place

of yin and yang, as used in paragraphs 24 and 32.

In -Oien,

THE APPENDIXES.

358

SECT.

I.

Chapter VI. 33. Yes, wide is the Yl and great! If we speak of it in its farthest reaching, no limit can be set to it if we speak of it with reference to what is near at hand, (its lessons are) still and if we speak of it in connexion with all correct between heaven and earth, it embraces all. ;

;

There

34.

self-absorbed

it is

In

is AT/fcien. ;

(individual) stillness

its

when exerting

its

motive power

that its progoes straight forward and thus There is KhwSn. ductive action is on a grand scale.

it

it is

;

In

its

(individual) stillness,

capacious

;

when exerting

is

it

its

velopes its resources, and thus is on a wide scale. In

35.

the is

its

self-collected

motive power, its

and de-

it

productive action

breadth and greatness, (the Yi) corre-

symbol of heaven,

ever}'

one of

its

three lines

is

undivided

;

it

yang faculty; so Khwan, the symbol the concentration of the yin. The critics them-

the concentration of the

of the earth,

is

selves call attention to the equivalence of the symbolic The connexion of the two given to yin and yang. to the production of

any one substantial

thing.

names here is

necessary

The yang

origin-

ates a

shadowy outline \\hich the yin fills up with a definite substance. So actually in nature Heaven (jOien) and Earth (Khuan) operate togcthei in the production of all material things and beings.

The

'numbers,' mentioned in paragraph 31, aie not all or any generally, but 7, 8, 9, 6, those assigned to the four em-

numbers

'

blematic figures/ that grow out of the undivided and divided lines, and by means of which the hexagrams are made up in divination. The future or coming events' which aie prognosticated are not particular events, which the diviner has not already forecast, but the *

character of events or courses of actions already contemplated, as good or evil, lucky or unlucky, in their issue.

The best commentary on paragraph 32 is supplied by paragraphs 8-10 of Appendix VI. The 'Spirit' is that of 'God;' and this settles the meaning of tdo in paragraph 24, as being the course of nature, in which, according to the author,

'

God worketh

1

all in all.

CHAP.

APPENDIX

7.

359

III.

spends to heaven and earth;

in its ever-recurring

corresponds to the four seasons in its mention of the bright or active, and the dark or inactive operation, it corresponds to the sun and changes,

moon

;

it

;

and the excellence seen

in

the ease and ready

various operations) corresponds to response (of the perfect operations (presented to us in the phenoits

mena

of nature).

Chapter VII.

36.

The Master

'

said:

Is not the

was by the Yi that the sages exalted their virtue, and enlarged their sphere Their wisdom was high, and their of occupation. That loftiness was rules of conduct were solid. of that heaven after the pattern solidity, after the

Yi a

perfect book

It

?'

;

pattern of earth.

Chapter VI, paragraphs 33-35, goes on further

Yi its

to celebrate the

as holding up the miiror to natuie in all its operations and in widest extent. The grandiloquent language, howevei, amounts

only to the

this, that,

phenomena of

when we have made ourselves acquainted with nature, we can, with a heated fancy, see some

analogy to them in the changes of the diagrams and lines of the

Yi book. Khizn. and

Khwan

must be taken as the same names are

understood in paragraph 30 above. 'The Yf,' with which paragraph 33 begins, must be understood The character which also at the commencement of paragraph 35. '

'

have translated by corresponds throughout should not, it is observed, have stress laid upon I

that 22.

'

this it. '

last

chapter,

A'u Hsf says of paragraph

simply equal to the there is a similarity 'The bright or active element' and 'the dark or inactive'

it

is

the yang and the yin.' The correspondence and the them sun and between moon, the brightness predicted and warmth of the one, and the paleness and coldness of the are in the original,

'

other, shows us how those names arose, and that it is foreign to ' the male and female the original concept of them to call them ' with the last clause compare paragraphs 6-8. principles :

THE APPENDIXES.

360

SECT.

I.

Heaven and

earth having their positions as to the them, changes (of nature) take place assigned 37.

between them. The nature (of man) having been completed, and being continually preserved, it is the gate of all good courses and righteousness. Chapter VIII. 38. The sage was able to survey all the complex phenomena under the sky. He then considered in his mind how they could be figured, and (by means of the diagrams) represented their material forms and their character. Hence these (diagrams) are denominated Semblances (or emblematic figures, the Hsiang). 39.

A

sage was able to survey the motive working all under the sky. He contem-

(later)

influences

plated nature,

them

in

their

common

action

and

special

order to

bring out the standard and of each. He then appended his proper tendency in

Chapter VII, paragraphs 36, 37, is understood to set forth how embodied the teachings of the Yi in their character and conduct. But when it is said that 'it was by the Yi that they the sages

exalted their virtue and enlarged their sphere of occupation,' the meaning can only be that what they did in these directions was in

harmony with

the principles which they endeavoured to set forth

symbols of the Yi. Their rules of conduct were

in the 1

'

their rules

wisdom of

were low/ the

To

sages, the

between which and

1

in paragraph 36, is, literally, the height of heaven reached by the solid,

author opposes the low-lying earth, and virtues he dis-

their substantial practices

covered some analogy. It will be seen that the The Master chapter commences with said.' Kb Hsl observes that 'as the Ten Appendixes were all '

made by

the Master, these words are out of place, and that he that wherever they occur here and elsewhere, they

conjectures

were added

after the sage's time/ Their occurrence very seriously affects the question of the authorship of the Appendixes, which I have discussed in the Introduction, pages 28-31.

CHAP.

APPENDIX

8.

III.

361

explanation (to each line of the diagrams), to determine the good or evil indicated by it. Hence those (lines

with their explanations) are denominated Imi-

tations (the

Yo).

(The diagrams) speak of the most complex phenomena under the sky, and yet there is nothing in them that need awaken dislike the explanations of the lines speak of the subtlest movements under the sky, and yet there is nothing in them to produce 40.

;

confusion.

what is said (under he will deliberate the diagrams), and then speak on what is said (in the explanations of the lines), and then move. By such consideration and deliberations he will be able to make all the changes which he 41.

(A

learner) will consider

;

undertakes successful. '

42.

Here

hid, retired, cries out the crane

Her young's responsive Of spirits good I drain With thee a cup

The Master

said

*

:

;

cry sounds there. this cup ;

Til freely share.'

The

superior

man

occupies

apartment and sends forth his words. If they be good, they will be responded to at a distance of more than a thousand li how much more will they He occupies his apartbe so in the nearer circle If they be evil, and forth his words. sends ment they will awaken opposition at a distance of more how much more will they do than a thousand li Words issue from one's so in the nearer circle!

his

;

!

;

person, and proceed to affect the people.

proceed from what at a distance.

is

near,

Words and

spring of the superior man.

and

Actions

their effects are seen

actions are the hinge

The movement

and

of that

THE APPENDIXES.

362

SECT.

I.

His may he

hinge and spring determines glory or disgrace.

words and actions move heaven and earth be careless in regard to them ?

;

'

(The representative of) the union of men first The cries out and weeps, and afterwards laughs/ Master said, on this: '

43.

The ways

'

of good

This

in

That

in his

a public

One man

men

(different seem).

office toils

;

home

the time beguiles. his lips with silence seals

;

Another all his mind reveals. But when two men are one in heart, Not iron bolts keep them apart; The words they in their union use, like orchid plants diffuse/

Fragrance

The

'

first line, undivided, shows its subject of the white grass beneath what he mats placing sets on the ground/ The Master said To place the things on the ground might be considered sufficient but when he places beneath them mats of the white grass, what occasion for blame can there be ? Such a course shows the height of care-

44.

*

:

;

The

fulness.

white grass is a trivial thing, but made of it, it may become impor-

through the use

He who

tant. will

not '

fall

A

goes forward using such careful art

into

any error/

man

and yet humble He will bring things to an end, and with fortune/ The Master said on this He good 45.

superior

toiling laboriously

!

'

:

toils

with success, but does

not

boast of

it;

he

achieves merit, but takes no virtue to himself from it this is the height of generous goodness, and ;

speaks of the

man who

with (great) merit yet places

CHAP.

APPENDIX

8.

He

himself below others.

363

III.

wishes his virtue to be

more and more complete, and in his intercourse with he who others to be more and more respectful; so

humble, carrying his respectfulness to the utmost, will be able to preserve himself in his is

position/

The dragon

*

46.

haunts

seen) beyond his proper there will be occasion for repentance/ The

;

Master said on

this

(is

' :

He

is

noble, but

is

not in

his correct place he is on high, but there are no people to acknowledge him there is a man of virtue ;

;

and ability below, but he will not assist him. Hence whatever movement he may make will give occasion for repentance/

He

*

47.

does not quit the courtyard before his

door there will be no occasion for blame/ The Master said on this When disorder arises, it will be found that (ill-advised) speech was the steppingIf a ruler do not keep secret (his stone to it. deliberations with his minister), he will lose that minister. If a minister do not keep secret (his deliberations with his ruler), he will lose his life. If (important) matters in the germ be not kept secret, that will be injurious to their accomplish'

:

Therefore the superior man is careful to maintain secrecy, and does not allow himself to

ment.

speak/

The Master said be said to have known The Yl says, " He is a 48.

in

:

'

The makers of the

Y

i

may

(the philosophy of) robbery. burden-bearer, and yet rides

a carriage, thereby exciting robbers to attack Burden-bearing is the business of a small

him/'

man.

When

A

carriage is the vehicle of a gentleman. a small man rides in the vehicle of a gentle-

THE APPENDIXES.

364

SECT.

I.

man, robbers will think of taking it from him. (When one is) insolent to those above him, and oppressive to those below, robbers will wish to attack him. Careless laying up of things excites to robbery, (as a woman's) adorning of herself excites to lust.

What the Yl

says about the burden-

bearer's riding in a carriage, and exciting robbers to attack him, (shows how) robbery is called out/ Chapter VIII, paragraphs 38-48. In the first two paragraphs we have an account of the formation of the diagrams, and of the explanation of the whole hexagrams and of the individual here

lines

Fu-hst

'The sage' in paragraph 38 is intended presumably of but we cannot say, from it, whether the writer thought of

;

him as having formed only the

eight trigrams, or

all

the sixty-four

In the diagrams, however, we have semblances, or representations, of the phenomena of nature, even the most com-

hexagrams.

and hard

to be disentangled. Paragraph 39 goes on to the of more speak explanation expecially of the individual lines, by the duke of ^au, as symbolical of good luck or evil, as they turned up in the processes of divination.

plex,

Paragraph 40 declares the usableness (so to speak) of the diathe explanations of them; and 41 shows us how a learner or consulter of the Yi would actually proceed in using it. In paragraphs 42-48 we have the words of Confucius on seven

grams and

so many hexagrams, or rather his amplification of the words of the duke of J5fu's explanations of their symbolism. The lines in

hexagram 61 ; 5 of 13 i of 28 ; 3 of 15 6 of i and 3 of 40. What Confucius says is not without interest, but does not make the principles on which the Yi was made any clearer to us. It shows how his object was to turn the symbolism that he found to a moral or ethical account; and no doubt he could have varied the symbolism, if he had been inclined to do so. lines are 2 of i

of 60

;

;

;

;

I have

spoken in the preceding chapter of the

difficulty

which

'

the phrase The Master said presents to our accepting the Appendix as from the hand of Confucius himself. But his words in '

He did not speak so. If he rhymed symbolism of the line that is the groundwork of that paragraph, why did he not rhyme his explanations of paragraph 43 are in rhyme.

his explanation of the

CHAP.

APPENDIX

9.

III.

365

To heaven

Chapter IX. 49.

belongs (the numto heaven, 3 to earth, 4 to ber) heaven, 5 to earth, 6 to heaven, 7 to earth, 8 to heaven, 9; to earth, 10. i

;

to earth, 2

;

50.

;

The numbers

;

;

;

;

;

belonging to heaven are

five,

and those belonging to earth are (also) five. The numbers of these two series correspond to each other (in their fixed positions), and each one has another that may be considered its mate. The heavenly numbers amount to 25, and the earthly to The numbers of heaven and earth together 30. amount to 55. It is by these that the changes and transformations are effected, and the spirit-like agencies kept in movement. 51. The numbers of the Great Expansion, (multiplied together), make 50, of which (only) 49 are used (in divination). (The stalks representing these) are divided into two heaps to represent the two (emblematic lines, or heaven and earth). One is then taken (from the heap on the right), and placed (between the little finger of the left hand and the next), that there

may

thus be symbolised the three

(powers of heaven, earth, and man). (The heaps on both sides) are manipulated by fours to repre-

and then the remainders arc returned, and placed (between) the two middle fingers of the left hand, to represent the intercalary month. In five years there are two intercalations, and therefore there are two operations and afterwards the whole process is repeated. 52. The numbers (required) for A^ien (or the sent the four seasons

;

;

the other lines

our power. ascribing this

?

The

To

answer these questions categorically is beyond them increase the difficulty in

facts that suggest

and the other additions to the Yl to the

later sage.

THE APPENDIXES.

366 undivided

line)

amount

to

SECT.

216; those for

I.

Khwin

Together they are

(or the divided line), to 144.

360, corresponding to the days of the year. 53. The number produced by the lines in the

two parts

(of the Yl)

ing to the

number of

amount all

to 11,520, correspond-

things.

Therefore by means of the four operations the Yl completed. It takes 18 changes to form 54.

is

a hexagram.

(The formation

55.

of) the eight trigrams consti-

tutes the small completion (of the Yl). If

56.

if

them,

proper

we led on the diagrams and expanded we prolonged each by the addition of the

lines,

might have

then

all

events possible under the sky

their representation.

(The diagrams) make manifest (by their appended explanations), the ways (of good and ill fortune), and show virtuous actions in their spiritual 57.

relations.

we may and we may also

In this way, by consulting them,

receive an answer (to our doubts), by means of them assist the spiritual (power in

agency 58.

in

nature and providence).

The Master said

* :

He who knows the method

of change and transformation

what

is

its

done by that

may be

said to

know

spiritual (power).'

Chapter IX, paragraphs 49-58, is of a different character from any of the preceding, and treats, unsatisfactorily, of the use of numbers in connexion with the figuie of the Yi and the practice of divination.

In the

Thang

paragraph 49

is

edition of the Yf, published in the seventh century, the first of the eleventh chapter according to the

arrangement now followed. .ng-jze restored it to its present which it occupied, as has been proved, during the Han

place,

CHAP.

APPENDIX

10.

Chapter X.

Yl

In the

59.

characteristic of the

there are four things

of the sages.

way on

set the highest value

367

III.

its

We

should

explanations to guide

and to which it properly belongs. It and the next parabe taken together, and aie distinct from what folshould giaph the lows, though Thang edition is further confused in placing 51 dynasty,

before 50. In 49 and 50

'

heaven

-Oien and Khwan

'

and

'

earth

'

are used as

we have seen

30 and 34. Odd numbers belong to the strong or undivided line, which is symbolical of the active operation m nature, and the even numbers to the weak or divided

line,

are in paragraphs

symbolical of

its

inaction.

The phraseology of

the paragraphs, howevei can only be understood by a reference to the river map/ which has been given in the Introduction, pages ,

*

15, 16. *

The map, as it appeared on the bick of the dragon-horse/ consisted of <=o many circles, and so many dark circular marking*, the former,

was assumed, being of the yang

it

Fu-hsf

latter of the yin.

undivided line

),

(

character, and the

for the circle substituted the strong or

and

for the

dark markings the weak or

yang symbols are the ). and 9 circles, and the yin are the 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 circular markings, which is the pictorial delineation of paragiaph 49. The only thing to be said upon it is that the arrangement of the five circles and ten circular markings is peculiar, and evidently So far, however, as we know, no figure devised for a purpose.'

divided

It will

(

be seen that the

i* 3, 5, 7

'

of the

map was

attempted

till

after the

beginning of our twelfth

century.

The same '

graph 50

:

figure

is

illustrate what is said in paraof the two series correspond to each

supposed to

The numbers

i and 2, and 3 and 4 certainly front each other, and perhaps 5 and 6 ; but 7 and 8, and 9 and 10 do not do so in the same way. It is said also that each has another So it is with i and 6, 2 and 7, that may be considered its mate.' with but and Further, 1 + 3 + 5 and 5 and 10. hardly 8, 4 9, 3 and 6 2 + + + 25 30=55; all of 8+10=30; + 7 + 9=25; + 4

other in their fixed positions.'

'

which points are

stated.

statement in the paragraph, however, derives no illusHow can the numtration, so far as I can see, from the figure. bers effect the things that are predicated of them ? There is a

The

last

THE APPENDIXES.

368 us in speaking

on

;

its

our movements on ;

its

SECT.

I.

changes for (the initiation of) emblematic figures for (defi-

nite action as in) the construction of

implements

;

jargon indeed about the formation of the five elements, but in order to make it appear not reasonable, but capable of being ' related, writers call in the Lo writing to the aid of the Ho map '

'

'

;

and

*

the five elements

which

'

is

a division of the constituents of material

foreign to the Yf. is intended to describe the process of divination in manipulating the stalks, but the description is confused by introthings,

is

Paragraph 51

ducing into

it

the four seasons

and the subject of

intercalation, so

as to be very difficult to understand.

In the middle of the Ho map are