NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) 19870008308: Mars lander survey

The requirements, issues, and design options are reviewed for manned Mars landers. Issues such as high 1/d versus low 1/d shape, parking orbit, and us...

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NARSLARDER SURVEY

N87-17741

William

R. Stump Gus R. Babb Hubert P. Davis

Eagle Engineering Houston, TX ABSTRACT The Mars

requirements,

landers.

orbit, from

and orbit

issues,

Issues

use to

of

such

a small

orbit

up

a

function

orbit

a single Venus

Lander

stage flyby

orbit

as

statements,

included.

and

options

reusable

V

include

I/d

lander down,

lander

a range

the

a

plots

of

initial

and

manned parking

as

lander

function

minimum

include

orbit,

of

options

landers

up

conjunction

hybrid,

of

stack

parking

a variety

from

ail-cryogenlc,

shape,

mass

for

options

for

to move

mass

tables

Mission

using

propulsion

and

low

reviewed

vehicle

of

of

delta

design.

trajectories

aerobraking

transfer

cargo

In

are

orbit

are

versus

and

mass

weight

Mars

I/d

Plots

orbit,

detailed

high

options

addressed.

destination Earth

as

design

are

Isp,

low

and

NERVA,

to and

and

Mars

one

of,

concepts.

REQUIREMENTS A manned

Mars

if not

the

of

program

the

questions

major

overall

a crew

on

A be

will

the

surface,

1) How

to

In a manned the

the

program?

and wlth

only

a small

driver.

Only

mission

program

or

for

cargo

three

a few

of

cargo.

approximate

to

items

nature

The

major

flown,

or

the

lander

support

be

or

Cost and

The

be

what

landed?

style

weeks

guidance

be

lander.

must

Apollo

only

amount

the

are

long

wlll

program.

for

missions

major

(MEM)

mission

2) How

two

a crew

Mars

or

3) Must only

Module

requirements

landings

support

land

Excursion

many

of

program

and

major

item

surface?

short

or Mars

determine

scope

required

the

cost

are:

is the

lander

landings a month

would

would on

probably

navigation

might

the be be

adequate.

grow

A

20

to

support

surface as a costs,

a crew

propellant

surface might

base. well

for

might 100s

production,

of and

Performance, be the

require days

239

on

perhaps which

driver.

a

lander the

surface,

land

would

that

be

could take

significant important

spot-land, advantage cargos, in

long

of such term

The

program

options. and

The

may

fully

only

lander

may

defined

will

get

the

chance

at

the

start.

defined It

the

is not

be possible

be

at

present,

expensive

to design

to design

so we

and

one,

a Mars

we

must

only

so

the

lander

look

want

all

the

to design

program

that

at

must

can

one,

also

be

care-

be used

on

Moon I . Lunar 2.08 1.91

Descent Delta V, km/sec Ascent Delta V, km/sec

Since

the

Mars

Moon,

the

descent

lunar MEM

lander

descent.

test

ascent

tanks,

tanks

sized

Reference

wlll

for

not

a Mars

1 proposed

be

full

landing,

a lunar

Mars 1.23 4.84

mlnimum

6.00

typical

when may

surface

landing

be

able

landing

on

the

to handle

as

part

of

a

program.

ISSUES The

llft/drag

families

of

shapes

Apollo

Command

Figures

1 through

show

The

fore

less

shape may

I/d

not

be

be

some

by

Figure

9

that

would

site

may

other

evidence hlgh

footprint, the

g

however, ly

from

a

and forces

the

entry Is

a



land

on

into

the

concept

for

a Mars

(I/d)

lifting

basic

ratio

body

Figures

locations.

those

shapes

have

easier crew

(Ref.

the

5,

i)

or

shape.

8,

Mars

than

build

and

more

easily.

Moon.

7,

and

typical

test

8

high

and The

The

low

atmosphere and

problems

base

In

capability.

in

interplanetary

Two

may

therelow

1/d

I/d shape

from

a

may

be

more

overcome

to

be

trans-

propellant.

of

drastic

or

to

accuracy

because

the

i/d

requirement),

target,

be

llft/drag

growth

desired

may

low

lighter easier

desired

spot-landlng

on

without

to

hover a

I/d

issue.

shapes.

accommodate

Landing

llfe

major

high I/d

is

built

additional

require be

The

can

thls

shows

the

10

lander

spot-land.

extent

a

the

low

roughly

direct

(If

to

and

I/d

easily

trajectory

difficult

is

low

of

is

proposed,

proposed

and

capable

lander

shapes.

shape

more

the

shape,

I/d

expensive,

of been

show

The

may

Mars

4 high

low

designs.

have

Module

different

I/d

shape

to

Such of

a wider

the

measures.

In" The

trajectory 240

to

during

the

a

both I/d

shapes

surface.

landing

of

a Is

canyon

difficult

corridor, There

hlgh

water-eroded

possibility

entry

spot-land.

"eyeballs

a

a

fossils

much

problem

entry can

or

bigger keeping

and

ascent,

enter

direct-

_Y

u') "_" "o

0

L_ o 0 rr

7

It.

C3_

241

Fig.

5

Rockwell

I/d-l.0, (from

wings

lifting drop

body

off

before

Fig.

MEM

6

Rockwell

ascent

landing.

lifting

body

MEM

(horn Rel.1)

Ref.1)

/,_

- dy 7."

i

]

Fig. 8 (from Fig.

7

Case

Concupt-uses propellants.

for

Mars

surface

II Bent

Open

Ref.

Afterbody

high

I/d

MEM

2)

Biconic

produced

(fromRef.4)

ORIGINAL PAGE IS

o1=pooa (}u_rrv

C_O'NCrL.*_CH I

CR_W

S_AT'ON

• c,, s s_'o_ • r,e

m (oul,_e_ slon_cl

,_mus

242

The 1967),

most

comprehensive

which

(Figures

did

1 and

cost,

that

direct

entry).

(Ref.

1)

have

not

shape

on

a

as

a

orbit;

this

it uses

predicts

g

entry. in zero

for

six

months

higher

the

of

hyperbolic the

effect

of

in

LEO

high

Earth

elliptical

effect LEO

burns

of

lander

by

factors

trajectory. better

than

A MEM orbit.

a

small

ascent This

mass of

by

low

circular

Orbital stage small

on

stage

G

entry

be

for

high,

is

low

the with

insen-

circular

of mass,

direct

2 for a crew

since

entry

however.

versus for

from

rendezvous

in terms

levels

may

a

LEO

must

km/sec can

mass

to,

that

and

Ref.

low

a

factor

I

circular has

been

greater

its

or

orbit

each. a on high

so.

vastly

Figure

11

orbit

on

schemes.

in

mission

elliptical

and

trans-

overwhelms

reduction the

orbit circular

trajectory insertion

This to

low

parking

and

Mars

the

two

circular

propulsion

lead

destination

between of

low

the

versus

difference

depending mass,

ascend

entry

reduces

2.0,

the

initial

mass

propulsion parking

and

orbit

is

orbit.

Transfer from

of

and

to

based

orbit),

and

orbit

changes

So,

only

variety

over

1.3

circular

a

The

is

parking

insertion

lander

elliptical a

low

or

difference

lander

values

for

orbit:

l/d

numbers,

a

elliptical

landers.

high

tables.

low

1/d

lander

orbits

the

10 plots

possible

and

the

more.

orbit

escape

mass

or

high

hyperbolic

for

requirements

get

perigee

mission

generated

The

low

on

requirement

uses

(direct

based

of

mission

parking

1,

shapes

was

departure).

entry.

high

a

paper

graphs

circular

a significant

Figure

variety

(given

high

for

the

this

and

l/d

absence as

(Ref.

subsequently

or none

at

low

the

To

the

date

This

(such

1967,

lander,

parking

4.5

make

g

initial

of

may

mass.

shows

in

elliptical

levels

the

and

and

and

in

to

baseline.

is Mars

aerobraked

This

The

The

the

high

purposes.

orbit for

landers

Rockwell

since

spacecraft

an

a

(24 hour),

for

true

as

data

significance

elliptical

not

both

choice

weights

parking

of

extensive,

better

trajectory

is

is

gross

of

essentially

from

and

the

entry

of

calculation

interplanetary to

1/d

Mars

simplicity,

body

much

manned

another

design

for

high

sitive

a

1/d

to

interplanetary

initial

the

issue

km),

entry

Since

baseline lOt

a passing

low and

dictate

defined

Another (500

the

might

low

been

roughly

for

chose

of

designs

requirements,

requirements

add

comparison

5),

testing

study

low

Vehicle circular

could

result 243

(OTV) Mars in

can

orbit savings

also

be

to high of

used

to

ferry

elliptical

10 to

20_

of

the Mars

initial

Figure

9

Mars Base in a Canyon, spot landings required

Figure

11 Initial X

Mass

in

LEO

32,963KM

for

(24

50OKM

hour)

1999

circular

Mars

Venus

and

parking

Flyby

5OOKM

orbits.

Trajectory

6

; 67

e

y/2/A

e.

-_= O

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savings

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costs

trajectory

the

cases. way

6.4

cargo

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of

lander

using

or

one

and

overshadow

another

ballutes.

cost

to

One tons

mass

is

one

to

high

the

mass

purpose,

such

extra

That

report

concludes

substantially, initial

Mars

(MEM

in LEO,

but

stack

+ OTV

metric

may

be

versus

ton

depending

specific

insensitive

solids

Isp may

14 plots a cargo

a

lunar

Common

might

to

as

makes

mass

mass)

in

for

of

lander

on

the

be

impulse

specific

be possible.

insensitive, less

easy

on

the

1/d

MEM

lander cargo

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high

surface

the

a

the

LEO

a

as

a

variety

and/or

OTV

propulsion

and

300

to produce

The

seconds

from

a variety

impulse,

indicating

than

for

indicating

MEM

using

the

proposed

is

feasible.

the

carbon

cargo

mass

of a

surfaceCO/O 2

dioxide

The atmos-

Mars.

of

landed

from

for

12 plots

mass

is also

whose

Figure

shows

Figure

lander

propellant

blem

to

probably

required

development

metric

produced-propellant

phere

OTV would

chutes

slopes.

13 plots

The

CO/O 2

no

payload

the

to

the

compared

scheme.

Figure

one

uses

one-way

2.3

directly

OTV was

heavier.

Note

orbit

Deimos.

1 design

IOX

of

the

reduces

5 to

function

and

Mars

ascending

cost

unless

Phobos

The

elliptical of

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however,

visit

high

MEM capab)e

elliptical

to

In

deorblt will

be

lander

mass

versus

packaging

unloading

postulated

to be

Moon

(Ref.

3).

concepts

with

open

in an

an

the

Figures

4 and

afterbodles

and

ton

Space

ref.

could

pro-

Figure

heaviest

8 (from

that

The

aeroshell.

18 metric

largest

down.

15

Station

cargo

to

be

show

low

and

3)

accomodate

such

a

cargo. Figure several the

16

cases.

design

delta

shows

Vs

To

llft

towards

used

to

MEM tens

surface

produce

deorbit of

mass

tons

off

propellant

the

plots

versus the

ascent

surface

wlll

production.

discussed

cargo

Table

mass

strongly 1

for drive

shows

the

below.

CONFIGURATIONS Figure provided

3 shows

by

a different

other

Marshall

engine

in reference and

the

the

1 with

software

design MSFC to

1967

Rockwell

low

Flight

Center

Space and

propellant.

updates

produce

was

Tables 245

I/d

design

(MSFC) The

extrapolated 2 and

3 and

with group,

weight

recent which

statement

with

scaling

Figures

11

updates includes provided equations

through

16.

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.to

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247

TABLE MEM A5CENT

NEH OPTION

HIM.

(ALL

MASSES

ASCENT

IN

KGHS

UNLESS

HEM

TO

24

30

OTHERWISE

WEIGHT

HOUR,

DAM

500

KM

DAY

S0

3

STATEMENT PERIAPSIS

300

ELLIPSE.

DAY

CARGO

Mr_

SURFACE HEM, 2

ISPP STGE

REUSABLE HEH (SING. STAGE)

NOTED)

CAPSULE

PRIHAR¥

255

STRUCTURE

COUCN,

RESTRAINTS

255

255

255

255

"

255

510

IB

36

36

36

0

36

36

I_TCIIES,

WINDOWS

SS

SS

55

55

55

55

55

DOCKING

PROVISIONE

77

77

77

77

77

77

77

PANELS,

SUPPORTS

23

23

23

23

23

23

23

BATTERY

121

123

123

123

123

123

123

EPS

10S

105

105

105

105

105

105

DISTRIBUTION

95

COMHUNICATIORS GUIDANCE

AND

CONTROLS

&

NAV.

102

102

102

91

DISPLAYS

95

95

95 102

91

91

95

95

102

95

102

91

0

86

102

91

91

86

86

66

O

86

236

432

432

432

0

432

432

107

133

133

133

0

133

151

210

110

110

O

110

125

136

136

136

lSS

O

136

136

CREW

159

310

318

310

0

318

318

CONTINGENCY

293

242

242

242

93

242

274

INSTRUMENTATION LIFE

SYS.

SUPPORT

RCS

-

DRY

RCS

-

PROPELLANT

RETURN

19

PAYLOAD

ASCENT TOTAL

CAPSULE

ASCENT

PROPULSION

1,953

2

STAGE kn/sec TANK

DELTA

2.66

V,

MASS

MASS/PROP.

2ND

STAGE

ISP,

8ec

2NO

STAGE

HASS

RATIO

TANKS

&

ENGINE

USABLE

2NO

STGE

PROP

PROP. ULLAGE

WITH

2ND STAGE BOILOpp 6

2.66

2.66

O.OO

2.66

0.0?

0.07 360.5 {LOI/MMlI| 2.12

243

264

253

253

50 ULLAGE

928

360.5 (LO2/H/4U) 2.12

INSTAL.

&

2,419

0.07

CONTINGENCT BOILOFF

2,419

360.5 (LO2/HMII) 2.12

S¥STEH &

2,419

294 253

55

316

O.O? 360.5 (LO2/MMN) 2.12

302

2,419

O.O0

O.OO

0.07

0.07

0.07

360.5 (LO2/HHN) 1.00

360.5 (LO2/I_III) 1.00

304

0

0

253

O

0

56

0

0

0

0

0

O

O

0

55 382

3,023

3,823

3,823

O

3,478

4,205

4,205

4,205

0

4,025

4,807

4,807

4,807

O

2NO STAGE PASS

IGNITTON 5,9?8

7,226

7,226

7,226

1ST STAGE k,./sec

DELTA

TANK

MASS/PROP.

MASS

IST

STAGE

ISP,

leC

IST

STAGE

MASS

RATIO

TANKS ENGINE

&

0.07

BOILOPP USABLE

& ULLAGE IST

IST STAGE BOILOPP &

STGE PROP. ULLAGE

1,407 PROP

131

1,700

1,700

14,066

17,004

17,004

0

1,700

0.00

0.07

0.07 460 (LO2/H2) 1.0o

1,382

0 0

0

130

0

0

0

0

17,004

0

0

0

0

O

WITU 15,473

18,704

10,704

10,704

0

1ST STAGE PROPULSION SYSTEM MASS, T_AL

1S,664

20,144

20,144

20,144

0

lET STAGE PLRSE (TOT.

22,$42

27,370

27,370

IGNITION ASCENT|

0.OO

0

131

2,738

(LO2/ICHII) 1.0o

0 0

0

360.5

(LO2/HMII) 1.00

1,309 0

131

0.07 360.5

(LO2/MMII) 2.64

1,309 0

108

0.07

613

3,032

0.00

360,5

(LO2/Pq411) 2.64

1,309 0

CONTINGENCY

0.07

(LO2/Ht4N) 2.64

926

3.43

360.5

360.5

(LO2/MMH) 2.64

INSTAL.

3.43

0.07

360.5

1,083

SYSTEM &

3.43

l. O0

0

3,162

3.43

460 (LO2/H2]

253

2NO STAGE PROPULSION SYSTEM MASS TOTAL

V

2,738

294

55

382

86

27,370

248

528

1,520

4,552

0

2,73S

ORIGINAL

PAGE

IS

OF POOR

QUALITY

ORIGINAL OF POOR TABLE MEM HIN.

MFJ4

30

WEIGHT

DAY

3

STATEMENT

|O

DAY

(CONT'D.) DAY

300

CARGO

H_q

SURFER MEM, 2

O_I_

DF.SCENT

STRUCTURE

RL'FA I NED

L_S

1SPP B3"OE

, 2,114

STRUCTURE

PWR

8YS.

2,114

2.114

2,114

2,477

2,477

2,477

409

409

409

O 7,500

409

409

477

3,810

3.810

3,010

0

3,010

253

1,009

1,882

8,864 fcell| 102

O 0

1,009 feel1) 182

O

168

(2kw 182

tee11) 102

188

CO#_4UN ICATION

2,477

409

fcell)

(2kw DISTRISUTIOH

2.114

2.477

409

STRUCTURE

pOWER

3,114

2,477

STRUCTURE

ELECTRICAL

(2kw

(2kw

feel1) 102

168

(2kw

188

168

477

188

&

NAV.

5

5

5

5

0

5

CONTRO[.q

&

DISPLAYS

5

5

5

5

O

5

I HSTRUM_NTAT LIFE SUPPORT (open loop) RCS - DRY -

(2kw

PAYLO,_D

SUBTOTAL

DESCENT

PROPULSI

DESCENT ]c_/uec

DEnTA

fcell|

1.169 fcell| 596

(2kw 575

1,191

991

DESCENT

1,909

1,909

1,164

1,731

1.23

V,

MASS/PROP.

I.UkSS

STAGE

8eC

DES.

STGE

ZSP. 14A88

1,909

621 fcell) 273

1#588

780

566

991

991

0 |2kw

I8,000

3,217

2,007

28,068

32,175

10,960

RATIO

1,23

1.23

114

|Rkv

621 fcell) 3,613 7,484 991

1,909

1,909

1,628

10,494

16,201

34.981

1,23

1.23

7.32

0.06

0.07

0.07

0.07

0,07

0.07

380.5 (LO2/H/4Ii) 1.42

360.5 .(LO2//'_III} 1.42

360.5 (LO2/MMIr) 1.42

300.5 (LO2/HM|I) 1.42

380.5 {I_)2/HHH) 1.42

1,144

1,493

1,547

704

704

CONTZ HG_CY

109

220

229

BOILOFF

929

1NSTAL.

& ULZ_GE

1,207

9.07

1,991

978

710

1,000

704

704

188

141

2,396

790

574

20,710

299

1,251

460 (I_)2/H2)

1,610

21,961 2,000

15,410

20,116

20,847

26,839

13,175

16,344

21.323

22,097

20,449

13,965

10,136

366,022

DESCENT STAGE PROPULSION HASS

10.156

23,740

24,573

31.740

15,015

11,891

392,179

DES. lU_SS

52,442

68,420

70,904

91,205

44,811

32,524

430,100

USABLE DES.

8TGZ

1.23

0,07

504

DES

376

5

114

360.5 |I, O2/N/41|| 1.42

& SYSTEM &

5,555 fcell) 767

1,909

1,090

17,310

114

991

991 .

114

5

ON

DES.

ENGINE

(2kw

1,234

991

11,643

T_qK

TANKS

[2kw

912

COt4TI_IGSNCY

114

621

f¢ell) 441

GEAR

LAHDED

114

22

8YS.

PROPELL_RT

LARD31,_ NET

114

I ON

1,009 fcell) 102

(2kw

GUIDANCE

RCS

REUSAOLR M_M {SING. 8T_G_)

STAGE

JE_ISOHED

SEC.

PAGE JS QUALITY

STGE

BOIL,OFF

PROP

PROP*



ULI-,t_GE

STAGE (FJ'JTR¥

IGNITION _$83

DEORBIT

PROPULSZON

DEORRIT k.',/sec

DELTA

0F,OR.

V,

TANX/PROP

MASS

ISP,

aec

DEORBIT

MASS

SATIO

(GOOD

&

ENGINE CONTI

SYSTEM &

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.07

0.07

0.07

0.07

0.07

0.07

0.00

INSTAL.

USABLE

&

PROP

300

8OLIO)(GOOO 1.07

300

SOLIO)(GOOO 1,07

300

SOLIO)(GOOD 1.07

SOLIO)(GOOO 1.07

SOLID) 1.07

339

352

453

222

162

1SO

100

IS0

100

100

100

200

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 0

3,717

4,047

5,023

6,465

3,177

2,300

15,574

19,574

PROP• WITH s ULI_G u

3,717

4,847

5,023

6.465

3,177

2,308

OEORRXT

STAG u

4,077

5,287

5,475

7,017

3,500

2,569

J4ASS)

1,174

0

0/ORBIT DOILOFF

OEORSLT IGNITION MASS (HFJ4 TOT.

480 (LO2/N2) 1.05

300

260

ULLAGE

DEORBIT

300

8OLIDJ(GOOO 1.07

NGIDiCY

BOILOFP

345.304

0.20

300

DEORBZT

TANKS

9,563

WITH

56,519

73,707

76,378

249

98,302

48,110

35,0,4

20,948

451.040

Table descent

3 and

loop

and life

volume 10_

ton

storm

shelter

to

assumption

day

stay

(4)

300

10_ may

Seven

for

HEM

single

stage

with

on dry

not

{in

metric

added

in

for

the

(2)

3)

structural from

10_).

down

following

plus numbers

able

MEM

ture

in

does Mars

in terms not

of

appear

orbit

or

simple to be on

the

mass out

of

surface

however.

250

Included. A 3.3

configurations

MEN.

Boiloff

ascent

was

stages.

This

stays. (1) A minlmum

(3) 60

ISPP),

day

HEM

stay

(4

MEN,

and

(7) A reusable for

one

case

included. in the

tables

extrapolation was

doubled,

should from

and

calculations

a crew

four

for

of a

single

30

contingency

days

two

consum-

reusable

83 m.

tons

69

tons

m.

a single

A substantial be

orlginal

assuming

stage

calculations,

will

viewed

HEN:

Mars Entr£ Mass 1,206 m. tons 300 m. tons 157 m. tons

-

reason.

and

be

the

a 30_

Iterative

Case

least

support

used.

characteristics

To a 60 hour ellipse, 360.5 sec. Isp To 500 km circular, 360.5 sec. Isp To 500 km clrcular, 460 sec. Isp Surface ISPP for ascent stage only, 300 sec. Isp, to any orbit Surface ISPP for ascent stage only, 460 sec. Isp, to any orbit

At

open

Surface-produced-propellant

or

numbers

mass

the

MEM,

(6)

is

a distant

are

stage

an

were

all

stage

life

were

surface

stay

their

No

for

addressed:

production,

(Table

used

for

lander,

and

power.

numbers

longer

30 day

first

or ballutes

was

were

2 summarizes

and

cell

propellant

they

up

tanks,

drop

single

HEM

(up

the

flares

reusable

All

payload

resulted

two),

wlth

contingency

designs

statement

because

tons

stage

design,

chutes

reusable,

(5) A cargo

stage

was

and

Table

vehicle. mass

solar

Rockwell

fuel

No

mass

propellant

HEM.

single

for

vehicle

situ

a weight

dry

realistic

HEM,

2 KW

performed.

10_

of

basic

concepts

uslng

stay

be

the

ascent

usable

a crew

caution

Rockwell

of

stay

using

The

day

different

day

which

were V and

four

use

system,

delta

the

limited

plots

stage

support

ascent

except

ables

second

calculations

metric

for

the

needed

to

stage

reus-

infrastrucmaintain

it,

d

REFERENCES 1.

Canetti,

G.

Manned

Mars

S.,

Definition

Excursion

NAS9-6464,

of

Nodule,

North

Experimental three

_ertcan

Tests

volumes,

Rockwell

for

a

Contract

Corp.,

#

Columbus,

Ohio. Volume

1

-

1968,

78

Summary

Final

pages,

Report,

68X12107"#,

Oct.

Report

#

1966-Aug.

1967,

NASA-CR-65911

SD-

67-755-1. Volume

2

-

68Xl1978,

Report

Volume

3

pages, 2.

Design

-

Final #

tation

NASA-CR-65912

Test

Program

68X12010",

Woodcock,

Report

Gordon

R.,

Modes

for

of

Lunar

Report,

and

Manned

1968,

Report,

NASA-CR-65913

Vlnopal, Mars

pages,

SD-67-755-2.

Final #

571

1968, SD-67-755-3.

Timothy

Missions,

256

J.,

Transpor-

Boeing

Aerospace

Company. 3.

Impact Station, 85D,

4.

Eagle Contract

Case

for

University and

Policy.

Planetary

Engineering #

Mars of

and

Missions Final

on

Report,

the Report

Space #

84-

NAS9-17176. II

Vtewgraphs,

Colorado

and

Copyrighted

The Boulder

sketch

251

by

Planetary Center Carter

Society, for Emmart.

Science

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