NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) 19870008309: Mars base buildup scenarios

Two Mars surface based build-up scenarios are presented in order to help visualize the mission and to serve as a basis for trade studies. In the first...

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N87BASE

BUILDUP

J.D. Geophysics

Group, Los

17742

SCENARIOS

Blactc

Los Alamos National Alamos, NM 87545

Laboratory

ABSTRACT Two

Mars

help

vlsualize

the

first

early

in

the

the

and

the

at

in thls aided

the

as

on

early

Scientific

of

to

the

of

the

in

for

studies.

trade

Martian

of

first,

the

manned

In occur and

infrastruc-

for

surface once

to

driver

an

moons

but

a permanently

main

of

Martian

order

surface

Is the

development

exploration

relative

presented

the

investigation

resources

presence

are

a basis

landings

scenario,

scenario

by

to serve

manned

volatlle

is emphasized.

scenarlos

scientific

second

purposes

rapldly,

and

direct

missions

to exploit

build-up

mission

In the

first

base

scenario,

rationale. ture

surface

economic is

delayed

begun

orbital

develops

station.

INTRODUCTION In

order

conceptual

basis,

specific

the

can

as

serve

requirements)

context

on

and

form

(see

one

hand

refs.

manned

Mars

missions easily

[1],

and

twenty

extended

considerable

less

other

it

hand, could

The

by

seems

achieve

two,

by

a potentially believe

and for

economic

start

of

two

or more

likellhood that

252

of

of

but

sustained

overall

less

goals.

reasonable "end

science on

goals

the

rationales over

These with,

somewhat

of

basic

the

etc.

represent

extend

date.

anything

set

motivations

arbitrarily

the

ambitious

and

discussions

from

costing,

perhaps

political

propulsion

necessity,

large

they

clearly scenarios

(e.g.,

are

unlikely the

calculation

firm

or more

more

bulld-up

I propose

scenarios

and

Base

more one

to

studies,

[3]

factors

impact

back

national

years

it possible

mission.

a

establish

trade

I

and

mission).

makes

to

on

for

operational

[2],

studies

ground

from

emphasize

versus

be

missions

a common

for

mission

is helpful

overall

basis

Nevertheless, that

It

Thls

the

selected

Mars

that

scenarios

cases

cases

the

of

a consistent

alternatives. member"

manned

scenarios.

evolutionary

arbitrary

the

I believe

mission

vlsualize

The

to place

other for

five

manned

numbers in

my

funding. than

three

a

could opinion, On

the

manned

COLUMBUS BAS___ESCENARIO _ective The

overall

outpost

on

objective

the

exploration

of

surface the

of of

this

Mars

scenario

to

serve

is

as

a

to

establish

base

a

for

the

manned

scientific

planet.

Time-llne The years dual

missions

before

the

missions

landing has

been

and

base.

Two

years

mission

until

relief

at

exploration

the

of

continues

and

Unmanned The

expands Precursor of

an

potential

future

missions,

and

knowledge

the

be

supplemented

the

high-lncllnatlon acquired allow meters, hazard. small

a per

smallest

Resolution number

of

the

spaced

"opposi4

years

1).

three

The

fourth

sites

ends

the

of

of

left

first

crew

crew

is

phase

(not

the

expanded

the

crew

that of

an of

(2

of

landing

portion

a

it's

the

on

Mars

of

the

discussed)

the

that

planet.

sites

of size

in

Martian

the

risk

informaof

the

first

vicinity

processing

important

considerable

obtain

the

of

These

to

reduce

feasibility

for

resources

operational

increase

to

position

which

optical

resolution boulders

in

253

imagery about

like

a

to

likely

imagery

is more

a satellite

of

down

object

of Viking and

is

objec-

basic

scientific

moons.

from plxel

will assets

moons. by

mission

that

the

spacecraft

discrimination the

of

lands

occupation

essential

and

orbit

with

sites

Martian

Mars

I envision

mission

establishment

phase

precursor

determine

within

about

unmanned

landlng position

will

a

This

human

that

Table

hold-over

second

assumed are

C,

begin

When

a

indivi-

explorations

mission

a

(the

previous

to

fifth

surface

are

and

the

later,

assumes

and

four

Mission

landing,

tives

base.

permanent

manned

contained

of

opportunity. and

B,

which

the months

next

Mars

purpose

about

some

at the

years landings

A, one

later

is

identical

sites

of

leaves

three

to

It

2

approximately

Martian

below). every

site

precursor the

essentially

the

construction

fifth

detail

returns as

on

first

are

later

selected

complete

tion

in

(designated

years

unmanned

landing

The

planet

two

an

approximately

apart the

permanent to

discussed

(ref.[4]).

opportunities) on

with

manned

occur

type

sites

first

are

opportunities tion"

begin

to

is 100

in a

of

one

the

about meters

ten

surface

wlll

be

meter.

This

would

of

about

three

dimension represent

low-altitude,

a serious meters

or more

at over

landing best

at

most

a of

o

"--

0 A

I

0

,

254

u

a

a

n

the planet. picking

If the Viking

landing

resolution size

kilometer

too

that

but

extensively the

basis

and

possibly

(laser)

the

of high

of

should

be of

opinion,

the

designed

for

long

feature

and

a

subsequent TV

this

transmission

plus

will

of

the

in Mars

the

large

the

It

manned

amount

necessitate

an

so

of

optical

of

the

possibi-

the

first slte

at to

landing crew

sites

validate

observation. hlgh

data

transmit

that

missions

It can

wlll and

rate

the

large

This

Is highly

bandwidth

few

productive

ten)

scientific

high house-

landing

imagery.

llfe

missions.

that

a very

resolution

for

the

This

more

to

basis

using

a

orbital

orbit

include

true

have

install

to

craft.

(say,

on

the

evaded

and

then

as

encounter

select

safer

based

also

well

It is and

and

operational

manned

coverage

me.

a number

hlgh

be

to

images

the

could

to

be

have

planned

a landing

it would

satellite by

not

orbit

sites

we

of

from

mission

required

that

crew

risk

these

data

the

landing

prlorltlze

communication

amount

Is

surface

repriorltlze

that

distributed

resolution

that

best

Observer

first

that

and

the

capability

I argue

propose

Mars

unnecessary

preplan

on

all

an

scrutinize

time,

I

hovering

llke

could

the

is

extensively

lateral

seems

crew

(the

imagery),

hazards

lity

sites

data

comsat

be

used

by

likely,

in

my

be

a

required

operational

communication

data capabi-

lity. Flnally, contain If

these

processed

needed

for

to

large

use

be

scenario

cursor

mission

As

it's

also

their

noted

above,

sites

dated

by a

upon

example,

For

be

example,

wlth

below.

wlth

one

or

both

[5].

could

be or

the

amounts

very

large

savings.

the

basis

of

the

I propose

that

the

pre-

forms

Consequently,

Delmos

propellant

lessen

potentially

exploitation

that

rocket to

and

materials

resources

manufactured

Earth

Phobos

carbonaceous

important

economic

of

the

moons

and

deter-

compositions.

I propose

different

the

and

moons

Landings

three

on

could

rendezvous

Martian

of water

missions.

from

presented

certainty

First

the

and

the

represent

transported

possibillty

with

by

that

amounts

consumables

second

mine

possible

materlals

support

This

Is

relatively

so,

llfe

it

crew

basis

of

preselected arrival

a balance

a landing

on

that

of

Tharsis

the

first

using

the

in Mars

orbit.

scientific or 255

even

and Olympus

three

manned

precursor The

results

sites

operatlonal Mons

landings

would

will

and be

be

at

vali-

selected

criteria.

For

be

and

exciting

valuable

from

tenuous

Martian

water

production

solar

flare

initial I

a

scientific

viewpoint,

atmosphere

would

(ISPP,

sites

envision

a

Thus, after

crew

surface

and

two

vicinity

of

Mars

will

at

least

for

support of

the

and

installation

rover for

science

important

operational

determine

the

materials

down

exploitable of

different attaining

blish

important to

shelter,

possibly

first

be

landings, lity

of

to

gain

some

with if

as

outpost

is The

It

is

goal

of

the

vicinity

of

(EVA)-type proposals [6].

The

An be

Martian presence

of

factor

that

likelihood

to

surface

selection

presumed

reasonable

probable

certainly

the

prime

and

with

of

for three

success

in

assets

and The

to

evaluate

actual

small

scale

Tests

will

for

self

carry crew

tunnel and

out will

basic

performed

sufficiency

as

water

the

second

since by

the

after

or the

will time

Tests production

evaluate It

addi-

radiation

tests.

and

to

possible

esta-

[7],

mechanics

on

consumption,

a

techniques

propellant

be

will In

construct

rock

production

crew

investigations

driving

in-sltu

human

the

be the

third

possibidesirable permanent

established.

surface

data

will

within

a

with

elsewhere

Investigations,

excavation

plants much

a

explosive

possible.

growing

is

evaluation.

performed

techniques

and

scientific

using

performing

will

base,

be

the

investigations

kilometers.

will

on

Detailed

goal

water

crew

goal. the

water

of

water

operational

the

scientific

Mars the

activity

vehicle.

the in

immediate

presented

several

there

important to

as

the

for

monitor

prime

extravehicular

are

of of

The

and

time

will

moons

there.

on

the

scientific

Martian

rover

absence

depths

crew

orbital

an

Apollo

or

sites

addition

of

land

of

ray

goals.

total

part

investigate

well

permanent

this

In

tional

to

landing

orbital

plants

aid

the

as

presence

the

The

Investigations

quantities

siting

tion

the to

with

the

will

or

established

mission

The

months

investigate

intensively

with

orbit.

perform

processing

similar

surface

two

In

whom

cosmic

be

all

already

propellant of

will of

of

the

ln-sttu

compromise

four

of

severity

analysis

aonths.

and

to

the

remain

about

six

be

site

vehicle

will

be

pilot

increase

six,

activities,

will

landing

whom

thinness

preclude

some

of

the

probably

extensive

size

visit of

crew

the

of

surface

Mars,

surface

and

irradiations.

landing

surface

ISWP)

but

and

crew

will

experience,

return

scientific

and 256

leave

behind

samples a

and

radiation

data

plus

shelter,

operarover,

scientific

equipment,

facilities

to

form

a

"line

selected)

or

and

possibly

the

start

shack"

if

propellant

of the

and

a permanent

site

water

base

manufacturing

(if

is revisited

the

later

site

for

is

scientific

purposes. Establishing On at

the

one

nent base. for

fourth

of

base

the

be

will

to

expand

at

rover

sites

of

to

fuels

be

This The

begin

landed

will

permanent

water

twelve

in the is

used

to

of

expand

of

surface

radiation

agricultural

the

designed

the

A

land

a perma-

vicinity

specially

habitation.

will

will

construction

constructed

evaluate

and

of

that

be

originally

for

crew

exploration

will

to further

production

expanded

scientific

modified

constructed

tained

the

base.

and

an

visited

activities.

the

expanded

be

mission,

EVA-type

moving

facilities will

manned

second

"earth"

Base

previously

and

A

the

shelter

test

enclosure

techniques.

begin

and

inventories

around

the

base

Suswill

be

expand

and

accumulated. Scientific become with

more a range

exploration

sophisticated of

about

meteorological piloted

Columbus

the along not

initial

ISPP,

[8]

100km

that

landing manned

old

vehicles

be

introduced

and

In

of

be

aided of

will

a shirt-sleeve

addition,

a range

occur on

vehicles,

food

will

equipment.

aid

will

has

will

a nuclear

ISWP,

the

[6].

landing

additional

before,

with

region

long

roving

range

geophysical

by deployment

several

vehicle

of

thousand

a

and

remotely

kilometers.

Base

fifth

with

the

investigations

airplane

The

of

power

This

the

will

base

to do

some

supplies,

new

so.

will

point

something

like

years

after

people

will

land

and, be

vehicles A new,

any

twelve

Fifteen

Habitats The

reach be

new

surface.

plant.

production.

can

the

equipment,

be modified

that

at

on

will

use

range

planet

a manned

this

expanded

long

the

by

along ISPP

and

vehicle

with

scout

time

rocket

if

with the will

men

and

or

air

vehicle. At the

this

rest

will

opportunity. Mars

will

point, stay The

then

about over

a third

until

permanent

of

relieved

scientific

begin.

257

the by

crew

will

a resupply

exploration

return

to

Earth

ship

at

the

next

exploitation

of

and

and

PHOBOS STATION

SCENARIO

An alternative sizes

approach

development

of

Mars

activities

are

attempted.

scenario.

The

Idea

contain

very

missions

to

addition,

to

then of

may

other

volatile

on

have

any

to

may that

the

is

the

visit

alkali

but

are

lunar

as

supply

sustained

Martian

if

an

not

are

plus

large

metals.

moons

as

economic

more,

sources

of

these of

ls

only

which The

not

of I

than

amounts

[10]

do

for

compelling

correct,

Mars

Earth

and

rationale

in

delivering

from

Therefore,

or

ingredients

asteroids.

periods

for

All

essential

from

driver

suggested

Delmos

orbit

may

the

Furthermore,

or

moons

opposed,

If

[9]

and

activities. of

water

Earth-crossing

for the

basis

equally,

Moon

terms,

industrial

form

N,

Moon,

besides

over

of

the

as

[3].

activities.

delta-V

source

space

the

C,

be

rationale

and

Station"

Martian

will

Phobos

lO15kg

as

to

in

advantages

of

surface

"Phobos

the

reasons

industrial

resources

difficult

near-Earth

sions

space

alternative

more

facts

rare

that

economic

as

are

expensive,

are

much

elements

valuable

main

as

is

empha-

extensive

the

exploitation

compositions

contain

approach

political

exploration

before

approach

largely

such

these

the

a

elements

large-scale

this

whose

volatile

future

as

this

and

chondrite

they

half

on

surface

infrastructure

resources

based

Martian

I call

scientific

carbonaceous

direct

orbital

behind

valuable Mars

to

Is

latter

appear

to

volatiles

for

believe

that

manned

Mars

scientific

these mis-

curiosity.

Objective The

overall

objective

infrastructure

to

resources. for

This

manned

of

support

this the

Mars-orbital

scientific

scenario

is

economic

of

establishment

development

infrastructure

exploration

the

of

would

the

Martian

then

of

the

Phobos/Deimos

be

a

way-station

surface.

Time-line The to

that

this

case

Martian

missions

begin

proposed

in

the

emphasis

moons

surface.

Two

will

be

scientific and

the

Two

years

with years

launched.

with the will

this,

be

later,

of an

pilot

on no

wtll

resource

unmanned 258

Mars

(Table

2).

observation

and aimed

manned

ISPP

to

activities

first

mission and

scenario

placed

the

precursor

Base

essentially

investigation

after

unmanned

Columbus

This

establishment

an

have

mission

to

as

it's

assessment and

mission

ISWP will

of

plants be

orbit

similar

However,

In

sampling

of

at

Martian

Mars

vicinity

goals

the

detailed

the

Martian

on

the

the

or

launched

near to

the

moons, Phobos. position

oJ

o_

o_

_o_

0

_ o

0

0 ÷

_

o ?

=_

_

_=

o_

o_

o_

o_

_

A

A

o o_

c_

_0

! o_

o_ w

7. _ _o

=

-_ o_

_

"i NI

259

N

II

|

N

II

N

S

near

Phobos

cial

the

gravity

Phobos

will

structural

habitat be

from

capabilities

which

appear

At

the

next

operation

to

such be

the

be

established

and

resupply

and

each

essentially

blished

Phobos

Earth

orbit.

would

be

place

surface

explorations.

With

ration

could

at

approach, By

develop

probably

+12

(the

by

same

to establish

which

explore

should

proceed

the

the

a permanent planet.

pace

then the

seem

direct

thrust

of

mission. and

begin

wlth

crew

rotations

+8 or

+10

I

traffic

surface

would

the

the

exploration

an

of

in which

surface

the

the

Base

should

and

advantage

explo-

vehicles.

it

Martian

low

Mars

Columbus

scenario)

benefit

first

roving

on,

esta-

to

surface

the

on

be

infrastructure

launch

base

that

the

to

the

expect

thence

+6,

with

then

and

by

Base

approach

propulsion

assemble

Station,

offer

advanced

freight

teleoperated

added

to

utilize

from

years

than

Columbus

From

to the

Phobos

volatiles

will

which

manned

would

compared

be from

development Phobos

for

Base

continued

surface

landings

first. Establishing I

face

will

not

landings. Base

focus the

for

or

artifi-

production

tanker

unmanned,

resources

development

bus

as

of

to ISPP

probably

rapid

of

and

space

from

aid

a more

sent

unmanned

Station the

perhaps

type

year

of

low

this

few

By

then,

although

and

the

lunar

similarly

facilities,

cone

next

means

time

possible to

over

Phobos

can

be

mining

before

at

to

will

routine,

However,

in

suited

to

a permanent,

nuclear-electrlc

Volatiles

Station

of

processing

cargo

opportunity.

substantlal, from

as

a crew

expanded

at

and

large

ideally

station.

elements

mining

This

opportunity,

of

support

which

controlled.

propulsion would

and

the

manned,

station

as

discuss These

scenario

on

a Manned

one

and

detail

the

unmanned

should

be

similar

to

element

a rotating

Station

in

any

artificial

Orbital

differences that

be

is decidedly

gravity,

structure

can

Mars

those seen

sur-

for

the

in Table

2.

Instead,

in this

station. 600m

or manned

proposed

different

orbital

approximately

precursor

Colum-

approach

I envision

in diameter

I the

providing

8

I equally Martian hand,

have assumed Phobos as the site for an orbital station, but an good case can be made for Deimos. Phobos is closer to the surface which would facilitate activities there. On the other Deimos is more loosly bound so that reduced delta-V's would be

required relative to Phobos for frequent interplanetary insertion maneuvers. Some balance of these and other issues will need to be struck before a final decision on the orbital station location can be made. 260

about

1/3

Earth

similar

to

station

would

that

adequately times a

also

habitat on

darily,

the

tigation to

on

adapted

about

6

The

Phobos

and, will

people

surface

so

crews

Mars.

Initially,

and

that

manned

staging

quite

will

be

to

pro-

and

on

refining

p.9).

Secon-

remote

inves-

manned

expedi-

vehlcles

effective

operations

should three

for of

and the

the

or

for

base

to

two

mining

station

be

crew

footnote,

teleoperatton be

a

the

(see

to

station

station

operating

a

chosen

adapted

to

research

as

will

replace,

a

Is

the

the

Detmos

and

surface

of

In

as

expect

that

expandable

function

surface

Martian

be

engaged

I

not

value

function

Martian

but

gravity

eventually,

surface.

supplement,

This

to

primary

personnel

the

1RPM.

Martian

for

the

the

lities

be

station

of

at

the

amount.

operations

tions

of

house

that

vide

gravity

and

will

faci-

strongly

surface.

SUMMARY I manned cal

outlined

base

on

(i.e.,

the to

have

it)

tion

the

21st

element

and

exploration

of

the

once

appear may

to

be

the

REFERENCES [I]

do

the

surface

needed

surface

landings

so from

a much

powerful

(All

are

Carr,

M.,

in

and this

1985,

second

report

"Science

the

#5,

as

looks

more

in order

to deve-

moon

resources. begin,

they

thus

thls

base

and run.

the

long

#9,

and

#10.)

Mission

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a Manned

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Mars

position

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H.,

exploration Study

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rationale Manned

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similar

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volatile

I propose

Martian

approach

Mars

extensive

somewhat

politi-

industrializa-

moons

infrastructure

except

something

Station"

scientific

fruitful

the

permanent

paramount,

space

scenario

"Phobos

stronger

by

Martian

Is delayed

and

(or

for

the

a

and

are

Base"

demand

to exploit

Manned

Mission",

the

In thls

Martian

goals

If, driven

in

of

scientific

Mars)

"Columbus

economic

then

establishment

achieving

on

contained

effective.

more

men

logical.

It will,

infrastructure

However,

land

probably

the

the If

I call

most

century,

I think

appropriate

lop

the

resources as

to

scenario

be

to

surface.

first

mission to

approaches

Martian the

seems

in

strong

the

being

direct

two

for

Mars

Mission

[3]

Leonard,

R.S.,

"Manned

Mars

Manned [4]

Mars

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D.T.

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A.,

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Manned

J.D.

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Mars

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Concepts

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Duxbury,

T.C.,

(Abst.),

In

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[7]

[9]

p.24.

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R.D.,

M.

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R.,

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lunar

Activities

29-31,

1984,

in

NASA,

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B.,

station:

A

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emergency

Mars

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bases the

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on

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and 21st

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Lunar

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1984,

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Pettit,

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comparative

Space

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other

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Space

and

Workshop

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for

and

Mission

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requirements",

construction

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and

Second

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explosives

J.

Delmos,

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chemical

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the

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Ander,

J.D.

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of

[10]

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