NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) 19870008364: Manned Mars mission environmental control and life support subsystem

A specific design is not presented, but the general philosophy regarding potential Environmental Control/Life Support System (ECLSS) requirements, con...

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N87-17797 NANNEDNARS MISSION CONTROL & LIFE SUPPORT PRELININARY REPORT

ENVIRONMENTAL

SUBSYSTEM

Uwe Hueter Marshall Space Flight Center Marshall Space Flight Center, AL ABSTRACT The

purpose

discuss

the

concepts,

of this

general

issues

mission

lists

the the

typical

and

MEN,

and

functions,

Identifies

several

weights

and

volumes

Station

ECLSS

late

briefly

ECLSS for

The

1990's.

a Martian

base

focus

facility

discusses

concepts

and

It contrasts

element

ECLSSs.

manned

Nars

the

and

Trans-Mars paper

loads

of

a

technology.

provides

several

to

Mars

The

design

and

options,

a manned

covered.

and

issues

these.

on

but

requirements,

is on

are

requirements,

design

ECLSS

Discussions

Mars

with

a specific

potential

needs.

performance

and

to present

regarding

technology

in the

ECLSS,

is not

philosophy

occurring

Vehicle,

paper

It

comparative

aspects

of

the

Space

INTRODUCTION A

proposed

century

presents

Life

Support long

systems.

The a

llfe

Module

to be

requirements

(ECLSS). verified

vehicle

different

Excursion

unique

Subsystem

extremely

utilize

some

mission

(MEN)

and

that

turn

Environmental

of

the

Control

will

require

not

but

also

several

types

the men

design

the

mission

equipment,

ECLSS

around

for the

The

transporting type

flown

from

to Mars

that

to be utilized

will

most

required

by

by

facilities

&

only of

likely

the

Mars

on the Mars

surface.

year

The

mission

each

way.

to months. be on

order

welght/volume will

have

highly types on to

the the

overall

will

requirements

Mars

stay

Station

mission. and

the

will (S/S) The

systems

times

the

hardware

will

could

range

take

be from

to Mars will

and

not

of

used

anywhere

have

years.

could and

to

be

These efforts

it applicable

primarily from

days

expendables

design/development

be

one

possible

will

to make

to

return

and

three

up

several

be

spares,

in order

probably

may

equipment

in excess

additional

901

may

redundancy,

dictate

MEN

LEO

resupply

Therefore,

ECLSS

(LEO)

on Mars

from

Since

a premium,

operating

ECLSS

times

times

years.

to be mlnimized.

Space

durations

be at

for

low-Earth-orblt

mission

of three

reliable of

from

Additionally,

The

the

to Mars

open

for

short

to closed

loop.

A permanent

ment

Mars

different

from

environment

(1/3

(oxygen, the

that

have

of

an

than

those

utilized,

type

activity

(EVA)

gravlty

requirements

Earth) in food

the

power

the

Martian

will

also

due

of

on

gravity

consumables Additionally,

the

Martian The

very

dependent

on

such

as

size,

crew

surface

ECLSS

design

factors

architecture,

other

propellants extra-vehicular

philosophy,

influence

equip-

the

atmosphere.

haven

heavily

ECLSS

to

architecture.

be

safe

have

availability

vehlcle

requirements,

S/S

greenhouses

Factors

system,

likely

the

the

also

above.

of

by

system

will

most

and

in

total

mission

mentioned

would

utlllzed

water)

on

Mars

being

growing

effect

a manned

facility

on and

possibility

for

that

nitrogen,

would

base

and

the

ECLSS

artificial

design.

REQUIREMENTS The

primary

temperature

and

control,

water

support.

The

is

shown

in

The a

system humidity

primary

hardware. utilized

fail

a

imposed

by

ECLSS

health,

and

ECLSS

are

and

habitat

composition

management,

equipment

and

associated

in

for

are

for

all

of

crew

criteria

Table

2 provides

a

ECLSS

equipment.

the

The

condition.

specified

In

mission

the

design

operational"

crew

safety

safe

presented

"fail

hardware

waste

major

operational/fail

criteria

the

and

the

pressure

management,

functions

data

design

signifies

atmospheric

and

success,

The

by

EVA

with

each

1.

mission a

performed

control,

processing

Table

minimum

functions

Table

require

for

the

summary

of

as ECLSS

currently

The

degraded

level

average

design

loads

These

3.

will

loads

will

size

will

be

the

phases.

CONCEPTS The

ECLSS

influenced

by

additional

The

redundancy,

designs

in

to

approach

for to

that

S/S systems

for

the

imposed

by

reliability.

1.

not that

will The

and The

but

Trans-Mars

difference

regeneration Figure

the

chosen

primary

and

consumables

design

the

for

requirements

equipment.

shown

concepts

carbon

issue for are

of the further

902

Vehicle S/S. the be

that

potential

dioxide resupply, Trans-Mars closed

/

mentioned

As S/S

will of

be

which

is

Vehicle, than

that

earlier,

imposed

equipment

options carbon

strongly

for

control

acceptable will required

the

lifetime,

possible

monoxide an

on

are design

drive by

the S/S.

TABLE

ECLSS •

ATMOSPHERE TOTAL

-

FIRE



MODULE



ATMOSPHERE





DETECTION

PRESSURE

& HUMIDITY

MONITORING

WASTE

& CONTROL

--

WATER

EVAPORATION

WATER

COLLECTION/PROCESSING

QUALITY

STORATE

WATER WATER

MONITORING

& DISTRIBUTION

OF

VENTILATION AIR COOLING

CARBON DIOXIDE REMOVAL COLLECTION CARBON DIOXIDE REDUCTION CONTAMINATION CONTROL ODOR CONTROL ATMOSPHERE MONITORING

MANAGEMENT

-

EQUIPMENT

REGULATION

DEHUMIDIFICATION

REVITALIZATION

GAS

S

PORTABLE OXYGEN SYSTEM SMOKE/FIRE DETECTORS FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEM

CONTROL

TRACE

RECOVERED

FANS HEAT

AND

EXCHANGERS

OXYGEN GENERATION EMERGENCY OXYGEN NITROGEN STORAGE

PURIFICATION

QUALITY STORAGE

MONITORING

WATER

MANAGEMENT

-

COLLECT/PROCESS

-

COLLECT/STORE

EVA

PRESSURE

& MONITORING

& SUPPRESSION

TEMPERATURE

--

WASTE

CONTROL

CONTROL

CO 2 CONTROL/REMOVAL/REDUCTION 0 2 & N 2 MAKEUP

WATER

FUNCTION

MAJOR

& COMPOSITION

& PARTIAL

EC/LSSSYSTEM

FUNCTION

--

-•

PRESSURE

--

1.

WASTE COLLECTION EMERGENCY WASTE

URINE FECAL

MATTER

HOT/COLD

WATER

AND STORAGE COLLECTION SUPPLY

StJPPORT

--

PROVIDE

-

PROVIDE LIFE SUPPORT AIRLOCK/HYPERBARIC

EXPENDABLES/SUPPORT

TO

SERVICES FACILITY

TABLE

EMU

2.

REQUIREMENTS

UNITS

CO2PARTIAL TEMPERATURE POINT

SUITS AND BACKPACKS RECHARGE STATIONS AIR LOCK SUPPORT

EC/LSSPERFORMANCE

PARAMETER

DEW

& MMU

TO

OPERATIONAL

MMHG

PRESS

DEC (2)

3.0 F

DEGRADED

MAX

7.6

MAX

66-75 4O -6O

60--85 35--70

WATER

DEC F LB/MAN-DAY

6.8--8.1

6.8

HYGIENE WATER WASH WATER

LB/MAN-DAY LB/MAN--DAY

12 {3) 28 (3)

6 (3) 14 (3/

VENTILATION

FT/MIN

O2PARTIAL PRESSURE

PSIA

15--40 2.7-3.2

10-100 2.4-3.8

PSIA

10.2

MGIM

N2 TBD 500 (7)

POTABLE

TOTAL DILUTE

(1)

(3)

(4)

PRESSURE GAS

(5)

TRACE CONTAMINANTS MICRO-ORGANISMS

(8)

CFU/M

3 3 16)

OR

14.7

10.2 N2 TBD 750

NOTES:

(1) (2) (3) (4)

DEGRADED RELATIVE MINIMUM. IN

NO

THE 14.7

15) (6) (7) (8)

LEVELS

CASE

SHALL

VALUES

ARE AVAILABLE. BASED ON NHB

"FAIL

SHALL THE

02 CONCENTRATION PSIA OR 30 PERCENT

ALL SYSTEMS PRESSURE. CFU - COLONY THESE

MEET

HUMIDITY

SHALL

BE

BE

OPERATIONAL" WITHIN

O2PARTIAL EXCEED OF THE COMPATIBLE

FORMING

UNITS.

REFLECT

A LIMITED

8060.1B,

(J84O0003).

903

THE

CRITERIA. RANGE

PRESSURE

BE

BASE.

BOTH

NO

25--75

BELOW

25.9 PERCENT OF TOTAL PRESSURE WITH

OF

2.3

PERCENT. PSIA,

THE TOTAL AT 10.2.

10.2

WIDELY

AND

14.7

OR

PRESSURE PSIA

SANCTIONED

AT

TOTAL

STANDARDS

OR

(7)

14.7

AND

TABLE

--

METABOLIC LEAKAGE

-

EVA

3. EC/LSS

O2 AIR

02

EVA CO 2 METABOLIC -

AVERAGE

DRINK FOOD

CO 2

H20 PREPARATION

METABOLIC

H20

1"120 PRODUCTION

CLOTHS WASHH20 HAND WASH H20 -

SHOWER

-

EVA

H20

-

PERSPIRATION URINAL FLUSH

H20 AND H20

RESPIRATION

H20

DESIGN

LOADS

1.84 5,00

LB,/MAN LB/DAY

1.22

LB/8

HR

DAY TOTAL EVA

1.48 2.20

LB/8 HR LB/MAN

EVA DAY

4.09 1.58

LB/MAN LB/MAN

DAY DAY

0,76

LB/MAN

DAY

27.50 LB/MAN 4.00 LB/MAN

DAY DAY

8,00

LB/MAN

DAY

9.68

LB/8

EVA

4.02 1.09

LB/MAN LB/MAN

DAY DAY

HR

-

URINE FOOD

H20 SOLIDS

3.31 1.60

LB/MAN LB/MAN

DAY DAY

--

FOOD FOOD

H O P_CKAGING

1.00 1.00

LB/MAN LB/MAN

DAY DAY

0.13 0.07

LB/MAN LB/MAN

DAY DAY

0.04 2.00

LB/MAN LB/8 HR

GAY EVA

0.13

LB/MAN

DAY

--

URINE FECAL

-

SWEAT SOLIDS EVA WASTEWATER

SOLIDS SOLIDS

-

CHARCOAL

REQUIRED

--

METABOLIC

SENSIBLE

--

HYGIENE

-

FOOD PREPARATIONLATENT LAUNDRY LATENT H20

-

WASH

--

SHOWER/HAND AIR LOCK GAS

--

TRASH TRASH

LATENT

H20

TABLE

HEAT

7000

1"(20 H20

SOLIDS

BTU/MAN

DAY

0.96

LB/MAN

DAY

0.06 0.13

LB/MAN LB/MAN

DAY DAY

0.44%

WASH LOSS

H20

SOLIDS

0.12% 1.33 LBS/USE 1.80 0.10

VOLUME

4. EC/LSS

--

FECAL

WASTE

-

TRASH/FOOD

-

SENSOR

TECHNOLOGY

LB/MAN FTJ/MAN

DAY DAY

REQUIREMENTS

MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT

DEVELOPMENT IMASS •

GAUGING

TRACE

GAS

• AIR/WATER

QUALITY

-

WATER

RECLAMATION/PROCESSING

-

REGENERATIVE

-

MARS ATMOSPHERE NITROGEN & WATER

SYSTEMS

CO 2 REMOVAL/REDUCTION

904

PROCESSING

SYSTEM

SYSTEM FOR

OXYGEN,

Figures

2

and

requirements

as

The

provide

a

on

be

travel,

the

either

the

NEM ECLSS

overboard

required.

If,

however,

durations

envisioned design

simplicity

versus

closed

cal

system primary

gen

and

base

2.5_

in

of

the

Water

ls

the

envisioned

is

Future

a potential

from

the

the

the

Nars

will

used

only

ECLSS

could

the

be for be

advantage

weight

trend

can

in

brought

growth

very

of

the

oxygen

self-contained

as

a

source

of

of

open

of

be

and Earth could

lead

to

food

supply. the

in

a

carbon

atmosphere. from

the

potentially

supply

stages

the

atmosphere

are The

early

nitroof

extracted

caps.

the

oxygen,

Martian

sources

in

for

the

quantities

polar

consumables.

reduction

directly

small

ecologi-

of are

the

additional

from

of

a

atmosphere

95_

atmosphere, found

be

through

permafrost

source

the

obtainable

development

permit

atmosphere

However,

be

to

approximately

Martian

to

facility.

be

the has

to

system be

MEN

trans-Nars

of

to

days),

the

stmllar

a closed

shows

envisioned

available

0.03_).

would

4

during

NEM is

system,

If

system

system

Figure

loop

contamination

the ten

closed

haven

closed

that

An open

Narttan

Oxygen

(approximately

that

safe

a

or

permitted,

decided

is

constitutes

atmosphere.

is

consumables

implemented.

if

not

cost.

the

consumables

which

available

be

approximately

low

utilizing

Nitrogen,

Is

facility

water.

dioxide

ls

system.

and

be

or

probably

than

open

will

open

Additionally,

it

for

systems.

Nars

The

an

an

volume

venting

(less

as

The

would

either

that

a working

penalties

closure.

of

system.

by

volume

system

approach

as

Vehicle

and

consist

design

atmosphere

short

of

could

used

Trans-Mars

weight

function

NEN ECLSS

depending will

3

of

of

food

a Nars

greenhouse-type

base

facility

The

greenhouse

could

are

associated

wlth

also

habitat.

ISSUES The degree

major of

hardware

of

many

years.

of

minimized.

vehicle the

systems deslgn.

basic

addressing

future

to

subsystems Due

to

vehicle, the

will The

design in

the

a Mars

Also,

redundant

pertaining

closure

for

sensitivity

issues

the the

weight have

whole

versus

be

issue onboard

studies. 905

ECLSS

and

the

length

reliable of

amount

and

to

the

of

volume

how spares

mission

evaluated much and

redundancy repair

of

and

consumables

allocation

critically of

the

operation

will for to

the have

assure builds

philosophy

the

weight

spares

one

the

to

be

and/or a

viable into needs

FIGURE

FIGURE

100-

2.

OPEN

1. EC/LSS

WEIGHT

SYSTEM

VS. EC/LSS

OPTIONS

SYSTEM

CLOSURE

OPTION

LOOP 6 MEN CREW

I,., 2: o -

90

_

REGENERATIVE CO_ REMOVA L (LI[|UJD RET.._.. URN)

80-

uJ m

70--

:_

60.

HYGIENE WATER RECYCLING

¢n U

CLOTHES WASHING

_

_

40"

z

:_-

=

!

TOTAL WATER PROCESSING

0

OXYGEN RECYCLING

100 DEGREE

OF CLOSURE

906

"--'-'_

FIGURE

3.

VOLUME

VS.

EC/LSS

SYSTEM

CLOSURE

loo w

90

,.I O > uJ ,,.I m <[ u_ Z O ¢J G,. O O ,,J Z la G. O u. O

6 MEN

-_

_...4

LOOP

OPTION

CREW

REGENERATIVE CO2REMOVAL (LIQUID RETURN)

7o HYGIENE WATER

6o-

RECYCLING CLOTHES WASHING

4O _R

TOTAL WATER

oc_s% ox:_:_

20--

ir

10--

O--

DEGREE

FIGURE

4.

TOTAL

OF

CLOSURE

WEIGHT

VS

EC/LSS

I

SYSTEM

6 MEN

CLOSURE

CREW

m .J o pX

I

I Z

2 ¢

11111

u,I I,-

I

c_

I OPEN

I

I

REGEN

LOOP

CLOSED

CO 2

DEGREE

907

H20

OF

CLOSURE

I I CLOSED 02

The

issue

driver

of

for

heavily

the

be

emergency facility

for

will

require

the

EVA

part,

safe

vehicle will

to

have

form

in each

temporarily

being

performed.

more

weight

the

design.

different One potential Mars

the

system that might

area

on

of

fluid

the

will

that

would

such

the

it

would system

a

and

storage

a facility will

be

systems.

a facility

will

place

very

may

be

that

be

will

module

design.

effect

the

surface will

gravity

acquisltlon/feed

failed

proposed

while

that

be used

environment systems

and

The

on

on be

is

the

the

LEO

to

type

of

is comparable the

system

to used

surface.

the ECLSS

vapor/liquid

was

would

from

dictate

the Martian has

crew

repair

ECLSS

flight

on Earth),

on

that

structurally

of the

will

the

requirements

If the gravity (1/3

loop.

safety

the

of

nonredundant

although

design

the

separate

philosophy

"g" during

of gravity

of several

module(s)

stringent

is

subsystems

allow

repalr/maintenance

which

a higher

of the

module,

implemented.

Martian

use

essence

to the active

issue

architecture

of ECLSS the

in

capability

of artificial level

type

example,

of a singular

The

to

the

on

of a multiple

the

effect

of

EVA

overall

area

repair

use

issue

be similar

primary

habitat

requirement

expected

some

the design

non-venting/closed of

more

of such

Also,

For

resultant

that

that

size

influencing

volume,

be

that

the redundancy

bearing

with

The

design

of

will

gases/liquids,

dictate

actual

design

However,

concerning

be restricted

and return.

The

and

implemented.

The

other

consumed

always

major

Ideally,

of gases,

design

parameters

efficient,

from

surface.

factors

by weight

direct

module

would

the

since

possible.

required. Other

Vehicle

as

will

philosophy.

be

Nartian

a

requirements.

key

haven

eventually

loops

both

the

will

modules

and

water

of

be

become

Trans-Mars

as much

leakage

study.

requirements

One

system

will

equipment

the

consumables

consumables

by the

crew

of

further

largest

driven

the

ECLSS

surface on

structural

supply

the The

Hars

available

to close

lnefficiences,

for

vehicle.

than

will

be desirable

closure

overall

affected

consumables

The

system

The

Is in

separation

the de-

vices. TECHNOLOGY The advanced

major

areas

for a manned

storage/generation,

of

technology

Mars

mission

and

waste/trash 908

in the are:

ECLSS

that

regenerative

management.

will systems,

Table

have

to

be

consumable

4 provides

a list

of

some

prior

of

the

key

ECLSS

to commitment

issues

will

by the

of operational

Space

transit

provide

the

tational

Station

flight

Space

llfe

management

areas

systems

for

that

the

that

will

extracting

on take

addressed

Some

program.

of

of

three

advantage

on

the "g"

surface of

the

emphasis

consumables

years

artificial

the Martian

major

the

However,

requirements

potential

require the

be

mission.

additional

gravity

systems

to

of approximately

place

the

need

technology

Also,

and

will

Mars

requirements

to use

The

and

Station

will

to Mars

that

a manned

hardware.

opportunity

force.

items

for

resupply/refurblshment

applicable during

a design

be worked

the aspects without

of

technology

from

will gravi-

are the

waste Martian

atmosphere. SUMMARY The

major

sure

that

can

the

hardware.

important

issues

that

be effected The

factor

need

by

further

the ECLSS

minimization

due

to

the

emphasis and

the

are

degree

operational

of redundancy vehicle

the

weight

and

of

clo-

rellability

spares

will

sensitivity

of

be

for

a

an Mars

mission. A manned

Mars

design/development required being

design remain

of

to meet

The to that as

open

the

will

and

planned

Trans-Mars of

because

challenging

Current

and

objectives. by S/S

Vehicle's

the S/S.

issues

be a very

ECLSS.

the mission

conducted

mission.

mission

The of

earlier.

909

be

ECLSS

MEM the

and

advanced

A lot

will

many

of

the

could

base

undefined

for

technology

directly

design Mars

undertaking

will

development to

be very

similar

ECLSS

variables

be

work

applicable

facility

the

this in

designs

mentioned

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