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_fter

17 years, a U.S. space-

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Aeronautics

Propulsion

and Space Administration

Laboratory

ogy continue

by Mars Observer,

1971 with the Mariner

(NASA) and the Jet

(JPL) of the California

the global

explorations mission

the

Institute

of the Red Planet

of Technol-

to Mars and carried

begun

in

on in the mid-

1970s by the Viking mission.

For the first time, a spacecraft weather

and remote-sensing

is traveling

to a planet

with capabilities satellites

millions

term study. The goal is to create its topography, atmosphere.

The Mars Observer to the Martian addressing

data archive,

the many

tion of the planets also help prepare the 21st century astronauts

mission

magnetism, The entire

will make an enormous giving scientists

questions

of the inner

about

contribution

new perspectives

Mars and about

explorations

that will carry automated

rovers

in

the evolu-

solar system. Mars Observer

the way for future

Martian

-- missions

will of

and, eventually,

to the Red Planet.

4 Createdfrom104separateimages,thisVikingmosaicshowsMars'grandcanyon VallesMarinerisandthreeprominentvolcanoes. (P-38614A)

used for Earth

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away to carry out a long-

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The lance and shield held by Mars, the mythical warrior god, are echoed in the astronomical symbol(c_) for the planet

The

Mars

Observer

named after him. Ancient astrologers consideredthe Red Planet'sinfluence malevolent; thoseborn under its sign were thought to be fiery and impetuous.

Further

S

L

Mars

of

T

Explorations

Flight

Team

C

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A Closer n August 1993, a spacecraft, voyage from Earth, will fire and

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then In

itself

swing the

into

months

controllers

340

spacecraft's Mars

Once

beneath,

follow,

million

orbit

surface.

around

an elliptical,

into

each

orbit,

in about orbit

two

away,

to go

Mars

will path,

The

around

firings,

circular

is ready

T

E

R

after an 11-month slowing its journey

gravity.

orbit

rocket

kilometers

Observer

new

near-polar

a nearly

in mapping

Mars

by Mars'

more

P

Look

approaching Mars its rocket thrusters,

to be captured

that

A

small the

Red

orchestrated gradually 378

craft

will

Planet. by mission

reshape

kilometers

the above

the

to work.

Observer

will

hours.

At the

same

will bring

the

spacecraft

complete

time,

one

as the over

trip

planet

a new

part

rotates of

Mars

Observer

around

completes

the planet

From

its near.polar

will

collect

year

(687

portrait

orbit,

information Earth

of Mars.

The

one

in about

days)

trip

two

hours.

the spacecraft for one

to form

Martian

a global

(P.35177)

Mars

Observer

Mis.*ion

1

Mars.

As the

Mars

w

the

the

the

Tharsis

the

white,

rounds

face FOR

GOD

AND

rotates

--

tian

rays the

for the

instrument

will gathering

and

and

by ancient

floods;

terrain

will

over

in and

that

pass

--

surthe

separated

a battery

ter-

by over

of instruments

detectors

infrared

minerals

will

rays that

infrared

radiation

about

its changing

data

volcanoes

landers

Sensitive

visible

record

Observer

Valles

massive

layered

spacecraft,

chemicals

of

17 years.

detail.

and

carved

Viking

portrait

hemisphere;

the

strange

Mars

rested

a global

southern

equator;

the

U.S.

beneath

gamma

atmosphere,

of the

channels

and

in careful

to determine

Another

PLANET

have

will create

the

its mission,

information

radiation

gigantic

two long-silent --

As Mars

plains near

caps

During

kilometers

record

the polar

the

spacecraft

canyon

region;

them.

the

cratered

huge

frozen

where

6,400

pass,

ancient

Marineris,

rain

weeks

--

from

make

up

from

will

measure the

sur-

Mars.

the

thin

pressure,

Mar-

composi-

Mars, the planet, owes its name to the ancient Roman god of war. The appel-

tion,

water

lation is hardly arbitrary: It follows in-

face

stead an historical human association

altimeter

of the pla net with battle -- mostly due

its valleys.

to its bloody red coloring and its puz-

and

angle

content, measuring will

map

The

and

dust

clouds.

the

time

the

out

Mars

the

components

reflections

heights

Observer

By firing

to record

take

of Mars'

camera

pulses

will

and

at the

to return,

mountains

system

landforms

of light

sur-

a laser

and

the

depths

use wide-

and

narrow-

atmospheric

cloud

of

patterns.

zling, erratic transit across the sky. Mars, the god, began his history rather insignificantly--

Another

sensor

munications

as a minor Greek

deity named Ares whose main accom-

use

plishment was being the husband of

sphere

the

Aphrodite, the goddess of love. (The

will look

subsystem

signal

beams

of the

and

the

for a Martian

Week

by week,

Martian

year

information

orbiting

planet's

magnetic

orbit

back

spacecraft

gravitational

field.

As the

to Earth,

to derive

data

telecom-

engineers

about

will

the

atmo-

field.

by orbit,

the

mapping

will

continue

for one

planet's two satellites, incidentally, are named for Ares' attendants, Phobos

full

and Deirnos: "fear" and "rout," respec-

struments

tively.) Once the Romans adopted Ares,

appearance

however, he became increasingly

and

pop-

ular -- in light of their ever-expanding martial activities--

and eventually

eclipsed even Jupiter in importance among the Roman pantheon. By the

and the

well as the personal avenger of the emperor. In the end, the legend of Mars -- both god and planet--

has

attained rather mythical proportions.

of the

then

to summer

trace

swirling

from

the

polar

have

nature rior.

and

Mars."

We

that

tian

surface,

2

The

Mars

OI)set_,er

Mission

to help

planet

Earth.

will

through and

to the

1996,

then

begin We

involve

sample

year

can

also

robots,

returns, critical

us understand,

Mars

begin

to plan

scientific perhaps

data

on

through

the

global

to winter dunes will

gases back

Mars

Observer record

a global

more

of the

and

Manual

on

inte-

for

Planet

basis,

as a

specialized

deployed

explora-

to the

landings.

operation

track cycle

again.

atmosphere,

human

comparative

dis-

an extensive

stations

even

and

and

has passed,

"Operating

to understand

growth

They

soil,

its surface,

a first

in-

as these

the

--

the

of sand

atmosphere.

of data

senses,

turns

locations

dioxide into

world,

acquired

the

as summer the

the

a Martian

of another have

caps

carbon

archive

of human watching

note

atmosphere,

when

a unique

we will have

world

frost

They

vapor

in fact,

might

polar

storms

system.

tions

seasons,

dust

behavior

single-world

portant,

again.

caps

can

Extensions

shifting

seasonal

obtained

It will,

the

days).

of water

By February will

Earth

observe

movement

time of Augustus, Mars had become guardian of Roman military affairs as

will

(687

Mar-

Equally

im-

of another

planetology,

our

own

C

H

A

P

T

E

R

The Call of Mars xcept for the planet on which we live, no world has occupied more of history, thought, and fiction than Mars. Observed from the earliest been

days of astronomy

as a wandering

a part of the human

its menacing

red color

with blood

as a natural,

astronomers

circled

the Earth.

second

centu D, A.D. was built upon

European

thought

tric solar system which

seems

Kepler

for about

to trace

finally caused

appear

by a faster

that Mars slows down,

only able to complete he realized

Copernican With hauntingly made phases

path

across

quite

in the

and dominated

then

moves

heliocen-

explain

Mars,

the sky.Johannes that the effect was an

overtaking

Mars, making

in reverse.

it

Kepler

for his laws of planetary

in an elliptical

of telescopes,

features

Moon

astronomer

couldn't

17th century

Earth

stops,

models

they thought,

Even the Copernican

orbit

was

motion

rather

than

a

Mars took on character,

appeared.

and seemed

Giovanni diminished

the planet's

rotation

and noted

Domenico

period

figure

of 24 hours,

ally, 19th-centtu'y

optics

revealed

that

to be irregularly Cassini

and expanded

the modern

and

In Italy in 1610, Galileo

with his new "spyglass"

caps that

Greek

--

orbit.

Earthlike

the Italian

near

moving

the development

had

measured

by Ptolemy

looping

that Mars moves

like Earth's

polar

devised

the mathematics

circular

observations

system earlier

in the early

illusion

when

that,

1,500 years.

an odd,

of the cosmos

worlds

of the 16th century

perceived

feature

of several

Earth-centered

model

civilizations,

and war.

mysterious

knew it as one The

light in the sky, it has long

Mars was a god to many

associated

Mars was accepted ancient

record.

shaped.

reported

periodically,

as 24 hours, 37 minutes,

two tiny moons,

Galilei

Mars had In 1666, that

Mars

and he

40 minutes

-- very

22.7 seconds.

Eventu-

an atmosphere,

clouds

The

Mars

Observer

Missiml

3

In 1965, Mariner

4 (right) flew by Mars,

taking 22 pictures. Picture number (above) showed mountains,

11

valleys, and

craters much like those on Earth's Moon. (P-4732,

P-7875A)

and dust storms, ally blooming

vegetation

Naturally, speculation

and what seemed

discovery

Giovanni

of this possibility. and well-written fanned

controversy. beings

Lowell

had built

Schiaparelli's

The debate

growing

consensus

the telescope. matter

how large,

question

couldn't

the arrival

Beginning

spacecraft,

U.S. Mariner

These

The Mars Observer

Mission

with the death

of Lowell

illusions

of the Space Age, Mars could

with the 1962 launch

16 U.S. and Soviet

missions

9, which

began

reand a

at our end

telescopes, to settle

spacecraft

and south

have shown

regions

are quite

be studied

of the Soviet have flown

about

a one-year

and the U.S. Viking 1 and Viking an orbiter and a lander each.

4

of

planet's

Mars well enough

on Mars. Most of what we now know

north

(a misinterpretation

that ground-based

resolve

Lowell

that intelligent

the water-starved

were optical

realized

Percival

acrimonious

of

no

the

of life on the Red Planet.

With range.

Astronomers

the observations

astronomer

with the idea

subsided

the "canals"

consideration

of this century,

system of canals

gradually that

serious

and sometimes

canals) to manage

life) on

on Mars by the Italian

of the American

fascinated

gave rise to

intelligent

in 1877 started

into a visible

a complex

sources.

of"channels"

became

word,

Mars and Earth

the early years

arguments

this speculation

a wave of season-

the planet.

of life (perhaps

Schiaparelli

During

across

between

the existence

Mars. The reported astronomer

that spread

the similarities

about

to be (but was not)

2, launched

by, orbited,

the planet

orbital

Union's

came

or landed from

the

survey of Mars in 1971, in 1975 and consisting

us that Mars is not uniform different.

at close Mars-1

_

its

Early U.S. flyby missions,

of

such as Mariner photographed

4 in 1965 and the twin Mariners the ancient,

hemisphere,

leading

canyon

geological --

numerous water.

named

photographs features

appear:

Valles Marineris, that looked

small

to be seen from

as though Earth,

"canals,"

features

Mars seem even more

made

huge

indeed

9, six years

volcanoes,

they had been these channels

intriguing.

There

did

rifted -- and

cut by running were not the

illusions.)

question

Moon.

later,

a great

of the mission

were optical

to solve, but the most compelling

in the southern

Mars was like Earth's

Mariner

in honor

hotly debated

puzzles

which

highlands

that

from

channels

(Too

cratered

to the conclusion

Only with the orbital Earthlike

heavily

6 and 7 in 1969,

These

were many

was: Is there

life

on Mars? The two Viking the Red Planet.

They

landers

carried

dug up samples

out the first direct

search

of the Martian

soil, treated

for life on some

The twin Mariners

6 and 7 (left)

Mars in t 969 and photographed 10 percent

of the surface.

flew by about

Both space-

craft detected frozen carbon

dioxide

(dry ice) and a small amount

of water

ice in the south polar cap, visible in this photograph spacecraft (241-212B,

(below)

approached

taken as the the planet.

P-30105)

The Mars Observer

Mission

5

The huge Martian

volcano Olympus

Mons (right) is the largest shield volcano in the solar system: about 26 kilometers in height and approximately ters in diameter. taken by Mariner spacecraft

600 kilome-

The photograph 9 (below)

--

was

the first

to orbit another planet --

during its survey of Mars in the early 1970s. (P-13074,

6

P-12035)

The Mars Observer

Mission

The

Viking

of two Each

orbiters,

from carried

orbit out

surface.

Viking

its own

footpad

Martian 1976.

soil

The

consisted

carrying

a lander.

(above)

took

photo.

while

each

lander

experiments Lander

after

(293.9157,

to Mars

each

spacecraft

graphs (left)

mission

on the

1 photographed

(below) landing P.tT053,

Mars Observer

on the rocky on July 20, P-16124A)

Mission

7

of them

with

nutrients,

life forms.

While

biological

processes,

else

on

the

detection.

planet,

for

Even four

the

Mars

IMAGE

The same evolutionary process seems to affect every human endeavor: Make an observation, proceed to an assump-

may

that

Earthlike

tion, develop a theory, infer a hypothe-

ing

sis, discover a fact, reach a conclusion

better

and

studies of the planet Mars have not been immune to this "scientific method." Through the centuries, the various mysteries of Mars--

coloring, motion,

Mars from our

solar

will

go

it, have

ter, sustenance of life, geology, astro-

Red

examined, debated, and occasionally even resolved. Each technological advance and analytical improvement creates an increasingly accurate picture of the real Red Planet: Mars' "backward"

motion is explained by its

elliptical path around the Sun; neither water nor life exist on the planet; and the Martian "canals" are just optical illusions. What remains for us to discover about the Red Planet? Will Mars forever remain the "fuzzy blob" we saw in 1956 (above) -- or will we someday see the true picture? This is Mars Observer's mission --to that sharper image.

8

The

Mars

Observer

Mission

acquire

journey

and system

someday

possible vegetation, existence of wa-

logical significance -- have been

may

Earth

walk, to Mars. a dual

Planet

and

to Mars

is life on

Mars

remains

inner

system,

Mars

active,

Earthlike

The

old,

of planetary

cratered

and

atmosphere,

can

form

and

on

another

--

similar

have

a unique

role

its harsh where

but

in our

environment, we can

explore, Mars

at birth

reasonably

or even Observer,

to learn

to collect explore

future.

think

that

and

data

the

that

it firsthand.

we must

shows

polar

ice

By comparwe can

the

the

within

might

missions

have

--

world

humans

about

us

its distance

other

go beyond

automated

as possible

records

now

Despite only

of

Mars

world.

different

it is the

live. If we ever

as much the

quite

--

Venus.

the

is unique:

parts

formation

Earth

develop

Among

with

an

planet.

await

encour-

solar

but

ever-changing

own

no

world.

as volcanoes,

our

and

provided

that

Mars.

Moon,

history

of

somewhere

or fossils

a fascinating

of the the

life exists

matter

however,

of microscopic

no indications

such

Mars

task:

be organic

there

early on

features,

and

that

may

like

the

understand

is still a possibility

of its atmosphere.

erased

weather,

Earth

-- and then immediately challenge the results and start all over again. Our

been

Viking

evidence

found

planets

cratered

preserve

have

caps,

that

(rocky)

to detect

experiment,

of life,

because

that

tried

data

there

direct

view

and

characteristics A SHARPER

there

if barren

dead

then

of the

and

first

terrestrial

partly

analyses

This

agement

and

Moon, that

we

follow

fascinating

if we are

ever

to

C

The

system,

of Earth.

The

of Earth

I

than

Mercury,

at the surface person

on Mars. Mars takes 687 Earth year almost

Earth.

its smaller

It turns

day (called rotation,

of its tilted and

only slightly

realistic

their

discovered

moon,

orbits

than

seasonal

-- although

had been until

and named

only 6,000

moon,

ters. Unlike and about eter"

irregular.

Phobos

loses

its meaning

(The

and that

the Sun, mak-

making

of its orbit

sedately

axis of

(at an angle

for Earth).

Because

making

"summer"

changes, spring

day at many

sites

They are so small

since the early 17th cenastronomer

Martian

at a distance

Moon,

moons

surface,

Hall

moving

day. Deimos, of 20,120

both of Mars'

are so oddly term;

Asaph

the innermost

the Martian

28 by 20 kilometers

as a descriptive

with

a Martian

day. Mars'

in 1887. Phobos, above

spherical

is about

16 by 12 kilometers.

Venus

characteristics

an Earth

a warm

surmised

them

more

large,

solar

day in Antarctica.

the American

kilometers

moves

Earth's

R

125 kilograms

around

certain

to the plane

so fast that it rises and sets twice in a single outermost

weigh

by two tiny, dark moons.

existence

tury, they were not found finally

would

with 23.5 degrees

feel to us like a balmy

Mars is accompanied that, while

is tilted

terms

than

and 37 minutes,

axis, Mars has Earthlike

'Winter"

share

longer

for Mars compared

on Mars might

E

years long.

size, Mars does

like that of Earth,

of 25 degrees

smaller

days to travel once

two Earth

of the inner

of Mars is only 38 percent

on Earth

on its axis in 24 hours

a "sol")

planets

but much

a 330-kilogram

Despite

T

of Mars

to the other

force of gravity

ing a Martian

P

small planet. It is about 6,800 kilometers in half the diameter and with about one-eighth

Compared

Mars is larger

Earth.

A

Nature

ars is a relatively diameter, about the volume

H

the

kilome-

moons

are tiny

in size; Deimos shaped

the longest

that

is "diam-

and shortest

The

Mars

Observer

Missi_m

9

dimensions showed very

are that

old;

the

Before

on

were

the

age

This

Mars

of around

face

is only

heavily

escaped

is correct,

but

from

cratered,

from

they

asteroid

that

orbiters

that

belt

they

between

are Mars

gravity. both

literary

dry planet

with

underestimated

Celsius.

Viking

indicating

exploration,

a low of about

1/125

the

was a cold,

27 degrees

by the

by Mars'

of planetary Mars

about

Observations

captured

that

range

high

are

they

and

proposed

sphere.

instead.)

moons

probably

and Jupiter

writers

given

the

-133

degrees

The

atmospheric

of Earth

--

case.

Celsius

about

and

a very

scientific

thin

Temperatures to a pleasant

pressure

equal

atmo-

at the

sur-

to atmospheric

A Viking photomosaic (above) shows pressure

on

Earth

at four

times

the

height

of Mount

Everest.

The

Mar-

Phobos, the innermost moon of Mars, tian

atmosphere

is 95 percent

carbon

dioxide,

with

only

trace

own

atmosphere,

amounts

with its many grooves and lunar-llke of the

nitrogen

and

oxygen

that

dominate

our

and

craters. Deimos (below), the outerthe

amount

of water

in Mars'

atmosphere

is less

than

1/1,000

of the

most moon, has craters that are more water

in Earth's

atmosphere.

Conditions

on

Mars

are

distinctly

hostile

produces

a wide

subdued and filled in. Both may be to human

beings.

captured asteroids. (P.20776, P.17873) Surprisingly, variety

of weather

dwellers:

winds

low-level

fogs,

tronomers

10

The Mars Ob_rver Mission

the

alien

phenomena, and

and

had

thin,

clouds surface

observed

ern

regions

and

sometimes

the

Mariner

9 spacecraft

Martian a few

as high frost. huge

dust

entered

of which

are

familiar

as 25 kilometers

Even

spread

atmosphere

before

storms across Mars

spacecraft that

the

orbit

above

often

whole at the

to Earththe

visited start planet.

height

surface, Mars,

in the (In

south1971,

of a planet-

as-

EARTH 12 J56-km DtAMETER

wide storm

and

the complex The desert,

had to wait for months

geology

cameras

varied

by drifts

appear

volcanic

unable

in origin,

landers

indeed

correct:

Interestingly,

ticles

of red dust,

Moonlike, violent

heavily

ago, when

The

Although

but these

soil showed

that

iron,

speculations or rust,

of Mars extends

cratered

terrain

about

equator,

that probably

4.6 billion

were

the result

of evolution.

of divergent

Earth's

for comparison; than about

is roughly

Moon

it is not

Mercury.

Earth

the same

diameter,

half

their

have striking

and

is much Venus and

Mars

size.

sky.

into two dis-

is an ancient, preserves

years ago to about

planets

have

--

system exhibit

fine par-

a pink-tinted

hemisphere

solar they

(rocky)

in the soil and

upwards;

by the planet's

southern

of the inner similarities,

smaller

were

terrestrial

certain

shown

by the

four

planets

paths

analyzed

made

the

differences

instruments

analyses

aloft by the winds, produce

The

a magnificent to the horizon,

rocks and boulders

Chemical

is due to oxidized

all the newly formed

records

of a

4 billion

bombarded

years

with chunks

of

debris.

The younger,

more

of geological

one of which

is more

Earthlike activity.

than

neris

is just

long,

it would

below

the Martian

stretch

channels

across

appear

northern

There

States.

high

more

volcanoes

than

in the north,

5,000

hemisphere;

some

enough

canyon

of the continental

in the northern

retains

and large

The immense

equator; most

hemisphere

are huge

25 kilometers

the west coast of the United

sinuous

revealing

have been chemically

the rocks.

very roughly

from

unconsolidated

evidence

color

regions.

period

3,476-kin DIAMETER

photographed

with soil scoops

or chip

borne

different

MOON

4,878-km DIAMETER

the dust settled,

cracks.

none

the red color

Mars is divided, tinctly

MERCURY

and soil extending

of surface

though

of the fine, reddish The

landers

of rocks

were equipped to scratch

Viking

rocks.

panoramas

and networks

-- the landers were

MARS 6,796-km DIAMETER

of the surface.)

of the two Viking

with stark

until

VENUS ] 2,100-kin DIAMETER

to cover

Valles Marikilometers

United

States.

Many

they were appar-

The

Mars

Observer

Mission

1 1

It was an unusually clear day on Mars when Viking Orbiter view. The horizon

1 captured

this

is about 19,000 kilo.

meters away; the brightness is due mainly to a thin haze. The detached layers of haze above the horizon are 25 to 40 kilometers high and are probably carbon dioxide crystals (dry ice).

12

(P. 17022)

The Mars Observer

Mission

ently

cut by running

of millions

water

that may have flooded

on several

seasons then

retreat,

The

Mariner

in terrain,

different

-- long observed

time scales.

from

and global

it is a dynamic

dust

9 and Viking

Earth storms

spacecraft

of clouds

tion of fogs at dawn of frost around Both

contrast, change. water

in Martian

the Viking

Mars and Earth massive,

(dry ice).

northern

Both

dioxide.

then

sublime

valleys,

landers

by

that

site

of Martian

of Gold).

polar

These (change

perennial

of light and

caps have an additional caps expand

from

ice to vapor)

polar

seasonal toward

3 meters lander.

large

"Big and

The

I from

Planitia

boulder

at left,

Joe, _ measures

is 8 meters vertical

of the lander's

its

(Plains

from

white

1 by the

object

meteorological

is part

boom.

(P- 17430)

layers

carbon

In

seasonal

and is composed

of frozen

The

nicknamed

Lander

in Chryse

was

caps are

thin, and experience

cap is made

Viking

landscape

mornings.

scale -- permanent.

cap is the larger

dark forma-

of thin

cold winter

ice caps, but Earth's

seasonal

the planet. over months

and the appearance

caps are small,

perennial

and

the thin atmosphere,

on especially

have polar

polar

ice; the southern

bon

through

shifting

and -- at least on a seasonal

the Martian The

winds,

Martian

viewed

across

changes

A rock.filled

landing

ice caps expand

sweep

documented

regions,

planet

the change

sometimes

in the surface

slow movements

During

-- the polar

and even days: variations

extensive,

Mars hundreds

of years ago.

Mars is not only varied changes

across

of

dioxide

"frost cap" of car-

the equator

in winter,

in late spring.

This mosaic Mars"

heavily

sphere. Earth's sons

of images cratered

The surface Moon

and

unknown,

southern by later

the

highlands geological

The

Mars

shows

part

southern resembles

reveals craters were

of hemL

that

that, that

of

for readot

the

unmodified

activity.

(P-24667)

Observer

Mission

13

OLYMPUS (MARS)

4km

Mars'

Olympus

largest

known

system.

(

(EARTH) lOkm

9 km

Mons shield

(right)

Kea,

which

(measured

is about

a third

Mount

Everest,

overshadowed

Hawaiian

as high. Earth's by

in the

the ocean Even

solar

in floor),

mighty

highest

Olympus

__!iiiiii!iiiiii!iii!ilili!i J_:_:!iiiiiiiiiiiiliiiiiiiSiii

volcano,

is 10 kilometers from

__-jili!i!i!i!i!ili!i!i!:!ili!:ii!ii_

_

is the

volcano

The dormant

Mauna height

MAUN

MONS __ :::::::::::::_::: _ ::_iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiliiiiiiiiiii!iil I! ============================

peak,

is

Mons.

(P-20942)

One of the most striking record

of the Viking

sonal

polar

landers

cap expands,

causing

the atmospheric such

phoons, sonal

large

never polar

atmosphere.

it removes pressure

pressure

occur.)

documented

is the close connection

caps and the Martian

northern

Earth,

discoveries

drops,

between

As either

carbon

dioxide

to drop

by about

even inside

It is possible

caps by measuring

in the years-long

from

to estimate

or

the atmosphere,

25 percent.

major

(On

hurricanes

the growth

the atmospheric

the sea-

the southern

pressure

and ty-

of the seaat any point

on

Mars, or vice versa. The question theme

in debates

Liquid

water

cannot

into water vapor large

Mars

Observer

Mission

structures

scoured of these

across

and

that they were cut by running has this water cap and

gone?

totally dry.

at the surface;

have photographed the surface

channels

Only

on Mars is a major

Mars is almost

exist at the low pressures

doubt,

polar

ever flowed Today,

or ice. Yet spacecraft

shapes

northern

The

water

the planet.

and fine channels

Where

141.

of whether about

indicate,

it turns numerous

of Mars, and almost

beyond

the a

water. a tiny fraction

in the atmosphere.

Some

is now seen in the of it may have escaped

to space,

but most

of it should

have remained

permafrost

(permanent

thick

the surface,

just as some

water

The

question

of whether

fundamental change; water

zones

can be found

young;

deposited think

terrain

pare

polar

surrounding

they overlie

of a single

it with the record

and

have not been tal questions

of Earth? Water

is

and climate How easily

for human

explora-

windblown

have frozen

layer,

therefore,

depends

of climate surface

able to provide

change

strongly

history

much

on dust deposi-

the layers in more of Mars and

to com-

on Earth.

of Mars conceal

of the planet.

dust with ices

out of the atmosphere.

Examining

the climatic

were

of years ago. Scientists

of deposited

processes.

layers are geo-

of Mars and possibly

-- that

development

about

surfaces

dioxide

and

show wide, smooth

the ice caps. These

the older

us to reconstruct

The atmosphere the origin

one.

life support.

regions

as a few tens of millions

and carbon

will help

beneath

regions

processes

for human

will be significant

of the Martian

tion and thus on past climatic detail

of geological

essential

and extracted

as recently

Formation

in the polar

exists on Mars is a critical

that the layers are a mixture

-- water

mixture)

in

of Mars.

images

of layered

logically

is trapped

to the understanding

tion and settlement Viking

layers of an ice-rock

water

and it is, of course,

on Mars. Is it hidden

Previous

more

mysteries

spacecraft

data to help answer

about

missions

the fundamen-

how Mars evolved.

The enormous Marineris ters and equator. outline

The giant

system

about parallels

Shown

superimposed

stretches rift

photographed

The

kilome-

the

States, from

is named

9 spacecraft,

Valles

5,000

roughly

of the United

Marineri5

Mariner

canyon

extends

Martian on an Valles

coast

after which

to coast.

the

U.S,

first

it. (P-407818)

M_rs

Observer

Missi_n

1 5

We assume trial planets about

that

4.6 billion

newly formed Moon

Mars originated

-- through

years ago. The

planets

in history

and age. Other

plains

of volcanic

lava, which

erupted

While

Mars possesses

of water frost on Utopia Planitia

the planet

(above). The photograph

exists within

the Martian

winter

surface -120

temperature

early history

some

from within

similarities

an iron core

like the large,

and produces

our planet's

by Viking

know

composition

may have been

produced

fact, so little

is known

the interior

degrees Celsius. (P-21873)

bulk composition

about

high-

over a long

to form

much

molten

metal

magnetic

the

of the or even if,

core

field.

that

We do not

of Mars, or how rocks of different from

the original

mixture.

In

of Mars that it is difficult

even

to ask the right questions. The geological

Opposite page: The Martian

the planet

the Moon

to our Moon,

Earth

the lowest

during the mission:

to the lunar

We do not know when,

formed

the original

faces of the of Mars, which

of Mars may be widespread

spread across or "seas."

is still uncertain.

of the

this time of violent

lands

planet's

Lander 2, which recorded

during

and this part of Mars may be closest

Dark rocks contrast with light patches

during

cratered

bombardment,

regions

by debris

hemisphere

may also have formed

terres-

beginning

bombardment

southern

period of time. Similar eruptions dark areas known as lunar maria

was taken

bodies,

in the heavily

The battered

with craters,

of smaller

intense

is preserved

and Mercury.

is dotted

in the same way as the other

the accretion

history

of Mars following

the turbulent

period

of

north and

planet

formation

is unique

and very un-Moonlike.

years,

Mars developed

During

the last 2 or

south polar ice caps have additional

3 billion seasonal

"frost

features

that resemble

those

of Earth

caps" of carbon dioxide.

more

than

the Moon.

Huge,

isolated

volcanoes

-- most

notably

The seasonal caps expand toward the

Olympus equator in winter, then sublime (change from ice to vapor) in late spring.

formed

Molls and

shows the south polar frost

cap in its final stage of sublimation.

volcanoes

of Mars melted

along

the Tharsis

uplift

--

and lava rose to the surface.

Un-

This

like lava eruptions photograph

the other

as the interior

spread

on the Moon

out as thin sheets

built up massive

and on the older

over vast distances,

volcanic

structures

Martian

the later

plains,

Martian

which

eruptions

in a few locations.

(Po40390)

During

the same period,

was not entirely sense,

between

and Venus. crust

is thin,

more

than

mantle,

The Moon's

Earth's that

plates.

dence

activity: The when

Mars appears

day. It appears

of the Martian

that,

and rigid; while

canyon

eruptions,

some

of

Earthlike

system may have

slowly pulled however,

was active elsewhere

into

layer in the

at the boundaries

crust

for that one event,

at present,

Earth's

crust is fragmented

to have experienced

Valles Marineris

crust

and the Earth

activity --volcanic

huge

the Martian

Mars, in a geological

are similar,

-- occurs

two sections

years ago. Except that

cold, complex

geological

these

moving

which

float on a hot, viscous

and mountain-building

2 billion

Mission

plates

and most of Earth's

formed

The Mars Ob_rver

crust is thick,

or crust of Mars apparently

places

and Mercury,

hot, and active. two dozen

layer

This characteristic

the Moon

earthquakes,

crustal

16

stable.

the outer

there

apart

about

is no evi-

or that it is active to-

Mars has just one crustal

plate.

The

Mar.

Ob_-rvvr

.Mis_i_m

! 7 l

The shapes and structures channels scoured Mars indicate,

of many large

across the surface of

almost

beyond

that they were cut by running

a doubt, water.

Viking images showed

physical features

resembling

gorges, and

riverbeds

shorelines,

that suggest global flooding

in Mars' distant

1B

past. (P.25808)

The Mars Observer Mis,_ion

LOWELL'S

CANALS

For years, the question not intelligent a subject

of some

astronomers.

ing the planet

discussion

markings

--

or "channels,"

ferred

ing many

as clear networks

lines --

assertions,

contested

While of Mars

were

Needless which

were of

quickly

dis-

increasingly

improved

have shown

us what

to be channels

water,

modern-day

where

sys-

by the majority

appear

not believe

in-

represented

as far as nam-

of his waterways.)

his contemporaries, proved.

and then

networks

even went

to say, Lowell's

views

beings.

water-distribution

tem. (Lowell

were

maps of Mars,

the canals

a planetwide

canals

of intelligent

that these

strongly

in 1894, Percival

detailed

of geometrical

From

he founded

that these

the work

in 1877

Schiaparelli.

Arizona,

drew

showing

canafi

observed

insisted

Lowell

height-

first called

Giovanni

in Flagstaff,

actually

among

crisscross-

at the observatory

Lowell

was

and then translated

as "canals"--were

studies

or

on Mars

The controversy

ened after linear

by Italian

of whether

life existed

that water

cut by running

astronomers flows

freely

do any-

on the Red Planet.

r O

Tht"

Mal

_ OI)'41_11%¢+1" ,P'.li',+,i,m

1 9

A generation

ago, our study of Mars was limited

views in Earth-based

telescopes.

of the questions

that

scientists

ample,

that

the "canals"

we know

planet's

red color

sphere

and know

us that

the sky we thought

instead, sition

is due

of the polar

swered,

before

What

Marsquakes?

Planet

rounded

by wide, smooth zones of lay.

ered terrain. Dust deposited

by Martian

winds is layered with ice, suggesting a repetitive

history of climatic

changes.

This is the north polar cap; the mottled area in the lower

left b the seasonal frost

cap in sublimation.

20

The Mars Observer

Mission

Is there

the Valles Marineris and, if so, why didn't and many

challenging.

mysteries

has a reddish

on Earth.

other

geological

to

tint

us large-

But, as is often

questions questions

have been -- many

an iron such

rift represent the process unanswered

will disclose

What

an-

unimag-

of the Earth?

are complex,

move-

tantaliz-

out by the Mars Obanswers

and reveal

as our explorations

us to new levels of understanding.

plate

as it has on Earth?

questions

many

generated

and so few of them?

the start of crustal

carried

of the

an internally

volcanoes

continue,

are the com-

structure

structure

core and

huge

The investigations

undoubtedly

history?

is the internal

the internal

that will lead to new questions,

bring

revealed

have shown

What

from

field? Why are there

mission

images

photographs

while many

of Mars'

magnetic

server

the

the atmo-

We know the compo-

have in turn led to more

Are there

ing, and

and that

the new discoveries.

and how does it differ

These

Viking

many

For ex-

of the color.

of places

and ages of its bedrock?

planet,

illusion

be blue like Earth's

endeavors,

are the details

positions

Both Martian polar ice caps are sur-

might

ice caps. Stunning

the answers

inable

have answered

We have examined

and composition.

that are reminiscent

the case with scientific

ment

iron.

blurred

for generations.

were an optical

to oxidized

its density

spacecraft

have pondered

and we know now the source

scale features

Does

Visiting

to distant,

new

of the Red

C

H

The Mars Mission

quick

by the first flyby missions

looks at small areas

duration vided

with the more

our first global

Viking landers on Mars.

kinds

on a special

missions

have limitations.

the planet

9 and Viking

spectacular

to gather

7 -- which

R

orbiters

missions

were not able to

they did not make

all the knowledge

for life

we still do

since all planetary

first explorers

pro-

the two

the search

discoveries,

took

of longer

Finally,

study:

and they did not examine

detail

E

enough

enough needed

different

different

places

to resolve

the

questions.

Thus,

the Mars database

photographs

of the entire

uniform

and the images

measure

of the smallest

higher

the resolution,

have some many

These

T

reconnaiswas

missions

the planet.

intensive

made

long enough;

of observations;

in sufficient deepest

Mariner about

4, 6, and

exploratory

Mars well. This is not surprising,

necessarily observe

these

Mariners

Later

information

focused

Although not know

complex

carried out in stages: study. Reconnaissance

I

of Mars.

P

Observer

he exploration of Mars has been sance, exploration, and intensive provided

A

measurements

are single

example,

during

is extensive

Martian

are of moderate object

resolution.

the objects

of atmospheric

atmospheric

but the coverage

that can be clearly

the smaller

measurements

but still incomplete.

surface,

made entry

(Resolution

pressure

is a

seen in an image;

that can be seen.)

over short and descent

We have is not

the

%4re

and temperature, periods

but

of time (for

of the Viking

landers).

The

Mars

Observer

Missi_n

21

Opposite page: Orbiting upper atmosphere, will rotate

in Mars'

Cameras

the spacecraft

once per orbit to keep the

instruments pointed

Martian

uniformly

during the entire

year. The instruments

collect data simultaneously

will

and con-

tinuously on both the day and night sides of the planet.

on the Viking

chemical

analyses

Additionally,

a great

time or space. pressure,

for instance)

Martian many

important

advisory

before.

the immediate

The next

of "snapshots,"

In short,

we have enough

Mars mission,

and interior. that would

After

then,

This could

ambitious

the available

should

make

year, studying

debate,

be done

a variety

circle Mars in a nearly

Mars

it was agreed next

step.

of observations

the surface,

economically

than

NASA and its

data about

of Mars was the essential

Martian

to explore

of action,

considerable

of

the answers.

mission

and more

atmo-

by a single

polar orbit,

carD,ing

a

The major phases of the mission: Following an 11.month

cruise after

launch from Earth, Mars Observer will allow itself to be captured into an elliptical orbit by Mars" gravity. It will INSERTSINTO AN INTERMEDIATE ELLIPTICALPOLAR ORBIT AT MARS

take about three months to get the spacecraft

into its near-circular,

nearINTERPLANETARYCRUISE TO

(_

polar mapping orbit.

IntERPLANETARY /

/

lk_

_

/

INJEC

LAUNCHED ON TITAN III -9/25/92 / / _-

22

The Mars Observer

Mission

_/-

in

year, and

data to generate

data to find

the next

on a course

weighed

coverage

over at least one complete

that

area.

atmospheric

the composition

comprehensive

questions.

global

about

but not enough

To decide

(surface

per-

limited

over at least a full Martian

information

committees

unanswered

long-term,

spacecraft

only from

have to be more

scientific

sphere,

of soil samples

deal of data consists

1980s, it was clear

done

pictures

instruments

questions,

anything

that

ground-level

the lander

that extend

material.

By the early

against

detailed

and

no global

surface

Mars would

provided areas,

We have only a few measurements

we have virtually

(P-40613)

landers

two small geographical

formed

at Mars. This will

allow all the h_struments to view the planet

of just

OBSERVESMARS FROM THE MAPPING ORBIT FOR ONE MaRtIAn YEAR-- 687 EARTH DAYS

The

Mars Observer

Missiml

23

battery

of instruments

planetary

Mars Observer

division

called

rocks

The mission's

planet.

the gravity

back and forth

and Martian

soil.

the most exciting

the Sun will be between and communications

them

Near

Earth and Mars

MARS

ORBIT

INSERTION

9/25/92

superior

global

productive,

the composition,

carbon

analysis

efforts

makes

data

will relay

during

phase,

will relay data

to the Martian

to Earth

surface

I

I

I

JANUARY 1993

24

The Mars Observer

J

missions

to Mars.

will participate in late

instrument orbiter.

END

OF

MISSION 2/3/96

:

'94

DATA

1

I

I

I

I

MAPPING

CONIUNCTION

RELAY

--

I

I

I

I

I

ENDS

11/3/95

i

I

IANUARY 1994

Mission

than

long

MAPPING PHASE (687 DAYS)

i

i

from

Designed

ilL__SOLAR

DAYS)

:-

[

explo-

more

for launch

by a Russian

MARS

ORBIT ORIENTATION

I

to Earth

BEGINS

CRUISEPHASE (333 DAYS)

I

mission.

Mars Obsen,er planned

one of

in planetary

by all pre_ious

Mars '94 mission,

caps,

use 1980s technology,

the one-Martian-year

than that gathered

dust as

Mars Observer

undertaken and

and

polar

used on any previous

of the mapping

deployed

dioxide,

T 2/16/93

8/24/93

[114

pressure,

the atmosphere,

Mars Observer

-- more

MAPPING

a planetary

of the planet.

are diverse

to those

bits of scientific

the end

packages

later

remained

of the surface

for and characterize

among

instruments

1994. The U.S. spacecraft

will be temporarily

composition

year J

and ambitious

in the Russian-French

disrupted.

LAUNCH

intense

The science

investigation

27,

objectives

are to:

cycles of water,

they migrate

600 billion

Originally

of the atmosphere. the seasonal

to be highly

an oper-

the spacecraft

science

the topography

-- over a full Martian

This systematic,

which begins December

field, search

field, and define

• Determine

making

goals mineral

and dynamics

1993, and lasts for about two weeks --

of Technology. Orbiter,

and

• Record

tion --

scientific

the chemical

magnetic

solar conjunc-

the entire

for NASA byJPL,

but its global

and soil over the whole

• Measure

events and dates. During

Institute

Mars Observer,

• Determine

ration.

examine

is managed

the Mars Geoscience/Climatology

the same.

shows major

mission

of the California

was renamed

The mission timeline

continuously

environment.

The ating

that would

I

I

l

[

I

I I

I

IANUARY 1995

I

IIill

IJJ'llt IANUARY 1996

C

H

The Mars

A

P

T

E

R

Observer

Spacecraft esigned as an orbiting Earth-orbiting weather basically

a platform

The

spacecraft, Mars Observer is similar to and communications satellites and is

for the science

bus -- the rectangular

body

computers,

the radio

system,

equipment.

Attached

to the outside

fired

to adjust

the spacecraft The

Observer

insertion.

(PMIRR),

and the Thermal

to the nadir Reflectometer

(GRS),

the bus. These

are mounted two instruments

from

panel.

and other

the cruise

thrusters,

to Mars and slow

so that one side of the bus, called

(MOLA),

are attached

interference

the planet

always faces the Martian

four -- the Mars Observer

eter/Electron trometer

during

I.aser Altimeter

Radiometer

-- houses

fuel tanks,

of the bus are 20 rocket

for Mars orbit orbits

of the spacecraft

recorders,

path

panel,

instruments,

tape

the spacecraft's

spacecraft

the nadir

instruments.

surface.

Of the seven

Camera

(MOC),

the Pressure

on separate are situated

the small magnetic

Infrared

Spectrometer

Two instruments,

(MAG/ER)

the Mars

Modulator

Emission

booms

away from

field and

(TES)

the Magnetom-

and the Gamma-Ray 6-meter

science

attached

to

the bus to avoid

the gamma

ated by the bus itself. Also attached to the nadir panel antenna for the Russian-French Mars '94 mission.

Spec-

rays gener-

is the data-relay

Thr

Mars

Observer

Mission

25

O

MARS

OBSERVER

1

HIGH-GAIN

2

SOLAR

ARRAY PANEL

SPACECRAFT

COMMUNICATIONS

3

NADIR

4

GAMMA-RAY

5

THERMAL

6

LASER ALTIMETER

7

PRESSURE MODULATOR

8

MAGNETOMETERS

9

ELECTRON

SPECTROMETER EMISSION

CAMERA

I I

MARS '94 DATA-RELAY

The

Mars

SPECTROMETER

INFRARED

REELECTOMETER

10

26,

ANTENNA

Observer

ANTENNA

Mission

RADIOMETER

SPACECRAFT Weight

STATISTICS

at launch Dry (with

payload)

1,125 kilograms

Fuel

1,440 kilograms

Total

2,565

kilograms

Bus dimensions

1.0 x 2.1 x 1.5 meters

Solar array dimensions

3.7 x 7 meters

Solar array output

1,130 watts maximum

power

Communications

antenna

Diameter

1.5 meters

Boom length

5.3 meters

Basic design

Three-axis

Science instrument

control

(highly

stabilized)

6 meters (GRS and MAG/ER)

boom length

Bipropellants

Monomethy]

hydrazine

and nitrogen

tetroxide Monopropellant

Hydrazine

Thrusters

(4) 490 Newton

(20)

(4) 22 Newton (8) 4.5 Newton

(orbit adjustments)

(4) 0.9 Newton

(mornentum

unloading

and steering) Pointing

accuracy

Pointing

stability

Control:

10 milliradians

Knowledge:

3 milliradians

1 milliradian

(for 0.5 second)

3 milliradians

O Command Uplink

rate

12.5 commands/second 500 bits/second

data rate

Downlink

data rate

Downlink

radio frequency

The

bus

and

array

provides

has

equipment

cadmium

batteries.

shaped boom

The the

its view

antenna even

though

will

dark

(nighttime)

is 1.5 meters the

two

batteries

of Earth

spacecraft

provide

is mounted is not

The

blocked

in diameter continuously

a s(dar

six-panel

for operating

for charging

antenna

capacity

appelMagcs:

antenna.

o[ electricity

and

is mapping

steerable Earth

watts

communications so that

b()om-mounted

communications

1,130

electronic

spacecraft

two additional

rnaximum

44 watts

power

1.38 x 10"-bit

a high-gain

maximum

maximum

85.3 kilobits/second

Tape recorders (3)

array

(for 12 seconds)

the

spacecraft's

42-an_pcre-hour electricity side

by the and

end solar

will

planet.

the The

dish-

(>[ a ,'_.!_-nl('t¢'r anav.

be pointed

adjusts

lhc

nickelwhen

of the

to the

solar

The toward

its position

_|,_',

()bst'I_cl

Mi_hm

27

Opposite page: TheMars Observer spacecraft is based on existingEarthorbiting satellite designs.Most of the

SPACECRAFT

SU BSYSTEMS u

exposedparts of the spacecraft, includ-

The I0 subsystems

of the Mars Observer

ing fhe science instruments, are wrapped

controlled

for the science

in thermal blankets to maintain oper-

Structure

platform

spacecraft provide

instruments.

The main, rectangular which

ating temperatures. (P-40614)

body of the spacecraft

all other components

are attached,

including

instrument

that connected

the solar array, the

booms,

the spacecraft

and

articulation

The Sun and Mars horizon gyroscopes,

the

and the Transfer launch.

sensors, star mapper,

and accelerometers

mine the spacecraft's

antenna,

and the adapter

Orbit Stage booster rocket during Attitude

to

and appendages

boom that supports the high-gain two science

a stable,

that deter-

orientation

in space, includ-

ing reaction wheels and thrusters that control

the

orientation. Mechanisms

The hardware

that deploys

the high-gain

antenna, and the two 6-meter

science

instrument

the solar array panels,

booms.

Thermal

The blankets, paint, tape, heaters, and radiators

control

that keep spacecraft allowable

components

temperature

within

their

ranges.

Telecommuni-

The X-band radio system and onboard

cations

that communicate

with NASA's

ing stations to provide

two-way

antennas

deep space trackcommunication

with the spacecraft. Flight software

Computer

programs

computing Propulsion

that conduct

the onboard

functions.

The thrusters and propellants accomplish

trajectory

that are ignited to

corrections, Mars orbit

insertion, orbit adjustments,

and unloading of the

reaction wheels. Harness

The wiring electrical

that interconnects

the spacecraft's

assemblies.

Electrical

The solar array and two 42-ampere-hour

power

that provide

electricity

batteries

to operate the spacecraft

and the science instruments. Command

and

data handling

28

The

Mars

Observer

Mission

Two redundant, programmable autonomously

operate

computers that

the spacecraft.

(

Tll_ M_r_,

Mi_siorl

.,.

29

during

mapping

to keep

spacecraft's

radio

tions

seventh

as the

radio

science For

the

when parts

the

The Marietta

pointed

the

high-gain

instrument

two science antenna

during

spacecraft

of the

in thermal

panel

--

toward

Mars.

antenna,

researchers

The

also

will

func-

use

it for the

investigation.

launch,

deployed the

nadir

including

science

communications

partially

the

system,

prime (formerly

were

the

contractor General

against

period, orbit.

including to maintain

booms,

folded

cruise

is in mapping

spacecraft, blankets

instrument

the

Mars

Electric)

Most

the

solar

bus.

will be

of the

science

appropriate

for the

and

the

instruments,

Observer

Astro-Space

extended

exposed are

wrapped

temperatures.

spacecraft l)ivision

All were

full)'

outer

operating

array,

is Martin in Princeton,

New.lersey.

CATCHING

A GRAVITY

WAVE

Mars Observer, along with NASA's Jupiter-bound Galileo spacecraft, and Ulysses, a NASA-European Space Agency spacecraft on its way to study the Sun, may help verify a prediction of Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity. Between March 21 and April 9, 1993,the three spacecraft participated in a NASA experiment to detect gravity waves. Gravity waves are ripples in space-time (the three dimensions of space plus the fourth dimension of time). Einstein perceived that matter, possessing gravity, causes a warp in space-time, somewhat analogous to a billiard ball on a rubber sheet. Asymmetric motion of any object possessing mass produces a ripple of gravity--

a traveling distortion of space and

time. Other masses are set in motion as the ripple, moving at the speed of light, passes by. But while these space-time ripples cause objects to move, the effect is incredibly small. Gravity is very weak compared to the other forces that affect matter, dominating other forces only on a large scale. Because gravity waves are so subtle, no direct detection of the faint waves has been confirmed. Large-scale, violent cosmic events produce low-frequency, long-duration gravity waves. The three-spacec raft experiment is sensitive to gravity waves having periods between about 10 and 100 seconds caused by massive black hole formation or a pair of massive black holes in close orbit around one another, outto aboutthe distance of the Andromeda Galaxy. For the experiment, NASA's Deep Space Network continuously beamed radio signals of e precisely known frequency to Mars Observer, Galileo, and Ulysses, and each spacecraft replied with signals at a precisely related frequency. With all else being equal, the return signals should have arrived at Earth showing no effect but a Doppler shift due to the motion of the spacecraft. If a gravity wave were zippingthrough the solar system, however, Earth andthe three spacecraft would have bobbled slightly, causing a small difference in the frequencies of the radio transmissions and receptions. If all three spacecraft registered the difference, the evidence for detection would be stronger. The low-budget experiment benefited from certain conditions: the three spacecraft were in cruise mode so they were free from perturbations by nearby planets, and all were in the night sky, where radio intederence from the solar wind is minimal. Six months to a year of analysis is necessary before experimenters will be able to determine if they have captured a gravitywave.

30

The

Mars

Observer

Mission

and

C

H

A

P

Destination-.

T

E

R

Mars

ars Observer and its Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS) were carried into a temporary orbit around Earth by a Titan III rocket that lifted

offfrom

the Titan and

Cape

separated

burned

gravity

from

for about

and

placing

TOS separated taminating tracking

Canaveral,

the spacecraft

2.5 minutes,

and

confirming

that

the Red Planet.

an hour,

picked

all was well _

broke

of people

After years

of work and the extraordinary

a spacecraft launch, launch date. After

cruise,

gust 24, 1993 and prepare neuver abort

is a critical criteria

tonomous

capabilities

to be captured cal (highly thrusters nearly

one and

are disabled

slow itself down

by Mars'

be halted

gravity.

The

several

that almost

rocket

the planet.

crosses

radio

Network

signal,

back on Earth,

required

for

and cheered. to coordinate

delay past the original

will arrive

at Mars on Au-

The orbit

insertion

and reattempted

spacecraft

months

Space

heading

is provided

the maneuver.

two of its large

with or con-

applauded

and the spacecraft

orbit around

over the next one

insertion.

cannot

the

the tension

a nine-day

for orbit

Earth's

was indeed

effort

the spacecraft

to complete

by firing

elongated)

circular

in the mission

they had endured

an 11-month

colliding

NASA's Deep

Mars Observer

thousands

from

for Mars. Finally,

up Mars Observer's

As that announcement involved

Mars Observer

away to avoid

Within

25, 1992. After

and fell away, the TOS ignited

on a course

maneuvered

in Australia

on September

freeing

the spacecraft

the spacecraft. station

Florida,

malater;

with the au-

Mars Observer thrusters

will first enter Additional

will change the Martian

will

and allow itself an ellipti-

burns

of the

the orbit into a poles.

The

Mars

Transfer

Observer Orbit

atop

the Titan

Titan

and

Martin

the

Marietta

Sciences

spacecraft

Stage

(TOS)

Ill launch TOS

were

fhe

booster

vehicle.

sit The

provided

Corporation

Corporation,

and

and

by Orbital

respectively.

(P-41035B)

The

Mar',

()bst'r_cl

Missi_m

31

Opposite page: The 34-meter, efficiency

Space Network communications

provide

The

high-

antennas of NASA 's Deep two-way

with Mars Observer.

(355-4127B)

mapping

(378 kilometers the planet sphere

above

drag

the spacecraft

Mars time) time side,

2 a.m. it will cross the equator

seasonal

and annual

instruments mapping

measurements from

to obser_,e

Mars until

the spacecraft's

to an ahitude

of 405 kilometers

In accordance

with international

agreements

on planeta

W protection,

the chances

efforts

that a visiting

a "biologically

The Viking

landers

Febru-

completed,

atmosphere

reduced.

organisms.

and surface

of the Martian

will be greatly

Mars -- considered

on the nighttime

the drag

spacecraft

(local

on the da D

trends.

has finally, been

where

passes

of local daily variations

will continue

may be fired to raise the orbit the surface,

so that rotates

9 p.m.

will cross the equator

for atmospheric

as long as possible,

rendezvous

the spacecraft

of the effects

restrial

polar,

that is, the spacecraft

is essential

nate

is nearly

atmo-

all of Mars as the planet

separation

above

can observe

Martian

of Mars at the same time of day,. Around

it allows

rockets

kilometers

observe

because

ary 1996. When

will travel 724 million

The orbit

side. This timing

term

It is low enough

the instruments

is also Sun-synchronous;

every orbit,

The science

Mars Observer

so that

down.

can progressively

and around

the longer

selected.

but not so low that the thin

the spacecraft

it. The orbit

over a given part

carefully'

the surface)

at close range,

could

below

orbit has been

are made

to minimize,

spacecraft

interesting" went

might

planet

through

on the

-- with ter-

extensive

SPACECRAFT TRAIECTORY

to keep its August 24, 1993, MARS AT LAUNCH 9/25/92

with the Red Planet. Soon

after mapping begins, solar conjunction will disrupt communications Earth and the spacecraft

between

for about

MARS APHELION 3/14/95 EARTH ORBIT --

two weeks. MARS ORBIT

EARTH AT LAUNCH 9/25/92 MARS PERIHELION 4/4/94

SPACECRAFT ARRIVESAT MARS 8/24/93 STARTMAPPING PHASE 12/16/93

COMMAND MORATORIUM

32

The Mars Observer

Mission

--

for

contami-

EARTH 8/24/93 SOLAR CONJUNCTION 12/27/93 SUN BETWEEN EARTH AND MARS

FROM

EARTH

TO

MARS i

Launch date

September 25, 1992

Cruise period to Mars

11 months

Average

17.8 kilometers/second

(with

speed during cruise

respect to Earth*)

Average (with

speed during

cruise

25.0 kilometers/second

respect to the Sun*)

Arrival

at Mars

August 24, 1993 1:42 p.m. (Pacific

Speed before Mars orbit insertion (with

5.28 kilometers/second

insertion

4.56 kilometers/second

respect to Mars)

Speed in mapping (with

orbit

3.35 kilometers/second

respect to Mars)

Distance

traveled

Distance

from Earth at Mars arrival

Distance

from Earth during

between

Time for command

during

*The

spacecraft

speed the

of

the

spacecraft

Earth and Mars

mapping

phase

as

mapping

with each

phase

respect

follows

to its

Earth

path

sterilization pler;

Mars

a 95-percent finally

Mars

Observer

Mission

340 million

kilometers 100 million

kilometers

Maximum:

367 million

kilometers

Minimum:

5.5 minutes

Maximum:

20.4 minutes

Observer chance

free

period

in which of the robot

speed

before

with

respect

to

launch.

the

Sun

Procedures

will be placed

into

a high

of remaining

until

at least

to the

surface.

the

because

Earth

is

Sun.

procedures

succumbs

from

kilometers

than

the

Martian

occurs

The

slower

the

cal nature

34

is

around

724 million

Minimum:

from Earth to

reach spacecraft

chasing

Time)

respect to Mars)

Speed after Mars orbit (with

Daylight

stead),

This

drag

strate_"

to conduct

Martian spacecraft

of the will

surface --

before or from

orbit, the

significant

sim-

at least

before

crashes

it onto

contaminationthe

true

contamination human

are

it has

2039 and

a 40-year,

to determine

visiting

orbiters

where year

atmosphere

provide

missions

for

beings.

biologi-

C

H

A

P

T

E

R

Instruments, Science, and Scientists ore -- members of theMars science investigation teamsthan-- 100 awaitscientists the stream of data from Observer. Each team is associated and

is headed

with one of the instruments

by a Principal

investigation

teams

hwestigator

are composed

six Interdisciplinary

study, will use data from tions about Mars. Shortly ment

after

teams

and

from

between

Each

Principal

entist

is a member

called

the Project

the United hwestigator,

Science

Scientist year

(from

to discuss

Group

areas

of

specific

joined

in-

ques-

the instru-

Additionally,

10 Partici-

as part of the scientific

Leader,

subset

Chaired

Project The

hear status

and

lnterdisciplina

of the project

(PSG).

the l)eputy

plans,

science

States and Russia.

NASA Headquarters). science

in broad

Scientists

the project

Team

of an executive

fist, the PSG also includes

The

instituti(_ns

to investigate

Scientists.

Russia joined

I.eader.

fiom

working

33 Participating

the spacecraft

with the Mars Obser_,er

instruments

the Interdisciplinary

pati_lg Scientists cooperation

Europe. associated

Scientists,

several

launch,

or a Team

of researchers

throughout the United States and In addition to the researchers struments,

on board

science

team

by the l'rojcct

Scientist

Scien-

and the Program

I)SG convenes

reports,

D, Sci-

several

and discuss

times

specific

a is-

sues with the project. Mars Observer ments. high-gain

The

spacecraft antenna,

experimenters to probe

carries

is considered

will monitor

the Martian

a complement

of seven scientific

telecommunications

gravity

system,

an instrument

the radio

beams,

which

because using

field and atmosphere.

their

instruincludes

radio

the

science

measurements

Collectively,

the inThe

Mars

()bS_.lXCt

Missi_m

35

Opposite page: The GRS will detect gamma rays emitted

from the Martian A DIFFERENT

surface to identify

chemical

ENCOUNTER

elements. Previous spacecraft planetary

missions were typically

cruises punctuated

ager, for example,

had long cruises in between

in the outer solar system,

characterized

with short, intense planetary

Mission scientists

tions to JPL for the encounters,

encounters

traveled

settling into offices

approach.

Neither

from their home institu-

the operations

space at JPL can support the presence

initial science

orbital missions, budget

of large numbers

Throughout Principal

of scientists

Operations

electronically volvement

Team Leaders,

Planning

connected

Scientists

All will be

to the Project Data Base at J PL, enabling

direct in-

in mission operations,

Their computers

to conduct

will be equipped

desired experiments;

with software

instrument

that allows the science

required

by their instruments

teams will be able to access

data within 24 hours of its receipt on Earth. This automated

will expedite

generation

of "quick-look"

readily monitor instrument After

science

an initial proprietary

data, and investigators

period of about six months, reduced

tors' home institutions to the Project both raw and processed, documentation,

and use by the broader

cover much

duce

sets

data

synergistic

thai

scientists

reflects

turned

by

the

the

SURFACE

to the

a variety

Mars

COMPOSITION

and

community.

scientific

Observer

will

data,

information

spectrum of

nature

instruments

portrait

investiga-

Planeta ry Data System archive for

science

comprehensive of

first time, a complete

processing

of the electromagnetic

of

array

to NASA's

planetary

contribnte

organization

can

(processed)

from

Data Base at JPL All the science

along with supplementary

will be transferred

struments

raw

operation

health and performance.

data, as well as some special data products, will be transmitted

access

will have

at their home institutions,

teams to remotely initiate most of the commands

science

mapping mission,

and Interdisciplinary

Computers

for the is the first

and operations.

the 687 Earth days of the Mars Observer

Investigators,

Science

of communications

however,

nor the physical

months or even years involved in an orbital mission. Mars Observer mission to use a new method

Voy-

with the four planets

and receiving

data for the few days or weeks involved. Long-lasting require a different

by quiet inter-

encounters--

science of

enable

and will proinvestigations.

the

The

investigations mission.

scientists

The to

and data

create,

for

of Mars.

AND

TOPOGRAPHY

Gamma-

Ray Spectrometer

The

Gamma-Ray

rays emitted intensity ments dances

The Mars Observer

Mission

Spectrometer (GRS) will detect

the Martian

of the radiation, that

produced

aluminum,

surface.

researchers

the emission.

of such elements

magnesium, 36

from

can identify The

as potassium, and iron

and analyze

By measuring

gamma

the ener_, the chemical

GRS can determine uranium,

thorium,

in the surface

materials.

and ele-

the abuncalcium,

rethe

VENT VALVE! MOLECULAR SIEVE

FRONT

RADIATOR

BUMPER TUBE BACKUP

INNER SHELL SHAPE MEMORY SUPPORT PIN

OUTER

STAGE

ELECTRONICS COOLER VANES

SUNSHADE

FRAME

INNER FRAME Ge I)ETECTOR

SUPPORT TUBE

SCINTILLATOR

GRS

ASSEMBLY

PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBE ASSEMBL'w

PANEL

OUTER SHELL

INVESTIGATORS

Team Leader

Institution

William

University

of Arizona

James R. Arnold

University

of California,

Peter Englert

California

State University,

William

Los Alamos

V. Boynton

Country United

States

United

States

United

States

United

States

United

States

United

States

United

States

United

States

Team Members

Albert

C. Feldman E. Metzger

National

Jet Propulsion

San Diego San Jose

Laboratory

Laboratory

Robert C. Reedy

Los Alamos

Steven W. Squyres

Cornell

Jacob L. Trombka

NASA Goddard

Heinfich

Max-Planck-lnstitut

for Chemie

Germany

Johannes Bruckner

Max-Planck-lnstitut

f(Jr Chemie

Germany

Darrell

Los Alamos

Wanke

Participating

Laboratory

University Space Flight Center

Scientists

M. Drake

United

States

United

States

United

States

University

United

States

Institute

Russia

Larry G. Evans

Computer

John G. Laros

Los Alamos

Richard

Catholic

D. Starr

Yuri A. Surkov

National

Vernadsky

National

Laboratory

Sciences Corporation National

Laboratory

Tilt.

Mars Obr,

r,.cr

Mission

37

From

the GRS data, scientists

producing

radioactive

Data on other

elements

elements

types in the Martian arising

from

deduce

and infer

will enable

crust.

hydrogen,

the amounts

can determine

the planet's

geologists

In addition,

oxygen,

history.

different

the GRS can detect

dioxide

of heat-

thermal

to identify,

and carbon,

of carbon

the amounts

neutrons

so that scientists

and water

near

rock

can

the surface.

Thermal Emission Spectrometer The

Thermal Emission

radiation

from

a certain

amount

the surface.

(Everything

and spectra,

properties

scientists

they transmit

heat,

of the surface

covered

Data from

sand

the amount

the TES can also be used

up the wide range dunes

important surface

-- present

over millions

TES is particularly (the Viking

bedrock,

analyses

possibly

dioxide

suggest)

are present

have most

as the result lavas (which

and water

vapor

probably

The

Mars

Observer

Mission

to identify

surface:

and the amount

the minerals

-- from

surface

and

the Martian atmosphere, clouds and dust.

materials of the

the original

environment

The

which

by weathering

sulfur)

on the

today.

minerals,

in the altered

contained

to will be

has weathered

and sulfate

between

that

solid rocks

This information

bedrock

in the surface

The TES can also provide data about the locations and nature of short-lived

38

in them,

likely formed

of reactions

impor-

and day, how well

of years and how it may be weathering

minerals

the

several

up the Martian

surface.

to carbonates

emits

From

boulders.

materials

how Martian

sensitive

als in the volcanic carbon

of different on the Martian

in understanding

of Mars. These

space

rocks and

of a planet

can determine

the cycles of night of open

by large

infrared

as cold as Mars.)

of the rocks and soils that make

how hot and cold they get during

make

on the surface

of heat, even on a planet

TES measurements tant

Spectrometer (TES) will analyze

minerthe

of Mars. especially

The TES will analyze infrared radiation from the surface to identify properties

minerals and

of the rocks and soil.

MOUNTING FeET14)

ELECTRONICSMODULE COUNTING INTERFEROMETER

--

ROTARY ACTUATOR

MOVING MIRROR ASSEMBL'f

POINTING MIRROR INTERFER(.)MeTERSPE(TROMETER SECONDARY MIRROR

TUNING FORK CHOPPER PRIMARY MIRROR

TES

REFLECTANCEAN[) BOLOMETRIC DETECTORS

INVESTIGATORS

Principal Philip

Investigator

R. Christensen

Institution

Country

Arizona

State University

United

States

Arizona

State University

United

States

United

States

United

States

United

States

United

States

United

States

United

States

United

States

Co-Investigators Donald

A. Anderson

Stillman

C. Chase

Consultant

Roger

N. Clark

United

Hugh

H.

Kieffer

United

C. Malin

Malin

Space

NASA

Goddard

Michael John

C. Pearl

Participating Todd

States Geological States

R. Clancy

University

Barney

J. Conrath

NASA

O. Kuzmin

Vernadsky

L. Roush

Arnold

Geological Science

Survey Systems,

Space

Flight

Inc. Center

Scientists

Ruslan Ted

Survey

S. Selivanov

of Colorado

Goddard

San Francisco Institute

Space

Flight

Center

Institute State

for Space

Russia University Devices

Engineering

United

States

Russia

lh_, Mar,, Ob,_'v_'u_ Mission

39

Mars

Observer

Laser

Altimeter

The Mars ObseT_,er Laser Alti_lwter (MOLA) Martian each

surface

second,

length

striking

from

of surface graphic

measure

features

the

to create

of infrared

oil the surface.

to return,

calculation

of the planet

light

of

10 times

By measuring

scientists

the

can determine

of the distance

gives the Martian

the MOLA

map of Mars. The

will be used

height

graphic

topo-

mountains will provide essential Martian surface features.

maps.

area

the height

of the spacecraft

surface

elevation

with a

of a few meters.

Data from will

a 160-meter

to the surface;

the center

precision

MOLA

A laser will fire pulses

of time it takes for the light

the distance

The

features.

will measure

fine details

to construct of plains,

information

a detailed

valleys,

about

topo-

craters,

the height

ALIGNMENT

and of

CUBE

LASER OUTPUT

LASER SHIELD

Nd:YAG

SECONDARY

MIRROR

SECONDARY

BAFFLE

PRIMARY

MIRROR

PRIMARY

SHROUD

LASER ASSEMBLY

ELECTRONICS

SUPPORT

THERMAL

ISOLATION

The

Mars

Observer

STRUCTURE

PADS MOUNTING

40

ENCLOSURE

Mission

PADS I3)

MOLA

INVESTIGATORS

Principal Investigator

Institution

David

NASA Goddard

Space Flight Center

United

States

NASA Goddard

E. Smith

Country

Co-Investigators Herbert

Space Flight Center

United

States

James B. Garvin

V. Frey

NASA Gocldard Space Flight Center

United

States

James W. Head

Brown

United

States

Duane

California

United

States

United

States

United

States

United

States

United

States

United

States

Muhleman

Gordon

H. Pettengill

University Institute of Technology

Massachusetts

Institute of Technology

Roger J. Phillips

Washington

University

Sean C. Solomon

Carnegie

Maria T. Zuber

NASA Goddard

Institute Space Flight Center;

Johns Hopkins H. Jay Zwally

NASA Goddard

Participating

Space Flight Center

Scientists

W. Bruce Banerdt

Jet Propulsion

Laboratory

United States

Thomas C. Duxbury

Jet Propulsion

Laboratory

United

THE

States

ATMOSPHERE

Pressure

Modulator

The

Infrared

Pressure water

sphere.

the

[.ike

focus

is on

PMIRR

data

will

come

from

PMIRR

data

the

pressure

PMIRR

from

profiles

seasonal

and

Radiometer

near

the

made

surface

to construct behavior

the

models of the

and

will

limb

of the

atmosphere

vapor,

Martian

atmobut

dynamics.

The

the

its

as 80 kilome-

and

of Mars.

dust.

The

Scientists

atmosphere and

measure

radiation,

to as high

water

across

thin

infrared

structure,

of temperature,

scans

(PMIRR)

of the

measures

composition,

will determine, vertical

monitor

the

atmospheric

the

Infrared

content,

TES,

ters,

the

Radiometer

Modulator

temperature,

use

University

polar

and

best can

to

caps.

"|'hr.

M,iis

OI)_,_'...r

Minni_)n

41

The PMIRR will measure infrared radiation

in the atmosphere

models and monitor

to create

seasonal activity.

COOLER ASSEMBLY

OPTICS ASSEMBLY

NADIR-MOUNTED ELECTRONICS

SCAN MIRROR ASSEMBLY BIPOD SUPPORT(3)

OPTICAL BENCH ELECTRONICS

PMIRRINVESTIGATORS ]

Principal Daniel

Investigator J. McCleese

]

III

Institution

Country

Jet Propulsion

Laboratory

United

States

Jet Propulsion

Laboratory

United

States

United

States

United

States

United

States

Co-lnvestigato_ Robert

D. Haskins

Conway

B. Leovy

David John

A. Paige T. Schofield

Fredric

Michael Jeffrey

4.2

University

of California,

Oxford

W. Zurek

Participating

of Washington

Jet Propulsion

Taylor

Richard

University

Los Angeles

Laboratory

University

Jet Propulsion

England

Laboratory

United

States

United

States

United

States

United

States

Scientists D. Allison

R. Barnes

NASA Oregon

Goddard

State University

Terry

Z. Martin

Jet Propulsion

Peter

L. Read

Oxford

The Mars Observer

Missi_m

Space

Laboratory

University

Flight

Center

England

THE

INTERIOR

Magnetometer/Electron Mars whose

is the

magnetic

Electron

field

field

measurements

scan

early

history

the

surface

providing been

only

the

will

provide

critical

evolution

to detect to the

MAG/ER

past

planet

for

current The

of an ancient when had

the

a higher

Pluto,

Mag_etomete_/

of a planetary

field,

planet.

from

The

for evidence of the

tests

of the

aside

characterized.

strength

remnants

Martian the

system,

will search

measure

and

solar

yet been

(MAG/ER)

because

if it exists.

These

speculations

about

MAG/ER

will also

magnetic

field,

magnetic

field

internal

may

have

temperature.

INVESTIGATORS

Principal Mario

not

ill the

and

clues

stronger

planet

has

Reflectometer

magnetic

the

Reflectometer

Investigator

H. Acuna

Institution

Country

NASA Goddard

Space Flight Center

United

States

Co-Investigators: Kinsey S. Anderson

University of California,

Sigfried

University

of Graz

Charles W. Carlson

University

of California,

Paul Cloutier

Rice University

John E.P. Connerney

NASA Goddard

David

University

Bauer

W. Curtis

Berkeley

United States Austria

Berkeley

United States United States

Space Flight Center

of California,

Claude d'Uston

University

Paul Sabatier

Robert P. Lin

University

of California,

Michael

Berkeley

United

States

United

States

France United

States

National Science Foundation

United

States

University

Paul Sabatier

France

James McFadden

University

of California,

Norman

University of Delaware

United

Mayhew

Christian

Henri

Mazelle

F. Ness

Berkeley

Berkeley

United States

Reme

University

Paul Sabatier

France

Jean-Andre Sauvaud

University

Paul Sabatier

France

Peter J. Wasilewski

NASA Goddard

Participating Michel

United

States

Scientists:

Menvielle

Diedrich

Space Flight Center

States

Mohlmann

University

of Paris

France

DLR Institut fiir Raumsimulation

Germany

James A. Stavin

NASA Goddard

United

Alexander

Space Research Institute

V. Zakharov

Space Flight Center

States

Russia

The

M_lrs Ob'_'rver

.Mis_i_;n

43

Themagnetometer will try to find an intrinsic planetary n_gnetic field and scan the surface for remnants of ancient magnetism.

Radio

Science Scientists

tracking

data

map

variations

out

up

in velocity

would

reflect

can

these

topographic

mine

the

also

detect

those

Mars

Observer

Nlissi_m

gravity

Scie_lce (RS) investigation

field

down

changes

obserwations,

communication of Mars

by noting

in its passage

in the

will

use

system

to

where

around

strength

related

and

Martian

can

also

from

atmosphere

distorted.

the

map

the

the

Mars.

of the

density

of the

gravity

Changes field

felt

Each behind on

their can

the

scietltists time

way

field

of Mars

planet.

Combined

can

be used

to deter-

Martian

crust.

They

("mascons")

may

similar

to

Moon. map

the

it, the

gravity

of the data

of mass

orbiting help

of the

structure gravity

concentrations

atmosphere

of the are

to the

vertical

atmosphere.

or emerges

waves

and

a precise

by spacecraft

RS data

Martian

pressure the

spacecraft's

or slows

near-surface

detected

planet the

by the

measurements,

strength

The the

Rtzdio

spacecraft.

be constructed

with

ill the

in the

speeds

From

Tht"

provided

spacecraft

by the

44

involved

the

vertical

spacecraft radio

to Earth.

be determined

goes

beams The from

must

structure behind pass

temperature the

of the

through and

way in which

i

!r

The spacecraft's

I AGC CRYSTAL

is part

I

_

]

I -_

H HEATER

OVEN

OVEN

AMPLIFIER

F

AMPLIFIER

F --_

MULTIPLIER

SENSOR

of the gravity

oscillator

RS experiment

to map

field.

OUTPUTS

]

CONTROLLER

TELEMETRY

19 MHz

Mars"

ultrastable

]

POWER I POWER

TELEMETRY SPACECRAFT POWER _ DIRECT ACCESS

REGULATOR

POWER

AND

TELEMETRY CONDITIONS

RS INVESTIGATORS Team Leader

Institution

Country

G. Leonard

Stanford University

United

Centre National

France

Tyler

States

Team Members Georges David

Balmino

Hinson

William

Stanford

L. Sjogren

David Richard

University

Jet Propulsion

E. Smith

Laboratory

NASA Goddard

Woo

Jet Propulsion

Participating

d'l_tudes Spatiales

Space Flight Center Laboratory

United

States

United

States

United

States

United

States

Scientists

Efraim L. Akim

Keldysh

John W. Armstrong

Jet Propulsion

Michael

NASA Goddard

F. Flasar

Richard A. Simpson

Institute of Applied

Stanford

Mathematics

Russia

Laboratory Space Flight Center

University

United

States

United

States

United

States

IMAGES Mars Observer The

Ma_

that

builds

the

planet,

field

resolution for

Observer

pictures using

of view.

coverage

Camera

of the

planet

photographs

and

line

at a time orbital

will

provide

every

day,

of selected

a "weather clouds

(MOC)

camera's

MOC

accumulating

features

one the

The

Camera

map"

at a resolution

uses

a "push-broom"

as the

spacecraft

motion

together areas. of Mars of about

moves

to sweep

complete

technique

out

low-resolution with

The each

mediumwide-angle day,

desired

global and lens

showing

7.5 kilometers.

around

the

highis ideal surface

These

global

The

Mars

Observer

Mission

45

views will be similar satellites.

The narrow-angle

a resolution

perhaps Observer

resolution

modes;

will

be able

camera

the narrow-angle

to resolve

as 2 to 3 meters

features

lens

as small

extremely cannot

WIDE-ANGLE

sites for future

high data volume use the narrow-angle

sampled

across.

features

even the now-silent

select landing

has three

lens will image

of 2 to 3 meters.

show small geologic

The Mars

to the types of views obtained

in this mode

rather

These

small areas

will be sharp

such

as boulders

and sand

Viking

landers

spacecraft

mode

enough dunes

continuously,

Because images,

--

controllers

so areas will be

mapped.

WIDE-ANGLE ELECTRONICS AND RAD,ATORS I'_

BOARD

' BODY

WIDE.ANGLE LENS ASSEMBLIES

I

_r- WIDE-ANGLE B^mE

STRUCTURAL ASSEMBLY

ELECTRICAL

AND

PURGE

GAS CONNECTIONS NARROW-ANGLE

RADIATOR

PRIMARY

MIRROR

LIGHT

SHIELD

SECONDARY MIRROR SUPPORT ASSEMBLY SECONDARY

MOC

MIRROR

INVESTIGATORS

Principal Investigator

Institutions

Country

Michael C. Malin

Malin Space Science Systems,Inc.

United States

G. Edward Danielson, Jr.

California Instituteof Technology

United States

Andrew P. Ingersoll

California Instituteof Technology

United States

Laurence A. Soderblom

United StatesGeological Survey

United States

JosephVeverka

Cornell University

United States

Genry A. Avenesov

Space ResearchInstitute

Russia

Merton E. Davies

RAND Corporation

United States

William K. Hartmann

Planetary Science Institute

United States

Philip B. James

University of Toledo

United States

Alfred S. McEwen

United StatesGeological Survey

United States

Peter C. Thomas

Cornell University

United States

Co-Investigators

l_rticil_ting

46

The

Mars

Observer

Scientists

Mission

to

of the

I

MAIN

at

to

-- and may also be used

missions.

of the high-resolution

than

weather

of the surface

pictures

SUPPORT ASSEMBLY

ELECTRONICS

by terrestrial

INTERDISCIPLINARY Using disciplinary

data

STUDIES

from

several

Scientists

instruments,

will work

Mars

in broadly

Observer's

defined

areas

haterof global

interest.

INTERDISCIPLINARY

SCIENTISTS

Area of Study Weathering;

Interdisciplinary

data management

Raymond

Scientist

Participating

E. Arvidson,

and archiving

Washington

Geosciences

Michael

University,

Bruce Fegley, Jr., U.S.A.

Washington

H. Carr,

U.S. Geological

Scientist

Survey, U.S.A.

University,

Alexander

T. Basilevsky,

Vernadsky

Institute,

Matthew

Russia

Golombek,

Jet Propulsion

Laboratory,

Harry Y. McSween, University Polar atmospheric

science

Andrew California

Surface-atmospheric

science

Howard

P. Ingersoll, Institute of Technology,

Houben,

Space Physics Research

Bruce M. Jakosky,

Leonid V. Ksanfomality, U.S.A.

Institute,

Space Research Institute, Russia Aaron

P. Zent,

SETI Institute, Climatology

Jr.,

U.S.A.

of Colorado,

U.S.A.

of Tennessee, U.S.A.

U.S.A.

University

U.S.A.

James B. Pollack,

U.S.A.

Robert M. Haberle,

NASA Ames Research Center,

U.S.A.

NASA Ames Research Center, U.S.A. Vasily

I. Moroz,

Space Research Surface processes and geomorphology

Laurence A. Soderblom,

Ken Herkenhoff,

U.S. Geological

Jet Propulsion

Survey,

U.S.A.

Institute,

Russia

Laboratory,

U.S.A.

Bruce C. Murray, California

Institute of Technology,

U.S.A.

The

Mars

Observer

Mission

47

RUSSIAN--FRENCH

Near will

the

agency

cally

and

stored

in

where

it will

will

acquire

large

the

and

transmit is well

Russian

planning

return

data

for

of to

from

suited

data

'94

the this

collection.

This

type of

missions

Mars

will

data

the

of

effort --

also

also

effort

provides

an

experience

that

international

cooperation.

Mars Observer

will periodically

AERODYNAMIC PHASE

receive PARACHUTE

and relay data from experiment packages sent to the Martian

surface by AERODYNAMICS

the Russian Mars "94 spacecraft.

SIGNAL TO MARS OBSERVER AND MARS '94 SPACECRAFT

PARACHUTE RELEASE

BALLOON INFLATION I

GROUND IMPACT

48

The Mars Observer

Mission

_

DEPLOYM_

be

Mars cooperative

an

will

orbiter

packages. and

the

camera

Russian

Mars

periodito

relayed

Observer

The

involving

French

deployed

The

landed

activity,

exploration future

the

Mars the

which

orbiter.

Observer

mission.

packages

Earth.

Mars

by

Spatiales),

memory for

'94

supplied

instrument Mars

1996,

Mars

d'l_tudes from

multinational in

February

Russian-French

solid-state

orbit

in

receiver/transmitter

data

processed

the

useful

mission

National

be

maximum in

be

joint

relay by

the

Observer's

exercise

the

MISSION

prime

a radio

surface

allow

its

(Centre

receive

Martian

of

in

carries

space

will

end

participate

Observer

will

ROBOTIC

"_'L_

_

C

H

The Mars

A

P

T

E

R

Observer

Flight Team A

salute is extended here to the Mars Observer Flight Team -made up of the many individuals who directly contribute to

the mission. science

Most of them

investigators.

is responsible of Martin

Several

(formerly

New Jersey,

The

except

members

for the safe operation

Marietta

Princeton, mission.

work atJPL,

of the Spacecraft of the spacecraft,

General

Electric)

but are resident

Mars Observer

Flight

Team

atJPL

who also support

the mission.

personnel

at the California

Institute

and

Communications all spaceflight conceptual energies

stage

Thus,

are employees Division

for the duration

group

includes

end,

have completed

several many

their

group other

Deep

Space

Network.

years,

from

at NASA Space Because

the early

who contributed

tasks and gone

in

of the

and atJPL,

and at the three

span

project

which

their

on to other

or have retired. this acknowledgment as well as others

Mars Observer contributed

through

and talents

That

of NASA's Deep

necessarily

Team,

Astro-Space

of Technology

NASA centers,

Complexes projects

assignments,

members

other

of the

is part of an even larger

of people

Headquarters

for the majority

properly

in the larger

to the eve of arrival their

best

efforts

includes group

at its destination

to a continuing

current

flight team

who have worked

to bring

and who have

realization

of mission

objectives.

The

MarsOb_'rver

Mission

49

MARSOBSERVER NASA

ORGANIZATION Daniel

HEADQUARTERS

Goldin

John

Administrator

Dailey

Acting

Deputy

Administrator

Solar

System

Mary

Piotrowski

Deputy

Observer

Panter

Marius

Program

Manager

Program

JET

Scientist

PROPULSION

FOR

LABORATORY

N IA I N STITUTE

Edward

OF

Stone

of Flight

David

Assistant

Deputy

Director

Mars

California

Observer Glenn Project

Australia

Project

Arden Project Procurement Bob

Kinkade

Terry

Nealy

Negotiators

Albee Scientist

Shirley Clerk

Deputy

The

Mars

Palluconi Project

Gail

Mission

Robinson

Manager

Scientist

Information

Carolynn Young Administrator

Observer

Maalouf

Finance/Resources

Mission

50

Office

Science Frank

Director

Manager

Marquez

Public

Pat Thompson

Assistant

Cunningham

Secretary Project

Evans

Laboratory

Network

Ann

Director

Projects

John Casani Laboratory

NOLOGY

Dumas

Deputy

Office

Spain

TECH

Larry

Director

Madrid,

Engineer

i

CALl

Goldstone,

Weinreb

French

Program

Canberra,

Director

Program

William

Bevan

Space

Kicza

Director

Mars

Deep

Division

William Acting

ii

Exploration

Operations

Ming

Kwong

Assistant

MARS

OBSERVER Mission

MISSION

Operations

OPERATIONS Sam Dallas

ORGANIZATION

Mission Sandi

Manager Hyland

Secretary John

Beck

Clerk

Technical Steve

Support

13arba

Tracking

and

Provides

spacecraft

data Alma Ruth

Beaudoin

Shelti

acquisition

antennas

Fragoso Henson

Data

Systems" tracking

capability

of NASA's

Deep

Space

Mary

Traxler

and via

the

worldwide

Network.

Manager Greg Sherry

Kazz Mullimission

Kazz

Systems Irwin

Operations

Office*

Plit_

Howard

Solomon

Provides

computer

software,

facilities,

send

commands

and

to receive,

data

from

the

by engineers and various Peter

Data

Development

System

and

personnel

to the

spacecraft

process, spacecraft

and

store

for

access

to

and scientists at JPL remote locations.

Poon

Manager

Ground

hardware and

for Mars

Operations

Observer

Office

Office i

Engineering

Office

Science

* Not

Office

project

funded.

The

MarsOb_rver

Mission

51

MARS

OBSERVER Ground

GROUND

DATA

SYSTEM

DEVELOPMENT

Data

System

Development

Office

OFFICE Fred

ORGAN

IZATiON

Hammer

Manager David

Kelly

Deputy Benjamin

Huang

Hardware/Network System Ben

Engineer

lai

Software

Testing

Data

Validates

the

hardware

and

support

flight

launch, ping

readiness

of all project

Manages

systems

maintenance

operations

for

encounter,

of the

that

the and

map-

and

Command

implementation of the

and Space

and

puter

systems

that

transfer

and

data

sent

to and

received

the

spacecraft

Deep

work

from Roy

the

monitor

mission.

Engineer

Acquisition

software

cruise, phases

System

operations

Netcom-

Science

Support

Provides

mission

hardware, enable the

them

Project

mand

spacecraft.

form

scientists

software,

Base

data

that with

at IPL,

instruments,

the

training

to communicate Data

their

with

and

to com-

and

to per-

analysis.

Vitti

Lead Bruce

Lee Mellinger

Michelle

Lead

Lead

McCullar

Beaudry Mick

Connally

Gloria

Science

Planning

and

Wendy

Term

Connor

Richard

lackson

Annabel

Rivera

Analysis Navigation

Oversees

the implementation

operation and

of the

analysis

science Tom

science

software

investigator

i ni

Analysis

and Provides

planning installed

at

the

sites.

hardware

Navigation

mination Planning

and

Sequence

Provides

software

ver

and

and

Team

software

for orbit

trajectory

and

to deter-

maneu-

analyses.

Thorpe

Lead

and

Sequence,

ence

teams

mands

to the Spacecraft,

for

developing

to be sent

Rudy

to the

John

Planning and

Sci-

Ekelund

Lead

comspacecraft.

Valdez

Lead Engineering Provides

Analysis hardware

the

Spacecraft

Team

the

spacecraft

and

and for

software operating

analyzing

Min-Kun Martin

McLeod

Lead

Chung

Data

Storage

Implements

Lo

server

its Tom

performance. John

to

Loesch

Project

used

to store

David

Mittman

vides

support

Robert

Von

Young

Lee

Buelow

Lead AI Cherino

52

The

Mars

Observer

Mission

and and

Relrieval tests

Data and

the

Base retrieve

to data

base

Mars

Ob-

software data; users.

pro-

MARS

OBSERVER

ENGINEERING

Spacecraft

Team

Joe Beerer

Responsible

for

Manager

of the

spacecraft. Durham

Engineering

OFFICE

ORGANIZATION

Office

Dennis

Potts

Dave

Deputy

Manager

Chief

Phil Uplink

Scott

Torgerson

Davis Analysis

Pat Sahagian

Deputy,

Manager

operation

I)eputy,

Leigh

Varghese

the safe

Secretary

Operations Staff" Maggie

_ZB

Anh

EZ_

Cotenzo

Kuhn

de

John

Louie

John

McLeod

Chizelle Jitu Mehla

Systems Maurine

Rick Murphy Lead

Bob Mark

Miller

Oberto

Boyles Wayne

Planning

and

Processes

all

for

the

Sequence

Team

commands

destined

Navigation

Team

Determines

the

and

spacecraft.

keeps

the

Brooks

Annie

Chief

Parkhurst

onboard

Secretary

Pete

Carberry

Patrick

Brian

Chafin

Becky

Mark

Molander

q

Phillips Volk

Bruce

Waggoner

Vicky

Krasner

on course

Kevin

MacMillan

Charles

Whetsel

for firing

maintains

during

Stracko

the

the

Nick

Medici

mapping Thermal

Sandi

Chief

Secretary

Lead

Allen

Bob

Bollman

Hyland

Bob

Pat Esposito

Gene Judy Morris

Sandy

phase.

O'Bryan

Susan

a plan

orbit

to Mars

path

spacecraft

thrusters;

proper

q

Sidney

Cohen Michael

flight

by developing Bobby

Ron

Dan

Stuart

Glenn

Paul

McEIroy

Naval

Halsell

AI Cangahuala

Miyake

Johnston

Hughes

Oliver

Raghuwanshi

Liu

Myers Demcak

Kronschnabl Cheick Ion

Robert

Mase

Duane

Roth

Giorgini

Eric Oraat Mission

Planning

Team

Develops

implementation

executing

trajectory

Mars

orbit

orbit,

tion,

orbit

and

Suzanne

Dodd

Chief

for

transition

science

data

to the collec-

b

Tests

Hyland

and

Secretary Miyoshi

Mark

Rokey

Test Laboratory

new

and/or

cerlain

quences Tammy

Attitude

and

George

Chen

Richard

to verify

before craft;

they

q

Keyur

to help Patel

Control

Steve

Collins

Ed Kan

Leo

Barendse

Tyler

Brown

Rajaram

software and

their

are used

re-creates

behavior

modified

commands

Cowley

Articulation

Raj Verification

adjustments. Sandi

Ken Walmsley Lead

Lead

corrections,

insertion,

mapping

plans

Propulsion

Diarra

se-

correctness on the

irregular

space-

Information Carl

its cause.

Annie

Parkhurst

Chief

Secretary

Bob Denise

Bob

Harold

Eelton

Victor

George

Hansen

Robert

Charles Paul

David

Paolo

Maiorana

Nell

Gilbert

Paula

Pingree

Boris

Shenker

Akers

Chen

Joe DeLuca

Marak Mora

Power Peter

Jerahian

Marlin

spacecraft

determine

Alice

Steiner,

Lead

Murdock

Cluck

Rolx'rt

Jim Rascon

Skulsky Thomas

Mueller

Lead

Telecommunications JuNe Webster

Wade

Mayo

Lead Laura

The

Mars Ob_rrvrr

Sakamoto

Mission

53

MARS

OBSERVER

OPERATIONS

Operalions

OFFICE

Mac

ORGANIZATION

Office

Grant

Bill

Manager

Hyland

Deputy Operations

and

Conlrol

Staff Robyn

Gibson

Chester

Kathy

Joe

Ross

Gerry

StillweH

Planning

Team*

Provides

the

required

to process

hardware

Mars

Observer

Dick

Hull

and and

personnel

store

all

data.

Chief

Data

System

Lloyd

Operations

Jennings

Jim Kesterson

Supervisor Russ Tom

Kirkpatrick

Boreham

Real-

Time

Curt

Opera

tions

Con trol

Eaton

Manager Mission

Control

Coordinates

the

commands receipt

and

at JPL. Monitors

health;

initiates

procedures

problems

of

spacecraft

of teJemetry

gency

Data

transmission

to the

spacecraft

Ben

Team*

when

emerspacecraft

are detected.

Toyoshima

Administers the

Project all

Data

science

ceived

from

the

files

Team Mars

Base, and the

as supplementary Creates

Dan

Chief

Administration

which

for archiving.

Don

Hanks

data

spacecraft,

users;

re-

Slingo

Andy

Slansel

Joel Mirelez

files. prepares

Data Bill

Hurley

Deputy

Andy

Hoadley

as well

information

Control

Lawrence

contains

engineering

to assist

data

Operations

Observer

Control

Operations

Connor

Dorian McClenahan

Esker

Davis

Chief Cindy Ala rcon-Rivera

Cindy

Tommy Chambers

Ray Williams

Murphy

Cozette

Parker

Robert

George

Linda

Operations Dan

Dyke

John

Casson

Paul

Lynn

Gary

Smith

Wofford

Grant

Jim Kipfstuhl

Springfield Michael

Dana Flora-Adams

Dean Sal Trujillo

Bill

Data

Base

Operations

Heventhal DeJores

Carnie

Walker

Jesse Luna

Laura

Bridges

Archive Ed Kelly Martha

DeMore

Green

Jason Hyon Operations

Prepares

and

operations Network Observer

Kristy

Davies

Larry

Mike

Distaso

Sherrie

Team*

for

support Mission.

the

Deep

of the

Howe

Hogan

Operations

Engineer

Pregc, zen

Simulation

Operations

Space Mars

Mike

Chief

Tuck

Sesplaukis

Carl

documents

plan

Ted

Perrine

Marski

Hugh

Brownlee

System Thod

Huynh

Dave

Don Ron

DSN

Jim

Hurzeler

Deputy

i

Jim Kipfstuhl

Administration

Kennedy KatherineAIvarez

MikeScharf

Robert

Scott

Birgel

Taylor

Mike Montgomery

Tape

Library

Edelmira

Operations

Robles

Diane yon

Not

54

The

Mars

Observer

Mission

Schmausen

project

funded.

John

_Nhis{er

MARS

OBSERVER Science

SCIENCE

Offlce

OFFICE Tom

ORGANIZATION

Thorpe

Manager

[ZZZ2---- ZZZ2 EZZ

Science

Investigation

Science

Teams

Acts

Operations

as liaison

regarding lions,

mission

flow Scientists

(IDS)

and

and

archiving;

policies

and

operaand

and

da_a

communicates

conslraints,

Thomas

teams

commanding

development,

project

Team

science

design

instrument

sequence Interdisciplinary

Support

Io all

ol)portunities,

to the

scien(e

teams.

E. Thorpe

Chief Bruce Radio

Science

Support

Iohn Provides

operations

the

Radio

and

the

work, tors

project, and

and

radio

interiace

Science other

maintains

science

Deep the

Team

Space

JPL elemenls; health

Callas

Mick

Connally

Peter

Kahn

(RS)

Net-

moniof the

Adriana

(IDS)

Ocampo

(TES)

instrument. [)avid

Rider

Mick Connally Lea d

Bill

Sami

Asmar

Richard

Gina

Gonzalez

Daniel

Patricia

(MOLA) (GRS)

between

Investigation Ihe

Bancrdt

Team

(PMIRR)

Smythe

(Mars

'94)

Springer

(MOC)

Winterhaher

(MAG/ER}

Priest

Science

Data

Provides

Validation

system

monitoring

Team

engineering

of data

archive

and processes

and

procedures

to ensure

and

continuity

ol" science

data

Planetary

Data

ered

to NASA's

the

quality deliv-

System. Peter

Kahn

Chief Paul lames

Andres Grimes

The

Mar',

Ob,,(.r_cl

Mi,,sion

55

56

The

Mars

Observer

Mission

C

H

A

P

T

E

R

Further Explorations ars Observer is one of the most ambitious undertakings ever attempted in planetary exploration. It will produce a huge inventory

of global

formation

data about

Mars -- the largest

of planetary

in-

ever obtained.

Mars Observer tion of the Martian %¢eather

maps,"

will give us global surface

together

advance

and retreat

tant clues

about

records

the changing

of the polar

of global

of atmospheric patterns

change,

of clouds,

and the

ice caps. We will have acquired

of the interior

will supply

of Mars, preparing

that will show the composi-

It will give us thousands

with detailed

the nature

Mars Observer

maps

material.

the rise and fall of dust storms,

ploration

archive

essential

impor-

of the planet. information

the way for many

for the further

exciting

efforts

ex-

as we anOpposite

ticipate

even more

complex

and challenging

endeavors.

and

better

model

of the planet's

gravity

page:

field. It will delineate

surface

evolution,

through

which

any landing

spacecraft

must

high-resolution

pictures

and

accurate

that can be used

ready

under

to select possible

landing

_

sites. Planning

ronmental scientific

Survey station

(MESUR)

U.S. mission Pathfinder

on the Martian

surface

to Mars _ _

which

portrait

of the

the comparison

Red of

with

NASA's

may place

Earth

and

other

planetary

is alneighbors.

way for the next

a global

extending

surface-elevation Mars

maps

interior

Observer

pass, and Planet

it will produce

Mars'

Mars

the structure will provide

of the atmosphere,

Exploring

It will give us a

(P-31317

)

Mars Envia small

as early as 1997 to obtain

data

The

Mars

Observer

Mission

57

about

surface

weather,

ing MESUR,

rovers

designed

soil and rock for return used to cover

soil chemistry,

for specific

samples

long distances

and small-scale tasks could

to Earth,

across

[andforms.

be sent to collect

and survey

the planet,

Follow-

rovers

collecting

could

be

and analyzing

as the), go. Everything caps, origin, the effort

The Mars Pathfinder low-cost payloads MESUR scientific

58

The

Environmental mission method

Survey

will

of delivering

to the surface mission

will

stations

Mars

on Mars.

a

science

of Mars.

place

Ob_rver

(MESUR)

demonstrate

A later

a network P-41609)

Mission

of

we learn

evolution,

to understand

ently.

Comparative

the geology,

and recent

to understand

hope

about

Earth.

history

weather,

of Mars also contributes

By comparing

why these planetary planetology

atmosphere,

Earth

neighbors

and Mars, evolved

gives us a new perspective

polar to

scientists

so differand may

prove

useful

factors

that

objective for

in studies

--

would

gram

inventory

--

Mission

to Planet

Earth

A NASA

from

instruments,

of data.

ciple,

from

gain

with

a similar

Mars

and

of the

Mars

--

will

the

problems

been

is now

years

and

more

has not

will

but

mission.

contribute

pro-

much

remote-sensing of large a global

different

The

to the

developed

involve

with

not

before

This

management

associated

Observer

done

planet.

platforms,

complex,

other

Observer's

being

own

and

orbital

and

Mars

inven-

experience

efficient

BRAVE

in printhat

development

Such

of the

WORLD

"At most, terrestrial men fancied there

of

might be other men upon Mars, perhaps inferior to themselves and ready

element

element.

NIzW

we

for Earth.

theme.

outcome

date

technical

trend

of our

many

operations,

The

is another

a human

over Observer

Observer

Earth.

understanding

larger

those

There

ral

are

mission

a familiar

Mars

long-term

of Earth

ally,

a global to continue

is familiar

tory

Moreover,

a global

provide

amounts

warming

life on

to compile

is intended

that

"greenhouse"

affect

any planet.

that

of the

profoundly

The

in the idea

link

of traveling

an

extraterrestrial

impulse

to explore,

for a _4sit. Technologically,

between

Mars

and

to another journey

with

we are

rapidly

planet.

The

planet

is often

Mars

the

Earth:

seen

most

likely

approaching

the

liter-

to welcome a missionary enterprise. Yet across the gulf of space, minds

is by now

that are to our minds as ours are to

as a natu-

those of the beasts that perish, intellects vast and cool and unsympathetic,

candi-

regarded this Earth with envious eyes,

first

and slowly and surely drew their plans footfall Mars

of human Observer

to future

mission

beings mission planners

on will

that

be a substantial who

will

make

scientific part

that

of the human

findings legacy presence

from

the

available a reality.

against us." With these chilling words, H. G. Wells in his 1897 masterpiece, The War of the Worlds, voiced the question that had begun to so occupy the minds of humans in the late 19th and early 20th centuries: Is there intelligent life on Mars? Since those heady days, of course, much of the speculation has been put to rest and we now recognize Mars for what it is -- a dry, barren, cold planet that resembles Earth hardly at all. Certainlywe

enter-

tain few notions of life -- intelligent or otherwise -- existing anywhere on the Red Planet. Still, not all our flights of fancy are foregone. Mars is a viable destination for humans, and -- despite its great distance and harsh environment-

may yet be the only world

beyond our Moon and in our solar system where we may one day land, walk, and even live.

The

Mars

Observer

Missi_m

59

A

C

K

N

O

W

L

E

D

G

M

E

N

T

S

he manuscript Red Planet: The Ma_ Mars Observer Carolynn

Observer

Many people or verified

associated

and for allowing

us to impose

them

Public Information

reviewed

Administrator, is the work of John

special recognition:

Sam Dallas, Suzanne

Arden

Dodd,

Mbee,

Morgan,

Services Group Scott Bowdan,

Return to the Red Planet, we thank

of the Documentation David Carlson,

Elsa King, Sanjoy

Moorthy,

Visible on the horizon

in this photograph

the Marilyn

AdrianeJach,

Riethle.

taken by the Viking orbiter

clouds of Mars" thin, carbon dioxide atmosphere.

(P-23692)

_T US, sate

atJPL:

Peter Hanegraaf,

and Audrey

For

Section

by the

are the hlgh-altitude



GOVERNMENT

Superintendent

PRINTING

OFFICE:

of Documents, US. Washington, D,C, 20402 S/N 033-000-01129-6

the following Glenn

Frank Palluconi,

Tom Thorpe.

Design

Beck of the Mars

of their contributions

manuscript,

1993-780-848

Government

Printing

Office

by

Mars Observer

into their busy schedules.

deserve

and producing

and edited

and/

For their review of the entire

For designing

by Bevan M. French,

NASA Headquarters,

The cover illustration

project

for the quality

our deadlines

Scientist,

to the

Flight Team.

with the Mars Observer

the text. We thank

Program

Young,

Project,JPL.

Observer Mission was written

for Return

individuals

Cunningham,

Gail Robinson,

and

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