NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) 20080047437: Jet Mixing Noise Scaling Laws SHJAR Data Vs. Predictions

High quality jet noise spectral data measured at the anechoic dome at the NASA Glenn Research Center is used to examine a number of jet noise scaling ...

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Jet Mixing Noise Scaling Laws SHJAR Data vs. Pridictions Authors: Abbas Khavaran and James Bridges Abstract: High quality jet noise spectral data measured at the anechoic dome at the NASA Glenn Research Center is used to examine a number of jet noise scaling laws. Configurations considered in the present study consist of convergent as well as convergent-divergent axisymmetric nozzles. The spectral measurements are shown in narrow band and cover 8193 equally spaced points in a typical Strouhal number range of (0.01 – 10.0). Measurements are reported as lossless (i.e. atmospheric attenuation is added to as-measured data), and at 24 equally spaced angles (50o to 165o) on a 100-diameter arc. Following the work of Viswanathan [Ref. 1], velocity power laws are derived using a least square fit on spectral power density as a function of jet temperature and observer angle. The goodness of the fit is studied at each angle, and alternative relationships are proposed to improve the spectral collapse when certain conditions are met. On the application side, power laws are extremely useful in identifying components from various noise generation mechanisms. From this analysis, jet noise prediction tools can be developed with physics derived from the different spectral components.

JET MIXING NOISE SCALING LAWS SHJAR DATA vs. PREDICTIONS

Abbas Khavaran & James Bridges NASA Glenn Research Center

Acoustic Technical Working Group Williamsburg, VA Sept. 23-24, 2008

Overview  Scaling Laws – SHJAR data  Sideline Angles  Small Aft Angles  Noise Components (Mixing, Shock, Screech, AMN)

 JeNo Scaling (unheated jets)

1

Acoustic Dome

2-in convergent nozzle smc000 SHJAR within the Dome Bridges, et al.

AIAA-2005-2846 AIAA-2007-3628

2

SHJAR 2-in SINGLE FLOW NOZZLES Nozzle smc000 smc021* smc014 smc015 smc016 smc018

Configuration Design Mach Diameter Design NPR inches Convergent Convergent CD CD CD CD

1.00 1.00 1.185 1.40 1.50 1.80

2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0

1.89 1.89 2.37 3.18 3.67 5.74

* Screech free

All data shown in NB, lossless and on ARC = 100D

3

POWER LAW U

n(! ,T )

Tt = 1.0, ! = 90 o

St = fD / U j

PSD (Scaled) = PSD ! 10n(" ,T )Log(U j / c# )

2 PSD = 10Log( p 2U j / pref D)

4

POWER LAW (Least-Square Method) yˆi = OASPL(! ,T ), i = 1, 2,..., N

Viswanathan, K., AIAA J. 44(10), 2006

yi = n(! ,T ) xi + B(! ,T ); xi = 10Log(U i / c" ), i = 1, 2,..., N Power factor

Intercept parameter

1 N ( yˆi # yi )2 ! (" ,T ) = % $ N # 2 i =1 i

Goodness Factor

5

VELOCITY POWER FACTOR - n (Constant Static Temp) Excludes points at U j / c! > 1.0

Includes points at U j / c! > 1.0

6

GOODNESS FACTOR (Constant Static Temp) Excludes points at U j / c! > 1.0

Includes points at U j / c! > 1.0

7

INTERCEPT PARAMETER (Contact Static Temp) Excludes points at U j / c! > 1.0

Includes points at U j / c! > 1.0

8

POWER LAW (Constant Total Temp) Tt 1.0 1.8 2.2 2.7

Includes points at U j / c! > 1.0

 Power law deteriorates at small aft angles  Unheated jets have a distinctly different intercept parameter 9

APPLICATION OF POWER LAW (Noise Components) FULLY EXPANDED VALUES

PSD (Scaled) = PSD ! 10n(" ,T )Log(U j / c# ) ! 10Log(A j / Ae ) Table C. SHJAR readings at plenum temperature ratio 1. 0

CD Screech-free

Rdg

Nozzle

Ts

1610 1611 1612 1613 1614 1616 1618 1636 1605

smc000 0.97 0.96 0.91 0.86 0.83 0.76 0.70 smc016 0.69 smc021 0.80

Tt

U j / c!

M

NPR

Mj

A j / Ae

1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.02

0.40 0.49 0.67 0.83 0.91 1.08 1.23 1.24 1.04

0.40 0.50 0.70 0.90 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.50 1.00

1.117 1.186 1.387 1.692 1.893 2.556 3.514 3.671 2.328

0.40 0.50 0.70 0.90 1.00 1.24 1.47 1.50 1.17

1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.043 1.156 1.0 1.02

10

SCALED SPECTRA Tr = 1, ! = 90 o , n = 7.93 AMN: AMN

Amplification of mixing noise due to screech

11

SCALED SPECTRA Tr = 1, ! = 150 o , n = 9.13 smc000 Rdg

U j /c!

1610 1611 1612 1613 1614

0.40 0.49 0.67 0.83 0.91

M

NPR

0.40 0.50 0.70 0.90 1.0

1.11 1.18 1.38 1.69 1.89

12

SCALED SPECTRA Tr = 1, ! = 150 o , n = 10.20 • Freq parameter (He) • Adjust power factor (9.13 --> 10.20)

He = f D / c!

Rdg

U j /c!

1610 1611 1612 1613 1614

0.40 0.49 0.67 0.83 0.91

M

NPR

0.40 0.50 0.70 0.90 1.0

1.11 1.18 1.38 1.69 1.89

13

SCALED SPECTRA Tr = 1, ! = 150 o , n = 10.20 Mach 1.50 CD nozzle Rdg

U j /c!

M

Mj

NPR

1636

1.24

1.50

1.50

3.67

smc016

14

SCALED SPECTRA Ts = 1.76, ! = 90 o , n = 6.15 smc000 Rdg

U j /c! M

NPR

5615 5578 5614 5613 5612 5579 5629 5580

0.39 0.49 0.59 0.69 0.79 0.89 1.18 1.32

1.06 1.10 1.14 1.20 1.27 1.35 1.67 1.89

0.29 0.37 0.45 0.52 0.60 0.67 0.89 1.0

15

SCALED SPECTRA Ts = 1.76, ! = 150 o , n = 8.70

Rdg

U j /c! M

NPR

5615 5578 5614 5613 5612 5579 5629 5580

0.39 0.49 0.59 0.69 0.79 0.89 1.18 1.32

1.06 1.10 1.14 1.20 1.27 1.35 1.67 1.89

0.29 0.37 0.45 0.52 0.60 0.67 0.89 1.0

16

SCALED SPECTRA Ts = 2.70, ! = 50 o , n = 4.92 smc000 Rdg

U j /c! M

NPR

5585 5585 5587 5588 5590 5592 5581

0.39 0.59 0.69 0.79 1.17 1.32 1.47

1.04 1.09 1.12 1.17 1.40 1.52 1.69

0.24 0.36 0.42 0.48 0.72 0.81 0.91

17

SCALED SPECTRA Ts = 2.70, ! = 90 o , n = 5.37

18

SCALED SPECTRA Ts = 2.70, ! = 120 o , n = 6.15

19

SCALED SPECTRA Ts = 2.70, ! = 150 o , n = 8.0 smc000 Rdg

U j /c! M

NPR

5585 5585 5587 5588 5590 5592 5581

0.39 0.59 0.69 0.79 1.17 1.32 1.47

1.04 1.09 1.12 1.17 1.40 1.52 1.69

0.24 0.36 0.42 0.48 0.72 0.81 0.91

20

NOISE COMPONENTS

 Scaling laws help to identify noise components  Jet mixing noise  Shock-associated noise  Amplification of jet mixing noise due to screech (AMN)  Mixing noise (components) at small aft angles

21

NOISE COMPONENTS Under-expanded Supersonic Jets No Screech Amplification Rdg smc000 1614 smc021 1605

U j /c! Tt

Mj

Md

NPR

0.91 1.04

1.0 1.17

1.0 1.0

1.89 2.33

1.0 1.0

22

NOISE COMPONENTS Mixing Noise – No Screech Amplification Rdg scaled smc000 1614 smc021 1605

U j /c! Tt

Mj

Md

NPR

0.91 1.04

1.0 1.17

1.0 1.0

1.89 2.33

1.0 1.0

22

NOISE COMPONENTS Shock Noise – No Screech Amplification Rdg smc021 1605

U j /c! Tt

Mj

Md

NPR

1.04

1.17

1.0

2.33

1.0

23

NOISE COMPONENTS Under-expanded Supersonic Jets With Screech Amplification Rdg scaled smc000 1614 smc000 (Uexp) 1616

U j /c! Tt

Mj

Md

NPR

0.91 1.08

1.0 1.24

1.0 1.0

1.89 2.55

1.0 1.0

24

NOISE COMPONENTS Shock Noise – Screech Amplification Rdg smc000 (Uexp) 1616

U j /c! Tt

Mj

Md

NPR

1.08

1.24 1.0

2.55

1.0

25

NOISE COMPONENTS Small Aft Angle – Supersonic Noise Components

smc000 smc000

Rdg

U j /c! Mj

1614 1618

0.91 1.23

M

1.0 1.0 1.47 1.0

NPR 1.89 3.51

Blue = dark + Red

26

JeNo PREDICTIONS vs. DATA JeNo Methodology

AIAA-2007-3640

Governing Eq: Linearized Euler Source:

Reynolds Stress + Velocity/Enthalpy

GF:

Locally Parallel Mean Flow Unheated Jets

 Good agreement along sideline angles  Small aft angle agreements deteriorate with increasing jet velocity (jet spread, instability) 27

JET CONDITIONS Subsonic Jets Nozzle smc000

SP 3 8 163 153 15 5 10 165 155 17 7 12 167 157 19 405 415 425 435 445

Table 1 Rdg 1513 1521 1525 1528 1531 1514 1523 1526 1529 1532 1515 1524 1527 1530 1533 1614 1584 1572 1565 1554

Ma 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.91 1.224 1.356 1.50 1.63

Tsr 0.95 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.43 0.90 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.43 0.85 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.43 0.83 1.50 1.83 2.26 2.70

M 0.502 0.501 0.476 0.456 0.419 0.724 0.702 0.666 0.640 0.585 0.972 0.90 0.857 0.825 0.751 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

Ttr 1.040 1.047 1.154 1.251 1.479 1.025 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.53 1.017 1.164 1.26 1.359 1.592 1.0 1.80 2.2 2.70 3.20

NPR 1.188 1.188 1.168 1.153 1.128 1.418 1.389 1.346 1.318 1.260 1.834 1.694 1.616 1.563 1.452 1.893 1.893 1.893 1.893 1.893

28

JET CONDITIONS Under-Expanded Convergent Nozzles Nozzle smc000

SP 8020 8030 8060 9020 9050 12040 12070

Rdg 1534 1537 1539 1535 1538 1541 1540

Ma 1.18 1.40 1.80 1.40 1.80 1.80 2.40

Tsr 1 1.40 2.37 1 1.665 1.0 1.795

Mj 1.18 1.18 1.18 1.40 1.40 1.80 1.80

Ideally Expanded Supersonic Jets Nozzle smc014 smc015 smc016 smc018

SP 8020 8030 9020 9050 10010 10030 10060 12040 12070

Rdg 1655 1656 1660 1661 1645 1646 1647 1651 1653

Ma 1.18 1.40 1.40 1.80 1.25 1.50 1.80 1.80 2.40

Tsr 1 1.40 1 1.665 0.695 1.0 1.446 1 1.795

Table 2 Ttr 1.28 1.79 2.99 1.39 2.30 1.65 2.92

NPR 2.38 2.38 2.34 3.19 3.17 5.76 5.71

Table 3 Md 1.18 1.18 1.40 1.40 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.80 1.80

Ttr 1.28 1.79 1.39 2.30 1.0 1.45 2.09 1.65 2.92

NPR 2.38 2.38 3.19 3.17 3.67 3.67 3.70 5.76 5.71

29

WIND-RANS TKE, Time & Length Scales smc000-1614 (M =1.0, Ma = 0.91, Tr = 1.0)

smc000-1554 (M = 1.0, Ma = 1.63, Tr = 3.2)

30

JeNo PREDICTIONS vs. DATA Unheated Jets Tt = 1.0 Subsonic

Subsonic

Supersonic (smc016)

M = 0.502

M = 0.97

M = 1.50 (CD)

Ma = 0.50

Ma = 0.90

Ma = 1.25

31

JeNo PREDICTIONS vs. DATA Rdg 1534 1524

U j /c! 1.18 0.90

Data with Screech Amplification (smc000-1534)

Ts 1.0 1.0

M 1.0 0.90

NPR 2.38 1.69

Supersonic data corrected for AMN effect (scaled up smc000-1524)

32

JeNo PREDICTIONS vs. DATA Hot Jets ( Excludes Enthalpy Source Term)

Ma = 0.50, Tr = 1.43

Ma = 0.90, Tr = 1.43

33

JeNo Power Factors ( Ts = 1.0 ) Velocity Power Factor

Intercept Parameter

34

SUMMARY Wind (CFD) Based JeNo Predictions  Good agreement along sideline (unheated Ts ! 1 )  Deteriorating agreement at small aft angles with increasing jet speed resulting in HF cutoff (Jet Spread ; Instability Noise)  Deficit in predicted PSD in the absence of heat-related sources.

35

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