Paintings and drawings by Francisco Goya : in the collection of the Hispanic Society of America

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PUBLICATION OF

THE HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA No. 96

PAINTINGS

AND DRAWINGS BY

FRANCISCO GOYA IN

THE COLLECTION OF

THE HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA

WILLIAM

WITH

E. B.

STARKWEATHER

EIGHTY-SIX ILLUSTRATIONS

THE HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA NEW YORK 1916

Copyright,

1916,

by

THE HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA

CONTENTS PAGE

FRANCISCO GOYA v LUCIENTES

A

PORTRAIT OF

DONA MARIA

1 1

DEL PILAR TERESA

CAYETANA

DE

SILVA ALVAREZ FE TOLEDO, Thirteenth Duchess of Alba,

by Francisco Goya y Lucientes

A

PORTRAIT OF

DON ALBERTO

51

FORASTER, by Francisco Goya y

Lucientes

A SKETCH May

71

FOR Esccnas del 3 dc

j,

1808)

,

Mayo

dc 1808.

(Scenes of

by Francisco Goya y Lucientes

75

SEVENTY DRAWINGS IN SEPIA, by Francisco Goya y Lucientes

ETCHINGS BY GOYA IN THE LIBRARY OF

THE HISPANIC

SOCIETY

OF AMERICA

A

81

161

PORTRAIT BUST OF GOYA, by Mariano Benlliure y Gil

173

TN THE STUDIO OF GOYA, by Francisco Domingo y Marques.. 177

A

COPY OF GOYA'S PORTRAIT OF PEDRO MOCARTE, by Mariano 181

Fortuny

VICTIMS OF WAR, AND

A

CARNIVAL SCENE, by Eugenio Lucas

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF FRANCISCO GOYA Y LUCIENTES

[7]

187

197

ILLUSTRATIONS PAGE

PORTRAIT BUST OF GOYA, by Mariano Benlliure y

PORTRAIT OF

DONA MARIA

DEL PILAR TERESA

Gi\..

Frontispiece

CAYETANA

DE

SILVA ALVAREZ DE TOLEDO, Thirteenth Duchess of Alba, by Francisco Goya y Lucientes

PORTRAIT OF

DON ALBERTO

Lucientes

72

SKETCH FOR Escenas

May

3,

52

FORASTER, by Francisco Goya y

del 3 de

1808), by Francisco

de 1808.

Mayo

(Scenes of

Goya y Lucientes

76

SEVENTY DRAWINGS IN SEPIA, by Francisco Goya y Lucientes.

I-LXX

Plates

82,

From Caprichos

FRANCISCO GOYA Y LUCIENTES. No. i

A CAZA

92-160

(Caprices). 165

DE DIENTES (Hunting for Teeth).

From

Caprichos.

No. 12

166

EL SUENO DE LA RAzoN PRODUCE MONSTRUOS (The Sleep Reason Gives Birth

VOLAVERUNT (They CARLOS

V

to

From

Monsters).

are Disappearing).

From

of

Caprichos. No. 43 167 Caprichos. No.6i 168

LANCEANDO UN TORO EN LA PLAZA DE VALLADOLID

(Charles

V

Spearing a Bull

in the

From La Tanroinaqnia (The Art Los PROVERBIOS (The Proverbs).

Plaza of Valladolid). No. 10 169

of Bull-Fighting)

No.

.

170

7

ESCAPAN ENTRE LAS LLAMAS (Escaping Through the Flames) Los Desastres dc la Guerra (The Disasters of War). No. 41

HOUSE

IN

WHICH GOYA WAS BORN

a Sketch by Rafael

AT FUENDETODOS.

171

From

Aguado Amal

IN THE STUDIO OF GOYA, by Francisco Domingo y Marques.

172 .

176

COPY OF GOYA'S PORTRAIT OF PEDRO MOCARTE, by Mariano 180 Fortuny VICTIMS OF WAR, by Eugenio Lucas

192

A

194

CARNIVAL SCENE, by Eugenio Lucas [9]

FRANCISCO GOYA Y LUCIENTES

FRANCISCO GOYA Y LUCIENTES

no

is

THERE biographers conflicting

and

critics

than

opinions

of

artist

the

of

past

whom

X

hold more varied and

Francisco

of

Goya.

Of

Velazquez, the man, and of his rank as a painter, The comparative simthere is but one estimate. of the Sevillian master's nature, the marvel-

plicity

lous approach to perfection in its

own

field

the field of his

which

his

work makes

and the very definite way in which work was limited through character

render impossible any great differences of opinion

But the strangeness of Goya's nature and of that mirror of a man's

as to his place in art history.

nature,

his

work,

its

contrasting elements,

good and bad,

its

many-sidedness, its

stridently

extraordinary mixtures of

oddly enigmatic quality, have given

rise to singularly differing

productions.

its

Each of

judgments of him and

his

his biographers has presented

a portrait of Goya, given a valuation to his art, that

has varied widely with the nationality, the training

and the sympathies of the author. [13]

While some have

%/

depicted

him

as lacking all

man

as a

all

religious

ested in

in the

all

feeling,

shown

patriotism, others have

profoundly

life

and work

human

kindness,

revealed in both

a

Goya

elements of religion

believing

not inter-

if

dogma, a man deeply moved by the

distresses

of humanity and despairing at the disasters which

overwhelmed as

grossly

Pictures censured by

his country.

vulgar have been

by others as

praised

remarkable expressions of macabre genius

;

the cru-

of tone, the careless haste, the frequent and

dities

grave faults of drawing to be found in

works and which dismay one proofs of, a genius so

rich,

of his

many

are pointed out

critic,

by the next as necessary incidents

to,

and indeed

varied and abundant.

Certainly to arrive at any just estimate of

and

some

his art,

it

is

He was

tion to his time.

epoch.

Goya

necessary that he be studied in relapeculiarly a

man

of his

Velazquez was a Spaniard and an aristocrat,

he might have been a Spaniard and an aristocrat of

\

almost any century.

Goya from

But

it

his background.

is

impossible to separate

In any other country or

at any other time, he would have been an incredible figure.

He was

not only of his

own

time, of his

country, but his character combined in itself

all

own the

elements of the bizarre, turbulent Spain of his day.

His

art

reflected

the

savagery, [14]

the

sensuality,

the

romanticism, the

the

disorder,

fundamental melan-

choly of the period in which he lived,

atmosphere of passion and conflict.

it

Despite

strange its

num-

and manifest imperfections,

berless eccentricities

work

its

lived, and, living,

his

proves his genius.

he gave the world not only visions of

Through new beauty,

but a marvellous record of the soul of the Spain he

knew.

Goya y Lucientes was born at village of Aragon, on March 30,

Francisco Jose a

Fuendetodos,

1746. His childhood

who were poor

his parents

a

somewhat

at

Zaragoza

sibly at

career

was spent

Martinez,

founded.

a

as

In 1760, or pos-

he began his art of

Jose

Luzan

academy which that artist had Luzan, who had studied painting at Naples local

artist of ability

reputation.

and profited

Although Goya

or six years at Zaragoza under Luzan, his

work was but demic

pupil

town with

the

in

by a considerable spent

laborers.

earlier date,

under Mastroleo, was an

five

at his native

style

little

of

his

influenced by the correctly aca-

master.

capricious, Goya's life at

sionate temperament.

and working

in

Bold,

Zaragoza

headstrong and reflected his pas-

Tradition depicts him as living

a condition of continuous revolt lind"

as having been obliged to leave the city as the result

of some

mad

escapade.

[15]

In his nineteenth year,

His

Goya moved

to Madrid.

however, at the Spanish capital was

stay,

brief.

Although without a government pension, he decided to visit Rome, where he arrived weak from priva-

and almost without funds.

tion

practically nothing

acquaintance

Vinaza

states

of

is

known

Louis

his

remembrance the

la

his

This friend-

however, does not appear to have been continued

after the

sojourn of the two painters.

Italian

1772 he was awarded the second prize tition

Fine

in a

In

compe-

under the auspices of the Royal Academy of of Parma. The Moniteur de France

Arts

January,

the Royal

"On June 27th last, Fine Arts of Parma held its

states:

1772,

Academy

public session

of

The

for the distribution of prizes.

painting subject was the

the

artist

Rome was

friendship with the French classicist.

of

there,

made

The Count de

retained in his old age of his stay at

ship,

life

save that he

David.

that the only

Of

:

'Hannibal the Conqueror, from

Heights of the Alps Regards for the First Time

the Plains of Italy.'

was awarded

.

.

.

The

prize for painting-

first

to the picture with the device:

f re git aceto,' by

M. Paul Borroni,

etc.

'Monies

The second

was taken by M. Franqois Goya, of M. Vajeu, painter to the King of

prize for painting

Roman,

pupil

Spain.

The Academy noted with [16]

pleasure

in

the

second picture the excellent management of the brush, the depth of expression in the face of Hannibal, as well as an air of grandeur If

the attitude of the

in

M. Goya had departed

less in his

composition from the subject of the competition, and if his coloring had been more truthful, he would have rengeneral.

dered doubtful the vote as to the

Goya's return to

Upon

married Josefa Bayeu, painter, painter.

presented to

powerful

who had become

Raphael Mengs, who

birth

was a

Italy,

of

eclecticism

hand."

by the

as

much

classicist.

and adds,

fatal seduction

which knows only beauty

He was

artist

no masterpiece,

"If this highly gifted artist produced led astray

Goya was was all-

as "the best rep-

resentative of academicism before David,"

was because he was

a Court

Mengs, an

of Spain.

trained in

fellow-

at this time

Salomon Reinach characterizes him

it

and

probably through Bayeu that

in the art life

German

of

prize."

Madrid about 1775, he

sister of his friend

Francisco Bayeu, It is

first

at

second

a theorist as a painter, the

head of an artistic renaissance which attempted to

combine

and

drawing of Raphael with the chiaroscuro of Correggio and the color of Titian.

the

the

expression

Under Charles

III,

Department of Fine Arts.

directed the

Mengs had charge of As absolute master, he

Academy, supervised [17]

all

royal art

manu-

factories

and had control of such decorations as were

undertaken

in the royal palaces.

Mengs was quick

to recognize Goya's talent,

commissioned the young tapestries to be at

woven

design cartoons for

in the royal tapestry factories

The

Santa Barbara.

artist to

and

design was delivered in

first

1776, and from that date until

1791 Goya worked

intermittently for the royal manufactory, producing

over forty paintings, from which two or three times that

number of

being

tapestries

woven from

were made.

these cartoons at the Santa Bar-

bara factories as late as 1802. these hangings

Tapestries were

now adorn

For the most part

the Spanish royal palaces.

The weavers' execution was

frequently

indifferent.

Often they went so far as to make such departures from the design of the artist as suited their own convenience.

It is

probable that the indifference of the

tapestry workers to faithful reproduction acted as a

contributory cause to the unevenness of Goya's

on these paintings and to the the

later

cartoons

are

less

work

fact that, as a whole,

carefully

executed and

reveal less interest and enthusiasm on the part of the artist

than

do" the earlier ones.

As

a series, however,

they form a charming and stimulating panorama of all

the brighter side of Jife in the Peninsula.

these compositions,"

"In

writes Paul Lefort, "the intel-

[18]

lect,

the fancy, the wealth of imagination of

ample expression. inspired in

Goya

Real genre pictures, the

them above

all

artist

by popular custom.

to the last degree of local color, these

find

amusing

is

Full scenes,

often enough improvised, sometimes carefully painted, at other times lightly indicated

and a

little

pale in tone,

are generally treated with a marvellous instinct for

decorative effect.

To

delightful compositions

be sure, the drawing of these is

not always correct, but they

are so full of movement, so gay, so picturesque, that'

one easily pardons the

dom

of

their

artist for the haste

Until

execution."

shortly

and

revolution of 1868, these cartoons were packed in rolls in the

storerooms of the tapestry

free-

after

offices.

the

away They

were then saved from neglect and oblivion by being carefully restored and placed in the Prado, where

now

they

The

hang. originality

and abundant

talent

shown

in

works brought Goya greatly into vogue. He began to receive recognition from members of the Spanish court, and May 7, 1780, the Academy of these

San Fernando opened its doors to him as a memHis next important commission was an order

ber.

to assist in the decoration of the church of Nuestra

Sefiora del Pilar at Zaragoza, under the direction of his brother-in-law, Bayeu.

The

[19]

sketches which

Goya

prepared did not prove to the taste of the committee in

charge of the work, which obliged him to make

others and submit them to

was an

Bayeu for approval. This humiliation for Goya, and until his

intense

departure from Zaragoza upon the completion of the

work law

in June, 1781, his relations

were marked

by great

with his brother-in-

bitterness

of

feeling.

Shortly after Goya's return to Madrid, however, his pride

was

gratified

by receiving a commission for a

decoration for the church of San Francisco

el

Grande,

which had just been finished under Charles III. He chose as his subject Saint Bernard of Sienna Preaching Before Alphonse of Aragon, and worked on this

composition during the next three years.

When,

in

December, 1784, the King, surrounded by his entire court, solemnly inaugurated the temple, all the paint-

ings were uncovered and for the public view.

first

time exposed to

Goya's composition, unique

in its force

was by far the most notable work his place securely as one of established and shown,

and

originality,

the leading painters of the epoch.

Superbly

decorative

ligious

paintings

painter

that

he

are,

takes

rations as a whole are feeling,

as it

is

rank.

some

of

Goya's

not

as

a

His

unillumined by that fervor of [20]

religious

church

unmarked by any

re-

deco-

religious

faith

neces-

sary to the proper rendering of in

Matheron,

of

writing

spiritual

Goya's

subjects.

com-

religious

notes with admiration their grandeur

positions,

and harmonious

design, their grave

of

color, the audacity

with which their groups are arranged and the wise relations these groups

that

all

have to the whole, but states

religious sentiment

is

lacking.

"The

artist

took care in entering the sacred precincts to leave his heart and soul at the portal, to note that he did not believe; will

impossible to attain solely by force of

is

it

and genius

to the production of those sublime

reflections of holiness, those beautiful ideals of Christianity,

pictures

those

of

lovely

old

figures

Italian

which

masters,

illuminate

pictures

so

the

often

imperfect from the point of view of art and science."

From

this

time Goya's success was assured.

His

career became intimately associated with the Spanish court.

the

In 1785 he was selected as deputy director of

Academy

Calleja.

of

San Fernando

Writing

at this period,

to his friend

he states

an enviable mode of

:

life;

come

after, but except for

to oblige a

friend,

I

Andres de

la

Zapater of his success

"I had established for myself

ance in an antechamber; of mine, he had to

to succeed

I if

no longer danced attendanybody wanted anything

to me.

someone

I

in a

was much sought high position, or

worked for none. [21]

The more

strove to

I I

make myself

was pursued

so

I

of access, the

result, I

am

so overwhelmed

do not know where to turn or how

many

more

each day this has increased and grown

;

worse and worse; as a that

difficult

accepted

engagements."

to fulfill

"The whole of

Goya," writes Paul Lefort, "is in these lines. pendent, proud, with a touch of savagery in

Inde-

marked

contrast to an ability which closely approaches the

extreme of adroitness, he his

worth and

is

self-assurance.

is

also fully conscious of

not afraid to show unaffectedly his

That which he writes

Zapater of the obsessions of which he the exact truth;

he

door, his studio

is

picture or portrait influence

\.

is

is

persecuted, siege

to his Iriend

the object, is

is

laid to his

taken by assault, and to obtain a

from him there

or success which

He had really become On the death of

is

is

no power of

not brought to bear.

the spoiled child of the public."

Cornelius van der Goten,

Goya was appointed Painter of the Chamber with a salary This sum was increased in of 15,000 reals a year. 1799 to 50,000 reals and the title

artist

of First Painter to the King.

was given the The years from

1780 to 1800 mark the period of Goya's greatest ,

and production. He was in high favor at the court, where he had become a fashionable figure. activity

He

lived the life of a

grand seigneur, as had Van [22]

The Queen

Dyck, Rubens and Velazquez.

him

in her salon, as did the

received

Duchess of Alba and the

Duchess of Osuna and Benavente;

he was a friend

of the King and of the all-powerful Godoy. this period

Goya

He

royal family. a

number of

large

During

many commissions from the worked with rapidity and produced

received

easel

and

pictures

portraits.

Although accepted as a friend by the aristocracy, his chief sympathy and interest remained throughout his life with the lower classes to which he himself be-

His intimate knowledge of their

longed.

proved

he devoted to them and to their greatest

Goya's easel

is

long series of drawings and paintings

in the

The

lives

figures

of

before

passed

and courtesans.

tures of the lower classes illustrative of

Spain

procession of kings and

in a glittering

nobles, actors, priests

activities.

and

his

With

his pic-

tapestry designs

popular custom, they form a superbly

panorama of the period in which he lived. The immense virility of his portraits, their truth often vivid

brutal and pitiless, at other times

mocking and

ironic,

renders them as striking and compelling today as painted.

when

They show how profound an understanding

the painter possessed of the psychology of his sitters,

although certain of these works also reveal that he

was not always

interested in the personality of those

[23]

In others, where the sitter appears to

he portrayed.

have been unsympathetic, he allowed the likeness to verge on caricature, or carried his gifts for ironic and satiric representation to the point

of cruelty

As

may

where the charge

reasonably be brought against him.

a whole, however, his portraits bear within them-

selves evidence of the justice

the artist.

They

of the judgments of

human documents

are wonderful

;

taken together, they form an amazing record of the

and soul possessed by the

qualities of heart

notabilities

of the Spain of his day.

"The

disposition

of Goya, his great taste

for

naturalism, his eminent qualities as a painter and an

him wonderfully

observer, served

\

portraits," writes Paul Lefort.

of is

was

fact,

his true field.

...

in the painting

of

"There, as a matter In his portraits there

something of Velazquez, of Prud'hon, of Reynolds,

of Greuze, but amalgamated, absorbed and fused in

an originality which

finally,

clearly

frees itself

in his

and

long career

Perhaps Goya two hundred portraits, but even more than painted

predominates.

.

.

.

most impetuous improvisations there is not one which does not redeem the careless freedom of

among its

ter

be

his

execution by some of the innate gifts of the mas;

however and

in

rapid,

this

however hurried

direction

Goya

[24]

his sketch

may

frequently allowed

himself real tours de force-

always palpitates with

life

it

and

always spirit."

is

alive,

The

it

finish

of his portraits varied greatly with the impression

made upon him by

the

sitter.

Often the likeness

is

brusquely washed in at a single sitting, while at other times the work has been carried through many sittings to a result that in recalls the

its

easy grace and charm

English portrait school.

for the court of Charles

IV

the

same

Goya performed service of record

had given the court of Philip IV. The Count de la Vinaza considers that the royal portraits of Goya are marked by a certain nobility and dignity. that Velazquez

"The

celebrated canvas of the family of Charles IV,

Maria Louisa and her hus-

the equestrian portraits of

band, those of Ferdinand VII, and those of the un-

happy Godoy, give evidence to a grandeur of spirit and intellectual and moral qualities which the mean souls of those personages did not possess."

however, in

have

felt

these

canvases

to

Others,

have

nearly every case cruel works of satire.

been

"A

fat

gossip, without any distinction, and with the high

color and impudent regard of an old coquette," writes

Lafond of the Queen, as shown in the equestrian portrait and Gautier, while praising the heads of the King ;

and his consort

in the equestrian portraits as

vellously painted, full of

life,

[25]

"mar-

of subtlety and spirit,"

|

is

said to have declared that the royal

a grocer's family

^"In

his portraits he

satile, vivid,

.

.

is

the great lottery prize.

a realist," writes Calvert, "ver-

often unflinching in his brutality, unsur-

passed when he .

who had won

group resembled

wills

in perfection of treatment.

it

Goya, by virtue of

his portraits, has

been rightly

acclaimed the legitimate descendant of Velazquez, and, like the great is

court painter of a previous century, he

But the comparison be-

a magnificent exception.

tween, the two masters cannot be pushed too

Velazquez was a x

realist to

as a beautiful vision,

whom

Goya was a

far.

the world appeared realist to

whom

life

was always a drama and not unfrequently a satiric melodrama played in the tempo of a farce. Velazv

and- women at their noblest

quez depicted

men

when he was

in the

in

;

Goya,

mood, detected the worst that

them and he exposed

it

was

with a flourish."

Living in a period of great moral laxity and a court notable for

its

license,

He

the disorders of his time.

Goya's

life

lived as he

in

reflected

worked,

in

a spirit of audacious and even arrogant independence.

Matheron

states that his

wife bore him twenty

dren, and continued to love

him and

to

have influence

over him despite his flagrant and innumerable ities.

His

notorious.

liaison with the

She was

chil-

infidel-

Duchess of Alba became

finally

[26]

exiled

to

her estate at

Sanlucar, where

her

exile

was

her.

Goya accompanied

brief,

Although Duchess did

unfortunate

the

not long survive her return to Madrid. indicate

to

Goya's etchings appear

Certain of

that before her

death the couple had become estranged, but

it

seems

had been marked by a con-

clear that their relations

stancy and depth of devotion not characteristic of the

which appear to have been

painter's usual intrigues,

mere passing There is

caprices. little

justification for the

by certain writers that

Goya was

charge J3rouglrt^

a monster of selfish-

any kindly emotions. He promother with a pension and educated and

ness, without heart or

vided his

helped to place his brothers in the world. of his children

is

His love

often indicated in his correspond-

ence with Zapater.

The many

picturesque traditions

which have survived of the painter's career form undoubtedly a truer record of his character than of his history;

possibly,

indeed, their only value

is

to

give a general idea of the background against which his life

was

enacted,

leave Zaragoza and

Goya

Rome

adventures;" at Zaragoza in street riots

is

shown

as obliged to

as a result of

we

see a

"amorous

Goya embroiled

during the rival religious processions, /

at

Madrid he

dagger

in his back.

and

is

picked up in the road with a

As

conservative a writer as Paul [27]

Lefort states that Goya, being without funds for his

journey to

joined a cuadrilla of bull-fighters

Italy,

and thus made

his

way from town

to town, until he

reached an Andalusian port, where he embarked.

coes \

Finally

to cut his

we

are

upon the cornices of the a dangerous height on an old

altitudes

buildings, as climbing to

monument

At

represented as studying ceiling fres-

Rome, Goya from dizzy is

name above

shown a Goya on

Mengs, who had dared to

that of

Van

Loo.

the point of killing

one of his pictures

criticise

and as actually having been saved by his son, Xavier Goya, from assassinating Wellington because

adversely,

the Iron

Duke

did not consider his portrait by the

Spanish master a good likeness. the painter's nervousness

and

It is

irritability

probable that

were

intensi-

Some biogby constantly increasing deafness. raphers assert that he had been annoyed by this infirmity from childhood and that it was greatly increased fied

in after years

by serious

illness.

The correspondence

of Goya's son quotes another story bearing on the

with

the

Duchess an accident occurred to their carriage.

It

subject.

During the journey

was necessary bar.

into

exile

and straighten an iron This Goya accomplished. He became overto light a fire

heated, a chill followed, and

from

the deafness which in later years

[28]

this chill resulted

became nearly com-

During the latter part of his life a frequent use was made of the sign language in conversing plete.

with him. In 1798

Goya

received

from the King a commis-

sion to decorate with frescoes the interior of the small

chapel

of

San Antonio de

recently been finished.

la

Florida,

which had

In three months he completed

dome

the work, painting the great

of the building

with a vast composition including more than a hun-

dred figures, somewhat over

life

size.

He

took as

Anthony of Padua Restoring to Life the Corpse of a Murdered Man, in Order That He May Reveal the Name of His Assassin. Besides the his subject St.

figures of this great composition, he painted groups

of cherubs and angels in certain of the architectural spaces of the ceiling and walls.

a superb piece of decorative its

The

art,

is

result,

lack of tenderness, faith or mysticism.

especially are of the

although

characteristic in

The

angels

world worldly, their loveliness

no way spiritual, their freedom of attitude conveying no suggestion of divine origin. Many being in

critics

have considered these frescoes to be

full

of

irreverent irony, daring satires directed at the aristocratic congregation

The Count de "painted

la

pictures

which attended the

Vinaza, of

who

religious

[29]

stated

subjects

little

chapel.

that

but

Goya

no

re-

ligious pictures,"

that of

is

of

wrote that "the figure of the saint

an ordinary friar dressed

in the

epoch and surrounded by majas

the

in

manner draped

good number of young rogues from the Manzanares." He adds "The miraand a

ruffians

mantillas,

:

cles of the exemplary

man

of Padua are as famil-

iarly treated as a spectacle of

wandering rope dancers

might be."

The

of Goya, abundant,

full

of daring,

ingenuity and love of experiment, did not

in

rich

talent

permit the artist to confine himself to one medium.

As

early as 1778 he completed a set of etchings after

certain of the

more important paintings of Velasquez,

and these etchings were acquired by Charles the

collections.

royal

solidity, dignity

ance,

reflect

faithfully

the

and sobriety of tone of the Sevillian

They were traced by a hand not unaccus-

master.

tomed

They

III for

to the needle,

for Goya, before their appear-

had already produced several

plates which, slight

manner of Tiepolo. 1796 or 1797 when a series

in themselves, strongly recalled the It

was

not,

of etchings that his

however,

known

until

as Caprichos (Caprices) appeared,

great mastery as an etcher

These Caprichos are unique

They

in

was manifest.

the history of

art.

are absolutely personal, entirely and intensely

Goya's;

few

artists

have embodi'ed [30]

their

creative

form.

impulse in so individual a

They

constitute,

The

perhaps, his most supreme legacy to humanity.

most part

series of etchings are for the

often

fantastic,

Goya

bitingly

vulgar.

flagrantly

attacks

and

church

the

royalty,

satires, bitter,

In these works its

dogmas, the Inquisition, the monastic orders and the

He

professions.

exposes with grim irony the greed,

corruption and foolish superstition of the period, or forsakes

of

pure

of

attitude

his

phantasy,

derision

bitter

witches,

inventing

for

flights

demons and

strangely repulsive monsters.

The whole of

of etchings has a certain sense

set

feel

"You_

nightmare.

transported

unheard-of, impossible, but (

of

iautier

the

trees look like

owls,

may may be

cats,

be

with

Caprichos.

or

asses

shoes

feet

corpse, and

ribbons,

envelop,

;

and

sinister

abandons himself to that he

is

young

cavalier

a

may

ornamented

fleshless

thigh-

never did more mys-

;/

apparitions

his

bows

with

that

the

nails

their

covered

perhaps,

the stove of Dr. Faustus."

of

resemble hyenas,

his trunk hose,

bone and two shrunken legs terious

men

trunks

hippopotamuses;

their

conceal cloven

world," wrote

real

"The

phantoms, the

talons,

some old

still

some

into

He

issue

from behind

adds: "It

is

when he

demonographic inspirations

especially admirable

[31]

;

no one can represent

as

he can,

floating

warm atmosphere

the

in

of a

stormy night, dark masses of clouds loaded with

make

vampires, goblins and demons, or

a cavalcade

of witches stand out with such startling effect from the sinister background of the horizon."

Their subjects and the brutal

with

frankness

which the subjects are often treated have made set

of

etchings is

opinion

wrote tially

offensive

that

of

Philip

An

many.

Hamerton, who

Gilbert

Goya was "coarse-minded and As works of art, there is no vulgar."

They

essen-

ques-

are distinctly the works

Their power and freedom are

of a fluent painter. extraordinary.

this

extreme

that

tion of their mastery.

lation

to

Especially interesting

is

their

reve-

of the profound influence which the art of

Rembrandt made

Goya makes Spanish

upon

In

Goya.

free use of aquatint.

painter

to

introduce

the

these

etchings

He was

the

process

into

first

his

country.

The Caprichos were followed by a series of Tauromaquia (The thirty-three plates known as Art of Bull-Fighting}, which depicted incidents of Only a few of the plates were issued

the bull ring.

during the actually until

life

of the

published

in

the Calcografia

artist,

anything

and the like

set

was not

complete

form

Nacional issued the series [32]

in

In this series of etchings aquatint

1855.

freely used as in the Caprichos,

and

of Goya's etching that, as he

grew

more and more upon pure

Amid work

as a court painter

at

older, he relied

the political disturbances that

best pictures of his career.

ments

characteristic

line alone for his effects.

of the reign of Charles IV,

.close

it is

this

not as

is

Goya

marked

the

carried on his

and produced many of the

Among his notable

period are the

achieve-

Vestida

Maja

(Ma/a

Clothed) and the Maja Desnuda (Maja Nude}. They rank today as the most celebrated of his easel pictures.

when sixty-two years old, he saw the French Madrid and, was .familiar with the period of

In 1808, enter

horror and butchery that followed.

Politically,

has been accused of being an opportunist. that

It is

Goya true

upon the entry of Joseph Bonaparte as King of

Goya swore allegiance to the usurper, was made a knight of the Legion of Honor, Spain,

that he

that he

added a portrait of Joseph I to his long catalogue of royal portraits, and that he accepted, with Napoli and Mae'lla, a commission to select from the treasures of the Royal Gallery fifty of

transference to the Louvre.

its

greatest pictures for

But

in

acknowledging

Joseph's sovereignty he but followed the example of

many

of the most powerful of his countrymen of the

day.

[33]

There can be full

question that his heart was

little

of bitterness toward the French invaders.

found expression

feeling vases,

Episodic

de

two of

in

his greatest can-

Francesa en

Invasion

la

This

1808

(Episode of the French Invasion in 1808} and the

Escenas del j de Mayo, 1808 (Scenes of

The

1808).

first

citizens being executed

ond, a bloody fight in citizens

May

picture represents a group of

3,

Madrid

by troops of Murat; the secthe Puerta del Sol, between

and the cavalry of the French Imperial Guard.

These pictures are two of the most powerful, the most gloomy and the most moving battle pieces ever

They stand

produced.

as witness to Goya's distress

at the pitiable condition

French

known

invasion,

as

of his country during the

and with the

Los Desastres de

la

series

of

etchings

Guerra (The Disasters

of War}, commenced about this time, offer, were

it

needed, a proof which refutes any theory that their

author was lacking in patriotism. la

Guerra consists of a

which were

not,

1863.

In

until

artistic

series

Los Desastres de

of eighty-two plates,

however, published as a collection these

superb

designs

Goya gave

expression to the terrible events he

nessed during the Peninsula War.

had wit-

All the horror,

the savagery, the splendid heroism of the epoch are

depicted

in

these

tragic

and powerful works. [34]

He

shows us hideous scenes of slaughter, ties,

the outrage of

bestial atroci-

the butchery of children,

women,

the despoiling of the dead, a succession of sinister

These works

and death.

pictures of famine, disaster

clearly reveal Goya's revolt against

power capahl

plunging humanity in such abysms of terror. plates

form a

bitter

p.

of

The

and impassioned arraignment of

militarism.

Upon the restoration of the Spanish monarchy under Ferdinand VII, Goya for a time found it expedient to go into hiding.

before the court

King the

reinstated

Tradition

painter.

Goya with

It

words

:

was not

him

long, however,

in his old position of

states

that

he

"You have deserved

pardoned exile,

you

have merited the garrote, but you are a great artist and we will forget everything." Goya painted sev-

Ferdinand VII, making four monarchs of Spain that he had immortalized with his eral portraits of

At about the period of Ferdinand's restoraGoya left Madrid and retired to a little country

brush. tion,

house outside the

The rooms

city,

of that

series of frescoes to the Praclo.

near the Puente de Segovia.

residence he

decorated with a

which have since been transferred

They

are for the most part powerful,

For his dining gloomy and bizarre productions. room he painted a decoration showing Satan devour[35]

ing his children, which istic

is

perhaps the most character-

expression of his genius for the horrible.

critics

consider that these frescoes

show

Some

that Goya's

reason had been affected by the period of terror and it through which he had passed be concluded from these works that a

distress least

:

deep melancholy had settled upon the certainly

at

spirit

of

He had

been greatly disheartened by the terrible

vicissitudes

The

artist.

may

through which his country had passed.

early years of the nineteenth century

marked by

the death of his wife

most intimate friends

;

had been

and of many of

his progeny, although

his

numerous,

had been for the most part short lived old age was his health and eyesight were creeping upon him affected; he had become completely deaf. ;

;

In these later years of his

life,

although he painted

occasional portraits, he gave the greater part of his

time to etching, and produced a series of eighteen plates

known

which are

as

Los Proverbios (The Proverbs},

really late additions to the set of Caprichos.

Their exact date

is

uncertain.

their time of production

Critics

from 1805

have placed

to 1820,

some

list-

ing them as probably the painter's last works, although

they betray no strange plates the

waning power. Goya gave these No one title of Sucnos (Dreams).

has appeared to have arrived at an understanding of [36]

their meaning.

Grotesque monsters, phantoms, flying

men, deformed and malformed creatures constitute for the

most part the more striking features of these

extraordinary the best

title

Sueiios

productions.

seems,

and description of them.

indeed,

In his later

years he also etched three impressive plates entitled

Los Prisioneros (The Prisoners) and

several separate

etchings such as the Colossus.

In 1824 he obtained leave of absence from the

King

order to go to France, giving as his reason a

in

desire to take the mineral

the Vosges.

waters at Plombieres in

At seventy-eight he

started

on his long

journey and proceeded to Paris, where he made a

and then joined the colony of Spanish Bordeaux. He was constantly active, draw-

brief sojourn, exiles at ing,

painting and lithographing, with the aid of a

The King once prolonged Goya's

double-leased glass. leave of absence.

sidered

it

To

obtain a third leave,

necessary to

eign in person,

another brief

and

make

in 1826, at the

visit to

age of eighty, made

Madrid, when he

Lopez for the well-known portrait now

On

Goya con-

application to his sover-

sat to Vicente in the

Prado,

Bordeaux, although greatly troubled by failing eyesight, he continued his work. His last his return to

portrait

was

that of

Don Juan

de Muguiro.

was evidently proud of such an achievement [37]

Goya at

his

He

age.

it

signed

in

full,

"Don Juan de Muguiro

por su amigo Goya a los 81 afios en Burdeos,

On

de 1827."

Mayo

April 15, 1828, he was stricken with

apoplexy, and the next day death brought his turbulent career to an end. For some seventy years his in

body lay Bordeaux,

where

but

now

it

tomb of

the

was

finally

rests in the

Goya's fame

the Goicoechea family at

transferred

to

Madrid,

cemetery of San Isidro.

almost entirely upon his por-

rests

and etchings. His ecclesiastical although marked by certain splendid

traits, easel pictures

decorations, qualities

of design, add nothing to his reputation.

Nor may

his genius be fairly estimated

Made

ing tapestry cartoons.

theme and treatment were limited by the of tapestry weaving as

it

was understood

Barbara manufactory; and the evidence that the artist factory imposed.

felt

his

by

series

is

possibilities

is

Santa

at the

not without

the restraint which the

Although the genius of Goya

a nature to render analytical investigation there

charm-

for reproduction, their

is

of

difficult,

no doubt but that the main characteristic of

A

his art is its intense naturalism or realism.

found observer of delight in living,

life,

who

pro-

himself took passionate

he sought by every means within

the range of his supple technique to perpetuate on

canvas the intense

realities, the vital truths

[38]

of

life as

he knew

And

it.

in this

he was essentially Spanish,

for Spanish art has been, art

of

From

realism.

more than any

its

inception,

other,

the

an

Spanish

school of painting has had but one ideal, to depict the truth.

epochs have been

Its greatest

of most intense realism, foreign

influence,

has

it

its

its

periods

weakest when, led by

forsaken that realism

for

wTucTPthir school has genius, and has attempted to replace

with qualities not so clearly a product of

it

the national character.

was during one of these weaker moments Goya was born. He appeared

It

of Spanish art that comet-like,

about him, at as

group or school a time when no one in Spain and, Reinach says, scarcely anyone in without

isolated,

Salomon

Europe, knew

how

to paint.

a

The death

of Coello

in 1693 marked the disappearance of that group of

who had surrounded Velazquez and found

artists

their inspiration in the

With

master.

work of

the great Sevillian

the extinction of the house of

Habs-

burg and the entrance of the Bourbons under Philip a few years later, the Peninsula was flooded with

V

French and

when

Native painters strove

possible to complete their education at

and gave Italian

Italian painters.

their talents to the imitation of

work

in

the

over-elaborate,

[39]

Rome,

French and

artificial

style

characteristic of the epoch.

The

seemed well-nigh

It

extinct.

national art of Spain

was

at the height

of

chaos of foreign influence that the art of the

this

Aragonese painter emerged and by its vitality, its freedom from academic restraint, its intense naturalism, gave Spanish art another great epoch of splendid

The

achievement.

Goya was not

realism of

imitative of only the exteriors of the people

that surrounded him.

and objects

Although too much of a painter

make frequent use of an

not to

a realism

accident of the moment,

not to be interested in the picturesque appeal of a

of

bit

detail,

his

observation penetrated

such superficialities. idea

:

"The

known

artists

Lafond has

who have

far below

well expressed this

painted their times are

as realists or naturalists.

Although they may

be understood in the profound sense of the words, these appellations are generally given to painters

are

more

who

particularly struck by the exterior of things,

by the momentarily picturesque. ever, true realists.

life,

which on

all

who, moved by the

are incapable of ignoring the invisible

sides manifests itself to

etration of beings

temporaries,

how-

This appellation should be exclu-

sively reserved for those masters

power of

are not,

They

them;

and things, unknown

to their con-

renders them the demigods

epoch and of humanity.

It

[40]

is

among

this pen-

of

their

these painters

and Goya

only,

is

of the number, that

found the

is

concern for simplification, the sense of the general, the disdain of the anecdote, the sensual passion for

which restrains the

that combination of qualities

life,

decorations of costume and local color, forcing them into the role of simple accessories,

making them give

before things which are unchangeable.

way

very means they escape being

By

this

lost in the absurdities

of capricious and changing fashions

As

a result with

these masters, styles of dress seem always natural even

when they have long which is

will

change

since been replaced

in their turn."

the keynote of Goya's work,

This realism, which is

characteristic

even the most fantastic of his etchings.

and are

exist

solid,

they have

light

of

His witches,

malformed monsters, even

his goblins, his

by others

his ghosts,

and shade, they

"go 'round," in the language of the studio.

Goya himself

is

the

best

authority

sources of his inspiration and training. three

masters,"

Rembrandt."

as

to

the

"I have had

he wrote, "Nature, Velazquez and

It is difficult

to estimate to

what extent

he owed his training in elements of art to Luzan. Certainly his

work shows no

influence of the style

of the director of the Zaragoza Academy. other hand, teacher;

Luzan was an

many

On

the

enthusiastic and thorough

of his pupils [41]

achieved considerable

distinction.

not impossible that, as some critics

It is

suggest, he was to Goya what Otto Vcenius was to

Rubens, Quentin Varin to Poussin, Pacheco to Velaz-

However,

quez.

it

undoubtedly true that talent as

is

and vigorous as Goya's would inevitably have found adequate means of expression, with or without

rich

any place where models and material

instruction, in

were to

accessible.

The

painter's stay at

have had almost as

had the two

Italian trips of

of that master.

show any

little

effect

upon

in his decorations does

Only

Goya

In this connec-

he supported himself when in

tion, the tradition that

the sale of small pictures depicting scenes

of Spanish

life is

Throughout

worthy of mention.

his

w ork r

is

much

ognized as deriving inspiration

whom

appears

his style as

Velazquez on the work

trace of Italian influence.

Rome by

Rome

he

may

that

may

be rec-

from Velazquez, of

be justly considered a pupil.

"He

studied Velazquez's great understanding of the picture,"

writes Yriarte, "his independence, his proud

manner, ment, his

his

the

daring

subtle

poses,

and

his

silvery

admirable tones

of

envelophis

distinguished and delightful execution."

tain of Goya's pictures

show

example

Cer-

ideas evidently directly

copied from his great predecessor. will be

flesh,

An

interesting

found through comparing the man[42]

ner

which

in

the

into

Goya

Charles

introduced

IV and His

his

own

Family,

portrait

with

the

which Velazquez painted of himself in Las Meninas. Although the many etchings which Goya portrait

produced of the masterpieces of Velazquez show a remarkable appreciation and

understanding of the

have rendered the Sevillian master pre-

qualities that

eminent, the strongly marked differences between the

temperament of the two men rendered it impossible for the former to be in any way a servile imitator of the latter.

The work of damental is

the

two painters

profoundly

ways,

almost wholly instinctive;

is,

different.

in

many Goya's

.

funart

he worked with a sort

of savage and lusty joy in production, urged by an irresistible

impulse to express himself.

Velazquez was a product of

by a singularly art of

Goya

is

The

art of

a marvellous hand, guided

cool, logical

and poised mind.

emotional to an extreme;

The

he liked or

disliked, loved or hated, in

as

each of his

was

some <\

The

wept or laughed or sneered productions. Complex and paradoxical

his character,

every line that he drew gave

clue to at least one aspect of his strange nature. art of Velazquez,

without emotion.

on the contrary, was almost

Goya would have rendered

dwarfs Velazquez painted either [43]

pitiable,

the

ridiculous

or loathsome

;

the Sevillian master, absorbed in the

marvel of the impressionism he discovered, was content to give a record, singularly beautiful in

made on

fection, of the impression

its

per-

by the

his eye

grotesque figure standing before him, not only

illu-

mined

and

but

itself,

in

itself

slightly

enveloped in illuminated atmosphere. this

observer,

craftsman,

prodigious

beating strongly in his breast, if

and

antipathies, love

them

to

writes

us,"

and

felt

a

heart

he knew sympathies

Salomon Reinach.

He

appears in his pictures.

is

whose

"He soul

is

a

never

content to live and to

others live."

Goya was one of that

"If this great

hate, he has not confided

haughty and indifferent genius,

make

luminous

has ever lived

tionalism,

in

he had more kinship to

Velazquez. quality

;

most imaginative artists his imagination and emo-

the

of

His

pictures

strange

have

restlessness,

Greco than to

something of

that

of

that

agitation,

marks the work of the master of Toledo, without, of course,

any trace of

their religious spirit.

The

poise,

the perfect balance, the restraint, the perfection of

and workmanship that marked the pictures of Velazquez are missing in Goya, whose works, gen-

taste

erally

produced

ration of the

at

white heat in response to the inspi-

moment, are frequently marred by [44]

care-

less

drawing, passages of discordant tone and gross

was probably Goya's imaginative and emotional qualities that caused him

offenses against

taste.

good

to be greatly influenced

which especially reveal

It

by Rembrandt.

His etchings,

show how

this influence,

clearly

he realized the value of chiaroscuro in obtaining dramatic

effect, in

intensifying the emotional qualities of

The very

a picture.

great importance which

gave to the use of deep shadow and

Goya

brilliant light is

another quality which distinguished his work from that of Velazquez,

most part

who

painted his figures for the

and with-

in a full but fairly diffused light

out deep shadow, The Forge of Vulcan being a characteristic

example of

his

method.

Yriarte,

who

ap-

preciates fully Goya's profoundly original genius, his entirely personal

point of view, his

way

of under-

standing and feeling, his mise en scene without parallel,

his originality of

considers

him

purpose and ardent curiosity,

as a painter beneath the plane of Velaz-

quez and Rembrandt

"who soared

to artistic heights

toward which he aspired but never attained." Goya invented no new process of work. could claim no

the art of painting as that of Velazquez,

been so often called the pressionists,

He

such epoch-making achievement in

and who, by

first

who

and greatest of

all

has im-

his discovery of impression-

[45]

ism,

became the

virtual founder of the

come

to

modern

school

employed the methods which

of painting.

Goya him through

had

others; he adapted them to his

own temperament and produced

essentially personal

His manner of painting varied very much

results.

with his subject or with the personality of a

His work was extremely uneven in in the Maja Desnuda he attained truth in

sitter.

Although great delicacy and the pearly gray shadows and flesh tones of quality.

the figure, he never equalled the marvellous subtlety

of Velazquez.

He erable

painted as a whole directly,

impasto,

making

rarely

use

with consid-

of

glazes,

then principally in his smaller pictures or works for very close examination. v

The

on a red-primed canvas.

members of

He worked

and

made

frequently

studies of the heads of

from which he painted the Charles IV and His Family are all on red canvas that

shows

artist

palette

the royal family

clearly in the

many

small spots which the

did not cover with his hurrying brush.

was

simple.

It

consisted for the most part of

black, white, vermillion, ochre

blue and yellow.

His

With

and umber with a

this rather

little

heavy and earthy

group of pigments he obtained, however, effects of surprising luminosity. His tendency as he grew older

was

to eliminate color

and to paint [46]

in a

darker key,

trusting to strong light

and shade for

of his last portraits are painted in red, black

As

and white.

little

Some

more than

a whole, his later works

were more thinly painted than is

his effect.

"It

his earlier ones.

impossible to push a contempt for process further

than did Goya," wrote Yriarte, who, in treating of

Goya's method, also stated that he did not attach

"It

must be recognized

any importance to the material

He

upon which he painted."

work only "the

painter's

:

lists

first

as essentials for the

piece of cardboard at

hand, a coarse and badly stretched canvas fastened

with the aid of four nails in the corners, very strong paper prepared with turpentine, badly ground colors

and a

palette knife."

The solidity

directness

Goya's

and simplicity of in

however,

the

work today. applied them to

his

brooms,

of

general

"He the

his

painting

palette

excellent

and

the

have resulted,

preservation

of

kept his colors in tubs and

canvas by means of sponges,

and everything that happened to be "He put on his reach," wrote Gautier.

rags

within his

tones with a trowel, as

it

were, exactly like so

much

mortar, and painted touches of sentiment with large

daubs of his thumb. in

this

From

the fact of his working

offhand and expeditious manner, he would

cover some thirty feet of wall in a couple of days. [47]

This method certainly appears somewhat to exceed even the license accorded to the most impetuous and fiery genius;

the most dashing painters are but chil-

He

dren compared to him.

executed, with a spoon

for a brush, a painting of the

Dos de Mayo, where

some French troops are shooting a number of Spaniards. It is a work of incredible vigor and fire." Painters,

especially,

description criticism.

is

what

will

is

feel

Gautier's

that

known today

lively

as impressionistic

Certainly a spoon appears a tool of doubt-

ful value in the

making of a

picture,

however robust

and impassioned the artist who wielded it. But the French critic undoubtedly gives an admirable general sense of the unconventionality, directness and vigor that characterized Goya's method.

Goya founded no sonal, too much the strange

direct

temperament.

very great. tion,

school.

But

His

been

less

was too

per-

expression of his

own

has

been

his

influence

Spain, on account of

has always

art

subject

movements than other European

its

to

isolated posi-

foreign

countries.

It

art

was,

however, fast yielding before the academic movement

which had swept France, Italy and Germany, when Goya appeared and with his virile productions upheld the best traditions of Spanish art.

He

delayed and

weakened the invasion of the pseudo-classic and other [48]

academic schools and kept the love of

Lafond

alive in the Peninsula.

fact that

among

calls attention to the

Goya is the one "More and better

painters of the past

most understandable

our day.

in

than a predecessor," he is

real painting

states,

"the Aragonese painter

man

a contemporary, almost a

of tomorrow.

fashion of rendering, of interpreting nature

He

modern.

lutely

depicts

comprehension of an

He

pendent epoch.

artist

is

ahead of his century."

with the

it,

of our daring and inde-

It is

these qualities in Goya's

on mod-

his great influence

Manet, Courbet, Regnault

felt his

all

while the most cursory examination of current

spell,

exhibitions will

company of

the

His abso-

more than one hundred years

work which have insured ern painting.

as he sees

it

is

show how great and how worthy painters

who have

is

profited by a study

of his example.

Only

fifteen

Gautier wrote

Spanish art

word,

all

just

death is

torrcros,

of

Goya,

buried ancient

the world, which has

smugglers,

all

in

the

"In Goya's tomb

:

disappeared, of

monks,

after

years

now

forever

majos, nianolos, alguacils,

robbers

and

sorceresses

the local color of the Peninsula.

;

in

a

He came

time to collect and perpetuate these various

classes.

He

so

caprices,

many

thought that he was merely producing

when he was [49]

in truth

drawing the

C) and writing the history of the Spain of former days, under the belief that he was serving the portrait

ideas and creeds of

modern

Since Gautier

times."

penned these lines more than half a century has widened the gap that lies between the world of Goya

and our world today.

Goya himself genius

in

the

still

But the world of Goya and

live,

precious

immortalized legacy

bequeathed to mankind.

[50]

of

through

his

work which he

A PORTRAIT OF DONA MARIA DEL PILAR TERESA CAYETANA DE SILVA ALVAREZ DE TOLEDO, THIRTEENTH DUCHESS OF ALBA

DEL PILAR TERESA CAYETANA DE SILVA ALVAREZ DE TOLEDO, THIRTEENTH DUCHESS OF ALBA

DONA MARIA

By Francisco Goya

y Lucientes

A PORTRAIT OF DONA MARIA DEL PILAR TERESA CAYETANA DE SILVA ALVAREZ DE TOLEDO, THIRTEENTH DUCHESS OF ALBA, BY FRANCISCO GOYA Y LUCIENTES In books dealing with the

life

and work of Goya, this The Duchess of

portrait has frequently been referred to as Alba in a Black Mantilla.

The ter of

Duke

celebrated Duchess of Alba

Don

the daugh-

Francisco de Paula Alvarez de Toledo,

Dona Mariana de

of Huescar, and of

She was born

Sarmiento.

at

The Duke of Huescar was Fernando de inherit the

was

Silva, twelfth

title,

Madrid, June

Silva y

10, 1762.

the son and heir of

Duke

Don

of Alba, but did not

as he died before his father.

When

between twelve and thirteen years of age, Dona Maria Teresa was married to Don Jose Alvarez de Toledo Osorio Perez de of

Villafranca.

Guzman

el

Bueno, eleventh Marquis

The bridegroom, who was born

July 16, 1756, was

still

under nineteen

at the

time of

the ceremony.

Through

Dona Maria

the death of her grandfather in 1776,

Teresa,

when fourteen [53]

years

of

age,

became at

own

Duchess of Alba, inheriting the same time the vast estates and revenues of in her

the family.

right

She was one of the most

of the Spanish court of her day.

and position gave

her great

brilliant figures

Her

beauty, wealth

influence

Goya's biographers have varied widely

ment of her and

and power.

in their treat-

in their interpretation

of her rela-

Some, emphasizing the romanaccount of the friendship, have

tions with the artist. tic

note

in

their

produced the effects of giving

credence

tional stories,

to

a historical novel

have written what

chronique scandaleuse. as far as possible;

is

in

a

few,

closely akin to a

Others have ignored her story

they treat of her in footnotes and

attempt to minimize any importance she

had

;

and unconven-

unauthenticated

the life of the painter.

may have

The Duchess,

Goya, was peculiarly a person of her

own

epoch.

like

In

any period of the Spanish court other than the reign of Charles IV she would have been an almost incred-

She can only be accepted as a product of her time and environment; as such she needs no ible figure.

excuses.

Despite her eccentricities, she remains an

appealing and pathetic historical figure. rable idea of the atmosphere in

Teresa grew up

is

An

admi-

which Dona Maria

given in a passage from Travels

Through Spain and Portugal [54]

in 1/74,

by Major Dal-

rymple, aptly quoted by Stokes ilies

who

have pages,

provide sometimes

often saw

of

the

in the

various

Duke

orders,

"All these great fam-

are gentlemen, for

keeping buffoons prevails I

:

still

they

The custom

etc.

army,

whom

of

of the world.

in this part

of Alba's covered with ribbons

a

satire

on such baubles!

He

attends his master in the morning, and the instant

he awakes

much

scamper divine

how

tunes as

in

wit from

facetious story

good humour.

The Duke

him

eternally

search of

in

some

obliged to relate

Grace

to put his

so

is

that he

is

It

it.

is

upon the

hardly possible to

these people can spend such

some of them

requires

amazing

But residing

possess.

for-

at the

Court, never visiting their estates, and, in general,

thinking

it

beneath them to examine or even inquire

into their affairs, their stewards enrich themselves to their ruin.

.

into a family,

ing

life,

if

.

When

.

it

is

is

admitted

certain maintenance for

him dur-

once a servant

he commit not some glaring crime, and

even his descendants are taken care

of.

Women

are

another considerable expense."

The Duchess of Alba and were great

rivals

Maria Louisa.

Osuna

of each other and of the queen,

Lady Holland,

in

The Spanish Jour-

which she recorded her experiences in Spain 1802-5, \vrites: "The Duchess was always an object

nal, in in

the Duchess of

[55]

of jealousy and envy to the great Lady;

her beauty,

and rank were corroding to her heart." And again "She [the Duchess] was very beautiful, popular, and by attracting the best popularity,

wealth,

grace,

:

was an object of jealousy to one who is allpowerful." Lady Holland had no high opinion of society

the morals of the Duchess

toreros

admired by the

"The matadores

:

she

ladies,"

are the

"the

gossips;

Duchesses of Osuna and Alba formerly were the rivals

Pedro Romero."

for

Osuna,

She refers

to the

"Duchess of

formerly the great rival of the celebrated

Duchess of Alba

in profligacy and. profusion," but at

least stated that,

"however they may have indulged

themselves, they never wantonly violated decency in their conversation or deportment."

Her is

of the burning of the

story

particularly

extent to which cution

from

palace,

known

exists

now

in

its

as

suffered through perseThis and powerful enemies.

the

Calle

an indication of the

owner

spiteful

the

as

interesting

de

Palacio

de

Buenavista,

Alcala

at

Madrid,

used by the government as a

land was bought in 1769 by the

over four million

Lady Holland,

commanding

Alba palace

Duke

"The Alba

reals.

"situated by the

situation,

War

was

built

[56]

by the

and

Office.

is

The

of Alba for

palace,"

Prado

still

states

in

the most

late

Duchess's

The

grandfather.

plan was magnificent;

execution

finished

its

stroyed

much

when a

of the work.

fire

she almost

broke out and de-

However, not discour-

aged by the accident, she pursued the plan, and the palace was nearly ready for her reception when another

fire,

more

violent

and destructive than the for-

mer, destroyed the labour of years.

Every search

was made among the workmen to ascertain how the disaster was occasioned, but the vigilance of enquiry

was eluded and enough was discovered

to convince

that a further attempt to finish the noble edifice

end

in a similar disappointment, the train

would

being laid

by a high and jealous power."

The following amusing anecdote by

D

Von Loga *

*

as

worthy of quotation

young,

*,

beautiful,

:

witty

is

considered

"The Duchess and

an

im-

mensely rich widow, had the misfortune as a result of certain court intrigues to lose the favor of the

Queen.

The

sense of injury which the Duchess

felt

confined itself for a long time to a noble defense, but finally

the gaiety of her character often led her to

which were not without danger for her. Knowing the Queen's custom of having brought from

pleasantries

Paris almost

all

her finery, she employed a faithful

and adroit agent to procure styles, the

at any price the same same materials, the same jewels that the

[57]

Queen had orders

furnishers of the

Madrid.

He

to

sent on his cases several days before

the Queen's employees were ready to

ments.

forward

to

make

their ship-

The Duchess then had nothing more

do

to

than to dress her maids and give them orders to

show themselves

in

at the theatre, etc.

more animated

all

The war was

as the

at the

public places,

Prado,

much

just so

the

Duchess, young, pretty and

perfectly agreeable, obtained in this field

all

the ad-

Twice an vantages and all the success she wished. unknown hand burnt her palace. She had the damages caused by the time,

when her

fire

palace

restored;

was

and for the third

entirely reconstructed

furnished, gave a grand fete, which

a close earlier than usual.

her guests,

'I

do not

myself of that

task.'

my

And

was brought

to

'Withdraw,' she said to

at all

the pleasure of burning

and

wish to leave to others take charge

I will

palace.

in fact, she

had

it

set

on

fire."

The

friendship of

Goya with

Alba was an intimate one.

He

the

Duchess of

produced

at

least

seven portraits of her, certain of which, like the present painting, have been considered by

many

of the closeness of their relations.

In one famous

portrait in the collection of the at

Marquis de

indicative

la

Romana

Madrid, he depicted himself beside his patrician [58]

Reminiscences of her striking and piquant

friend.

type are found in

Loga,

who does

of the artist's works.

many

Von

not give great importance to the

romantic stories associating her name with that of the painter, calls attention to the fact that Goya, at

was nearly

the period of their friendship,

and

old

partially deaf.

that early in 1793,

from the

court,

when

is

established,

fifty

years

however,

was banished

the Duchess

Goya accompanied her

into

exile.

Lady Holland, the only favor allowed disgraced noblewoman was the choice from among

According the

It

her estates

to

of a place of banishment.

Sanlucar de Barrameda in Andalusia.

She chose Lefort,

who

brought to light the royal order dated January, 1793,

which gave Goya a leave of absence on account of his health,

recounts the incident

the salons of the Duchesses of

who

:

"A

frequenter of

Alba and of Benavente,

disputed with Maria Louisa the scepter of fashion

and pleasure, Goya interested himself in their rivalries and took part in their quarrels. He took sides first with one, then with the other, and finally became the

avowed champion of

the beautiful Duchess of Alba,

then in open rivalry with the Queen herself. artist,

whose

biting verve

overwhelmed with

his

The

no longer spared anyone,

sarcasms the enemies of his

dear Duchess until the day when, upon order of the [59]

Duchess

became estranged.

finally

Caprichos

represents

an

Plate 61

woman,

young

elegant

her head adorned with butterfly wings.

through the air carried

etchings,

Of

certain

left

Goya

of the

She

by a group of sorcerers.

manuscripts

commenting on

his

comments being generally enigmatic.

the

this etching

he wrote: "The group of sorcerers

who

serve as a support for our elegant lady are

for

ornament than

charged

flies

with

real

Some heads

use.

inflammable

that

gas

need for balloons or sorcerers

In another manuscript attributed to

are

Goya

fly it

so

no

they have

order to

in

more

away." is

defi-

nitely stated that the etching refers to the Duchess.

On

drawing for one of the unpublished etchings of the Caprichos, which is also considered to refer a

to her, is written in

Goya's hand

hood and inconstancy." the painter

It

to an end,

it

and was undoubtedly of

in their lives

than a passing

has resulted in their names being for-

whatever opinion a biog-

ever inseparably linked;

may

of false-

Although the friendship of

years' duration

much more importance

rapher

"A dream

and the Duchess thus came

was of some

caprice.

:

hold of their relation,

write any fairly complete

life

of the other. [62]

it

is

impossible to

of one without mention

The Duchess did not long survive her return to Madrid. She died on July 25, 1802, some six years after the death of her husband.

writes

Lady

"She died

Holland, "supposed to

summer,"

last

have been poisoned

;

her physician and some confidential attendants are

imprisoned and her estates sequestered during their trial,

but by

whom

administered,

and for what reason the dose was

remains as yet unknown."

Sir Wil-

liam Stirling-Maxwell also states that the physician

was suspected of poisoning his patron, but declares that the doctor does not seem to have been guilty and that he got off through the interest of Godoy. The Duchess was buried in the cemetery of San Isidro at

Madrid.

She died without

and with her

issue

death one of the main lines of the Alvarez de Toledo family came to an end. to

Don

The

title

and

estates passed

Carlos Miguel Fitzjames Stuart y Silva, sev-

enth duke of Berwick and Liria, the

title

now

used

by the family being Berwick and Alba.

The death

of the unfortunate Duchess

was

lowed by a period of confusion resulting from culties as to the settlement of her estate.

foldiffi-

"Most of

the

Duchess of Alba," writes Lady Holland, "were seized by the Queen, Prince, and even effects of the late

King, on the day after her death, engaging to pay for

them the

price at

which they should be valued. [63]

One

of

Duchess

became estranged.

finally

Caprichos

represents

an

Plate 61

woman,

young

elegant

of the

her head adorned with butterfly wings.

She

through the air carried by a group of

sorcerers.

etchings,

Of

certain

left

Goya

manuscripts

commenting on

his

comments being generally enigmatic.

the

this etching

he wrote: "The group of sorcerers

who

serve as a support for our elegant lady are

for

ornament than

charged

flies

with

real

Some heads

use.

inflammable

that

gas

In another manuscript attributed to

Goya

are

so

have no

they

need for balloons or sorcerers in order to

more

fly it

away." is

defi-

nitely stated that the etching refers to the Duchess.

On

a drawing for one of the unpublished etchings

of the Caprichos, which to her, is written in

"A dream

It

to

an end,

it

and was undoubtedly of

in their lives

than a passing

has resulted in their names being for-

whatever opinion a biog-

ever inseparably linked;

may

of false-

Although the friendship of

years' duration

much more importance

rapher

:

and the Duchess thus came

was of some

caprice.

also considered to refer

Goya's hand

hood and inconstancy." the painter

is

hold of their relation,

write any fairly complete

life

of the other. [62]

it

is

impossible to

of one without mention

The Duchess did not long survive her return to Madrid. She died on July 25, 1802, some six years after the death of her husband.

writes

Lady

"She died

Holland, "supposed to

summer,"

last

have been poisoned

;

her physician and some confidential attendants are

imprisoned and her estates sequestered during their trial,

but by

whom

administered,

and for what reason the dose was

remains as yet unknown."

Sir Wil-

liam Stirling-Maxwell also states that the physician

was suspected of poisoning his patron, but declares that the doctor does not seem to have been guilty and that he got off through the interest of Godoy. The Duchess was buried in the cemetery of San Isidro at

Madrid.

She died without

and with her

issue

death one of the main lines of the Alvarez de Toledo family came to an end. to

Don

The

title

and

estates passed

Carlos Miguel Fitzjames Stuart y Silva, sev-

enth duke of Berwick and Liria, the

title

now

used

by the family being Berwick and Alba.

The death of

the unfortunate Duchess

was

lowed by a period of confusion resulting from culties as to the settlement of

her estate.

foldiffi-

"Most of

the

Duchess of Alba," writes Lady Holland, "were seized by the Queen, Prince, and even effects of the late

King, on the day after her death, engaging to pay for them the price at which they should be valued. One of [63]

her estates, bought by ye Prince of the Peace [Godoy],

taken possession of, but not paid for on account of the law-suits about her will;

sold to the

King afterward,

and the purchase money received, without having to this

the greatest objects of contention collection

of pictures which

through

family

One

satisfied the original proprietors."

day

many

of

was the valuable

had descended It

generations.

in

had

the

been

notably enriched by the addition of the bulk of the magnificent collection of the celebrated Count-Duke

The Alba

of Olivares.

pictures

were several hun-

dred in number at the time of the Duchess's death,

and included such masterpieces as the famous Venus

and Cupid, by Velazquez, now in the National Gallery in London; The Education of Love, by Correggio;

Raphael,

and the Madonna of the House of Alba, by

now

Hermitage at Petrograd. Paswork on Raphael, relates a tradition

in the

savant, in his

regarding this picture.

According to

his account, the

Duchess, after having been cured of grave presented the Raphael and a copy of cian.

It

was

this

it

illness,

to her physi-

same physician who was afterward

imprisoned under suspicion of having poisoned his Released through the influence of Godoy, he patron.

and sold the original

to

work

to the Prince of

Peace

Count Burcke, through

whom

presented the copy of the

[64]

it

finally

passed to Russia.

that the original picture

It

was

appears true, however,

sold to

Godoy by order

of the King during the lawsuits which complicated the settlement of the estate, effects

it

and

passed out of Spain.

the pictures

at the sale of

The

Godoy's

lawsuits regarding

were between the Duke of Berwick and

Alba and other heirs and were terminated by an agree-

ment by which the

heirs consented to give thirty-two

of the best pictures of the collection to the Duke.

The Catdlogo de

la

Excmo.

Coleccion de Pinturas del

Duque de Berwick y de Alba, prepared by Don Angel M. de Barcia at the request of the mother of

Sr.

the present Duke, Doiia

Maria

del Rosario Falco y

Osorio, ninth Duchess of Berwick and sixteenth of

Alba, states that this obligation does not appear to

have been very faithfully

fulfilled,

for only a half

dozen of the best pictures of the collection passed to the possession of the Duke; others were family portraits

order.

and pictures

The

was forever

The lection of

second

in themselves good, but of

greater part of the magnificent collection dispersed.

portrait of the

The Hispanic

Duchess of Alba

in the col-

Society of America

is

dated

1797 and appears, therefore, to have been painted considerably after the artist's return from Sanlucar.

The Duchess was then

thirty-five years of age,

[65]

the

It is

painter fifty-one.

the largest portrait which the

Only two

artist painted of his distinguished patron.

other full-length, life-size portraits of her by are known.

One

is

the property of the present

Goya Duke

of Berwick and Alba, and hangs in the Liria palace at

Madrid.

A

replica of

collection at Naples, is

it,

now owned

portrait in the Liria palace in

formerly in the Medici in

England.

The

shows the Duchess dressed

white and wearing a red sash.

She points with

one hand toward an inscription painted upon the canvas at the

left

of the picture near her

catalogue of the paintings of the

Duke

feet.

The

of Berwick

and Alba gives the following note: "Above the dog, a large inscription, carefully executed with such sinis

not noticeable even on close

inspection, states: 'A la

Duquesa de Alba, Francisco

gular mastery that

de Goya, 1795.' trait,

it

The

inscription proves that this por-

not greatly impressive, but admirable for

character and subtlety of tone, the Duchess by the painter

was

and

reveals the intention of the artist,

at

a gift the

who

made

its

to

same time desired that

the lady should be indicating the dedication.

It

is

known

that this Duchess

whom

she treated with a certain intimacy, regarding

was a great friend of Goya,

which certain writers, particularly foreigners, have invented

more or

less

extravagant anecdotes. [66]

Goya

made

several portraits of her.

which was

at

also

Paris,

This picture, and that with a black

full-length,

A

dress and mantilla, are the principal ones. of

Goya

Madrid and

to his friend Zapater, written at

owned today by

dated as a joke at London,

letter

the

Mar-

quis de Casa-Torres and already published, although

not very faithfully, states "

balia

'Londres 2 de Agosto de 1800.

benirme a ayudar a pintar a

ayer seme metio en cara,

:

se salio

y

mas que

.

.

Maste

de Alba, que

la

estudio a que la pintase la

el

con

.

ello;

por cierto que

me

gusta

pintar en lienzo, que tambien la he de retratar

de cuerpo entero y bendra apenas acabe yo un borron del

Duque de

The

portrait

that in as a

la

Alcudia a caballo.

mentioned

in this letter

which the Duchess

maja;

is

shown

.'

.

.

is

without doubt

full-length, dressed

a portrait that, after belonging to the

Goyena collection, was owned at Paris by the dealer Kramer and was recently acquired for The Hispanic

Von Loga

Society of America." sibility

also notes the pos-

that this portrait in black

reference

is

made

in

Goya's

letter.

is

that to

The

which

picture

is

frequently mentioned in books dealing with the life

and

art

spoke of

of Goya. it

Lafond,

who saw

it

at

as a portrait of "a superb air."

[67]

Paris,

Stokes

writes of the portrait

and mantilla series

and

The

"A

:

is artistically

is

clearly the

in the

owned by

of paintings

arch was shown there.

King Louis Louvre, when a French mon-

the

This collection became

name

brated under the

of several studies."

the property of

Philippe and for a time hung collection

silk

the most attractive of the result

was once

picture

whole-length in black

cele-

of the Galerie Espagnole.

was formed for Louis Philippe by M.

le

It

Baron

Taylor and the painter A. Dauzat, who when a youth at Bordeaux had known Goya. These two agents proceeded to Spain to collect pictures after successive

revolutions had

resulted,

in

the sup-

in

1836,

pression of various religious orders and the conse-

quent dispersal of the effects of these ecclesiastical bodies.

The mission

of

the

one

assembled

successful,

for

groups of

Spanish pictures

they

was highly

collectors

of

the

finest

ever brought together.

In 1838 the collection of four hundred and forty-two

by Goya, was placed in the remained until after the death of

pictures, including eight

Louvre, where

it

Louis Philippe

in

exile.

It

was

finally

obtained by

the heirs of the king and sold in 1853 at auction at

London by

Christie

the ridiculous

sum

and Manson, the of

4497.

sale

bringing

This portrait of the

Duchess of Alba was No. 103 of the Galerie Espag[68]

London

nole and No. 444 of the catalogue of the sale.

Sir William

Stirling-Maxwell,

in

Annals

his

of the Artists of Spain, published in 1848, wrote of it

:

the

"The Louvre has a good famous Duchess of Alba,

national dress of Andalusia,

full-length portrait of attired in a black lace

from whence we learn

that the rouge of Castilian high life long survived

the ridicule of

of

Madame

the collection

ture passed to

King Louis Philippe

of

M.

After the sale

d'Aulnoy."

P.

Sohege, of Paris.

the It

pic-

figured

for a time in the Irureta It

Goyena collection in Seville. was obtained for The Hispanic Society through

Gimpel and Wildenstein, of Paris. The portrait is undoubtedly an excellent likeness, the essential characteristics of the face

portraits

The her hip

;

all

other

which Goya painted of the Duchess. subject is represented as standing and turned

toward the

slightly

being the same as in

right.

Her

left

hand

rests

on

with her right hand she points to the ground,

where the name Goya is written. She wears an elaborate black skirt and an orange waist, which is draped, her head, in a black mantilla.

About her waist

as

is

is

a red sash ornamented with gold fringe.

Gold-

embroidered white slippers with white stockings and a hair ornament in yellow and white complete her

costume.

On

the index and middle ringer of her left

[69]

hand are two large rings, on which are inscribed reA conventional landscape spectively Alba and Goya. showing a river with a fringe of trees and a dark Signed below gray sky complete the composition. Goya 1797. On canvas 2.10x1.47.

[70]

:

DON ALBERTO FORASTER

DON ALBERTO By

FORASTER.

Francisco Goya y Lucientes.

This

Don

painted of at

Madrid

It is

two

the larger of

is

is

shown

belonging

painting

in

of

other exists

Don

Millan.

Javier

same position

the

The

to

America, and the uniform

The Madrid

tical.

mentioned

under the

A subject

title

both pictures

in several

Don Antonio

is

of

iden-

books on Goya. Goya's work

Foraster.

three-quarter-length

portrait.

The

His right hand holds his black military

his left his sword.

large revers

The

and

The

cuffs of red

coat

is

of black with

ornamented with gold

trousers and gloves are of dull yellow,

the background

of

a

deep olive brown.

through M. Sedelmeyer, of

Paris.

to the right: Alberto Foraster por

canvas

Society

represented as standing and turned slightly

to the left.

braid.

in

in various catalogues of

life-size, is

Hispanic

in the

as

portrait has been photographed

by Moreno and reproduced

hat,

The

a head and bust portrait measuring 0.49 x 0.37.

The head

It is

which Goya

Alberto Foraster.

the collection

in

portraits

132 x 104. [73]

Obtained

Signed below and

Goya

1804.

On

A SKETCH FOR ESCENAS DEL

DE

1808

3

DE MAYO

*

-1

^

*

>>

pq

a CO

A SKETCH FOR ESCENAS DEL 3 DE MAYO DE 1808 (SCENES OF MAY 3, 1808), BY FRANCISCO GOYA Y LUCIENTES This

a sketch for one of the most celebrated

is

of the painter's pictures, Escenas del 3 dc

dc

companion piece, Episodio dc Invasion Francesa en 1808 (Episode of the French

1808, included with la

Mayo

its

Invasion of 1808} in the collection of the Museo del

These two pictures are Goya's greatest achievement as a historical painter, and rank among the most notable works of their order ever

Prado

at

produced.

Madrid.

They present a

vivid pictorial record of

the hideous scenes which the artist witnessed

at

the

French invasion of Spain during the In the Escenas del 3 de Mayo de Peninsula War.

time of the

1808, a group of Madrid citizens, huddled together in

horror at their

fate,

are about to be executed by

troops of Murat, who, standing in at their shoulders,

are ready to

condemned are upon

their

file

fire.

knees,

with muskets

Many

of the

some cover

their

faces with their hands to shut out the sight of the levelled his

guns

arms

as

;

a if

man in

in the center of the group raises an abandonment of terror. The

[77]

grisly scene,

which takes place before dawn,

feebly illuminated by a large lantern.

de

la

but

is

The Episodic

Invasion Francesa en 1808 shows a fierce fight

main plaza of Madrid, the Puerta del Sol, between the Mamelukes of the French Imperial Guard the

in

and Madrid ing

The canvas

citizens.

men and plunging

is

a tangle of fight-

The extraordinary

horses.

power and spirit of the two pictures, the truth of movement of the figures, the mastery with which

Goya conveys

to the spectator his vivid impression

of tenseness and horror has been rarely approached

and never surpassed.

Both canvases are

uring 2.66 by 3.45 metres.

1808 or 1809, and

same

period.

this sketch

large,

meas-

They were produced

may

The Prado catalogue

ing note on the Escenas del 3 de

in

be assigned to the gives the follow-

Mayo

de 1808: "The

invaders, not content with the blood spilled during the night (of the second of

May), still continued the following morning, shooting some of those arrested the evening before, for whose execution they chose the grounds of the house of Prince Pio."

Historia

Guerra y Revolution de Espaiia, by the Count de Toreno. A sketch for the Episodic del Levantamiento,

de

la

Invasion Francesa en 1808, corresponding to

this sketch for the is

owned

at

Escenas del j de

Madrid by

Mayo

de 1808

the Duchess of Villahermosa.

[78]

A

comparison between the composition of the Escenas del j de Mayo de 1808 and The Execution of Maximilian,

by Manet,

is

of interest.

The composition 3 de

Mayo

work

de 1808

is

of the sketch for Escenas del identical with that of the larger

as already described.

The

of soldiers,

file

who

are placed at the right of the picture, are painted in

The condemned

obscure tones of brown and gray. people are grouped at the

left.

The

central figure

of this group, in a white shirt and yellow pantaloons,

forms the principal

The sky

is

light

blue-black.

note

of buildings in obscure color. the picture

is

a

in

the

warm and

The

0.47

x

a group

is

general tone of

luminous brow n relieved

by touches of yellow ochre and black. lection of the late

composition.

In the background

Francis Lathrop.

0.60.

[79]

r

From

On

the col-

canvas

SEVENTY DRAWINGS

IN SEPIA

SEVENTY DRAWINGS IN SEPIA, BY FRANCISCO GOYA Y LUCIENTES During the

years of his

last

passed at Bor-

life,

deaux, Goya's health and eyesight were so enfeebled

through old age that he painted but a small number of pictures.

Nevertheless,

the

restless

energy and

indomitable spirit which- had always been so strongly characteristic of

him

still

controlled his failing phys-

powers and allowed him no repose. "Goya does not know what he wants, or what he wishes for/' ical

wrote his friend Leandro Moratin, the poet, on April "I advise

24, 1825.

'leave' expires.

climate, the

He

him

to

remain at peace

likes the

until his

town, the country, the

food, the independence and tranquillity

he has enjoyed since his arrival.

He

has not had to

suffer from any of the annoyances which troubled him before. Yet at some moments, he has the idea

that there left

him

is

much

alone, he

for

him

to

would take

do

at

Madrid.

to the road

If

we

on a stub-

born mule with his cloak, his mantle, his stirrups, his bottle

and

his wallet."

wrote another

letter,

On

October

7,

1825, Moratin

giving a somewhat humorous

but entirely sympathetic view of the fiery old painter [83]

:

"Goya maintains

that formerly he descended into the

arena and sword

in

...

hand feared no one

in

two

months, he will be eighty years old."

Driven then by an unconquered restless

for

appetite

an

by

energy,

unexhausted old

his

in

Goya,

life,

by his curiosity and will,

although

age,

unable to undertake large pictures, was unceasingly

an

as

active

He

artist.

he

took up lithography;

much

painted in miniature and devoted

time to the

production of a series of drawings in various me-

diums that

home

at

Bordeaux.

Leocardia

cousin,

Goya

Weiss,

charge of his household.

daughter a

great

of

Doiia

favorite

a

lived there

widow,

the

of

with his

who assumed

Rosaria \Yeiss, the

born

Leocardia,

of

life

among whom he made

that colony of Spanish exiles his

of the daily

incidents

reflected

old

in

1814,

Among

painter.

little

was his

other associates were, besides the poet Moratin, the banker,

Bautista

Juan

Jose Alea, the author; tician,

Manuel

Silvela

;

Muguiro

Carnerero

Jose

;

Vicente Peleguer;

Pio

di

Molina

;

;

the poli-

and Pastor,

Gurea and O'Daly, who were military men. According to La fond, who has written a uable

study

of

group of Spanish

the

last

exiles

ing in a chocolate

days

of

Goya,

the

vallittle

adopted the custom of meet-

shop in the [84]

Rue de

la

Petite-

Taupe, kept by a certain Braullio Poc, a former

resi-

There they would sit and discuss Lafond describes questions of the day.

dent of Zaragoza. the political

Leocardia Weiss as turbulence

itself,

keen for dis-

always moving about and turning the rooms "Goya is here with his Dona Leocarupside down. dia," wrote Leandro Moratin on October 23, 1824, traction,

"and

no great harmony reigning in his And again: "Dona Leocardia with her

notice

I

household."

customary dauntlessness quarrels at times and at She dragged the old painter times makes merry." to

four

the

corners

With Rosaria

Bordeaux.

of

they attended the popular fairs and travelling circuses that

passed

with his as she

through the town.

is

Goya's

spoken of

in

some

a profound mutual affection.

letters,

was marked by

Rosaria appears to have

"La Mariquita

been a very lively and talented child. speaks French herself

talent.

like a

paroquet, runs, jumps and amuses

own

with the children of her

Moratin.

friendship

"god-daughter" or "adopted daughter,"

little

Goya had

age,"

wrote

a high opinion of her artistic

"This astonishing child," he wrote on Decem-

ber 28, 1824, to

Don

Joaquin Ferrer

to learn miniature painting, to paint as she

phenomenon

is

in the

and

I

at Paris,

wish

painting at her age

world.

it

"wishes

also,

for

is

the greatest

She possesses

special qual-

[85]

ities,

as

I

help me, like I

If

will see.

you

want

to consider her as

you

you with

will repay

will be

you

she were

if

my

works or

send you a small sample of her fessors at

kind enough to

would

to send her to Paris, but I

my

at

particularly

it,

were not afraid of

If I

adding to the weight of

All the pro-

ability.

Madrid have marvelled

the incomparable Martin.

my daughter. my goods. I

letter,

would send

I

much more." however,

Rosaria,

She was placed

did

not

as a pupil of

drawing

lishment of a manufacturer of

Paris.

at

study

in the estab-

named

wall-papers

Vernet, where she worked for two years and then entered the class of the director of the works, the painter Antoine Lacour.

from

received

this

The

poor provincial A. Dauzats,

the taste of Goya.

which she

instruction artist

was not

who during

frequented the studio of Lacour,

his

to

youth

has recalled that

Goya, then a feeble old man, after having brought his

ward

to the class,

would occasionally pass among

the pupils, examining their studies, and, irritation,

would mutter under

"That's not

it."

in

Bordeaux,

fuming with

"No

Rosaria Weiss did not

La

high hopes of Goya.

now

his breath,

is

es eso,"

fulfill

the

Sylphidc, one of her pictures

both weak and insipid.

After

the death of her guardian she returned to Madrid,

[86]

where she made excellent copies of old masters and was eventually appointed Professor of Drawing to Queen Isabella. In July, 1840, while on her way to the royal palace, she became involved in a street

The shock

riot.

sustained at that time resulted in a fever,

from which she died on July

31,

1840,

when

but

twenty-six years of age.

Although an octogenarian, half blind and almost

Goya made scores of drawings at BorHe worked in ink, in sepia or other water

totally deaf,

deaux.

color, in red crayon, chalk or pencil, helping his feeble

vision by the use of double-lensecl glasses

He drew

magnifier.

and a large

scenes of the circus, such as a

man

serpent tamer or a thin skeleton," vendors in the

exhibited as a "living

market

place, ecclesiastics,

the execution of a criminal by the guillotine, a widely

varied series of impressions of the

Many

of these drawings are

mild

way

Caprichos.

Their

satire,

city.

;

and mocking

the caustic

of the

marked by humor and some of them reflect

reveal a sort of ironic philosophy in a

life

however,

is

qualities of the

far less biting

and without the cruel sting of the celebrated etchLafond has well expressed this "Goya, less ings. :

extreme than

in his youth,

more contemplative,

more master of himself and of in

part

wiser,

his thought, has here

forsaken the fantastic and the macabre so [87]

frequently employed in the Caprichos, of which they

form, indeed, one of the essential elements. true that the times had changed. this suite of

It

is

Like the Caprichos,

drawings contains something of every-

thing, of philosophy, of morals, of ecstasy, scenes of

popular

life

and simple incidents found through happy

accident."

The

number of Goya's drawings made

greater

during the

last

few years of

his

are undoubt-

life

memory drawings. Timothy Cole, the celebrated wood engraver, writes: "I was told by a Spanish painter, whose father had known Goya person-

edly

ally,

he

who

name of

aspired to the

to reproduce

in

having once beheld out in the

all

it."

the action

caught, the drawing all

its

features

essential

This idea

is

pencil,

any

after

admirably car-

There

is

no

the artist drives directly at the

essentials of the subject;

of

declare that

should be able

Bordeaux drawings.

attempt at finish;

synthesis

artist

to

from memory, with brush or

scene or incident

ried

man was wont

that the great

every line

is

trenchant; the

and of the character once

is left

as complete.

As

a result,

these sketches are remarkable for their vitality;

they bear no trace of that uncertainty of touch generally characteristic of those

paired. Especially

is

whose eyesight

is

im-

there no trace of that "fussiness,"

[88]

to use a studio term,

which nearly always marks the

work of a craftsman of advanced

"It

years.

is

im-

possible to push a contempt for process further than

did Goya," wrote Yriarte.

"Even when he drew,

was necessary for him to find a new and method. Everything was of service to him

it

original ;

he em-

ployed black crayon, red chalk, the pen or the brush.

This he used as a ink;

he dipped

pencil,

filling

it

with Chinese

inkwell, squeezing out the

in his

it

by

making use of a blot or an acciAt times, also, he scratched a

ink with his fingers,

dent in the paper.

dark background with the handle of a brush or a pointed instrument, so as to silhouette upon or,

figure;

at

other times, after having

it

a white

commenced

a sketch upon a newspaper or poster, he finished

by

dipping

his

brush

in

it

writing

ink

mixed with

old

age

were

Spanish tobacco.''

These

drawings

of

his

prob-

ably made by Goya simply for his own pleasure. La fond suggests "Goya marked five dots at ran:

dom on

a piece of paper, or had them marked by

someone

present.

hands and

The

feet

exercise,

studios,

Then he drew had

to

a figure,

pass through

whose head,

these

points.

which used to be much practiced

was known

in

in

Spain under the name of Juego

I

de

we examine

If

riguitillas.

most of the

carefully

drawings made by Goya at Bordeaux, we find the Goya's drawings have been widely scat-

five dots."

Their number

tered.

estimated. artist's

Many

may

exist

only be

which,

approximately

made

before

the

removal from Madrid, served as studies for

Museo

In the

etchings.

Prado are nearly two

del

hundred drawings, with many studies for the Caprichos, Desastres de la Guerra, verbios.

Von

Loga,

has attempted a

who

list

Tauromaquia and Pro-

alone of Goya's biographers

of his drawings, states that a

hundred were divided after the death of Frederico de

Madrazo,

fifty-six

of the

of

which Mariano Fortuny received

and Bernardino Montanes set

passing afterward

Aureliano de Beruete. ings

He

to

thirty-eight,

the

some

collection

of

considers that these draw-

were included, as were the drawings of the

Prado and the Biblioteca Nacional,

in the three

hun-

dred indicated by Matheron as belonging to Manuel Garreta. hibited

In 1900 the Marques de Casa Jimenez exthirty-two

drawings which were afterward

sold.

of

The seventy drawings comprised in The Hispanic Society of America

use having been

made

the collection

are in sepia,

of both pen and brush. [90]

A

few

suggest that a quill of paper dipped in ink has been

No.

employed.

I

is

clearly a

scene of circus

life.

and IV also probably record figures in some spectacle. No. V recalls Plate 18 of the CapriNos.

chos.

II,

III

From

editor of

the collection of

Revue Hispaniquc.

[91]

M. R. Foulche-Delbosc,

On

paper

0.15 xO.10.

Ill

IV

VI

VII

VIII

IX

X

(J

XI

XIII

XIV

XV

XVI

XVII

XVI 1 1

XIX

XX

X

XXI

XXII

XXIII

XXIV

XXV

XXVI

XXVII

_

xxvi it

XXIX

XXX

/

XXXI

XXXII

XXXIII

XXXIV

XXXV

XXXVI

XXXVII

XXXVIII

XXXIX

XL

XLII

XLI1I

XLIV

XLV

XLVI

XLV1I

XLVIII

XLIX

LI

LIT

LIU

LIV

LV

LVI

LVII

LVIII

I

LIX

LX

LXI

LXII

LXI1I

LXIV

LXV

LXVI

LXV1I

LXIX

I.

XX

ETCHINGS BY GOYA IN THE LIBRARY OF THE HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA

ETCHINGS BY GOYA THE LIBRARY OF THE HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA IN

The Library of The Hispanic Society of America contains the Cloy a

following editions of the etchings of

:

Caprichos i

am pas

por

80

cl

dc

Goya;

c election

dc

ochcnta

cs-

grabados al agua fuertc con aguadas dc rcsina mismo. Madrid, Calcografia National, 1868.

plates.

Treinta y tres cstampas qnc representan diferentes suertes y actitndes del arte dc lidiar los Toros,

inrcntados y grabados al agua fuerte en Madrid por Don Francisco dc Goya y Lucientes. jj plates. These

plates, originally issued separately, are bound in a of red leather inscribed, Los Toros. Goya.

modern cover

This is the first edition of the Tauromaquia engraved by Goya about 1815 and almost certainly printed under his direction if not by his own hand. The exact number of sets issued is not known but was certainly very limited. Only a few sets were sold during the life of the artist, the rest of the edition being held by Goya's family and not circulated until after the death of his son Xavier in 1855.

Colcccion de las diferentcs suertes y actitndes del arte de lidiar los toros inventados y grabadas al

agua fuerte por Goya. Madrid, 1855. Estampado en la Calcografia de la Imprenta National, 1855. jj plates.

[163]

This

is

second edition of the Tauromaquia.

the

Goya which serves

The

of the Caprichos is printed on the paper cover and on the back of the folio appears the title of the first edition, Treinta y tres estampas que representan diferentes suertes y actitudes del arte de portrait of

lidiar los

as Plate

I

Toros, inventados y grabados al agua fuerte en

Madrid por Don Francisco de Goya y Lucientes. paper and the printing of this edition are inferior the

first

Both the to that of

edition.

La Taureaumachie,

recueil de quarante estampes

inventees et gravees a I'eau-forte par Don Francisco Goya y Lucientes. Loizelet. Paris [no date]. 40 plates.

This edition was issued about 1870 by Loizelet, of etchings, who purchased the original plates, had them carefully cleaned and issued under the French title as given above. The seven plates of this edition which are not included in earlier editions, were almost all engraved on the reverse of certain of the plates Paris, a dealer in

of.

the

series

as

first

by the artist another, and before rejected

only

published.

They were probably

as unsatisfactory for one reason or their publication by Loizelet were

known through some

rare trial proofs.

Los Proverbios; coleccion de dies y ocho laminas inventadas y grabadas al agua fuerte por Don Francisco Goya. Madrid. Publicala la Real Academia de Nobles Aries de San Fernando, Madrid,

18

1891.

plates.

following seven pages are printed of typical etchings by Goya. The comments in quotation marks under the three plates

Upon

the

reproductions

Nos.

12,

which the

43 and 61 artist

from the Caprichos are those himself wrote for these etchings. [164]

FRANCISCO GOYA Y LUCIENTES

From

the etching by the artist of himself i of Caprichos (Caprices)

Plate

"The

portrait of Cioya serves as a frontispiece to the collected edition He is represented as a man of about fifty with a quick

of his works.

oblique glance, a large eyelid and a sly, mocking, crow's foot beneath. The chin is curved upward, the upper lip is thin and the lower one pointed and sensual. The face is surrounded by a beard of a description peculiar to natives of southern climates and the head is covered by a hat a la Bolh'ar.

The whole physiognomy

character."

Thcophile Gatttier.

is ,

that of a

man

of strongly developed

A CAZA "The

teeth

DE DIENTES.

HUNTING

FOR

No. 12 Caprichos. of those who have been hanged are very

TEETH efficacious in bringIs it

ing luck; without this ingredient nothing worth while can be done. not pitiful that the common folk believe such foolishness?"

EL SUENO DE LA RAZON PRODUCE MoNSTKUOS. THE SLEEP OF REASON GIVES BIRTH TO MONSTERS Caprichos.

it

No. 43

"Imagination without reason produces monstrosities; united with reason becomes the mother of the arts and the source of marvels."

VOLAVERUNT.

THEY

CapricJws.

ARE DISAPPEARING No. 61

"The group of sorcerers who form the support for our elegant lady are more for ornament than real use. Some heads are so full of inflammable gas that they have no need for balloons or sorcerers to

fly

away."

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A PORTRAIT BUST OF FRANCISCO GOYA, BY MARIANO BENLLIURE Y GIL (See Frontispiece)

Mariano Benlliure y

Gil

was horn

at the

Grao

He is a younger of Valencia, Septemher 8, 1862. hrother of Jose and Juan Antonio Benlliure, the From

painters.

his earliest

As

ability for art.

a very

r

)

youth he showed great oung child he modelled

small figures in wax, and when but twelve years of age carved in wood a life-size religious group, Descen-

dimicnto de

la

Cruz (Descent from

the Cross).

In

1871 he followed his eldest brother to Madrid, where

he studied for some years, exhibiting in the Exposition of Fine Arts, in 1876, a wax group, Cogida de im Picador (The Wounding of a Picador), which attracted very favorable attention, as did his eques-

Don Alfonso

XII, shown two years At seventeen he went to Rome, where he mod-

trian statue of later.

elled a statue of

an acolyte, the title, Accidente, being and not, as it is often ren-

the Italian exclamation,

An

This work was awarded a Madrid Exposition of 1884, afterward being acquired by the Duke of Fernan

dered,

second

Accident.

medal

at

the

Xuriez.

This

success

was

followed

by

many

others.

Benlliure has been a prodigious worker and has pro-

[173]

cluced a large number of important sculptures. His bust of the Valencian painter Luis Domingo (171867) was awarded the medal of honor at Vienna and

the gold medal at Berlin the statue of the painter Ribera and the group in marble, Al Agua (In the ;

Water}, a gold medal at Madrid; the statue of the Trueba received the medal of honor at Mad-

novelist

and the mausoleum of the tenor Gayarre, the medal of honor at Paris. From 1904 to 1907 rid,

Mariano Benlliure was director of the Spanish Academy in Rome, and is Art Director of the Royal Spanish Mint and of the Royal Establisment for the Printing of Government Paper. He is a member of the Academies of San Luca, Rome San Fernando, a San Carlos, Valencia Madrid corresponding ;

;

member member

;

of

the

Institut

de

France

;

an

honorary

of the Academies of Milan and Florence

chevalier of the Legion of

Honor

;

a

of France; a com-

mendatore of the crown of Italy, and has received grand crosses of the Orders of Alfonso XII, of

Order of Military Merit, and of the Red Cross of Spain. Other of his more important statues are Dona Barbara de Braganza, Isabella the Catholic, of the

:

modelled for the entrance of the Palacio de Justicia at Madrid; Don Diego Lopez de Haro, in the Plaza

Nueva of Bilbao; Don Alvaro de Bazan, at Madrid; El Tcniente Ruiz, in the Plaza del Rey at Madrid; General Martinez Campos, in the Paseo de Coches del Retire, Madrid Dona Maria Cristina, Reina ;

Gobernadora, before the Museo de Reproclucciones [174]

at

Madrid

;

Velazquez, in front of the Museo del Prado, a decorative work, El Infierno del Dante;

Madrid; and finally a statue of Goya on the pedestal of which he chiselled the beautiful lines of the figure of the celebrated

Maja revealed against a background of figures adapted from Goya's etchings. composed bust in bronze. Goya is represented as an old man. His head is turned slightly to the right

A

and he looks downward as if in reflection. The likeness is clearly founded on the celebrated portrait of Goya by Vicente Lopez y Portaiia painted in the early summer of 1826, when the sitter was over eighty years

Height

of

age.

Signed

at

the

0.59.

[175]

left

:

M.

Benlliurc.

>.

PQ

IN

THE STUDIO OF GOYA, BY FRANCISCO DOMINGO Y MARQUES Domingo y Marques was born at March 12, 1842. He studied in the Acad-

Francisco Valencia, of

emy

San Carlos

town and with the

at his native

painter Rafael Montesinos y Ramiro.

1867 he

In

exhibited for the

first time, showing a composition recording an historical incident. Shortly after he obtained considerable success with certain genre pic-

The Spanish Government granted

tures.

scholarship at

Rome

in

1868,

w>

him

a

here he painted El

Ultimo Dia de Sagnnto (The Last Day of Sagunto), purchased by the Valencian Museum. On his return to Spain he painted

many

portraits,

among them

that

of Ruiz Zorrilla

for the municipality of Valencia certain historical compositions, such as Columbus at

;

Barcelona, for the palace of the Senate, and various decorative compositions for the Dukes of Bailen and of Fernan Nunez. Establishing himself at Paris in 1875, latter

he painted portraits and genre pictures, the showing the influence of Fortuny and Meis-

sonier.

Among

his best

known

portraits

His Majesty Don Alphonso XIII as a pictures

are

included

in

the

is

one of

child.

collections

of

His

many

museums.

Goya

is

shown standing

large studio before a canvas

[177]

in

the

which

is

middle of

a

turned with

its

back toward the spectator,

and occupies about

He is repreone-third of the area of the picture. sented as a man of about seventy. He wears a gray coat with

black

stockings.

He

trousers

carries a palette

turned toward the

two models, a man in

and white waistcoat and

and brushes.

He

is

of the picture and regards and a woman, who are dressed

left

The woman The man waist.

country costumes and are dancing.

wears a rose petticoat and a blue

in gray with a yellow waistcoat and red sash. Behind these figures are shown two musicians seated

is

and playing, with two ladies sitting near by. At the extreme left is a divan, on which are seated three

The figures in the other spectators of the dance. background are painted principally with black, white and yellow. They are relieved against the back wall of the studio, which

and decorated one of which is an eques-

dark

is

with two large pictures,

in tone

trian portrait, the other a figure composition.

below to the right Domingo. :

[1781

On

canvas

Signed

0.68 x 0.52.

COPY OF GOYA'S PORTRAIT OF PEDRO MOCARTE

By Mariano Fortuny

A COPY OF GOYA'S PORTRAIT OF PEDRO MOCARTE, BY MARIANO FORTUNY

at

Mariano Jose Maria Bernardo Forttmy was born Reus, in Tarragona, June 11, 1838. He was the

son of poor parents, his father being a carpenter. He received an education in the primary school of his native

town and obtained

art training in a

at

an

least

elementary

class established

drawing

Reus

at

At an early age Fortuny by Domingo Soberano. was left an orphan and came under the guardianship of his grandfather, who, though a joiner by trade, travelled from town to town with a collection of

wax

figures

dowed from manual

which he exhibited.

earliest

childhood

Fortuny,

with

en-

extraordinary

showed

great cleverness in the In 1852, and of these painting figures. modelling when fourteen years of age, he went with his granddexterity,

father to Barcelona, where he hoped to obtain for an art education.

Through

the

of

influence

the

sculptor

means Talarn

he secured a pension amounting to one hundred and sixty reals a month and his tuition fees in the Barcelona the

Academy

studio

gifts at

of

of

Fine

Claudio

Arts,

where he entered

Lorenzale.

His

once made themselves manifest.

brilliant

In March,

1857, after competition with other students, he

[181]

was

Rome. Here imposed on him by

unanimously awarded a scholarship he the

fulfilled

terms

other

the

of

old

obligations

the

pension,

at

copying

Raphael

and

and

producing a considerable number of original works. Early in 1860 he was summoned to Barcelona by the authorities of the city,

masters,

who commissioned him

to

go to Africa and

paint a series of pictures representing the principal incidents of the war then being waged by Spain

against Morocco. paratively brief,

this expedition was comexercised a great influence upon and art. He fell under the spell

Although

it

the painter's life of the brilliant light and color of north Africa and

brought every resource of his vivacious and supple technique to the task of recording the kaleidoscopic scenes of Oriental life which he witnessed. This love

of

light,

and

of

opulent

brilliant

of movement, of remained character-

color,

sparkling of Fortuny's art until his death. effect,

istic

He

produced during the expedition a large number of sketches, many of w hich served later in the composition of r

more pretentious pictures. The return to Barcelona was made via Madrid, where he visited the Praclo and met Federico de Madrazo, then director of the Royal Museum. After a brief visit to Paris, devoted largely to the study of certain of the battle pieces in French national collections, he proceeded to Rome and

commenced for the city of Barcelona an immense The Storming of the Moroccan Camp b\

canvas,

[182]

Spanish Troops, February _/, 1860. This huge work, more than fifteen meters long, occupied much of the time of the artist during the next few years, but

remained unfinished

at his death.

It

now adorns

the

Casa de la Diputacion at Barcelona. Fortuny was a Besides his battle picrapid and incessant worker. ture he produced a remarkable series of paintings in oil and w ater color which, after a few years, brought r

as their

reward international fame.

and Paris

in

1867 and 1868

still

Visits to

Madrid

further extended

Shortly after this reputation and acquaintance. time he married Dona Cecilia de Madrazo, daughter of Federico de Madrazo. His pictures were eagerly His life sought for by collectors and museums. became a series of triumphs. He turned easily from his

water color, and as an etcher obtained results as distinguished as those which he produced with his oil to

brush.

In at Paris,

1870 he commenced

La Vicarw

(

at

Rome, and

finished

The Vicarage], or, as it is genThe Spanish Marriage, pos-

erally called in English, sibly his

most famous

picture.

Exhibited at Paris,

it

placed him at once among the most celebrated artists of Europe. La Vicaria is a characteristic work of

and also an excellent example of the prevailing taste in pictures during the period in which In an immense and picturesque it was painted.

the master

sacristy

a

brilliant

century costume to the marriage.

is

wedding party in eighteenthshown signing documents relating

A

priest supervises the

[183]

ceremony.

At one

group of toreadors, sitting in carelook on with an air of rather inso-

side a

less

ease,

lent

indifference.

The

figures

and

jewel-like fineness, color

worked

are

brilliancy.

with

Despite the

remarkable drawing and the truth of the types, the over-decoration

of

the

accessories

and

the

too-

adroitly devised grouping result in an effect that is more theatrical than natural. "A sketch of Goya

retouched by Meissonier," wrote Gatttier of this picMeissonier, indeed, did Fortuny the honor of

ture.

posing for one of the figures in the composition. The famous La Election de Modello (The Choosing of

Model}, a masterpiece of rococo artifice, is another canvas of the same order, while the Fantasia the

Arabe (Arab Fantasy), in which a number of Moroccan warriors are shown in a mad dance, is an exexample of the one other class of subject, Moroccan life and customs, to which the artist From 1870 to 1872 Fortuny devoted his talent. cellent

Granada, breaking his stay there by two In 1874 he returned to excursions to Africa. lived

Rome.

at

On November

thirty-six years old

21st of that year, when only at the height of splendid

and

powers and success, he died somewhat suddenly from an attack of malarial fever contracted when painting outdoors at Naples and Portici. Endowed with great gifts which found their

most natural expression in dexterities of craftsmanship, Fortuny's works are more remarkable for the unapproachable vivacity and brilliance of their tech[184]

He nique than for subtle and profound qualities. was a master of color, his works glitter with harmonies that sian carpet.

of

light,

recall the tones

He had

and patterns of a Per-

a clear understanding of effects national types, and could

knew Spanish

render them well.

These

qualities

would have been

of service had he cared to produce pictures of his own country, marked by the intense realism which

has been the chief characteristic of Spanish art in

its

His life as a painter, however, was He himself almost passed entirely outside of Spain. was a cosmopolitan he chose motives with regard for the opportunity they afforded for technical disgreatest epochs.

;

play, and unfortunately, the taste for bric-a-brac

marked

much

of his

work

reflected

and rococo artificiality that which he lived. But through

the period in is related to the national school of

his technique he

native

country; the fluency, the abandon, the His brilliancy of his style are thoroughly Spanish. manner of painting is manifestly founded on that of

his

Goya.

The audacity and vigor of

his

attack,

the

staccato quality of his touch in applying pigment to canvas, recall the method employed, especially in

smaller works, by the great Aragonese master.

The

admiration and understanding with which Fortuny regarded the art of Goya is evidenced in the copy which he made of Goya's portrait of Mocarte. For-

he was evidently tuny painted the copy with gusto in sympathy with the style of the older master. There ;

is

no trace of niggling, so common [185]

in a copy.

The

resemblance between the methods of the two artists is

shown

clearly

in the

felicity

with which Fortuny

reproduced Goya's peculiarly individual manner of painting the embroideries of the toreador's jacket.

Don Pedro Mocarte was

a singer in the cathedral of Toledo and an intimate friend of Goya. The It is not singer is shown in the costume of a torero. known whether he was painted in this costume because

he was an admirer of the sport of bull-fighting or because the costume gave opportunity for picturesque

The

effect.

1867 as

original picture

of Madrid.

At one time

collection

Paris,

mundo

was

in the collection of

at

it

listed

Don

by Yriarte

figured in the

afterward passing to

de Madrazo, from

whom

in

Luis de Madrazo,

it

Edwards

Don

Rai-

was acquired by

M. Huntington, PresThe Hispanic Society of America, in whose The copy by Forprivate collection it now hangs. tuny was obtained for The Hispanic Society from Don Raimundo de Madrazo. A life-size head and bust portrait. The subject is shown turned slightly to the left and regarding its

present owner, Mr. Archer

ident of

He wears a white shirt with black and toreador's neckpiece jacket of brownish gray About his shoulders satin with silver embroideries. the spectator.

is

a capa or bull-fighter's cloak of a dark reddish with satin of a brownish pink. The back-

color, lined

ground

is

Fortnny.

almost black.

On

canvas

Signed below to the right 0.76 x 0.56.

[186]

:

VICTIMS OF WAR, AND A CARNIVAL SCENE,

BY EUGENIC LUCAS Madrid in 1824. He studied painting at the Academy of San Fernando at Madrid and in 1849 exhibited a number of landEugenio Lucas was born

at

scapes in an exhibition held under the auspices of In 1855 he was represented in the Universal Exhibition at Paris by two pictures, A Bnllthat institution.

Fight at Madrid and An Episode of the Revolution With the French of 1854 in the Puerta del Sol. artist Philastre,

he decorated with fresco, in the style

of the Renaissance, the ceiling of the Teatro de la Opera at Madrid. "In four great medallions," writes Ossorio of this work, "are painted mythological scenes showing life-size figures. the Arts with their attributes

;

The first represents the second, the Dance

directed by Terpsicore; the third, Lyric Poetry presided over by Erato, who is encouraging the Virtues

and banishing the Vices

;

in the

fourth Euterpe

is

seen conducting a concert. In some circular forms are half-length portraits of Moratin, Bellini, Velazquez, Calderon

and Fernando de Herrera.

Lucas was

an artist of abundant talent and considerable technical attainment. He appears to have lacked, however, a personality of sufficient strength to have enabled him to produce works in a single manner distinctly

[187]

own and

his

He

view.

representative of a personal point of spent much of his time in making imita-

tions of the paintings of old masters, working, according to Lafond, under the constant pressure of neces-

Lafond wrote

sity.

:

"Lucas reproduced Breughel,

Wouwermann, Watteau,

as well as the painter of Las Mcninas, and brushed in easily in an afternoon a copy or an imitation, more or less exact, of

Teniers,

these masters, that

two or Madrid." The day for

was then exchanged during the

three dollars in the cafes or hotels of artist died at

Madrid, September

11,

1870.

Eugenic Lucas result of his

is

then chiefly remembered as a

remarkable

facility in imitating

works

of the great painters of past epochs. His productions after these artists were distinctly imitations, not

merely pictures influenced by their

style

subjects similar to the subjects of the to

;

man

he chose he sought

copy and painted them with slavish imitation of

He every trick of technique of the original artist. was particularly successful in imitation of the smaller pictures

of

Goya.

He

succeeded so

admirably

in

reproducing the spontaneity of Goya's brush-stroke, the very spirit of the work of the great Aragonese master, that it is often difficult to tell a Lucas, when painted at the artist's best, from a Goya. As a whole, however, Lucas is heavier than Goya, his manner is less varied, the figures and compositions of his pictures are less solidly constructed than in the works He also had a tendency of the painter he imitated.

[188]

to exaggerate the

manner and method which he copied

so that his pictures have often a list of titles of his paintslight air of caricature. a list of Goya paintings. like would read much ings

from

his model,

A

A

Two

Bandits Kneeling Before the Head of a Comrade Nailed to a Post, A Temptation, An Exorcism, Witches with Children, Masqueradcrs,

few are

Drunkards,

:

A Young

and an Old Woman, A Seventeenth and Eighteenth

Girl

Miser, Gallantries of the Centuries.

Aureliano de Beruete y Moret,

in his

work on

"The Velazquez, refers to Lucas of the sketches and even of the paintings of Goya, Eugenio Lucas, whose works are attributed to Goya

clever pastichcur

as

in

many

collections

and even museums."

He

adds

that Lucas "tried also to imitate Velazquez, but these

badly designed imitations, verging on caricature, have deceived nobody." Lafond is less severe: "His painting, frank, free, all vivacity, energy and daring, full of tempest, traversed by flashes of lightning, executed with furious strokes of the brush, is stupefying in

His sketches, bold to its audacity and surety. the point of recklessness, are usually improvised with a palette knife. When seen near by, they are gen.

erally only a chaos of

.

hard tones, but from a

little

everything explained and form. The personages which these sketches

distance

takes

.

harmonizes,

is

include are extremely rudimentary and summary in treatment, with violently illuminated visages and big

round eyes

like lotto discs,

which

[189]

recall

perhaps too

much

those of Polichinelle. Nevertheless they live, are well in their place and in accord with the atmos-

phere in which they move. His tempestuous skies, full of menacing clouds ready to burst in cascades of rain or hail, attain at times the pathetic. The canvases render marvellously the landscapes of La Castile, which have not changed at

and of

Mancha all

since

their Velasquez, with their desolate, tottering ruins and discolored barrens their arid and yellow ;

;

monotonous

plains."

the pictures of Lucas merits. "The merchants

Today

are selling upon their own and the antiquity dealers," states Lafond,

dained

the

productions

of

Lucas

"who

during his

dislife,

search for them now, too often, it is true, to sell them under the name of Goya. But in the Peninsula the works of Lucas have no longer need of this false passport and circulate under their true name. The wisest collectors have no fear of making a If Eugenic place for them in their collections. Lucas were not an artist of first rank, if he

an elevated enough mentality, a sufficiently personal sentiment to illumine the firmament of art lacked

with a new light, if he is nothing more than the attenuated echo of the great masters who had preceded him, of Velazquez, and above all of Goya, he remains, nevertheless, an original artistic character, a painter in the true sense of the word, and that suffices."

[190]

VICTIMS OF WAR.

By Eugenio

Lucas.

VICTIMS OF

WAR

Slightly to the left of the center of the picture, the principal figure, that of a man who has been shot,

is

bound

a

to

tall

He

post.

wears a white

and

sash, and white stockings. His eyes are covered with a handkerchief. At his shirt,

blue trousers

feet to the right

crouches a

woman

and green;

behind

posts in the scene takes

same manner as the

dressed in red

a figure in white, the hands clasped before the face, as though in terror. To the right and left are bodies of dead men, secured to

it

against

ground,

brown

is

place at night. the smoke of

rises

The sky bonfires.

is

The

obscure;

The

fore-

with the debris of war, is of a rich Unsigned. On canvas 0.70x0.54.

littered

color.

central figure.

[193]

W g C/3

_o
M

w >.

A CARNIVAL SCENE

A group composed chiefly of men and boys is shown out of doors at night, playing musical instruThe figures are three-quarter ments and singing. revealed against an obscure night sky. is centered on two men, who are placed left of the picture. the to They are playing slightly One is dressed in a white shirt with a blue guitars. length and

The

interest

sash and blue trousers, and has a red handkerchief

bound about his head. The other wears a capa of In the foreblue and yellow with a large black hat. ground to the right are two boys, one playing a Their clothes triangle and the other a tambourine. reflect the blue and yellow note of the central figures. At the extreme left, in the foreground, a man's figure in deep obscurity serves to accentuate the light which pours in on the principal actors in the scene. In the background is a group of men and women singing two of them carry wine glasses. Signed below to the left: E. Lucas. On metal 0.30 x 0.41. ;

[195]

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF FRANCISCO GOYA

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF FRANCISCO GOYA Achiardi, Pierre

Les dessins de D. Francisco

d'.

Goya y Lucientes au Musee du Prado a Madrid. Rome, 1908. ficole Espagnole. Arsene. (In his Ecole Allemande, Espagnole et Anglaise. Paris, Histoire populaire de la 1895. Pp. 270-278.

Alexandre,

Vol. IV.)

peinture.

Altspanische

Ausstellung;

Munich, 1911. Amatidry, Leonce. at Paris;

Galerie

Heinemann.

Pp. 29-50.

The

collection of Dr. Carvallo

Spanish and other later pictures. (In December, 1904. Vol.

Burlington Magazine. VI, pp. 179-191.)

Amicis,

Edmondo

de.

Spagna.

Florence,

1873.

Pp. 149-151.

Espana.

Madrid, 1877.

Spain and the Spaniards.

and London, 1885.

Pp. 143-145.

[199]

Pp. 150-151.

New York

Amicis,

Edmondo

de.

L'Espagne.

Paris,

1894.

Pp. 123-125.

Araujo Sanchez, Zeferino. First published in uary-April, 1895. no.

64-90; 74-114.

pp.

Madrid, 1895. La Espana Moderna. JanNo. 73, pp. 20-45; no. 74,

75,

pp.

Goya.

101-134;

no.

76,

pp.

In forme redactado por nuesAvrial, Jose Maria. tro compariero el Sr. D. Jose Maria Avrial,

despues de haber leido

la

obra de Mr. Pablo

Lefort, correspondiente extranjero de la Real Academia, sobre Goya y sus obras grabadas y

(In Boletin de la Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando. Madrid, litografiadas.

January, 1882.

Ano

II,

no. 11, pp. 4-8.)

Balsa de

la Vega, Ricardo. Exposicion de obras de Goya; Madrid. La Ilustracion Espa(In nola y Americana. 1900. Vol. XLIV, no. 43, p.

299.)

Barcia, Angel

dibujos

M.

de.

originales

Madrid, 1906.

Catalogo de la coleccion de de la Biblioteca Nacional.

Pp. 200-207.

Catalogo de

de pinturas del Excmo. Sr. Duque de Berwick y de Alba. la

Madrid, 1911. [200]

coleccion

M.

Catalogo de los retratos de persona jes Espanoles que se conservan en la seccion de estampas y de bellas artes de la Bibli-

Barcia, Angel

de.

Goya en

seccion de estampas de la

la

Biblioteca Nacional.

(In

ves, Bibliotecas y Museos. 4, pp.

Pp. 371-373.

Madrid, 1901.

oteca Nacional.

La Revista de Archi1900.

Vol. IV, no.

195-200.)

CEuvres posthumes

Baudelaire, Charles.

spondances

Paris, 1887.

inedits.

et corre-

P. 204.

Qtielques caricaturistes etrangers Goya. Curiosites esthetiques. Paris, 1880. ;

his

(In

Pp. 426-430.) First published in

Le Present, 1857.

P. 188.

Bensusan, Samuel Levy. A note upon the paint(In The Interings of Francisco Jose Goya. 1901.

national Studio.

Goya,

times

his

The Connoisseur. vol.

Beraldi,

1902.

XV,

and

pp. 155-161.)

portraits.

Vol.

(In

pp.

22-37;

du XIXe

siecle.

II,

IV, pp. 115-123.) Henri.

Paris, 1888.

Les

graveurs Pp. 188-200. [201]

14

Vol.

Bernath,

Morton H. Die spanische Kunst. und Boston. Leipzig, 1912.

New York

(In Pp.

113-118.)

Bertels, Kurt.

Goya. Munich, 1907. No. 1.)

(Klassische

Illustratoren.

Deux portraits Beruete y Moret, Aureliano de. inedits de Goya. (In Les Arts. April, 1913. No. 136, pp.

1-4.)

Eine Sammlung von Handzeichnungen des Francisco Goya. (In Zeitschrift fiir bildende Kunst, 1907. Neue Folge. Jahrg. XVIII, pp.

165-171.)

Exposicion de obras de los Espanoles en el Guildhall de Londres. Lectura.

October,

1901.

Aiio

I,

no.

pintores

(In

La

10,

pp.

609-617.)

The

school of Madrid.

London, 1909.

P. 286.

Boehm, Max von. Kunst fur Alle.

(In Die Jahrg. XXIII, pp. 121-

Francisco de Goya. 1907.

135.)

[202]

La

Bremen, Jose Fernandez. In

La

Illustracion

July 15, 1909.

Ano

casa que habito Goya.

Espaiiola

Americana.

y

LIII, no. 26.)

Brieger-Wasservogel, Lothar. Francisco de Goya. Mit 1 Gravtire, 52 original Reproduktionen und 19 text Illnstrationen nach seltenen Radierungen Berlin, 1911. (Beck-

und Handzeichnungen. mann's Kunstbiicher. ) Brinton,

1915.

Goya and

Christian.

America.

certain

Vol. Ill, no.

3,

Goyas

New

(In Art in America.

in

York,

pp. 85-103.)

(In Catalogue of paintings by Ignacio Zuloaga exhibited by The Hispanic Society of America, March 20 to April 11, 1909. New York, 1909. Pp. 20., 23, Ignacio

Zuloaga.

31, 50, 86, 98, 102, 106, 110.)

Modern

artists.

New

York, 1908.

Pp.

165, 246, 251-252, 255-256, 260.

Brunet, Gustave.

Etude sur Francisco Goya, sa Bordeaux and Paris, 1865.

vie et ses travaux.

Francisco Goya y Lucientes. velle

biographic general.

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L'CEuvre de Francisco Goya.

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Brunet,

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No

place,

no

date.

Charles

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The Bourbon dynasty;

Francisco Goya. (In Old Spanish masters enNew York, 1907. graved by Timothy Cole. Pp. 161-172.)

An and Goyas.

extraordinary show of El Grecos (In New York American. Janu-

ary 18, 1915.

No. 11,506.)

Francisco Goya y Lucientes. Print Collector's Quarterly. I,

(In

April, 1911.

The Vol.

no. 2, pp. 190-236.)

Reprinted under the title Goya in Prints and Makers, edited by Fitzroy Carrington.

their

New

York, 1912. Goya.

painting.

New

(In his The story of Spanish York, 1910. Pp. 171-190.)

Goya, an account of his life and works, with 612 reproductions from his London, pictures, etchings and lithographs.

Calvert, Albert F.

1908.

(The Spanish

series.)

[204]

(Los grandes Qaprichos de Goya. Madrid, 1909. maestros de la pintura en Esparia. No. 1.) Sixty reproductions of original unpublished

drawings.

Carderera y Solano, Valentin. Catalogo y descripcion sumaria de retratos antiguos de personajes y extranjeros de ambos sexos. Pp. 103-106.

ilustres espanoles

Madrid, 1877. Goya.

(In El Artista.

1835.

Vol.

II,

pp. 253-255.)

Valentin and

Carderera,

Burty,

Philippe.

Fran-

cisco Goya, sa vie, ses dessins, et ses eaux-fortes.

(In Gazette des 1860; September pp.

215-227;

vol.

Beaux-Arts. 1,

1863.

XV,

Vol.

August, VII, no.

15, 4,

no. 3, pp. 237-249.)

A remarkable collection Gary, Elizabeth Luther. of masterpieces by El Greco and Goya on view for the benefit of war relief societies. (In New York Times.

LXIV,

January 13 and

17,

1915.

Vol.

nos. 20,808, 20,812.)

L'n viaje a Paris durante el Emilio. establecimiento de la Republica. Aladrid, 1878.

Castelar,

Chap.

XX.

Catalogo de

la

Exposicion Nacional de Retratos.

.Madrid, 1902.

[205]

Catalogo de las obras de Goya exptiestas en el Ministerio de Instruccion Publica y Bellas Artes,

Mayo, 1900. Catalogo de

los

Madrid, 1900. cuadros

.

.

.

de

la

antigua casa Ducal de Osuna.

coleccion de la

Madrid, 1896.

Catalogo de los cuadros, estatuas y bustos que existen en la Academia Nacional de San Fer-

nando en las

ano de 1821, con expresion de salas en que estan colocados, numeros que

los

distinguen,

este

tores que los

asuntos que representan y auMadrid, 1821.

han egecutado.

Memorias para la historia Jose. Real Academia de San Fernando y de Bellas Artes en Espana, desde el advenimiento

Caveda y Nava, de

la

al

trono

de

Madrid, 1867.

Felipe Vol.

V, I,

hasta

nuestros

dias.

pp. 207-221.

Clement de Ris, Athanase Louis Torterat, Le Musee Royal de Madrid. Paris,

cotntc.

1859.

Pp. 30-32. Cole, Timothy.

the

engraver.

The Bourbon dynasty; (In Old

graved by Timothy

Cole.

Spanish

New

notes by masters en-

York,

1907.

Pp. 172-175.)

With engravings on wood after Goya's The washerwoman; In the balcony; Portrait of Dona Isabel Corbo de Porcel. [206]

Cortissoz,

Royal.

Art and

El Greco and Goya. (In his sense. New York, 1913. Pp.

common

300-304.)

Two old masters of Spanish art Works El Greco and Goya shown for the benefit of by war funds. (In New York Tribune. January ;

13 and 17, 1915.

Cossio,

Nos. 24,895, 24,899.)

Manuel Bartoleme.

1908.

El Greco.

Madrid,

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L'Eau-Forte. Courboin, Francois. Decoration. April, 1906. Vol.

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XX,

Art

et

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Un

portrait Bordelais de Goya.

La Revue Philomathique de Bordeaux et du Sud-Ouest. Annee 12, Bordeaux, 1909. (In

pp. 49-51.)

Craigie, Pearl

pseud.)

Goya.

Mary Teresa. (John Oliver Hobbes, The art of portraiture; Dante and London, April 23, (In The Academy.

Vol.

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Cruzada Villaamil, Gorgio. (In El Arte en Espafia.

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Dessins

1913.

Plates

XXIX,

no. 75;

Valence.

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Art

Marcel.

Dieulafoy,

plates 31-40.

no. 76.)

Jane Paul Rachel Alayre.

Dietilafoy,

New

1-20,

XXIX,

plates 21-30, vol. vol.

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de Goya.

ineclites

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A rag-on

et

Pp. 385, 456.

Spain and Portugal. Pp. 284-288.

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Distribution de los premios hecha por el Real Academia de S. Fernando el 27 de Marzo, 1832.

Madrid, 1832.

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Dodgson, Campbell. Bemerkungen zu den Radierungen und Lithographien Goyas im Britischen

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Xo.

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Eau-Forte inconnue de Goya, Une. (In La Revue de 1'Art Ancien et Moderne. December, 1901. Vol. X, no. 57,

378.)

p.

Francisco de Goya y nuevos y preciosos datos para su

Ferrer del Rio, Antonio. Lucientes vida.

;

Xo

place,

no

date.

Extract, 24 pp. Flat,

Paul.

fresques.

Goya; (In

velle peri ode.

1'

portraitiste Artiste.

Annee

et

Paris,

peintre des 1892. Xou-

62, vol. Ill, pp. 161-171.)

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John Ernest Crawford.

Spain;

notes of a

Goya

A

little

journey in

London,

pilgrimage.

1914.

A

Richard.

Ford,

handbook

London, 1855.

Spain.

for

travellers

in

Pp. 182, 686.

Galvan y Candela, Jose Maria. Frescos de Goya en la iglesia de San Antonio de la Florida graba;

al agua fuerte por D. Jose M. Galvan y texto por D. Juan de Dios de la Candela Rada y Delgado, precedido del informe por

dos

.

.

.

.

el

Excmo.

rid,

Sr.

D. Pedro de Madrazo

.

.

.

.

.

Mad-

1897.

Gautier, Theophile.

(In Le Cabinet de Paris, 1842.

Vol.

Francisco Goya y Lucientes. 1' Amateur et de 1'Antiquaire. I,

pp. 337-345.)

Voyage en Espagne.

Paris, 1845.

Pp.

(In his Madrid.

No

127-137.

Gustave.

Geffrey,

no

place,

rope.

date.

Goya.

Pp. 89-104.

Les musees d'Eu-

)

(In La ChronGoya, par Lefort. ique des Arts et de la Curiosite. July 14, 1877. No. 25, pp. 242-243.)

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Gonzales Marti, Manuel.

Forma.

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Goya y

Barcelona, 1908.

3-31.)

Goya y

(In Museum.

Valencia.

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Paris, Goya. No. 44.)

no

date.

illustres.

(Les peintres

Published under the direction of M. Henry

Ron j on. Goya, Francisco. no.

A tions

Goya en

(In Museum.

1913.

Vol. Ill,

pp. 159-192.)

5,

Goya number with of Goya paintings.

thirty- four reproduc-

Exposicion Retrospectiva de Zaragoza. Zara(In Exposicion Retrospectiva de Arte. la

goza, 1908.

Goya y

Pp. 101-115.)

Lucientes, Francisco.

ventes

d'art

pendant 1911.

les

faites

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en France

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[210]

et

a

1'etranger

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Paris,

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Goya y

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II, p.

Granados, Enrique. Goyesca los majos enamorados.

:

Literas y calesas 6

the original manuscript score of the Goyescas, presented to The Hispanic

This opera,

Zar-

is

Society of America by the composer on January 29, 1916.

Goyescas; Primera parte de los majos Los requiebros. Coloquio en la enamorados. El fandango de candil. Quejas 6 la reja.

maja y el rusinor. Edicion facsimil de la primera parte de Goyescas (Los majos enamorados) hecho en Barcelona el ano de 1911. With a facsimile of Plate 5 of Caprichos.

El Greco and Goya

Catalogue of a loan exhibition paintings by El Greco and Goya for the benefit of the American war relief fund and the ;

of

Belgian relief fund on exhibition at the galM. Knoeder & Co. New York, 1915.

leries of

Hamerton, Philip Gilbert. folio. London, 1879. 103.)

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Goya.

(In

The Port-

Pp. 67-73, 83-86, 99-

(Mrs. Walter Gallichan.)

Hartley, C. Gasquoine.

(In The Art

Goya.

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Journal.

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The cisco

her

brief

revival

of art under Fran-

Lucientes, the genius of satire. (In record of Spanish painting. Xew York,

Goya y

A

1904.

Pp. 274-298.)

In Head, Sir Edmund. Modern Spanish masters. his A hand-book of the history of the Spanish (

and French schools of painting.

London, 1848.

Pp. 217-218.)

Hein, Marguerite.

A

1'ecole

Hind, Arthur M., editor. don, 1911.

Hofmann,

de Goya.

Paris, 1909.

Francisco Goya.

Lon-

(Great engravers.)

Julius.

Francisco de Goya;

seines graph ischen \Yerkes.

Katalog Vienna, 1907.

Huneker, James Gibbons. Goya. (In his Promenades of an impressionist. Xew York, 1910. Pp. 110-123, 359-360.)

Hunter, George Leland.

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Tapestries, their origin, history

Xew

York, 1913.

Pp. 227-228.)

[212]

Goya et Turner. Joris Karl. Certains. Paris, 1889. Pp. 199-202.)

(In his

Huysmans,

Autour de Madrid

quinta de splendeurs et mis-

Imbert, P. L.

la

;

(In his L'Espagne; Pp. 325, 331, 203-204.)

Goya.

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The Individualism

of Goya; egotism and art. Xew York, 1915.

Arts and Decoration.

V, Ivins,

91.)

p.

William M., jr. their makers

and

ton.

(In Vol.

note on Goya.

(In Prints

edited by Fitzroy CarringYork, 1912. Pp. 164-165.)

Xew

Les maitres

S.

Jacquemont,

A ;

Espagnols

et

naturaliste.

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tember

1888.

15,

LXXXIX,

Troisieme

periode.

Tart

SepVol.

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Jovellanos, Caspar Melchor de. Obras del excelentisimo Serior D. Caspar Melchor de Jovellanos.

Barcelona, Justi, Carl.

1840.

Vol. V, pp. 242-246.

Diego Velazquez and

don, 1889.

his times.

Lon-

Pp. 72, 90, 143, 217, 313, 422, 440,

448.

^Keppel &

Co., Frederick.

Catalogue of an exhi-

bition of the Caprices

and the Proverbs etched

by Goya.

X ew York, T

[213]

1911.

^ Konody, The

P. G. Idler.

Goya, the artist and the man. (In London, 1899. Vol. XV, pp. 746-

762.)

Laban,

Die

Ferdinand.

Farbenskizze

zu

einem

reprasentations-gemalde Goyas. (In Jahrbuch der koniglich preuszischen Kunstsammlungen. 1900.

Berlin,

Band XXI,

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Goya.

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Lafond, Paul. de tous

les

Vol.

I,

491-502;

1'

editors.

Francisco

Alliance

des

Arts.

pp. 94-96.)

Paris, 1902.

Goya. temps.

dernes.) First published in

Moderne.

I.,

de

Bulletin

177-185.)

pp.

(Les artistes Les temps mo-

Serie C.

Revue de

1899-1901.

Vol.

1'Art

V, pp.

Ancien

et

133-144,

vol.

VI, pp. 45-56, 461-474; vol. VII, pp. 45-53; vol. IX, pp. 20-35, 210-225.

Les dernieres annees de Goya en France. (In Gazette des Beaux-Arts. 1907. Troisieme periode. Vol. XXXVII, pp. 141-151, 241-257.)

Castres.

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osite.

March, 1896.

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No.

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11, pp.

99-100; no.

Les Caprices de Goya.

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Leclerc,

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:

et

1877. First published in Gazette des Beaux-Arts.

February-April,

August, 1868.

February-April, 1868; Premiere periode. Vol. XXII,

382-395;

pp. 191-205,

385-399;

1867;

vol.

XXV,

Francisco

vol.

XXIV,

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pp. 165-180.

Goya.

(In

Gazette

December, 1875; December, 1876. Deuxieme periode. pp. 506-514; pp.

des

February and

Beaux-Arts.

vol.

XIII, pp. 336-344;

Vol. XII, vol.

XIV,

500-510.)

Francisco Jose Goya y Lucientes. (In Histoire des peintres edited by Charles Blanc. ;

Paris, 1869.

La

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peinture Espagnole.

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Ecole

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[215]

;

collection

Pacully.

Dona

Lefort, Paul.

Isabel

Corbo de

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XVII,

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Lehrs, Max.

Porcel.

January, 1897.

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67.)

Ein Steindruck Goyas.

der koniglich

preuszischen

Berlin, 1907.

Band XXVIII,

(In Jahrbuch

Kunstsammlungen. p.

50.)

Ein geschabtes Aquatintablatt von Goya. (In Jahrbuch der koniglich preuszischen Kunst-

sammlungen.

Berlin,

1906.

Band XVII,

pp.

141-142.)

Francisco Goya. (In his Diccionario biografico de pintores. Santiago de Chile, 1902.

Lira, Pedro.

Pp. 168-171.)

Loga, Valerian von.

Francisco de Goya.

Berlin,

1903.

Afterward published in La Esparia Moderna, No. 246, pp. 74-101; June-November, 1909. no. 247, pp. 15-39: pp. 80-106;

no. 248, pp. 5-31

no. 250, pp.

35-53;

;

no. 249,

no. 251, pp.

73-99.

Francisco de Goya. Leipzig, no date. der Band IV.) (Meister Graphik.

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Los cuadros de The Hispanic Society of America.

Museum.

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no. 4, pp. 119-135.)

Lopez Baga, Eduardo.

Una

visita al

Real Museo.

(In Revista Contemporanea. October 15, 1878. Vol. XVII, no. 69, pp. 287-288.)

Low, Will H.

A

century of painting;

Goya and

(In McClure's Magazine. Vol. VI, no. 4, pp. 337-340.)

his career.

1896.

March,

H.

Francisco Goya. (In Zeitschrift fiir bildende Kunst. 1875. Band X, pp. 193-199.)

Liicke,

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ler.

Lugar de Goya en

La

Lectura.

la

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P. 29.)

pintura; por

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M.

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A

review of an article by M. Forma, 1904. Vol. I, pp. 259-279. [217] 16

Utrillo

in

Une annee

M., Ad. ricain.

en Espagne par nn jeune Ame(In Revue Encyclopedique. Vol. L, pp.

328-331.) A review of

A

in

year

American, by Alexander

Spain by a young

Slidell.

Francisco Jose de (In his Nineteenth century

MacColl, Dugald Sutherland.

Goya y

Lucientes.

London, 1913.

art.

Madrazo, Pedro

Pp. 43-45.)

Catalogo de los cuadros del Museo Nacional de Pintura y Escultura. Mad-

rid,

1903.

de.

Pp. 111-118.)

Goya. (In Almanaque de Espanola y Americana. 1880.)

la

Ilustracion

Viaje artistico de tres siglos por las colecciones de cuadros de los reyes de Espana. Barcelona, 1844. P. 301.

Mantz, Paul.

Archives de

1'art

Frangais.

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la

Francisco Goya. (In Dictionnaire de conversation et de la lecture. Paris, 1855.

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Marti y Monso, Jose.

Estudios historico-artisticos

relatives principalmente a Valladolid.

no

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[218]

Madrid

Discursos practicables del nobilMartinez, Jose. isimo arte de la pintura. Madrid, 1866. Ap-

pendix no.

209-213.

Ill, pp.

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hallazgo artistico; cinco (In La Ilustracion Espanola Madrid, September 22, 1915.

Martinez, Vagiies, F. pasteles de Goya.

y Americana. Vol.

LIX,

no. 35.)

London, 1910.

Masterpieces of Goya. Art Books. No. 26.

Mather, Frank Jewett,

The

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jr.

New

1914.

York,

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XCIX,

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Goya and Los Desastres de la Guerra. The Print Collector's Quarterly. April, (In 1915.

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Matheron, Laurent.

Goya; Miiller.

Goya.

Paris, 1858.

Traduccion

de

G.

Belmonte

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Coleccion de los

modernos

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nacionales

y

extranjeros.

Tomo

CXXVI.) The appendix

contains articles by Valetin

Carderera, Jose Caveda and Pedro de Madrazo, and poems addressed to Goya by Leandro Fer-

nandez de Moratin and Manuel Jose Quintana. [219]

Mayer, August L. jungen Goya.

Bildnisse aus

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fiir

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Jahrg. VII, pp. 385-

Leipzig, 1914.

senschaft.

dem

(In Monatshefte

389.)

Los cuadros coleccion

1911.

del

Nemes en

Vol.

I,

Die

fiir

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Budapest.

la

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des

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Museums zu Barnard bildende Kunst.

XLVII,

Greco y de Goya de

Neue

1912.

Bowes-

(In Zeitschrift

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Pinocoteca

de

Munich

;

los

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Der Beitrag Spaniens and Meier-Graefe, Julius. Die erschiessung Maximilians. (In his Edouarcl Manet.

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P. 75.

Melida, Enrique. Los desastres de la guerra. El arte en Espaiia. Madrid, 1863. Vol.

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266.)

Mesonero Romanos, Manuel. Goya. (In Jiis Goya, Moratin, Melendez Valdes, y Donoso Cortes. Madrid, 1900.

Pp. 43-62.)

[220]

Las sepulturas de

Mesonero Romanes, Manuel. los hombres ilustres en Madrid.

Mommeja,

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J.

Un

los

cementerios

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tableau de

Goya du Musee de

(In Gazette des Beaux-Arts. 1905. Troisieme periode. Vol. XXXIV, pp. 39-42.) \Yith an etching by A. Majeur.

Lille.

Moratin, Leandro Fernandez de.

Silva a D. Fran-

(In his Obras de D. Leandro Fernandez de Moratin. Madrid, 1831.

cisco Goya, insigne pintor.

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Moreno,

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Silverio.

temporanea.

53-64, 163-176.)

Muther, Richard.

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London,

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Berlin, 1906.

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Jahrhundert.

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146.

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Studien und Kritiken.

New

758-760.

1900.

Vienna,

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Nait, Antoine de.

Les eaux-fortes de Goya.

Los

caprichos gravures fac-simile de Segui y Riera. Paris, 1888.

Notice des tableaux esposes jusqu'a present dans le Musee Royal de Peinture au Prado. Madrid, 1823.

Oertel,

Pp. 25-26.

Richard.

1907.

Francisco

de

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(Kiinstler-Monographien.

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Klasings

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Ossorio y Bernard, Manuel. artistas

Espanoles

Vol.

p.

I,

del siglo

311.

Pardo Bazan, Emilia, condcsa Lectura.

Galeria biografica de Madrid, 1868.

XIX.

1906.

dc.

Goya.

(In La

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Peintres Espagnols

Francisco Goya y Lucienle-;.

;

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1834.

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Pene

dti

Goya and Velazquez,

Greco,

Bois, Guy.

(In Arts and

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Vol.

V, pp.

181-184.)

Perez de

Guzman y

Gallo, Juan.

Las pinturas

del

(In La palacio ducal de Berwick y de Alba. Espana Moderna. 1912. No. 281, pp. 6, 12, 17.)

A

review of Catalogo de

la

coleccion de pin-

Excmo. Sr. Duque de Berwick y de Alba, by Angel M. de Barcia. Madrid, 1911. turas del

Petit,

Fernand.

Goya.

(In his Notes sur 1'Espagne

Lyon, 1878.

artistique.

Pp. 62-63.)

Pictures acquired by Mr. Archer

Piot,

Eugene.

de Goya.

cisco

de

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Catalogue raisonne de 1'ceuvre grave (In Le Cabinet de 1' Amateur et de

1'Antiquaire.

Portrait of

M. Huntington.

January, 1908.

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Paris, 1842.

Don Juan

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Jose Perez

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H.

Collins

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date.

London

Baker.

and

Toronto.

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Quintana, Manuel Jose. A mi amigo D. Francisco Goya enviadole el libro de mis poesias. (In

Murioz y Manzano, conde dc. Goya, su tiempo, su vida, sus obras. Madrid, Viriaza, Cipriano

1887.

Pp. 54-56.)

This poem was first published in a literary supplement of El Dia issued in Madrid about 1880.

It

does not appear in collections of Quin-

tana's works.

Rada y Delgado, Juan de Dios de la. Frescos de Goya en la iglesia de San Antonio de la Florida Grabados al agua fuerte por D. Jose M. Galvan :

y Candela

.

.

.

texto por D. Juan de Dios de

Rada y Delgado, precedido del in forme por el Excmo. Sr. D. Pedro de Madrazo. Madla

.

rid,

Ramon

1897.

16

pp.,

El arte de Goya. Espafiola y Americana.

November, 1900.

Un

No. 44,

p.

(In

La

Madrid,

295.)

Morales y un Goya existentes en

catedral de Madrid.

edad Espanola

XVII,

.

pi.

Melida, Jose.

Ilnstracion

la

16

.

(In Boletin de la Soci1909. Vol. de Excursiones.

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Reinach, Salomen.

Apollo.

New

York, 1908.

Pp.

255-257, 313. de

Retratos

Madrid, 1909. mujeres por Goya. maestros la de (Los grandes pintura en Espaiia. No. II.)

Ricketts, Charles.

The Spanish

school and the art

of Goya. (In his The art of the Prado. 1907. ton, Pp. 127-143.) Rios, R. de los.

Bos-

a Madrid.

L'exposition des oeuvres de Goya (In La Chronique des Arts et de la

Cnriosite.

Paris,

August, 1900.

No. 28, pp.

286-288.) Rothenstein, \Yilliam.

The

Goya. London, 1900. No. 4.)

(In

Artist's Library. T

X eira,

Sanchez de Lidia.

J.

Madrid,

Dos Aragoneses. April

1,

1894.

(In

Ano

La

XIII,

no. 2.)

M.

Schuette,

Vier

lithographische

Einselblatter

von Goya. (In Jahrbuch der koniglich preuszischen Kunstsammlnngen. Berlin, 1905. Band

XXVI,

p.

136.)

Schulze-Berge, A.

Einiges iiber die Goya-ausstell-

Madrid, May, 1900.

ung. bildende Kunst.

1900.

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(In Zeitschrift

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pp. 229-

Sentenach y Cabanas, Narciso.

Catalogo de

cuadros, esculturas, grabados, de ducal de Osuna. Madrid, 1896.

Goya.

la

los

antiqua casa

Goya; discipulos y contemporaneos de (In his La pintura en Madrid desde sus

origenes hasta

el

siglo

XIX.

Madrid,

1907.

Pp. 203-238.)

Los

grandes retratistas en Espaiia; Boletin de la Sociedad Espaiiola de Goya. (In Ano XXI. II trimestre, 1913. Excursiones. Pp. 73-88.

Notas sobre

La

Espaiia Moderna.

la

exposicion de Goya. (In Madrid, June, 1900. No.

138, pp. 34-53.)

Nuevos datos sobre Goya y (In Historia y Arte. Singer,

Hans W.

Miethke, 1908.

Vol.

Pictures by

Vienna.

(In

Vol. XIII, no. 62,

Smith, Gerard

W.

I,

pp. 196-199.)

Goya

at the Galerie

Burlington p.

sus obras.

Magazine.

99.)

School of Aragon.

Painting, Spanish and French.

(In his

London, 1884.

Pp. 76-77.) Solvay, Lucien. 252-272.

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Paris, 1887.

Pp.

Les femmes de Goya.

Solvay, Lucien.

Vol.

1906.

et les Artistes.

(In L'Art

pp. 193-205.)

II,

The variousness of Goya.

Spielmann, M. H.

The Magazine of

(In February, March, 1902.

Art.

Part 256, pp. 130-135; part 257, pp. 161-164.)

Hugh. Francisco Goya; a study of the work and personality of the eighteenth century New York and Spanish painter and satirist.

Stokes,

London, 1914.

Stothert,

and

French

James.

Philadelphia, no date.

Stirling-Maxwell,

Sir

Spanish painters.

Pp. 63-65.

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William.

London, 1848.

artists in Spain.

of

the

Vol. Ill, pp.

1260-1270.

Temple, A. G.

Catalogue of the exhibition of the

works of Spanish painters London, 1901.

Tormo y Monzo, Goya.

I,

Elias.

Antes de

la

at

the

Guildhall,

Lucas, nuestro pequeno exposicion; II, La doble

III, Las de Lucas que pasan exposicion Lucas de obras Goya y de Velazquez. (In Arte por 1912. Vol. I, no. 4, pp. 150-160; no. Espanol. ;

5,

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Tormo

La pintura Aragonesa. y Monzo, Elias. la Cuatrocentista y retrospectiva de la exposicion de Zaragoza en general. (In Boletin de la

Socieclad Espariola de Excursiones. Vol. XVII, pp. 282-285.)

Madrid,

1909.

Las pinturas de Goya con motivo de la (In Reexposicion de stts obras en Madrid. vista de la Asociacion Artistico, Arqueologico-

Barcelonesa.

Barcelona,

1900.

Vol.

IV,

p.

585.)

Varies estudios de artes y letras Las pinturas de Goya y su clasificacion cronologica. ;

Madrid, 1902.

P. 223.

Spain; a study of her life and arts. York, 1909. Pp. 69, 101, 219, 248, 252,

Tyler, Royall.

New

255, 297, 300-301, 305-306, 475, 477, 479-480, 515, 530.

M. Lugar de Goya en la Forma. Barcelona, 1904. Vol. I,

Utrillo,

Valient, J.

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Viardot, Louis.

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pp. 259-279.)

(In Encyclopedic du

Ecole de Madrid.

musees d'Espagne.

(In

pintura.

p.

631.)

(In his Les P. 152.)

Viardot, Louis.

Estudios sobre

la historia

instituciones, literatura, teatro

Obra

Esparia.

y France por M. Luis Castellano por D. Man-

escrita en

Viardot y traducida al uel de Cristo Varela. Logrorio, 1841.

Notices

stir

Paris,

1'Espagne.

and

de las

bellas artes en

principaux peintres de Pp. 305-308.

les

1839.

The

others.

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school

of

Castile

;

Francisco Goya y Lucientes. (In An illustrated London, history of painters of all schools. 1877.

Pp. 229-230.)

Cipriano Murioz y Manzano, conde dc. Adiciones al diccionario historico de los mas

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Francisco Goya.

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The art of Joaquin Sorolla. Williams, Leonard. of (In Catalogue paintings by Joaquin Sorolla exhibited Bastida by the Hispanic Society of y America, February 8 to March York, 1909. Pp. 24-28.)

1909.

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;

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(Theodor de Wyzewski.) Les grandes peintres de 1'Es-

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Malerei.

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don, 1900.

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der

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de 1'Angleterre.

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79-87.)

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[231]

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I/

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