Survey of American Industries to find Employment Opportunities for the Blind

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Annual Report of the American Printing House for the Blind
Thirty-First Report of the Board of Trustees

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SUE¥EY OF AI1E-.HICM IlfBUSTEIES

to find

EIvrPLOYPIEirT OPPOETUlSriTIES

FOE THE BLIKD

A.B. Segur ,

Eed Cross Instittite for the Blind 1918-1919

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The American Eed Cross

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Contents

Letter of trexismittal Report Introdxiction

Part

I

Classification of Industry

Part II

Methods of Survey

Part III

Motion Study

Appendioes:

Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D

Appendix E Appendix P Appendix G

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Chicago, Illinois, Jxdy 16, 1219

Corainittee on Direction,

Gross Institute for the Blind Baltimore, iiaryland xled

Gentlemen: I have the honor to submit a report on the industrial survey work done for the Ked uross institute for the jslind to date.

On June 26, 1918 the undersigned held a conference with Lieutenant colonel James iiordley, then uirector of the Hed O'ross institute for the Blind, at which the following conditions were pointed out:

The tiermans had heen driving down toward raris at a terrific rate; the liarne drive had just been halted at chateau 'i'hierr/, and the first reports of the "blind were coming through. 'I'he drive on the vVestern flanlc of the Gerroan army vvas imminent, and a vast 'i'he number of nuiaher of "blind were expected from this source, to the nmaher proportion hlind in the forces of the allies in expected and it was large, of men in action had "been rather that the saiiie ratio woiild hold in the new drives tha,t were to A long war was expected, and. the work had to "be so arranged come. that the "blind would "be taken care of as the war progressed. The only place that an^^ really srtisfactory work had "been done for the "blind soldiers was at St. Dunstans, London, hy Sir Arthur Pearson. Here, occupations had "been taught, fitting into English conditions, "but having practically no "bearing 5?he pro"blem on conditions thet confronted inerican industries. of placing the "blind uxider peace time conditions had not yet "been worked out, either in England or in the United Sttes, and much of the placement in England had "been on the hasis of sentiThe total percent of placements following training had not ment. yet "beenaetermined "because of the unsettled conditions of affairs in Europe. St. Dunstans, however, had taught the world the lesson of normality for the "blind in daily life and in earning capacity. It was very largely in emulation of what had "been done at St. Dunstans, tl^at the American Army took hold of the work for the "blind in this country.

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2 In this couiitr;', the status of "blind work was considerably worse than in England. Outside of a few people who had been placed hy some of the inore advanced workers among the "blind, comparatively few men had ever been placed in industry where they were successfully competing with sighted labor on an even basis. It was generally considered that the blind laaji was a hopeless individual, foredoomed to beg forever, or to be dependent, 'i'his feeling at least in a great measure, on someone else, was not entirely universal, still it prevailed through a large portion of the population.

One evidence of this feeling was the attitude of They had been in the habit of thinking of blindness the blind. as such a handicap that, once a taan was blinded, he was forced, as a matter of course, to depend upon someone else, and the sooner he made up his mind to conform to this condition, the In fact, in a great many cases, people better off he would be. who said that the blind could work, were simply laughed at by the blind. In many cases, the directors of the blind seem to have shared the same feeling. The subject of pensions for the blind was discussed very largely from the standpoint as to how large As a general thing, the discussions in the pensions should be. workers* conferences on the employment for the blind ran to the There subject of broom making, chair caning, and piano tioning. were a few of the workers who had the idea that the blind coiild work in factories, but they were in the minority. There was very little differentiation made in the placement problem between the capable blind ioan). ajad the incapable blind man, all men being placed on the same footing very largely because they were blind.

Employers seemed to have very :mich the same idea, and the general custou seemed to be that when a man became blind in any man's employ, he was an outcast for the rest of his life as far as getting a job was concerned. True, there were several more far-sighted employers in the country, notably the Crocker Wheeler Company, of Aaipere, Iv^ew Jersey, who had placed the blind at winding arriiatures; but even here, the general thought was that the blind were in a class by themselves and coxild not be expected to compete with sighted help. The efficiency of the blind was generally placed by the blind workers and employers at from thirty to fifty per cent. Under these conditions, the blind did not especially appeal to the employers from the standpoint of economical labor s't^jply.

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work among the work shops and schools was not in much

'i'he shop which made money or which cane out "bitter condition, even was so highly advertised that it only served to call attention to the fact that the average shop where "blind people

i'he conception eiJ5)loyed was a money losing proposition, that the "blind should "be carefully trained to get maximum production had apparently not penetrated to the shop mang^ers where "blind were eniployed, largely "because the feeling ths.t existed among these men, as with all other workers for the "blind, was that a "blind man was practically hopeless anyhow, and that if thgr got any work out of him at all, it was so imich gained.

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It is not so very strsjige that tinder such ciriCtuastances the "blind over the entire country were considered o"bjects for charity, and that the blind man with the tin cup was an o"bject which always "brought money from the passing pu"blic. weedless to say, if money came in that easy, once a "blind maja had "been "broken in to the point of view of taking alms from other people and living without work, he was not very likely to hiint very hard for a jo"b, especially where everyone tried to convince him This conception that a "blind man could not work successfully. led to a vast amount of pauperism among the civilian blind, and one of the main things with v/hich the blind soldier was faced on coming back to America, wss the well meant chc.rity of a large number of people which would be a positive detriment In fact, one of the things that the to the soldier himself. dreaded more than anything else was the average blind soldier regarded thought that we would be as a subject for pity for the regarded as a conpanion by instead of being rest of his life the rest of the people.

Fortunately, a desire to cooperate in the rehabilitation 'x'he work done by Sir movement prevailed among the employers, Arthur Pearson in Kngland, and the publications by the Red Gross hpd made a vast number of converts to the doctrine of normality among manufacturers, ^ifefe feeling had not yet penetrr.ted to the average e.iployer that the handicapped woiild make value-ble employees, but rather, the spirit prevailed that, if the soldier was willing to go over and give up his eyes, which the employer considere^i everything, the employer could at least give up some of his attention, and perhaps give up so ae of the output on his various machines to find him a job for the rest of his life.

un the inside of the Arrny and other institutions, however, this spirit of cooperation did not seem to hold quite to this extent. Due to a lack of centralization of authority and a lack of understanding as to the problems involved, there was a constant running fight going on between the different agencies handling these problems, ihe question was whether the Hed Cross, the U'ederal Board of Vocational iiducation, or the United States Ar-ny was to handle the problems.

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rurtherinore, there seemed to be .aore or lesa resentment among sotae blind workers a^jainst the proi;ram as sioggested by 'I'he docitrine of specialization had not yet mj.de the Ficd Cross. headvmy in this field.

In the beginning, the Ited uross Institute for the Blind was as rauoh at sea as to a definite policy on details as v/as anybody else connected with the blind problem. There v/as very little definite policy as to the detail work of the whole school; but uolonel iiOi-dley had one policy which became the general policy of Everg:reen, namely, that the Ked Cross Institute for the Blind was going to train the blind soldier until he could comjiite v/ith anyone on any occupation which vms adaptable 'I'he only instructions given for making the surveys were to hira. 1,

that a survey should be made of all the industries of the country to deterinine, once for all, what occupations were adaptable to the blind, and

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that courses of study should "be laid out which would enable the blind man to fit into the position for which he was adapted.

•xhe general idea was that there were only a S'-nall nuBiber of openings for the blind at the best, and that ft would take sorae time before any real resxdts could be accomplished.

The Amiy Medical staff was in control of the school at Evergreen, and hs.d charge of all teachers and the work of all the pupils. The American Ked Gross had control of the Ked Uross institute for the -lilind, supplemented the Army appropriation for hospital purposes, found openings for the blind, and made Under the law it possible for the blind to enter industry. the federal Education, creating the ifederal Jioard of Vocational including the Board had control of all handicapped soldiers, take only to duty the Board, not of blind, and it became the uare of the education of the soldiers, but to place then in industry as well, 'i'he ITederal Board, on the other hand, had not taken the attitude of surveying the industries to find openings, and consecuently, the only agency which would have the data which zaade it possible to place the blind man intelligently was the Ainericv.n JSed 'Jross.

Very little opportuMty was given to the manufacturer and to the employer to be heard in any of the discussions on the handicapped, xhe employer was asked to cooperate, but was not given any means by which he could coopecate. xhe plants were not thoroToghly studied, and consequently, there was very little

coordination between the handicapped and industry.

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During the early days of the study, I think that all of us v/ho were connected with this work can truthfully say that the inspiration of the whole Institute was Colonel Bordley and his devotion to this cause. When it seemed as though everything was going to go against the iied Gross Institute for the Jilind, and that all the work that had heen done was to be wrecked over night. Colonel Bordley wts generally on the job, and came back with flying colors. The divisions of authority and lack of coordination has made the work of conducting industrial surveys difficult fro-a the beginning, inasmuch as it was inipossible at any point to use the follow-tip, which was absolutely necessary? to get It has been an the maximum results out of the survey. easy matter to find the openings and inake the job available for the handicapped uian, but it has not been possible to find the man to fit into the position after the employer was once sold on the idea of using a handicapped man, and to lay out the training as to the various positions as the work went along. It has been difficult from the beginning to determine who was who in all of this work, whether to appeal to the J?'ederal lioard of Vocational Education, or whether to apiDeal to the United Stites ArnQT. ITou doubt the very best plan from the beginning wo\3ld have been for each to have gotten together and determined what each was to handle and worked out a cooperative plan. But this v/as not done for some months after the passage of the various It is safe to say that, with the labor shortage which acts. existed during the war, had the vario\is agencies been able to get together on a souilid program, practically every v/orthy handicapped man in the "United States wotild have been placed long before the war closed, and even today, if the agencies were all v/orking in perfect team work, the capable man who was out of a job because of being handicapped would be the exception rather than the rule.

inside the school, more or less disrgreement existed between different people regarding policies to be followed. Those who believed in hand training were pitted against those who believed wholly in industrial training. Undoubtedly there was room for both. How much better it would have been if both of these interests had been brought together, and something like a schedule worked out for the blinded soldiers. -tJeedless to say, under the circuiastances, it has been impossible to keep some of these disagreements from coming to the soldiers themselves, and a great deal of difficulty in getting the soldiers dov/n to work in the school has been due, very largely, to the disagreements on the part of the people who were charged with the duty of talcing care of these men.

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^ In the plants, the work has, in many cases, been made exceedThe question of authority for doing the work ingly difficult. The employers, of has been one which has come up constantly. co^orse, desired to deal with the a/jencies v/ho had the authority to place the handicapped, and desired to deal with "but one pertjr in the entire matter. It has only been by dint of salesmanship on the part of the fidtd men who have been on the inside of the plants pIoin-Dj themselves, that the i^ed Cross has been able to get Zost of the eiiployers, however, nnich of iny information at all. have bten satisfied with the results that they have obtained. Once the work was started, we have received the highest of cooperation froin the plants themselves. 'I'his has been especially true in a few of the planes which have been very progressive in their policies of management, and will be mentioned a little i^twithstanding the difficulties, the surveys were underlater, taken, with the understanding that the engineer was to be permitted to carry out the work either in Uhicago, Baltimore, or any other city where the best results could be obtained.

About the first thing discovered on "oeginiing the work v/as that the literature on the subject of industrial surveys for the blind was extremely meagre. Previous to the war, there had been practically nothing done. In this country, Islr. F.B. Gilbreth, Consulting Engineer, of Providence, iihode Island, had stated in public speeches that it was possible for the blind man to earn the same wage as the sighted if he were properly trained, and that with the proper method used in industrial analysis, it would be unnecessary for many workmen to use their eyes. In Canada, a very good Department for general analysis liad been worked up, but the surveys were made mostly of very small plants, and the statements of openings was of the mott general sort, very little data being given which was specific enough to give the placement people much of any real information, i'ujrthermore, the cost of maintaining the Canadian service was very great, and the funds of the Bed Cross would hardly permit of this expenditure. The Department of Vocational G-uidance of harvard University had been making a number of studies of different tr.^des over the country for the purpose of teaching vocational guidance and employment management at Harvard University. At the request of Kr. Douglas C. ilol.lurtrie of the Hed Cross Institute for Crippled and dis?.bled at Hew York, they had made one or two surveys to determine the these surveys were possibilities of the handicapped. But arain, of rather a general nature, and did not bring the operations down to specific terms in such a way that it was possible to say whether the blind man could perform the operations or not.

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1 Of course, it is very evident thet if a person is sirapl2/ to look at a job and form a rough estimate as to its possibilities, there are very few jo"bs which would be specified as jobs which couia be perfor:.ied by the blind. Unless the job is very c-refully analyzed, its possibilities for the blind can never be discovered. Practically none of the data had been collected along these xhe yurpose in handling surveys has not b .en to enable the lines, men to obtain maxiauni production, but rather to find a job that they could fill in some sort of fashion, the idea being that the Government would laake up in pension what the men lacked in income.

With the beginning of the v/ar, questionnaires were sent everywhere by different anencies, asking for all sorts of informstion and receiving consequently, all sorts of an.swers. The general feeling persisted among the manufacturers that the questionnaire had been greatly overdone, and consequently, the ansvTers given the questionnaires were very perfunctory. 'I'he State of Pennsylvania made a questionnaire survey for the handicapped of Penn. of what purported to be all of the industries of ?enn, and found openings for some few thousands of handicapped laen. The nujaber of positions which were specified as being open to the blind were less than one hundred. As a matter of fact, there are considerably more than one million positions in the State of Pennsylvania which could be handled by handicapped men, and the nuiuber in the State of Penn. which could be handled by the blind numbers well into the hundred of thousands. I'his was the gener-l result of the questionnaire method, and consequently, there was but very little in these questionnaires which waa of value. It was necessary, therefore, for the ited Cross to wor.-: out its own program, and to detelop a method of raaicing surveys which would uncover practically all positions which were open to the blind in any plant, and which, at the same time, could be handled by men picked up and given a short course of training in doing this work.

Since that time, the policy has been to make a thoro-ogh jab analysis in every industry that was studied, and to open to the blind man every occupation which could be made available, 'i'his meant a caref-ol study of the occupations from practically every angle, and a rearrangement, in some cases, of the usual practice JJut all of this in the field in order to make this possible. work has 'been, done in accordance with the general purpose of the Bed Cross Institute in carrying out this work.

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In making the firsu surveys the -ied Cross imdouhtedly made a numTser of mistakes; Taut it mast Tae remenibered that the survey methods of the Hed 'Jross Institute for the Blind have heen largely a matter of development, and as a new idea has presented itself which seemed "better than the old one, it has "been adopted and the old idea dropped. At the sarae tirae, the data which had "been collected vmder the old method has been preserved and is "being utilized. rhe next item which was realized, was, that in order to make a study of all the industries uf the U.S. to determine what the "blind could do, it w?s necessary to ha.ve a list of all the industries of the ooujitry classified 8.1or^ the lines of occupation; that plants which had siMlar occupations should be placed in a group by themselves; and that these groups should "be placed in larger groups representing some other major division of the industry.

A study was made of different classifications that existed The first study to determine where this list co'old be obtained. made was of the Bureau of Census nceports of the Department of Commerce. This classification wfj.s found to have "been made without any reference to occupation whatever, and many of the industries which were widely separated in their methods of manufacture were grouped as one. Jor instance, lumber and fuxniture manufacture vyere grouped together. 1'he Department of Internal Hevenue had woriced out a classification based on the name of the industries as set forth "by the people who msAe their income tax returns, 'i'his was a smaller classification than that made by the DeP&rtment of Commerce, "but still made without very uiuch reference to the question The IlationLal Chamber of Coraraerce had a division which of occupation. v/as very good as far as it went, "but it only contained a list of the memhers in the various divisions of the national Ohai;i"ber of Coimneroe, and as a great nuiaher of industries which had associations were not members of the National '^haiaher of Commerce, this again, ws.s ve y incomplete. Ifone of these classifications contained the information so classifie- as to be of great use to the Red Cross in handling its suxvey. lior did a combination of the various classifications aid a great deal, "because in many cases, the omission of various industries was practically the same in all of the classifications made. For instance, specialties include! a vast number of industries, all of which varied very greatly in the nature of their occupations. It therefore "became necessary for the ^"led Gross to work up, in cooperation with other agencies, their own classification of Araerican industries. The Hed Cross, has, conseq^uently.

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b^

f made up, at a great deal of labor and expense, a pp.rtial classification of American industries on the "basis of occupations. See Appendix A. It is now possible, by means of this classification, to so divide the wori in different industries that a survey of one plant often serves the same purpose as one ms.de of hundreds of plants very widely scattered. Tliis, of course, is an improvement over the first method suggested, of surveying the diffevent industries "by town and cities, and ena'bled the central or;;anizatiDn to get the data s,s to v/hat happened in the extreme West of the country "by surve^^ing a similar plant in the extreme Eastern part, and "being re£.sona"bly sure that the conditions are almost identically in the two plants, at least sufficiently so that the plant on the V/estern coast is willing to accept the result of the survey made on the Eastern coast, Chicago was chosen as the location of the office for making the survey. Bc^Jtimore and 'iTashin^'^ton were out of the district which manufact^Lred peace time products; practically every plant on the Eastern coasT of any great size had "been given over to making it was generally assumed -chat the war woTild "be war materials, over some time or another, at least, and that any survey to "be permanent would have to "be made on peace time industries. Vfer plants in different sections of the Est v/ere putting "blind men to work on gauging operations, and the necessity that th6 manufacturers get production was the very "best argument for the employment of the "blind, iiut this did not at all apply to peace time industries, and hence the survey had to "be laade on industries which were going to "be of long duration, wew iork City was in very much the same condition, except that there were a nunher of industries around 11 w York which were engaged in their regular production. But the cost of rent axid other expenses in the city of New York made operations from Hew York City almost prohi"bitive. The Western iifficiency society and the Society of Industrial Engineers had their headquarters in uhicago, and were in a position to cooperate with the Sed Cross "by placing us in touch with the managing heads of the industries throtighout the country and in practically every line of business. l>uring the course of this work, the Red Cross has received the help of a large number of trade organizations and technical societies at different times. Proui the following we have received special help:

Lsiitsq, s .sanaqxe bas lod.tl Ic Lseb d-asis s t& ,qis Bhaa 1:o ex8.sd sild^ no esitiaabul jCLsoiiamA 1o noi3"3ollis3«lo -8eaIo sii'J ^0 B.aasin ,-^ni ons^sllx^ ax jizo\i odi Qbivih os od" ,aoxd"Bcxlx ^0 Qhnm ©no S3 eeocrxxrq emse add' asvias nsiMo taalq sno lo '^svawa .isisd-rf-^Boa -^Isxiiw Aiiev Bi:t&lq "xo zto'ibmid .eaax/oo Jo ,8xrK lo ,£i9d-e9S3t;8 i>oil#sm J-siIx Sild" lavo JitSiBiavotgaii lua ei ,a3id-io 5aa nwod' x^ sjlit&ijluxi tas-.Blllb 9di .gnx-'iSviifB

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tol 90x110 sdo lo noxd'sooX sad" ss Assoxto saw ossoxil3 &orz&3ib edi Ic isjo 9-x9w nod^iilsaW bn& s-iomitif-E .-^STiiie sxfdd^nalq \iers ijilaoxdo^xq: ;8dpxfioiq saixd goasq Josxifd-o^lwiiaia xioidw gnx3Lsflj od- rayq xtevis xcsecf Jba^f esie d-aeig -^e lo faaoo aiad-sa^ sild' xio 9d' I)Ixrow law 9i{d tailo- issiiiaaa^ ^;IIa1^u9a saw &i .elsxaeJ-sH i^.w scT od- ^9Vijj8 -^^na d-aild' Ma (d-scisl d^a ,i9iIJofla no sx^id smue isvo xe'iT .esxnd-ex/Mx smxd' soasq no 9i)ajn ©tf od- evarf iiirow d-a9iiaffii9q od- xisffl brtlid gnxd-d-Xfq &is\7 ta.Z erld- lo encxd-osa ta.9ts1'ls:h ni ad-xxalq *iid- d-arld- vd-xaeaoen 9iid- bus ,eiicx ta^acxo ^.i-^ff% no jiaow add- lol d-n9Xii!?§ia d-89cf -^igr gxld eaw aoitossboiq d-es 8i&xud-oslt;nam smxd" 90fi9q od- -^Iqqa ILa iz toa bib eldi d-xrtt .baild edi to d-agw^clqflo esliisiibiii no 9bm\ 9d od" ,^.sxl >;ovixjs sds eonQd boA ,89x^d-exriixx nx asw -"t^iO :^ior ws^x ,noid-a'xx;f» gnol lo scf od- gnxog 9i9w doxriw lo i9ditsjn s 9-X9W ezedi d.srid- tqeaxs .ncldlbcoo amse 9xf rf oxmi x.'xev isitrs9i ixgild" nx iST^.v.^ng Qiev doidv olioY. w.Il .t)iuroia as.l.id-exrMx Tj;d-io sdi al esenaqxs i9xId-o i)xia d-nsi lo d-goo ad& iud .noxd-oijio^tq .9Vid-xcfIdoiq d-eorala --jd-xO alioY wst juoal sncxd-aisqc" absisi iniol v.'9ii lo lax-xd-sxiJjnl Ic -^d'oiooS 9ild- ina -\id-e.xoo<- Y;on9ioxlla. nisdsar ©xf'i' a :ii 9t:9u' J&na tO^aoxxIiJ ni Eiad-^aiipMsxI ttjcsxld ijari sisenxgnii dojcrod- nx ssr snloalq ^d eeon^ Jbgfi Siid- dilv 9d-.Eioqooo od noidxeoq grid- d-xforf^joirfd asxid-ax/jjnx edi lo sJbseri saiganaffl aild xid-xw .2B9ni8Xfo" lo snil ijigTs ^liaoxdOvenq nx 6na '\;iJ:xxfoo gnijlsiii

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10 American Society of iiechanical Engineers, New ioriC ^ity. Box iJoard Manufacturers' Association, Washington, U.^. jSileotrical I'lanufacturing Association,

ijaltimore, Jsiaryland,

Society of Industrial Engineers, "hicago, Illinois, National Association of ^^hair iianufactiirers uhieago, Illinois

Western Efficiency Society Chicago, Illinois

National JJ*oundryxaen*s iissociation uhicago, Illinois National Association of Uhicago, Illinois

idJetal

Trades,

In addition to this, we have received help in the way of suggestions and lists of memhers from hundreds of other organIn this coimection, the izations throughout the coiintry. Detroit ^/Oaimunity Union of Detroit, idchigan should he named because of the very active support that they have rendered during the surveys in Detroit. The fs,Gt that a hody of people of this kind have been encaged in the work of helping the hlind appears especially significant, and, if the work is so followed up as to maintain this cooperation, the solution of the industrial prohlem for the hlind is not far distant. in cooperation with Ilr. L.W. Wallace, at that time Assistant General ilanager of t„e Diainond Chain Company, Indianapolis, Indiana, the form shown as Appendix B was worked out and usedt in the survey of the DiaraondChain Gonipany at Indianapolis and the Johnson Chair Co;iipany, Chicago, '-^'he re^jsults in these two s\irveys were as follows: PLA1]T

no. OP EJ.IPLOyEES

Diamond Chain co. Johnson Chair Go.

1,

POSITIOlJS

NO.

FOE BLIND

NOW TORK* ING ON TEESE POSITIONS

000

24

125

350

19

70

T.'IEN

NO. OF SUCH POSITIONS IN GOmiTSY

PERCEIW OF POSITIONS OPEN TO

WOHIC

DONE

BLIilD

400

12.6

40,000

20

steel chain Chairs

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// In the latter part of Aoigust a meeting was held of a ntunber of executives of Chicago plants who v/ere so sitioated that they would "be aole to c^rry on a more or less teclmical study of their plants. A nutaber of the men present agreed to make surveys of their various plants and to report to the

Bed Cross their findings. We had not found office space at that time, and so were una.Lle to give this work the followup attention that it required; hut as a result of this conference the following surveys were made; Tome Automat ijC Ji'ianufacturing Electric Company Coiipany Nuaiber of Employees o . Positions for iilind Humher of ilen laow Working on these Positions , a Number of such positions in country Percent of rositions open to Jilind Product

.

.

.

.

.

....

70-80

2,000

5

28

%S 500 16.2 Piano Jienches

115 Several 7.8

Telephones

About this time we were placed in touch with Ilrs. Sydney Callin, who had just returned from St. ''unstanS in England. We next sent iitrs. iicCallin out to some of the plants after she had been instructed in the means of watching operations, and had her make reports on the following forms, tiixa, x/icCallin was able to cover the following plants with the following results: Ifc

forms and

Alfred Decker and

Stewart "iTarner

Speedometer company Chicago uohn, Chicago, Chicago

Loeb,

Number of iSmployees Positions for the JJlind Number of i-en now \vorking on these Positions Number of such positions in the country Percent of Positions open to the blind Product

....

5

1,800 75-90

31

300-350

20 1

10

Very large 17-20 50 notions Cloth- Automobile Accessories ing

As will be seen, the results of these surveys convinced us at once that there was a very large opening for the blind •in industry.

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During these siirveys we discovered that, while we were covering work for the "blind, that there were a number of other disahillties which a person could suffer at the same time and still handle the operation, and that the operations varied as to the disahility a person might have, outside of blindness. 'Je also discovered, in cooperation with the Chicago Improvement Association for the Blind that in many cases blindness w^s not the only handicap from which the person might be suffering, and, in these cases, if we were going to be able to determine -.vhat a blind person could do, it was extremely necessary to have all the other factors surroxmding the opei'ation as well. In cooperation with the bureau of Vocational Guidance of Harvard Univeraity the forms shown as Appendix C v/ere worked out. About K'ovember 1st we took up with the Armoux Packing Company the matter of making a study of the occupations of the meat-packing industry. The Armour Packing i^onipany was anxious to getk report on their plant, showing, not only the work which could be done by the blind, but also the work which coTild be done by every other type of It had been their purpose to make this study v/ith handicapped nan. their own forces, and so we suggested that the Ked Gross cooperate with them in carrying on the survey. After a short time it developed that the men enraloyed by the Armour i-'acking Co.cpany for this work had no understanding of the requirements of the job whatever, and when the Hed Gross laid out what would be necessary to get a real survey of the plant, the men designated by the Jompany to do the work, and the officials as well were agreed that no one in the employ of the Armour Packing Company was able to do this class of work. Consequently, the Bed Cross made the proposition which was agreed to "^-^ the Ardour Packing Co. that they would complete the survey with their own forces, provided that the Armour Packing Con^ajoy would cooperate and see to the placement of the men, according to the findings of the survey.

In starting this survey, it was decided to record the work of the Armour Packing ^ompany on a chart showing the flow of the materials through the shop, on which v/ould be noted xhe requirements of the job by code in such fashion as to g^ive practically all of the information which had formerly been contained on the individus,l job sheets taken in former surveys, 'i'his v;as necessary for two reasons: The number of 1. great that any attempt would have resulted in been iiig)Ossible to get

occupations in the Armour Packing Uonipany is so to place the data on our original data sheets such a great bulk of paper that tt wotild have the information from the files.

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It was extremely necessary that one be able to gather information 2. The flow sheet of the material qoiickly and accurately from the sheets.

and the organization chart are two things that every employee above the rank of laborer thoroiighly understands in almost any plant. He may not know what the flow of material is, or v/hat the entire organization is, but he knows the flow of material in his own department and the organization of his own department. Consequently, it was thoiight best to make use of this method of charting up the information for the handicapped. The code and charts for the Armous survey are shown as -Appendix D. In carrying on this work in the field, the policy of cooperation with the foreman was always followed, the main idea beiAg-to get from them all the requirements of each job that it was possible to get. As the foreman gave the requirements, in order to check him up and to determine at the same time whether^;ere correct in ovlt deduction, we would begin to ask him questions as to whether those v/ere all the requirements, etc. and linally, by placing him more or less on the defensive, v^ithout apparently seeming to do so, get him to discover that on this particular job a blind man, or lame man, or some other type of man would be The men in the field were able to do just as much work as any one else. thoroughly instructed in the fundamental la^'S of motion, and were taught to make their deductions as to the physical requirements of any man on this basis. These features, however, were not taken up in detail with the foreman on the job, and only the practical questions .yere asked him. 3o far as the workmen and foremen of the plant were concerned, the men were v^ry thoroughly sold on the whole proposition. It should be stated, however, that if any mistake was made at the ArmoviT Packing Company, it was made by providing an engineer free of charge. Inasmuch as the Company did not have to pay for it, the executives in charge Virere more or less inclined to forget ths-t the work was going on, and consequently, the force of a great many of the methods used was lost on them. The effect in the plant was the opposite

of that usually foiond in other plants, because here the foremen and the superintendents were sold to the idea of employing the blind and handicapped while the executives in charge were still more or less skeptical. In the course of the survey the following information was compiled: Kuiaber who Percentage of Jimployees Number who could be ootild have positions open to people Vifith blind poor sight defective eyesight but not

Department



blind Hog Killing 1050 Sheep lailing 717 Cattle Killing 1050 Tin Shop 552 Liisc. Department s40Q3

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13 47 91

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The nuralDer of people employed at Ariiioiir Packing Company v/hen this survey ws,s "begtm was about eighteen thouss^nd. with the sirrning of the armistice, this force was raduoed to something in the neighhorIt will ue seen that if we take the percentage of ho
The blind were trained for this class of work, and trained 1. to be very good stenographers. 2. Before v/e tried the blind girls on this work, we tried a number of sighted girls, and practically all of them fell down on this grade -iiy the use of work, of the bli d, we were able to train our own help, and to train it in the best way, and consequently, got much better and cheaper results than we would ha,ve gotten by attempting to employ the

si.vhtet.

As a side result of this policy, Montgomery Tard and Goifipany, a large mail order house in Chicago, have adopted the policy of giving a position to every capable blind typist who applies at their employiiHent department, both in Chicago and Kansas City. -This, in itself, more than justifies the entire cost of the typing to this office, if the matter is looked at from a broad humanitarian standpoint. 2'he

full Armour report is attached to this report as

Appendix E.

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Af ler we had been well started in the Armour survey, and hrd discovered the error of doing the v/ork without paiiaent on the part of the management, a new policy v;as arrived at. Instead of the Hed Cross (finishing the engineer who made the study, we assumed the attitude of malcing surveys only in plants into which we were especially invited b^ the management, and where there was a keen d§sir$.;-

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to heve the work done. Then the ned Gross simply furnished the the supervision, while plants were required to carry on the detail work with men competent to do this class of work. Of course, in la:-ing down such a policy, we i-ealized from the oeginning that it would be a little slower to get the survey started in a large nu:nher of plants, hut at the ssjne time the general feeling was that inasnnich as the armistice had already "been signed, and as we had a very good idea of where the "blind soldiers could he placed, we could take the attitude that it was hatter to have a few surveys done in such a way that the hlind and other handicapped would he placed automatically v/ithout the need of outside agencies than to have a large numher of surveys made at a very high cost to the Hed Cross, and then to have to do our selling work all over again. The first plant to start work on this plan was the Packard Ilotor Company of Detroit, Lliehigan. In this case, the idea was introduced hy the Detroit Co-omunity Union and the selling practically all done hy people outside the Red Gross. Our position in this matter was simply the position of following in at the req_uest of soraeone else. The methods followed were: To study the employment methods and the organization of 1. the eiaplo^nnent department of the Packard plant.

To carry through a can^aign of education among the people 2. in the emplo^Taent department and among the general superintendents, to enable them to see what the general plan of the survey wss to he sJid to get them fairljf in accord with the 3ed O^oss methods. 'i'o 3. train the men in the Packard plant in the methods of making siorveys.

In carrying on this work the forms shown as Appendix 1 were laid out to fit in with the Packard Ilbtor Company •s general policy.

In order that thfe Packard Ilotor Coiiip?ny might he able to determine for themselves the utility of such work, it was decided that the two hardest departments, the forge department and the foundry department should be studied first, and that along with the survey, or shortly afterwards, the placement of the handicapped should proceed. A3 from actual placements and actual experience the Packard Motor Company learned the utility of the work, the Packard forces were then to proceed with the study on their own account, ilen were selected from the general mane-ger^s office to make a very careful study of esch operation in both the departI'he findings were then ments, with the engineer of the -ted Gross.

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FORGE Department

Number of Employees

'Otor

colcpai-iy

AlID FOUiroSY DEPiilTlIEKTS

could oe blind or half sighted I'Tuaber v;ho

Percentage of positions open for blind

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225

15

6.8

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377

43

11.4

'i'otals

602

58

9.8

From this it will be seen that even in these two departments there is still room for the blind to work, and it is very safe to say that these are the two least suitable departments in the whole plant, for work of this kind. The officials of the Packard Motor Company have now taken the laatter up with the Board Of Directors and are expecting to lay down a policy for the Packard Motor "-'ompany whereby handicapped people will be able to work in special positions on the This will be especially beneficial to the same basis as any other. blind, since there are many positions open in other clepartments for blind men; and if the Packard Motor Company should continue with the survey, which they say they will, this plant will become a place for general ecplo. uient of the handicapped. In the case of the Burroughs Adding i'lachine Gonipany, the work was started through the Secretary and Treasurer of the Company, and referred by him to the General Superintendent. In this case, the entire organization from top to bottom was sold on the idea of the survey before any work was done, and in this plant, we received sons of the best of cooperation. The Superintendent, Hr. Kilpatrick in this case, was not content with assigning us one of the younger men of the plant, but assigned ^XB the Taest efficiency man in the Burroughs Adding llachine Company, a man' whom Llr. liilpatrick was grooming to be one of his department heads. Our representative, Ilr. Coates, then spent a considerable amount of time with I.fr. Kilpatrick, this man, smd one or two understudies, teaching them how the survey was to be made, how the work was to be outlined, a,nd what we thought the work might amount to. The only complaint ever heard from the Burroughs Adding .'-fchine Contpany was that they had not gotten as much attention on this particular job as they had hoped they would get, that they expected the ited Gross to make greater use of the men assigned to them, and to have driven the survey a little harder.

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/7 of coxixse, that the -tiurroiighs survey l^lie reason for this was, was going on at the same time as the Packard survey, and it was necessary for the engineer to divide his time between the two vhe work in the Packard Company was nearing completion co.'rrpanies. for the forge and foundry, and it was necessary to spend considera'ble time in i^etting the reports and charts drawn up properly, xhe officials of the Company were thoro'u,2:hly sold, hovirever, on the whole proposition, and proposed to cover the plants themselves from top When it was announced that the ited Oross had decided to hottoia. to discontinue their main surveys, they v/ere very insistent that their men "be given a thorough covirse in analyzing the particular jobs, and stated that they not only regarded this as one of the best business propositions that the liujrroughs had had recently, but that this was one big opportujiity for the jsurroughs Adding Lfechine xhe charts which have been drawn up so ^o.apany to do some good, far from the Jiurroughs Adding IJachine Company are enclosed herewith as Appendis E.

While the quantity of work turned out has not been so very great, still the progress here has been on a sounder basis than in any of the other companies mentioned, for the reason that the employment manager himself proposes to check up the survey men on about every 25 to 50 positions, by starting to place men on the jobs that they have stated could be handled tj the handicapped, and putting the man who ms-de the ^^taft^ on the job to take care of the training. This will apply to the blind as well as to every other form of handicapped man. 'i'he first proposition is to correctly place the men who are now employed by the Burroughs uoiapany, and who are improperly placed, and then to follow the matter up by taking people in from the outside, first soldiers and then civilians, 'i-'his prograrn will eventually mean the emjjloyment of all the blind in that section of iiichigan, provided this emplojinent is needed in the one plant. Strange to say, before the survey was started, one of ;.the iron clad requirements of the Adding i-achine Company of any employee was that he have almost perfect eye sight. On the machines that they were most insistent about eye sight, the;/ have now found the requirements to adrait the blind. "he Good^'^ear Tire and J-i-ubber Company's survey was made on a different basis than any of the others. The ^ood^'ear Tire and Rubber Company have one of their foremen, Lieutenant Day, blinded, and in training at isaltimore. Ilr. L.w. Wallace called upon the Goodyear people at Aicron and explained to them the nature of ibur surveys and what we were expecting to do for the blind. This, at once, interested the Good^^ear Corapany, from the personal standpoint of ?Ir. Day, and they asked I.Ir. 'Wallace to start a survey of the 'joodyear t'ompany.

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A little later, tlie undersigned rande a trip to Akron and talked the matter over with the safety engineer and v/ith the other officials of the emplo^onent department, with the result that the "^oodyenr Company agreed to furnish the men to make the survey if we would furnish the supervision, 'he question w:.3 "brought up as to whether they would rather have the undersigned to come to Akron at stated intervals of once every two weeks, or thereahouxs, or whether they would prefer to have a man resident on the field to taKe care of the work, and ha-.-e the undersigned visit him once each month. The attitude of the Ooodyear Company was that they had in their own employ men who were perfectly capahle of taking care of the detail work, and who understood the general policies of the Goodyear Company, that the resident man would not he of any particular use to them, and that they would very much prefer personal supervision on that jo"b, 'because they wanted to 'be sure their man was placed right. ^he men then selected were men from the plant v/ho had come up through the ranks and who had 'been taught time study work, and general survey work. While at first it seemed as though these men would hardly have the educational fo^ondation to handle the work well, still the res'olts o'btained have 'been very satisf- ctory. The Goodyear Company at this time was carrying out jo'b analysis of their entire plant in which they v/ere giving a very fxill description of every position, 'i'he idea suggested to the employment department was that they include the physical qualifications along with the i-emaiixder of the description, 'i'his seemed a very good idea, since the men who were working on the eniploytnent department would thoroughly understand the meaning of the physical qualifications, and could use it in their actual employment in the shop, 'i'he copy of this sheet is here shown as Figure 1 of -Appendix I. It was further suggested that some means "be arran';^ed wherehy positions requiring certain qualifications might he picked out easily, so thet when a man applied who was handicapped, the qualifications which he possessed could "be "balahced against the requirements of some position in the shop. This was arranged and worked out in a card used by the Findex Company of San Francisco, California, and shown herewith as Fi£>:ure 2 of Appendix I. This card has not yet been adopted by the Goodyear Coii5)any, as they are going to experiment first with their sheets as they stand to see whether this will not be sufficient. It was not long after the first survey was started, before it was discovered that in the tube room, 'i'he there were a large niiinber of positions open for the blind, Goodyear Company at once siezed upon this opportunity and suggested that Lieutensint Day be broken into one operation after another in the tube room, and as fast as he was able to work into a second position that he train a blind man in the position that he had just left, and that Lieutenant Day become the head of the blind colony in the Goodyear Tire and itubber Company. As the Good;y-ear OJompany already employs a

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man to tsike care of the mutes, of which they have some five hxmdred, this was not a very radical departure from the Uompany policy, and it seemed the test opportunity that could possihly he found for Lieutenant Day. As there are openin-^s for some four or five hundred "blind people in this one department, this in itself would taJce care of all the "blind that woTild ever wish en5)loyment in that section of Ohio. Since that time, the CJoodyear 'i'ire and icuhher Company have completed a great many more studies and have held these sheets It might be said in this connection in their employment folders. that the surveys have also resulted in the Goodyear Co ipany "being aole to properly place the men who have "been handicapped in their own employ, whom they thought were improperly placed, and a general prograra is now heing followed out "by the Goodyear Company where"by first their own men will "be placed according to their qualifications, next soldiers who have made applic8-tion for employment in the tire company, next the civilians, '-^'his Company plans to eventually take care of all the handicapped in the city of Alcron who will worlt at the u-oodyear Company.

The Stearns Drug Goii5>any of Detroit were in the ssmie position itu"b'ber Compaiiy, although the man who had "been blinded from the Stearns plant was not a man of the same grade as Lieutenant Lay; "but had "been working most of his time in the Stearns plant In this plant, the only survey was on a routine machine operation. made "by going through the plant, estimating the percentage of occx5)ations open to the "blind, and finding one occupation for which this man could "be properly fitted, 'i'he Stearns Drug Gompan;,' is a wholesale drug house and a vast majority of the people employed are wOiiien, where the wages paid are rather low. there were only a few jo'bs for men in the plant, and outside of the work for the civilian "blind, it hardly seemed v/orlih while to maice a survey of the entire plajit. ij'urtiiermore, at that time, thers was a serious question as to the surveys "being continued at all, and it was thought "best to "be satisfied with finding a position which a "blind soldier could handle. as the i-foodyear Tire and

At the present time all s^urveys have "been discontinued, and the results are "bting forwarded to B^timore with this report. If the Red Cross should desire to do so in the future, almost any of these surveys could "be picked up and carried on from their present daoa. At the G-oodyear Tire and Su"bber Company, the Burroughs Adding Ifechine Company/, and the Packard Hotor Gqr Company'- there is but little doubt that the surveys will be continued by the companies' own forces, "iefhen these are entirely couipleted, all these compejiies have agreed

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to send to the iied Urosa tLe completed surveys witji all charts, and to cooperate v/ith the Red Oross or anyone v/hom the Hed Oross may designate in the placenitnt of "blind end other handicapped in their plants, li-auging the possibilities in other industries hy the information gained in the aarveys naiaed above, it would seea that "between ten and twelve percent of all the occupations in the United Ststes were If this "be true, the question availa"ble for the employiaent of the "blind. "becomes not one as to whether the blind man can v/ork in industry, but becomes simply one as to how he is to successfully placed in industry, and becomes a very much sii::5?let- problem becavise it becojies and not of policy. Qiaja. of detail,

Long before the war, :.i.r. s\ii. u-ilbreth of Providence, iihode Island, had been working on the motion picture machine as a method of The v;ork had been raeas'oring the time required for different motions. reduced to an exact science, and it was through these pict-ores that Mr. liilbreth discovered that a blind man could be trained to work on an operation with eq.ual speed to that of sighted, and it was due to his discovery that the methods used "bir the irted Gross were worked 'J-'he method of handling these motion out in handling these surveys. picture measurements is briefly as follows:

Pictures of the operator, working at inaximTim speed 1. and raaximnia advantage, are taken in a laboratory at fro:n sixteen per second to four hundred per second, and in the picture is a clock which measures time to one two-thousandth of a minute. 2.

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printed, and 3. Projected onto a screen as individual lantern slides, and charts made showing the motions that were inf.de by each part of the body during the operation.

4. These charts are then checked against the fundamental lav.'s of motion and the losses, due to false motion, are determined. wTith the cliart of actual conditions to check against the standard conditions, the losses in the operation are perfectly obvious. Furthermore, the oictur-s form an e.ccurate record which enables the teacher to tea.ch the methods of the ejcpert operator. Inasmuch expert this as operators are ver;/ seldom expert teachers, forms a very happy combination.

New methods are easily discovered when once the use of the charts and it is very seldom that the operation can be gone over i.. this way without discovering some new method of doing the work. If the man studying the chart has the blind in mind, and studies the operation to determine how the work can be done without eyes, he is almost sure to find some way of carrying out the operation, and overcoming any difficulties that may arise. is thoroughly understood,

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.w Perhaps the "best use of these pictures v/ith the xled Cross has "been their utility in teaching survey men to size up jo'bs in the plants, ^hen once a man has heen a'ble on the pictures to check the standard operation, and to detect faults, he then finds it a great deal easier to do the same thing when he gets out on the jo"b and waiches the operation in this way. '-i-'he reason for this is tha.t he is trained to look for the right things in the operation, inasmuch as he He is has very definite standards "by which to gauge his work. permanently fortified against making an error. It may nut lae out of place at this point to msJce a few STiggestions as to the proper method of following xtj this work. TaJ.ce the surveys that have already "been made, place the "blind in the occupations to which they are adapted, and get a good teacher to train them to get a little more production on each jo"b than the sighted 'i'hen through the trade papers, as shown in your classification of man. industries, advertise throughout the country what has "ben done, by means of articles and pu'blicity notes of various kinds. Provide the workers for the "blind with a list of the industries which have "been surveyed and results obtained on placements of each, and allow them to use the data in placing the "blind in their ov/n secction.

the 2ed Cross Institute for the Blind has cooperated with the '-'hicago Light House Asaocis-tion in following up these surveys, with the result that the "blind have been placed almost as rapidly as they were i.upplied to the placement agents, and in practically every case, the blind men have made good. The pictures will give some idea of what the results of this work shown as Aj^pendix 'I'here no reason why this sho:J.d not be repeated in absolutely is are. every city in the "Unitt.d States, almost with the data which is now at The Chicsigo hand, and the work in Chicago has only just beguja. Improveiiient Association for the Blind has pls.ced a man on their pay roll who is placing the blind in >^hicago, and within a short time the "blind in 'Chicago will cease to be a problem as far as the industrial side is concerned. ffithin the last few weeks,


It has seemed necessary to your Committee and to CJeneral Ilanager of the Hed Cross School, to retrench.

1-kc.

'Wallace, the

now believe that these surveys have bedn sufficient!;/ advertised and hs.ve gained sufficient prestige thf.t other firms are willing to pay for \¥ork done along this line, and; con;sequently in order that we may retrench to I

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the best advauitage, I am opening an engineering office in which we will go a great deal furtlver than we have gone in these surTe2/3 for the -'-ed Cross, inasmuch as we will get to the hottom of the In the course of this survey, the "business policies of the firms. qualification requirements of all of the employees will he In these firms where we are eniployed, we can then codetermined. operate with the various 8^--encies in placing the cppahle handicapped into the eiiiploy of these firms, thus, in the end, performing the sarae work that h-as heen performed hy the Eed Cross "by continuing these surveys, free of charge to the Ked 'i'here is not any reason whatever that the Ked ^ross Cross, Institute, if it so desires should not make available to other concerns the data which ¥;e have uncovered dxiring our work, so that other engineering firms may "be prepa:ed to do the same thing, and speed up the work of educating American industries ajid American social organizations to the possibility of the blind ajid hajidicapped in industry. At the present time, there is a big labor shortage developing in the country, and our experience so far has been that the ability to raaJce use of the handicapped and to furnish a new labor supply is a very strong argument to the average employer. At the same time, the force which has been employed on these surveys will be available to the Eed Cross at smy time they may wish to continue the surveys as they have been carried on in the past, and available also for cooperation with the He
As a future program in following up recommend:

these surveys,

i

would

That the Classification of Industries furnished you in 1. this report be published in all the trade papers of the U.S. and criticisms solicited, so that the classification may be corrected at a comparatively sroall amount of expense. 'i'hat as the data comes in, the trade papers and tr-'de 2. organizations be prooerly indexed, together with all informs-tion which can be obtained regarding the means of publicity of the

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the "blind institutions throughout the country "be E,fforded the cooperation ol the r:ed Cross Institute for the Blind in handling their placement prohlems, either on a 'basis of their pa^'-ing for the actual cost of the v/orlc, or on the basis of the 3ed Cross paying for the cost of the worii from -;he general fund. -i.

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That the motion picture studies be enlarged to include those 5. occupatijns on v/hich the Ked Cross exroects to specialise and that the work of the blind, the_eb^, be made equally as efficient as the work of the sighted. That propaganda be opened ajnong the various engineering firms 6. of the country to obtain their cooperation in extending the placement and the si;irvey v/ork: for the iied Cross. That each case of sucoessf-ol placement of the blinded sol7. diers be made use of to place civilians, by proper publicity, as shovm under the subject of "Ivlethods of Purvey." 'J-'hat means of cooperation be established with the various 8. foundations, with philanthropic organizations, and with other agencies interested in the handicapped, whereby the work which has been dond by the American itecL Cross and which is applicable to the conunon problems of humanity be ma.e avsdlable to all other institutions of the country.

This office is at the service of your coiamittee and of humanity at all times, and my only desire is that you shall make the fullest u^e possible of the service that we may be able to render. i:£espectfully submitted.

Industrial iingineer, Hed uross Institute for the Blind

A. 3. Segur,

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BEPORT

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nTTRODUCTORY

In making the survey of American industries for the Red Cross institute for the Plind, a number of policies had to be sot and methods determined upon at a relrtlvely hi|th The work of determining the best method of handling expense. in order some of vfhat were then knotty problems has been done, to preserve the informption go that it will be possible for the i^ed Cross to continue the work, or for enjr other f^ency to rasJke the necesLsry survey to take ere of social and industrial problems, we have written this report. iTie first t\?o portions, uamely, Industriel Classification and jurvey Methods, are worked out entirely for the Anerican Red Gross and no private individuals The third part, thst on Time Study, &re involved in any .vay. was worked out by l»'r. P.B. Gilbreth of rovidence, Hhode Island, for his personal uise ss industrial Engineer. The Red Cross received permission from lir. Gilbreth to make use of this data in order to take cere of the problems of the handicapijed, and for no other purpose. Judgment should be used, therefore, in publishinfi,' that feature of this study.

The report will be found in three divisionsI.

ClasBificstion of Industry

II. Methocis of Survey

III. Kotion Study iiethoda

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-2The same ride holds true in the case of order systems. The elements of an order system are practically the same in all plants having the same general type of problems to r.ieet. For instance, it makes hut little difference in iroux order system whether you are laanufr.cturing for styles or for specialties in automohiles, or in furnitui'e. The essentials of your order system are the same.

From the standpoint of manuf<^ cturing problems, manufacturing plants in this country divide themselves "briefly into the following divisions: Sti-aight line production. This is the type of 1. production in v/Mch the product passes from one process to the other without any material difference resulting between different types of finished products. The approach to this general method of production varies by degrees, the leading method being as follows: A. One machine tooled up for Single product. each process on essch part. Ilaterial ran thro-ugh on large lots sufficient to keep machine going steadily without any change in the setting. VHienever a plant can be lined up for this tir^e of work you have, of course, the most economical type of production, since it is possible to work out automatic machinery with perfect safety without thinking of the cost of changing the set of the machines. B. One or more products where at least one man is employed on each process on each part. 2. Job shop production. In this type of production there is no order in which the goods go through the plant, since the type of production will change with every job that comes into the factor;^. The difference between straight line production and job shop production is largely one of degree. For the purpose of makinr- surveys, all production can be considered job shop production, unless it follows the A and B grades of straight line production.

It is this division rather than the product division

that indicates the difference between plants.

The question of credit is the same in different lines of industry wherever the same marketing conditions exist, whether the credit be for lead pencils, for waste baskets, for tissue paper or for drug specialties; and credit information from one industrj^ is spread to another. In other words, there are two lines of cooperation between industries:

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The manufacturers and eitiployers ^-enerallv of the United States are coming more and iiore to see this viev/, and today you have such organizations as the national Association of Credit Lien, the Salesaanagers' Association, etc. Perhaps the lines along which the manufacturer and engployer has "been "best educated as to the possihilities of cooperation, are the lines of products eind rav/ material. Here, we have the pov/erful trade associations working on the entire subject of factory management and marketing, the reason, of course, heing that these form lines along which managers have been thinking for a long period, and along which they feel more or less of Other points of contact in the formation a community interest. of industrial organizations are generally rav; material, final products, methods of processing, organizations and character of lahorc employed. Plants in which these conditions are similar generally have trade organizations or have someone connected with industry who is thoroughly acqixainted with everyone else connected with the industry, and who is, therefore, in a position to get the maximum of cooperation in any general movement which may "be started among this group of employern. These i^ien may "be separated "by distance, hut are dravm together It is along these interest in their problems. "by a comiTion It is lines that trusts and. labor organizations are formed. also along these lines that the general public thinks of the manujfacturer. In this country the spirit of cooperation is taking the place of the spirit of competition very largely in many industries, ajid if you want to find the man with whom the employer is likely to cooperate and exchange information, just go to the man who was his strongest conipetitor fifteen years ago, and you will very likely find him. But back of these smaller divisions are larger groups; for instance, chair factories have their own organizations in v/hich they discuss the manufs-ctujre of chairs, but they are also interested in the furniture business as a whole, and conferences may also be found of the chair manufacturers with other men in the wood wor.:ing business. In turn the wood working industries are very likely to be found in co-operation ^vith producers of forestry products as well as manufacturers and dealers. People interested in forestry products will be found in cooperation with the iron and steel industries, and so, by going brck far enough, along the chain, jo^c. will pick up a common point from wliich all cooperation must start in order to get the maximum of results.

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Ilor are trade orSania ^tions the only evidence of this cooperation. Ilote the trade journals. You will find in the iron and steel industry, for instance, "The Iron Trade Heview, '* and "The Iron At-e," which will be found on almost every desk where a man uses iron and steel in his products. Further dovm the line, you will find the sraaller trade journals, which deal with a more restricted field and have a moTB restricted circulation, and even further down the line, you will find journals dealing with an even more restricted field such as the '*Hardv/are Review."' Then there is the journal which deals with a specialty only, and which may he published simple as the or^-an of some trade organization. There are thousands of these journals, practically all of them following these lines, and if one wishes to determine the proper division of American industry, it is almost necessary that they get a complete analysis of Aiaerican trade journals. Arxother line of cooperation that is often found, especially in the trade journals and trade organizations is the line of geographical location. £'or instance, we have the 'Western Hetail Lumbermen's Association, northern Ifhite Cedar Association, Southern Logging Association, and the "Si'estern ir'ine Ilanufacturers' Association, while the members of all of these will prob;^,bly belong to the national Lumber Ivlanufacturers' Association. Among the journals, we have the Southern Lumberman, the West Coast Lum"berraan, the New York Lumber Trade Journal, and the American Lumberman.

if then we desire to sell any particular idea to the industries of the United States, it is necessar;'' to cover this work logically from every angle, so that no matter M^ich particular activity the man in question is following, he will hear of your idea in some way, whether it be in his trade journals or his trade organization. This means, of course, the preparation of thousands of articles, but, after all, it is not 30 difficxilt as it may seem at first sight for the reason that many of the articles can be duplicated in different journals. For instance, there is no reason that an article appearing in the "Seed Trade World, " should not at the same time appear in the "American Lumbemnan" or the "Iron Age" for the reason that probsbly not one subscriber to either paper will ever see the other paper, and, as a general rule, the editors do not exchange papers.

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-5Saich articles woxild have to be more or less ,::eneral, of course, 'but art iclesv dealing with generalities ajid in applications of a wide variety of industries are easily arranged, and will always form the entering wedge in places where the opening has not yet "been created. After the opening has "been created in any line of industry, it is then possiole to take the a_^)^)licati n from that particular industry and woric first with the technical journal and then with the tr;'de journal. Wlien the articles have "been pu"blished iu this particular line of business, the same thing can "be re\7orded and placed in the magazines having to do with the larger field; and so 6tt, a caii5?aign of propaganda can be carried on which will sell The possibilities the id^a in other lines of business as v/ell. for this sort of work are almost unlimited provided you have a classification of industry .lade up v/ltL this in mind.

Furthermore, the amplication of work of this sort greatly reduces the amoimt of surveying that is necessary to be done in order to cover a large range of industry; for instance , if :'0u cover thoroughly a large representative packing house, you have covered the majority of processes that you vdll find in almost any food canning establishment in the country, and all that is necessary for the local workers to do where more canning establishments exist. Is to stud;^' the slight differences between the large plants and Inasmuch as there are food canning esta.blishthe smaller ones. ments scattered through almost every state in the Union, it will be seen how great are the possibilities for placement of the blind when once one large packing house has been covered, especially when placement begins and is successfully carried out. ''Vhile there is a considerable amount of cooperation on different probleais between plants, still there is a great deal of cOiipetition between different divisions as well, and one plant never likes to be outdone by the other. If the reconstruction problem is a popular thing in indtistry at the time, or in the community, ajid one firm carries out a piece of construction successfully, another firra is very likely to fall into line and to carry out the reconstruction work in their plant so as not to be outdone, and to show that their organization is just as good as the other fellow's organization.

The same principle of competition applies where one The more progressive large plant makes a big success at placement. of the smaller plants are at once trying to emulate the big plant, and to show to the public generally that they can do the same thing that the big fellov/ can do, and are very likely/' to arry onjkheir placements along these lines. When, of course.

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the smaller ras.n has succeeded in carrying out the placement program, the other raen are ainost 'bound to droj into line, and the caitpaign has been more effective over a wide range of territory. The ti'ade organizations have "been mentioned above, but these Ei^-ain form a very _::ood soui'ce of cooperatl :n. 'Then once a powerful meiaber of a trade organizatijn has been thoroTO^hl:/sold on the question of the placement of the blind or handicapped generally, or on any other piece of progressive employment policy, the trade organisation is very likely to get behind the work for their organization, with the vnry natural result that other less progressive plants throughout the industry will fall into line and carry out the same class of v/ork with the experience of the first man behind them, together with the bncking of the trade organization, P\irthermore, the working out of a proper classification makes a convenient merns for the circulation of inforVHien tv/o cofjipetitors get together to talk things over, fliation. that they are not going to be very reticent in thing the about is the thing that does not give either a Joking handicap in competition. Consequently, such a thing as the placement of the blind or the handicapped is very likel;^ to be a fruitful souxce of conversr.tion, v/hich, after all, is the best type of advertising.

The reputation of any placement agency, such as the Auerican Sed Gross is also either made or xinmr.de through If the or anization Is successful at these trade bodies. one point, the reputation for having done a good piece of work reaches throughout the industry, while if it is unsuccessful at It is very important one point, a bad impression is cres'ted. in carrying out the big general program in those industries to know along what line this cooperation will follow in order to be able to oc;rry out a logical program.

After all, the problems of the manuf-cturer or employer and those of the social a'-ency interested in placement work, are much the same. The employer meeds the cong)etent help, and the placement agency needs the place for workers who can be roade competent. It only requires that these bodies get together in order to cooperate to the best advantage, 'ilfhen once cooperation has been established, the resuJLts can "je me.de very widespread.

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An exanrple of these ijossibilities will "be illuatroted ii'or instance, the Johnson in several different places, Chair Corapanj- of Chicago placed a "blind man in their finishing The uian worked regularly, turning out satisfactorv work room. for rl»out six months, and then the Karpen Furniture Coi.ipany of the saiae city took on first one man suid then three more in their finishing room and other parts of the fastor;f, very largely 'beca'ase the man proved a success at the Johnson Chair The four men are worlcin;^ successfully today, e-nd Company. "both plants are open to the employment of the "blind. The Edison Electric Company managed to place two men very It had successfully on some of their assembly processes. not Taeen laore tlian a v/&ek "before the Automatic Electric Company of i^hicago had negotiations on with the heads of the Union in their plant to allow the employ;.ient of the "blind in the Autoioatic Siectric Company. Blind men are now employed and have "been adraitted to the Union.

As an illustration of the danger to "be encountered along this line will he found the example of a paper hox mamifacturer. In this case the man supplied for the jo"b was a man who did He was placed on not have the proper spirit toward his ¥;ork. thoug-h successful in handling the operation, a jo"b, and even toward the v/ork in general, that manifested such a "bad spirit The second man that w-s called in he had to he dismissed. proved also to he a failure hecause he had never learned to Very naturally, the first hox company keep business hours. pronounced the plan a failure, and it has heen very difficult to deal v/ith "box manufacturers in the city of Chicago since, and will continue to he iintil someone is 8.hle to induce another If a similar "box manufacturer to try the experiment again. mistake is made in the man selected, the paper "box factories will proha"bly he closed to the hlind. In carrying out such a classification of industries, it is always well to obtain all the inforiuation that is coi-iinon to the trade before starting to gather outside informatijn, because this in rjany cases v/ill give you the date which ou It is not necessary, of co\irse, to address all of require. the firms in any one line, but ^our best plan is to take some directory like Thomas 'Hegister, and send a letter or questionnaire, soraething on the order of the attached Form 4, to the lerding firm in each group as listed in the directory, being cr.refxil, of course, to sc6 that it is not duplicated in any case. The information which comes back from these questionnaires will give you a le:id which will enable you to follov/ up youx classification still further, in case ou do not hear ;

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from the first firm, it is generally wise to send the same questionnaire to the second finn in the line, and at the same time, to write a letter to the first firm explaining what you want the inforniation for, and that you are only asking the general data regarding the lineup of the "business. As you receive the ansv/ers to the questionnaires, you csji lay out your tentative classification, and chancre this from time to tine as the information may seem to warrant. It is inroossi'ble, however, to handle any "big topic of this kind \7holly "by the method of questionnaires, and conversations and interviews are extremely/ important, in fact, it is generally wise, after you have received a letter ^-iving :,ou a lead on a proper classification for any industry, to visit the Secretary of the trade organization v/hich represents this particular industry and ^et him to check your idea of the classification, provided the firm to vj-hich you v/rote does not give you the data, regarding the classification, in many cases, the trade secretary or the editor of the trade journal to which he refers lias the data and can give it to your readily. Before attera^iting such a conversation, the information which is desired should "be carefully s.rrived at, and the interview shaped accordingly. Still another method of arriving at a means of classification is to take the advei-tisenients appearing in teciinical journals covering a wide range in any line, and to determine all of the products that they represent. Then determine where e-'.ch product gets its r?,v/ laaterial in order to fit into the proper position in your classification, "i/hen this has "been done, you can check your ideas of the classification against the trade directories, thus discovering a new point of classification. This does not always hold, however, and most of the work that you do in cheeking against the trade directory is to eliminate the classifications t.-st you have gained from youx advertisements; "but if your idea is to get a complete classification, such measures are almost absolutely necessary. A fruitful method of getting a list of this kind is to go to large department stores of various kinds, and get from them a list of all their products, together \7ith the people from whom they p\irchase these products, 'ihis will give :ou ii.iinediately a lead as to their classification, and perhaps give 3"0u a. new idea that you would not have gotten in any other way. Department stores, if they will consent to take the time for such work, are very good sources of Information. Another source that is equally good, if not "ijetter, is the mail order The mail order houses of this country cover very house.

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3f wide ranges of prodacts in -which they deal, B7 going through the mail order catalogue, and "by retting in toijch v/ith the department heads of the mail order house, you will "be able to It is very deter^iune where their different products come from. seldom wise, in this case, to try to '^"et all the information in the mail order house, since most of our fro-u any one man are organized in such a v/ay tliat each raan houses mail order for tLo purchase and s:..le of the products in responsihle is pand there are very few people department, rticular his and his assistant who know department head of outside this department. in that the products ahout uiuch The trade joui-nals form another very fruitful source of information, vhe trade journals are especis,lly g-ood, because "by their very nature, they are alread;'- psrtielly classified, and contain informr-tion regarding firms which are in the same line, or who v;ish to sell something to the people who are in This gives an idea as to the source of the rav/ this line. that are used in that particular industry. materials are the columns of the paper the only source of infonaation re-'arding classification which can he obtained from the trade journals. The editors of these jotirnals have in order to exist, to follow their fields very closely, and have to "be perfectly familiar with everyone in the line, and everyone who might advertise to anyone engaged in that particular line. In i;iany cases, you roay "be a"ble to get them to give you the list of the firms v/hich they have in their If you can do this, your classification for present files. item is almost complete, "because an up to particular this date technical trade journal generally has its information fairly -.Tell classified. ITor

The engineering papers, especially those along management lines, are very useful, oecause they contain a wide diversity of advertisement, and the ads are generally v/ritten to appeal to the people with critical minds, especially along the lines of analysis, and are ezpea'.od to "be more clearly defined than in almost any other periodical. The popular magazine sform a fruitful source oi" informptlon, The advertisements are "because of their diversity. Irrgel: written to appeal to the popule.r mind, and not v.lth very much idea sa to their use for classification purposes.

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Classified telephone directories, while the classifications are generally very crude s,nd cannot be used for an indastrial classification direct, are still vrell enough divided to ~i-'e eai excellent means of checking up any ideas on classification ths.t you laay have.

When you reach a lar'^e group of industries such as representcA. the textile industries, or the iron and steel industries, it is necessary to ?et so.ieone inside of the line who has made a study over a v/ide diversity of _3lants for several years, to give you the proper classificati jns, as the divisions, in many cases, are so finely dr'wn that none "but the expert is ahle to find their proper dividin^r lines. "by

It is necessary to meet people who are already in the trade before arranging such classifications, ''^hile aost people are faitly well acqiiaintcd with their own line of huainess, very few have any acquaintance v/hatever with the other man's line of husiness, and things which seeia very simple to one man are great problems to another.

The classifications which are extant are very good for the purpose under which they were drawn. Host of these classifications are dravm for the purpose of selling commodities, and are not so finely dravrn as is necessa,ry for the purpose of handling big movements such as the movement for the handicapped.

The people who arran:-e the classifications, as a general rule are but little interested in the plant and processes classification for tlie siraple re? son that so long as their party may be in the iiarket for their particular machine or group of machines, it malces but little difference whether the plant is large or small, whether it laanufaotures by one process or another. 'Then you are placing the blind, hov/'^ver» it is extreaely necessar;" that you «cnow not only ti.at t firra majiuf actures a certain product, but that you have more or less of an id a of how the product is manufactured. T:f you are going to apply the findings of one plant to another, you should l:now more about the similarity betv/een the two plants than does the man to whom y ;u 8.re trying to sell the idea. The reason for this, of cotirse, is that when you appeal to hi^n, he is going to be

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34 This melihod of euiployaent is soraething in a very critical mood. has not "been educated, and employers -renerallv resent to which he anything now along their own lines. If he can pick out flaws in your arguiaent which show that you ai"e not well acquainted vath the conditions thct exist in his trade, he is going to find more ohjections to your plan than one could possihly overcorae, if, however, you show hy your most of which are purely iraa.ginary. general xcnowl edge of the suh^ect, that his plant is pr'^ctically the same in process as well as in products as the other i-ian's plant, v/ho has roade a success of placement of the handicai^ped, he v/ill "be disanaed oefore ,'ou start in, with the very ne.tural result that your placement problems will he very much simplified.

Such classifications are of hut very little use unless they are complete within any particular line, for the simple reason thrt, if your classification is not complete, there is every possibility that the item which has heen left out is the item which will chano-e the classification possihilities entirely. .'/hen your classifi.;ation has heen arranged, it is then important that you gs^ther from the inside of the trades all of the information the.t can he made available as to the peculiarities of the tr^de, such as a list of names of people engaged in the trade, the people T,idio sell to the trade, sources of raw materials, sales, exports, imports, and an^rthing else which may give you an idea as to the conditions ui^der which the handicapped would "be placed. This is particularl;' true in getting the names of tre.de or, ;anizations, the names of trade papers, and other such items.

Perhaps the most comraon error in work of this kind is that of obtaining incomplete lists of names and of getting ins-ccurr.te data "based upon some one person's prejudice. Eternal vigilance is necessary to obviate this possibility and such infomiation concerning trades should be kept up to date at all times. If this is not done, many important firms will be left out of your classification, and consequently many possibilities for the emplo^naent of your people v/ill be left out. It is al.\-ays v/ise to follow newspapers, trade reports, credit reports, and other sources of inforras.tion to find out new firms and to check up on the existence of old ones. The classification of industries as arrived at by the Industrial Division so far is attached as Appendix A of this general report.

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a This is not ?,t all complete, inasmxich as the v;ork was called off befoi'e v.-e could finish the joh, "but it will 2'ive sorae It will idea to anyone else who wishes to conplete the work. he noticed that we have started with the source of the products, using Agriculture in its very hrosdest sense, fining in its very hroadest sense, and Services. Each of these is divided into natxiral divisions suid from these the different classes of products can "be worked out down to the point where they rer.ch The apjlica'bility of this soheme of the oltimfte consumer. classification can "be very readily seen. Suppose that a "blind man has heen put to worlc in a chair factory where the firm manuf ctures office chairs. The fact tliat this has "been done can be spread through the whole chair industry through the medium Then the of the national Chair Tlanuf^cturers* Association. facta can "be pu"blisLed in the "Furniture TlajaufRctvirer and Artisan," and the "American JJ'urniture Ilanxif s c turer" trade journals. Following this, the same information can "be j)u"blislied throughout all of the divisions that coue in the ssrne line of wood products, and following tl^t, in the luia'ber trade journals. There are 100,000 peo -le in the United States in the wood working trades, it will "be seen that if 18 percent of the people employed in the wood v/orking industry can be "blind, the possi'bilitias in the v/ood working industry/ are sufficient to give eiTrplo^naent to practically every capa"ble "blind man in the United States who is still looking for a position. Still, the v/hole start for the propa'-anda can "be "based upon the survey of one furniture plant, and the proper follow-up in that one plsjat, together with the offer to the remainder of the people in the wood v/orking industry to cooperate with them in ajiy survey they desire to follov/ out.

A sirailar scheme used on other lines of industry v/ould produce sirailar results. It can be safely stated that one hundred surveys made in the right plants in the country vath the ri^ht follow-up and the right cooperation would prob?.bly place every blind and handicapped man in the United States within a comparatively short time. When such a scheme is followed up, however, it must be done vdth the cooperation of everyone, and with no question being raised v/ho.tcver as to who It is impossible to carry out a scherae of cooperation of is who. this kind if several agencies in the field are tr; ing to obtain the credit for lis v ing done a certain piece of work without having produced the good«. ITor are the benefits to be obtained in the follow-up method confined to any one form of handicap; for instance, blind men used in one wood working plant have led to a large amount of emolo^nnent of not only blind, but other teadly handicapped people over a wide ran,,:e of the wood working industry, and this movement is still going on today.

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5g There are many different -aethods of indexing your classificrtion when once it h-a been arrived at. The first, perhaps, thr^t most people &re j-.cqiiainted with is the Dewey Deciioal System. In this systera each niRin division of a classificc-.tion receives a nuiAer, and each division henesth this receives some deciiaal following this nuiaher to indicate that it is part of the first nuinher and represents the division with that nuinher. Further divisions v/ithin each of the raain divisions ai-e raade up hy carrying decimals on out as far as The Dev/ey Decimal System applies to it is necessary to go. such foms of classification as lihrary systems and other sirailar foruis where the means of checking up are comparatively easy and where a slight error will not in any way interfere with the v/orking of the system. The dsnger of the Dewey Decimal System comes in that the party \7ho makes the classification ms-y make an error, and the error vrill not he caught until some time in the future, with the natural result thrt it is caught too late for the party who wishes to make dse of the system.

Another scheme of classification is the letter scheme where each main division is given a letter, and the suhtopics are indexed hy letters heneath this main division. The main difficulty with this scheme is the Ic-a'ic of letters in the alphahet, and the fact that it is open to the same objections as the Dev/ey Decimal System in the matter of detecting errors. Ajfiother scheme is the straight nujaher scheme, where all the subjects are put dovm in a line, and given nuiaoers in a Then every suoject has a rs,nre of nuiahers v/hich series. belongs especially to it. The raain difficulty with this system, if it can he called a system, is that it ts.xes the memory enormously and is more open to error than any other schei.ie that lias been wori:ed out.

Perhaps one of the best systeras which has developed for indexing work of this kind is the luiemonic System, which practically alternates the letters and the numbers by columns. According to this system, the first classification may be given a letter or nwaber, depending upon its nature. The second classification will be given a number, the third a letter, etc. until the final classification is reached. The advantage of the Ilneraonic system is that it automatically

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Vf oheolcs up jbke omission of any classification, since if the letters and the figrares do not alternate, within certain limits, the e^e is attrs-cted at once to the error th-^t has been made. Furthermore, it is capatle of indefinite expansion, and is almost self-translating, in making up the code letters,

the letter used should always be either tiie first letter of the classification heading or the letter which represents the main It is necessarv, in ;nan7 cases, to change sound of this v/ord. the name of the classification until the first letter or the predominating letter will 'be one which fits within the allowances of the s;/"ste::"i. A full description of this ;nethod can . Bertrand's "book on "Scientific V&no. jevient '' "be found in 0. The classification shown in Appendix A do-s not purport to a complete classification, as it wrd not entirely finished, "but we will welcome any suf^gestions which ras-y he made and appreciate any addition to the classification of the industries, that anyone may "be a"ble to sake.

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Date-

Naiae of

-li'irm

E Address-

3.

Naine of

General

4.

i'lrm is

listed in

5.

What are the other lines in v/hich jou are engagedV-

I!ana^rer,

or

!;ian

occupving corresponding position

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Do other estalDlishments in

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our field operate on the same

general finished products as does your firm? 7.

If not,

8.

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firas in the United States are in the same lime of "business

as yourself?

us the

is the usual coinhiiiation of lines in the 'business'.-'

nai.ie

If jou cannot su^pply this information, please give

of soraeone who can.

If the space allowed is not

sufficient, jlease place list on a separate sheet.

9.

i'ame

several other firus which rank high in your industry.

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iO. Name the firms v/liich ;'ou consider best etiuipped and organized to cnrry on .your line of work, V/e are interested to discover the plants which would "be raost satisfactory for us to visit in order to understand the operations involved in this

country.

11. What are the general lines of distribution of your product?

A. Prom rav; materials to yo\ir plant

B.

12.

?rom vour plant to the ultimate consuiner-

Has yotir industry a trade organization?-

If so, v/hat is itY

Please add any further inforxnation that might he useful to us in obtaining a suitable classification of industries along the lines of products and occupations.

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feTHOI® OF SUHVEY Selecting the Firm

tyhen determing upon a policy to decide which firm to survey, it is well to talce a number of things into considerati m.

Other things being equal, the 1. The size of the firm. lar£est firm in any one group will be the firm from wliich the This is not best results can be obtained from a survey. always the csae since there are a number of things, such as spirit of progrosslveneas and similsr items, 7;hich are equally important. As a general rule, however, the size of the firni is large firm /. deteruiined by more factors than simply capital. is likely to be in a more cooperative mood, in many cases, especially after the organization is sold to the use of the Furthermore, v/hen the large idea, than is the small firm. firm has placed the rGcomraendations into effect, the ssrall firms fall into line bf-cause of the success of the larger member of the trede. 2. ilong with the Lg.ise of the firm mu. t be considered / firm which for Siiy reason has a poor reputPtion its reputation. an\ong the trade should not be selected for a first survey, for the reason that every other member of the trade is ITicely to think that tids is only another oxanple of the bnd business policies of the firm surveyed; while if s firm with a first class reputation has the citTvey made, the remainder of the firms will s'.ving into

line on almost any recommendations that are practical because This of the br citing' that is received from tne larger firm. is especially true in clotsely competitive lines. 2. The Evailabiiity of the firm to large centers of disIt tribution and large loUor market should be considered. will do but little good to survey a firm in a small tovm w?iere there are no blind men, and w.iere it would be impossible to bring in blind men. i'urtaerraore, the housing conditions should be such that they will be favorable to the ork of the blind, and transportation to the plant shjuid be such t)u t the blind can easily reach the plant. Your first survey is an ad for the blind, and if the blind sre actually placed on the job at this plant and make a success, the remainder will be oomp&rrtively er.ey I^'urtherso far fi£ that community and th' t trade are cjncemed. more, tiie firm surveyed should be thoroughly a-,-ake to the

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^i pOBsibilities of the surrey from their awn sjt; ndpoint before ri© best plan ia to hsv^ucn p. proposition they are selected, thot the firm is cocrpellod to rfsy e porti.^n of the cast, because, under fejia Rrrfin? ement, unless they ere intere ted to the point do. of ooopi^rsti m, they v7ill not rsi-c to h ve the survey Tiiis item is extremely important, since if the firm doeo not realize the benefit of h.'Ving a thorough anelysis msde of its vcrijus occupations with e vie\7 of finding out \ihrt the employ laent requiroDents rre, the clif'jacos that the firm will follow UT. the survey to place the handicapped sxe rather reraoto, There is a gi-oct deal of prejudice on the pj^rt of some fJemen and superiuteridents to be oversamo Pt the best, and indifforoiioe on the pfrt of the executives is the deadlieot poison th?5t hEs been found for killing surveys of this iind. .'Active ^poslti^n to the work, rs carried on in eorae other plants is even better than indifference, because if tiso emrjloyer Is Carrying on an active opposition, he will be compeil^d, sooner or later, in order to justify his position, to thorou4;aly examine the methods used, snd if he does th&t, the oiiEnoes e re that he will become en ardent svpportor of the work. rr..

main object of all of this preliminsry study before bceinaing *he survey is th;.t the fim-i nisy be seleoted in v/hich the mfsimum poasibiiities will exist for pl&ooment b ot'.'/een different fixros. Your survey will teke a long time to comrjete fit the best. The survey of r l- r^:e corviOrFtijn mey take rafany months, and it ie poor policy to go into a project of this scope without being positively tirtiured of active assistance from the beginning;, and of the possibility of making the fullest tlie

use of this ni-,siataaoe«

Trm StJBVEY

.•/IK! 11?

THS PLAIH?

In beginning a survey of a plEnt, when once the proper plant been doteimined upon, it is :/ell to find out wli£t the generp-l ohP meter of the "^ork i!i,
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Deternjine whether bad wopking oonditloaa exist as a necessciry evil in this buaineis, or whether it Is because of poor ort.anizf'.tijn and poor msn^geraent. Determine the g'enernl ouBtom as as the to employment and trade to general trade specificftof whst order to general in find out the requirements of the ions work are likely to l>e« For instance, in some types of work the rGfiuirement;. sre for lar^e output v/ith large allowances for inaccuracy, while in other plants the requirements fire for erest change in the!-;e oanditi ons will sccu^^rscy with a small output. as to the ability of the blind your judgroent, very largely, change handicapped perform A general other people to the work. or study of the policies of t.,e firm with the officers in chr.rge, will genertlly give you this data in a much better form than you will be able to obtain l»y studying the individual machines, it is ioxierally a wise planf to form yom* own conclusions r-ftor a careful study of conditions, and not allow yourself to be s /ayed

by prejudice or hearsay from other sources. Many otherwise valuable surveys have been greatly damaged in this wqy.

you must determine in the beginning whether your problem is vhen job shop production or of straight line production, of one making studies of etraight line production, it is best to make use of the flow sheet of the mi~terial through the vlant to indicrte The reason for this is the requirements of the cifforent jobs. superintendent down the plant, from the everyone in th; t understsnus what the flow sheet means, and v/hen you index the requirements of ^-'^'Ur jobs in the flow sheet, you have shown them so thst anyone can locr-te the job he wants to study, in very short order. Also, you have made it possible to determine very accurj'tejty what the relrtinn of this v.'ork is to the plant. This method is impossible in the case of job shop production and hence the organization chfirt is used. The boxes used, hc-j-ever, are the same as those used in the flow sheet. In laying out your method of survey, the f rr>t thing to be considered is the numbering system th.;.t is to ce used. '.'.'hereIn many cases, this v/ill already be determined for you. ver the firm has a numbering system for occupations sufficient to cover your needs, it is wise to use the firm's scheme, rather than to try to create a new one. The foremen understand the firm's numbers as -.ell ae does everyone else in the trace, w^ile if you put in a new scheme, no matter how simple the scheme may be, before it can be used the men will have to learn jur method of numbering- occupations and this is likely to be more or less difficult. .,

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A^ierever it is necessary to number the occupations, rs a general rule it is best to number them in su ch s ay thyour number will tell you 1.

v^/'hst

pert of the production this v>osition applies to.

r tei^f the work, whether mschine or operation or maintenance bench operetion.

2. The gei.eral c'ncrf

3. "the routine; position of this occupation in the pLtnt, or rather, its loci^tion in the line f production.

In many cashes, the firm will have numbers for their v rious departmenfcti v;hich can be so iadexGd at. to give a ready means of studying the occupations. It is soraetimf-s :ossible i^-here the fina is not so Isrge as to compil the typewriting of the report before th© survey is entirely finished, to work out one system of niunber^ to fit the convenience jf the man making th© survey, and taen to rnaice the number system conform to tne scheme used in the lent, k simple code system should be worked out to indicate the gexieral clft^s of v;ork that the era loyee is doing, sO th-'-t there may be something more than the simple title of th© job to give a line on what may be .nvolved. Th© followinga code is a good illustration. example This is taken from the large wood '.Torking plant in which a survey is nQ-m unc er way. "

C.

Core line

V. Feneer line 6. Glue line

F. Plst line In each c; se the cores are to be considered a? the assembled article, siEce everything goes into cores, that is, sine© the cor© is the main part of the srticle, and th© operstions performed on the remainder of the x-if.rts are only performed to make them conform to the core construcThis "line" letter v/ill alvi'ays form the first letter tion. The second letter of the code -vvill designate of the code. the class of work upon which tn© man is enfewged as f ollov7S: B. Bench operations

M. Mt'Chin© operations S* Storr.g© operations T.

Tranaxiort; tion operations

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y? In fill cashes where you hsve transportation operations, place immediately following the operation number, a df:sh \7ith the di: tsnce trrjisported follo.ving the dcsh. The oprr<' tlon number is to begin with the entry of the lumber into the yeards ss Fo. 1» and to proceed consecutively' to the delivery of the '"iniBhed product to the Cfirs. Hence, operation ro. C2vl5 would mean thtt this operation ws-b the fifth operation performed on the cores, and on a machine, T?hile Gk>& would be the sixtli operrtion with glue and .-ould mean that tne glue v,'as being stored st this point, 2he next important item to be considered in every cr.se, is the number of raevi employed on a psrticular job to be s;ir-

veyed, or being studied. The number of men wha^e you have simple etreight line production am {generally be designated by a simple number such as 1, 2, 10, etc., but in c-'ses where the men are not employed the full day on this operation, the problem of designating the number of men employed or the hoars of employment is more difficult, perhaps the best method of doing this is to make a fractijn of this designation, i'he nunibritor of the fraction repx-e-sents the totsl number of men required to handle this operstion, and the d.enominator, the time during- the day that these ttmn are employed. For inttence, 2/. 33 would Kieen that there r.-ere two men required to handle this operation, and thet it required approximately one-third of their time during the day to handle the 'vork on this prrticular part. The question of ws^;e6 is always an important one to tetermine v-hen makinf, a study of this kind, and before mJScing a report on finding s, the man in the field should first determine the general method of \srage payment, whether it be hourly rrte, piece rate, monthly rrte, or weekly rate. men this has been detcrminec, the heading of the chrrt should clearly stf te the general method of payment, so t'hs.t thex-e cm be no question as to whrt is meant v.'hen the notttion is m de on the chart. In case the eene al acheme in payment is day r; te, and a certain operation is p; id on a piece rste, then the best method of designation is to express the payriient as a fracti.jn, the numerptor of v.hich is ti e amouiit paid, and the denominator, generally a description, the unit in which this is paid. For instance, to exi-^ress the /'set thet a man on a certain job was earning twenty dollars per week, you would writ© 20 /Wk.

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I'he ethod of dositinrition used for netting down the requirements of tlie v rioua Jobs will, of courre, v ry with ench plant. The methods used hy the Americ n Red Gross in their surveya v;as chr.n£t?d at pr'cticrlly evory plsnt in eome rcrfcpect or another to fit loc: 1 oonditions.

Perhaps the ma t complete code as .ell 6 one of the est th?t worked out for s codes tu? I hfos been worked out, lare;.e eutomobile m&nuf jturing concern v.'hich is r-t follows ;

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iktGlligence (Ue© irmy clc^ sification)

A.

Hife'hefit ^:r£de

of executive ability

B» Oftpablo of acquirine and usli^ teehnics^i knov^ledee C.

m 15.



Ordinary intellifienoe Dull All others

Konths required to learn the operrtloa under sveraf»

conditions (liays

lefm

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T Training end education rc-quirod before beginninji to the work X IlliterRte

H Can

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B Can read blue prints C Cleric 1 trs Ining i3

Jeeondrry techaicsl training

U Itoiversity or college teohnic 1 training A Apprentice, or a man who is juiit beginning to

learn this particular trsde.

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J Journeyman, or a man who has had sane perticular

experience in this line of work, but who has never had sufficient experience to qu4 lify rs an expert v/orkmsji. E Expert, signifies a man with mfany yesrs of ex]r)erience and one who has become extremely proficient in this ppiticular line.

A Arms

E Right L Left 2 Two, or both

Either one (Hakes little difference which one

1

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none required IT

Nerves

IT Xormal-this class precludes all nervous does not imply exceptional nervous strength

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K Eelisble-where the job requires a person who shell not disease which prevents the full use of his brain at

htiVe any

any time S Shell shock-tiiose whose nervous condition is very

poor

H Hands

H Bight L Left 2 Two, or both 1

Either one (makes little difference which one is svsilable) None required

B Sars or hearing

N JTormal P poor r Deef

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C Condition of I'infers

U unimportant or immaterial

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Clumsy, tut strong

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A Average 1 Kimble Insiyze the nexjb point as follows, placing symbols a?,H« or K above the qualificf tion to indlcr^te whether it is wished to refer to T, meaninfc trurJc organs, H, meaning hesrt separ^^tely, or K, Me&ning kidnoys and bowels separately. T,H* or IT

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H Right L Left

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R Rupture or hernia H normal required H Hernia permissible

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f> This means that this operrtion can be performed by a man of ordinary intellicence, ivho is illiterate, and that it will require ten deys for such a man to lerrn the or/or. tion. He must hrve two arms, normal nerves, two hands, may be depf, must have nine active fingertJ, trunlc organs may bo fair, must hs e two legs, may have a ru]3ture, must be of medium sii;e, must have normal lungs, normal skin, and normal vision. In arranging such a code, it is generally best to majce up the requirements of the job as follcnvs;

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Here, the r quirements for the position are in the upi)€r left hand comer, the rt-te paid in the upper right hand corner, the title of the position in the center, the firm's employment number at the lov;er left hand comer, and the no. of people employed on this particular operation in the lower right hand comer. The following chtrt will give an idea ss to the looks of a proceedure chart when it is finished. In Ci se of job shop production, where it is impossible to locate the work in such a way that one man works in one particular part of the process during the whole day, the organization chert is a better method of showing the work than the proceedure chart, and the method used is as followsj 'fhe

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method, whore the divisions between boxes represent lines of authority and where boxes which are together with no vertical line brtvj-een signify thrt all the people in this section of the work are in coordinate positions. In place of the ordinary organii-ation ch; rt where only the title of the osition and perhsrps the name of the man are given, use the box form noted cbove. j'ake The sample organization the ori^anization ch rt with this form. chart of the Packard rotor uar Company, -Appendix G of this report, is a very good illustration.

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^dj" la dolDE fiold ork of thia tiort. It is f o»«r: Uy best to decl directly witn t:.© foreaftn who io r« eronelbl© for the output on this pfirtiouior Jot* Tt Is ;srell to rcootaber that in makius e .rvoye, yoa are c rryiag an p«>P"t';wida v/ork rt th© esmB titrio, to bring f>bottt th« s.ortion of t!i© Idonc th-'t y.)U ob:; ©volve. ^'nlef-fi th« foremim ooopeitos witii yju, iio cmount of T>rfisure frora nhove (uad no anount of nlilit^' an the }>f^^rt of the mxm th. t you fl&ce will be of th© Bllthtc'tit boai^flt* /u n ffnernl rul©» tJi© fortmm ar© saej-'icioae of nny rice© of itud;^' witli rrhioh thoy hRVf nothing to do* txod tij© quoitlon of selliiiv; ^^ i<3©© is alrej/c s eoriouo oa©» if you coa hsivr the foreman go with y.>u throuf:h th© plniit. End discover for hiciself >vhet th© blind msn or othorwift© hondicapp«d mmi Ofn do* you will bctvo tw.cle a convert to th© poesibilltiee. of tho unfortunate » while if you go fth©rd wlthjut oonaultlng ths ToroRimit y u ^111 hrv© him more or lees set rtratefit your id««6 maA will hrve a harder job in getting him to c4op% the reoamaendstions you au^ hiB-ye made* It iQ

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regnrdleoe of th© intercuts of the ooK^jsajy, tfain your areiaaent to b gin v/ith id that h© cnn ccivenoe hlraoolf by thoroughly undere triidiiifc; y ur tiT^o of woz%;. If be has tho intrro; t of tlj© eoa^any at hocrt» tnon ^uur iizi© of wgunent ii^ thrt th© blind men will help solve th© If.bor jjroblem. ulwre le slweyc tl«» poBsibility of a ixcuxt deal of aentiraent in work of this kind, if projjorly oced, thfit is, if it Ic broucht la so inci^ ©ntel to the remolftdor of the work, yor instance, if ^tsu en call th© attmiti >a of the foremsn to t}ie pli{;ht thr.t h© T/ould 1f> In tofaorrow or liext dey if hie eyee should be knocicod out or hlu loes out off dus to th© f©ellne on th© r-Rrt of ©mrloyere e«n©rnlly, thPt ao hsadicf p.i>od ana crni work, you have ar^oBled to him on th© side whieh will apjiJoal to ©very man who works v/ith hie heads, find if you can lesd^^ so© thftt yuur woti;: v;ill a imply make 1©b« dleaetoroua fi ooaditi.m of thlu kind if it should occur to him at «ae tiro© in the futuro, yoru can count on thtt :,i8a*£^^ e^rnoct ooop«^rPtlja throuGhout yjur whole work* /.t tho scia© time, it ia necesat-ry to li^rfsa uj-.ja tho foreiMn tlwt it is no kindnf u to plranat fill %i©ll, taoA tlint yju v/rat the full roauiremeatfi of m^n! job» it ie sometlnos pos0iblo by talking: to the foreman ia this vrm^ to cx% hlin to ooavr'rt the auperinteadeat and tho e^oacrel maanf.crs of the vdeat to the saae point of vi(-w. Tiior© ie a jJcrBoaBl problem lavolvod in both ortca, bttt the peiiioaal inters ot is different with both, £>ad the foreman, Y^n&n he appeals to the superintendent, «i>p©clt; to c li:e of tliOU£^t that prob'bly does not at all ajpcl to the foroi^iaa.

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it is -.veil to Rsk the Ifhen studying, the individual j b. foreman the full nature end recuirernentE of the product turned out. -flak him to give the hardest conditions ever imposed on Ash: him the qucitiou a; to whether the thet pprticulEr job. man must repair his own machine, whether it is necessary for him to go to the stock room and get his own products, (it is 'ell to remember thr-t where it is necessary for an operr.tor to go to the stock bin to got his own material, or to deliver finished products to the stock bin, that there is something wrong with the Ask questions thr:t lesd around or; ani£&tion of the department to the various disr.bilities thr t an efficient .'.-orkman might have suffered, and questions that will enable you to answer the question, for yourself as to whether a handicapped man of any kind could work. For instance, if you see an operation you think a blind man could handle, ask the foreman whether it is ever necessary for the man to inspect his ov/n product for bletaishes; whether it is necessary for the nan to go beyond a certain degree of accuracy; whether it is necessary for the man to get around dangerous machinery; whether it is necessary for the man to handle a number of other difficult operations which it might be impossible for a blind man to handle. Then, when he gets through answering your questions, and has answered them in such a vay that you think a blind man could do the work, ask him the question as to why a man needs eyes if that is the esse, or suddenly discover that if this is true a man hardly needs his eyes, doeis he? Once the foreman sees the point, he is likely to become a rendy apostle of vour program, ^he same sort of argument applies to the remainder of the handicaps. If ..our foreman finally sees the idea of employing men to perform a certain number of hours a day, it will make possible a permanent study of your plan in that department, and take csre of your problem long after you have left it, and perhaps forgotten this particular firm. )

Then working in the plant, you will have to think in technicalities, of course. But never attempt technicalities on the marthat is on the job, unless the technicalities happen to be those The only effect with which you are certain he is very ff miliar. of using technicalities which sre beyond tjae man to whom you are talking is to arouse his disgust and to make him think that your wjrk is too involved and to technical for t.e ordlnf-ry man to If the technicalities are those which he understandes follow.

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^S' thoroughly and your questions indicate that you understand them, yju will of course, have his letting respect; but never make the raistaJce of Ettemptii-ig to deal with the other man's techi.icallties unless you thorouthly understand tne technicalities :;.ourself. Reraemher thi.t the man to whom you are talking to knows just as much as you do, only his knov/ledge is highly specialized, and generally he is not trained to be oharitstle to the other fellow. The more closely you can bring the man on the job to your way of thixiking, and to see the pcvantc^.e of hendline the work in this \7ay, the more successful you have been as an engineer and ss a survey man. In studying the oper&tion to determine what the employment requirements are, it is well to make your study by going ovrr the involved elements of motion very carefully. The methods of arriving at these elements of motion, and the full description of them may be found in '•Applied I'otion L-tudy," by F.B. Gilbreth. In studying, the motions in the light of these operations, a very careful sjialysis must be made to determine that you have included all of the elements.

A better description of the method of doing this will be found in a letter chapter on time ctudy. The attached instructions giving a list of the motions, together with the portions of the body that are used in performing each and a re surae of conditions to be studied in connection with etch disability will be useful to the new survey man.V/hen you have determined the p rts of the bodj'^ required from the standpoint of motion, you must then analyze the same operation from the standpoint of internal orgsns and other requirements, such as intelligence, time required to learn, and training necessary. Many of these things csn b© gained through a conversation with the foreman or with the superintendent on the job. vVhen studying the operation to determine what the requirements are, be sure to note whetiier there is any evidence of loss of motion, or any operation which is performed which could evidently be omitted. For instance, in many ca; es inspection Qperatians are involved in processes where they are not at all required. Inspection operations of this type generally require eye sight, while if they are omitted the eyes are not required. Leaving out the irxspection and centralizing it, not only gives a better quality of product, but it gives a much higher production. This is not alwEj^B true, and you must be verj' cfreful when making your study to determine that you have not omitted an essential item. The code attached herewith as a "Reference List of symbols for Clessif icatisn of Jobs" is one vjorked out for a canning concern. ITote the differences between this code

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s% and that of the motor osr company. These differences will occur between codes in different firms, although as a generel rule the code i;hould be kept uniform as possible. The code for the automohile company is a later code, and is br^sed on the experience of the p^clcing house code. If a code is tt.'-rted in a plant, it should remain unchanged throughout the entire survey, and for tnat mttter, through the industry , so thrt there .vill be no coixfusi .n bet-eeu different opor;:tions. Jifter the surrey has been made, and the requirements detennined, it then remains to malre the data available to the plant. This cen be done in several ways. One of the best ways is to place the employment requirements by code on the verious job cards th&t may be used in the plant to guide the eniploy;i;ent department in employaient, and on any other cards in which the name of the occupation mty ap ear and ii. which the errd is in general use. The chart itself forms a very useful method of following' the de.ta up, since, if a man appeai-s at the door with only one arm, ai;d is normal in ev^ry other respect, it is very easy to follow down the line of the ciurt until a position is found tluat requires but one srm, and tlien determine whether the position is one that fits this man's training. Other schemes of elimination are generally possible before you come to this point. For instance, if a man is a foreigner and has been injure dprid there is considerable jealousy bct-.'reen depf rtments about foreign and domestic labor, then the first elimination is to eliminate all departments in which a foreiexer could not work, and then to find the position in the depe^ rtments which remain tMt require but one arm, or no eyes, or whatever the handicap in the case may be. As a general rule, this 4s a very simple operation, and can be performed in a very short time, ".liero this is impossible, the next best plan is to make use of some scheme of autometic filiiig-, such as the Findez Card System. This system consists of a series of cards having holes punched every half inch in both directions. Generally there are ten holes in a row, and the vsriations in the c:. rds run from six lines to ten lines. The cards fit in a case which is so built that the front of the case has noles which match the punch holes in the cards. It is so built that the c.'.rdB when standing on edge, match the holes in the front of the case exectly. If it is desired to desii<;nEte that one of the items is taken care of in this claims ific^t ion, the space between the holes is punched out with a special punch, leaving a slot in the crrd. \\'hen it is desired to c".etermine, for instance, what positions in the plant are open to the blind, you would simply ta.':e a wire rod which fits the hules and punch the ccvrd in the place of the box. Drive a wire through the hole in the front of the box v/hich

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The main advantage of such a survey and the only use for th© escpenditure of this amount of money so far as the handicapped are concerned is the fcot that it permits of sutoastie placement. It is not necessary to make a study of the entire shop every time a man comes in who is handicapped in some wsy or another. The experience in one part of a shop can le made of staidard benefit throughout the sho , and even in c& e the aen pieced fje not handicapped, it is possible to so arrange the work that men who are especially good at one type of xvork m%' be placed on that type of woric for which they are best fitted.

The utility of this diss of survey of ©Biployment problems and for performing a great numb r of services at the same time is best illustrated by an illustration from one large rubber concern in th© couiitry. A youjag Lieutenant who had been an assistant superintendent in his company for a number of years previous to his enlistment was blinded in th© Argonne forest. T-lien he returned the company was "very anxious to find a position that the man could fill to the best advanta£:©. The only position that the officials of the company were able to figure out was a position on which the young man had been employed before going into the service,

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This position required a great deal of clerical work, and to open a job that this roan could fill required that part of the duties of six men be given to one man, and that this one man be provided with a secretary in order to carry on his >;ork. The idea of the company was to find a position for this man, and they were tvilling to go to almost any length to do so. The American Red Cross undertook a survey in this plant at the request of the company. As a result of the survey, it was discovered that in one of the company's departments, there v;ere a large number of operations which were open to the blind, that one division was just opening, and that there was a large It was suggested labor turnover in this particular department. that the Lieutenant, who happened to be a man of considerable executive ability, be placed in this department and taught one of the operations. As he learned this operation so that he was able to get the same production as the sighted man, he was to be transferred to a second operation and taught that. Then, he was to be permitted to drop back to his first job and train a second blind man to fill that, and then to train another blind man to fill the second job, etc. , until the company would be able to employ all the blind which were available in that section of the coxmtry, under the supervision of a blind officer of the Army. This same company maintains the largest industrial deaf colony in the United States, and has had excellent success by the same method. This one discovery made possible the emplo;,Tiient of the young blind officer in a position which had far more future than the first position because it prevented temporary disorganization of one department, and made possible a new labor supply for this company in a place which had been hard to keep labor. But this was not all. A number of the occupations which this coiapany had were dangerous occupations and although the co!.:pany has one of ti e best safety departments in the country, still there are a large number of accidents in the course of a month. The problem has continually arisen as to what was to be done for the men who were injured in the company's employ. The compajiy had long taken the policy of giving enploy:'ent to every man injured in the company's employ, and carried on this policy consistently for a number of years, but the m.ain difficulty was that the men were not placed in positions where they cotild earn their maximiun income.

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the position It was nearly always necessary for t?ie nian to take he had which position the than salary sraaller which paid a"^

left, the result being, of course, that the man was more or less 'dissatisfied with the treatment he had received as he looked at it, and the company was losing his skill on their production chain] because in all cases the new position which he took was one which required less skill, and required but ver;- little of the knowledge he had spent years in acquiring. As a result of the surveys, it was possible for this company to find

positions for practically each of their handicapped men where he could earn an amount as great, if not greater, than the amoimt he had been earning up to the time when he was injured, and also to place him in a position where the knowledge that he had acquired previous to being injured was useful to the company. The compan^ now proposes to use the same data to employ soldiers who are asking for eniplojTnent in the company, and after that, to adopt the policy of employing handicapped Inasmuch as this particular company is located civilians. in a city where, because of housing conditions, it is almost impossible to get an adequate labor supply, the benefit to the company through being able to w&ke use of labor already on the ground will be at once apparent.

Another case in which this data has been of immense value A preliminary study was is found in a large mail order house. and it was found that the made of the small mail order house, office could be blind. particular stenographers who worked in this their industrial ofin stenographers The Red Cross employed blind the possibility established fice and after they had thoroughly class of this on production of the blind operator reaching order houses largest mail the of one work, went to the head of of getting possibility the him before in the country and laid Today, this the blind. of use making by good stenographic help stenoblind accept any to offer standing company presents a speed of standard company's the reach grapher who is able to placed een have stenographers several Already and"^ accuracy. in this firm and the work is still going on. "

a large packing open for the occupations were ti.eEe whether determine house to complete, thirds two was about survey the xVfter soldiers. blinded

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It was discovered that there Txere no men at the school for the "blind at Baltiuioi-e who v^-ere wanting to ;irain eiaplo;ynent in the packing hoases, "but the Federal Jioard of Vocational Eduction received permission to place over two hundred handicapped people on the regular _;roduGtion chain of this concern, while the previous standards for emplo^^mient have always heen that a man to work in these places should "be physically sound, and there v;ere but very few positions in the fir^ which had "been filled "by the handicapped.

Appendix J shom's a fev; "blind people who are nor v/orking and earning a living wage on jo"bs previously closed to the "blind under the saine circu.istsjices, due to the findings of surveys of this kind. The possi"bilities of the surveys that It have already "been made h&re not even "been touched upon. these surveys follow-up, that the proper to v/ith say is safe could be made the "brsis for the eitiployment of almost every handicapped person in the United States who had the right attitude toward the firm and who was mentally competent. Agencies interested in the employment of the "blind or the employment of other handicrpped people, should get in touch v/ith the firras in their cities or towns who are eniploying la^bor^ call their attention to the survey made, said deter..;ine whether any of the saiae conditions which exist in the firms s-orveyed exist in their ovm firms and v/hether there is noi a great po3si"bility for the eiEployment of handicapped people in their sections.

A large firm en t-. red in joanufacturing office appliances was working out a reorganization of their rnanufacturing department, when the general iaana£-er heard of the surveys "being undertaken "by the Bed Cross. He asked that a survey he uiade Ke appointed the man wiio, "Oiider him, had charge in his -lant. of the reorganization work in the firm, to make the study. This man studied the method of work under the en.;;ineer of the American Eed Oross and in turn appointed his first assistant The result was as the man to tax:e cs.re of the detail vrork. ths.t a Boara was forr.ied on araplo;raent pro^blems which is pro"bs."bly one of the strongest "boerds on emplojmient in any place in the country, and alres.d^' the compejiy has discovered how to place the handicapped in their ovm plant to the very hest alvant^.ge, aiid has made arrangements to change the occojpations of several

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uf of theiu. It has also discovered opportunities for saving cost in production wliich will pay for the cost of the survey 'x'his corporation is s-oout to to the x^la^t r.iany tiiaes ovar. enter into a lar^e program of handicapped eniplojuent in one of the larje industrial centers which will nialce it eventually one of the "best in the entire country. ?roa the standpoint of the company, the surveys are of little use unless they are consistently followed up, and every effort shoald he made to ta^ce crre of the follow-up work as the surveys are completed.

Some -ctive placement worlc has "been taken care of hy the Detroit "-iooiaunity Union in Detroit, ''iohijEn, and an illustration other than the prnotical side of this prohlem is showing itself Hen who used to sit on street corners and oeg for a there. living: hs,ve ^-one to work in the Detroit factories, and they are wearing their identification hplges on the outside of their clothes to signify that they ai-e now honest work men, instead In other v/oras, the tin "b- dge, instead of of street heggard. being the mark 6f servitude has now "become the "b-dge of victory over the tin cup. What greater argument could there he for consistent s^LU-vey wor.cV As an example of what can he done hy pls-cements from one industry to another, an illustration from the wood working field will "be valuahle. A large chair concern gave emplojment to two "blind men, one of whom proved successful, and. the other of whoi did not. Tne successful man had heen with the chair firm for ahout five months and the experiment v/as heing v/atched by, a numher of other men in the same trrde. A competing house v.-as needing Ighor, and learned auout the hlind iian heing employed in the first firm, and as a result put on three hlind men in their own plant, therehy helping their own production a,nd forming an outlet for 'rhe first firm, after seeing the success of the hlind, the hlind. hit upon the idea of using the other handicapped people as well, and as a result, the firm now pursues the policy of eruplo;Aing people v/ith all .linds of handicaps on different proc.ises in their shop, allowing tiiose v/ho are unahle to work the full nuraher of hours to work for a shorter nuiher of hours at the hourly pay that they would receive had they v/orked the fuJl time, v/ith the resultfehat the first firm has greatly increased is labor supply, end has rendered a benefit to huananity as well.

An electrical appliance house emxjloyed two hlind men on processes which i-r..d previously heen brought out in a Bed Cross

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'i'he possi'bilities I'or the "blind in industry are only just being xuicovcred. -i'he United Sta-tes is "beinj called on for a production v/hich is unpreceden':;ed in history. V/e have switched from a de'btor nation to a creditor nation and are jne of the very few nations v/ho have had our industries cjitouched bi' the war. The European coujitries ^aust receive their lAcchinery ajid supplies fro:a tj:e United States in order to carry on their reconstruction JJ'urthenaore, the European countries which for:iierly fiaanced wor.:. South A-aerica and- Asia and Africa to their puiL-"chf,ses are no longer It will now "be necessary for a"ble to crri' on this financing. these countries to appeal to the "United States if they a.re to It will now "be necessary for these councarry on this financing. tries to appeal to the U. S. if they are to ctrry on their "business It on the b^sis on which it has been carried on in the past. has been said thfi,t there are .-ver one niillion applications for passports in ^Jashington at the present time. At the sa le time, there is practically no iiumigration into this country from Europe, and hence, we are fr-oing a labor shortage brought on b:' a depletion of the labor supply v/hich has foruerly lieen made up by "Europe, and by great uanufacturing prosperity. if the roanufacturers of the coiintry are to produce up to their demand, they must have labor, i'he supply of able bodied men has largely disapperred, and practically the only source of supply no?/ left is the handicapped and those who have previously been considered unfit for production. Eow is tjie time for t^.e social and industrial a-:e'icie3 of the country to oorae together on a common Jsrogram for the "benefit of all. \te will then be able to meet oux einergeacy by the proper use of our humon resources a,3 well as by the proper use of our material.

At tne 3a.ae tiae, the war has brought on in this 30untry a larger realization oj a large group of people of their social responsibilities, and instead of the cold feeling of four years ago towaru h'Jiaanity in general, the average employer has a warm feeling toward his fellowinan. The social a:':encie3 have always been

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1^3 ana have olr^.ced the cenefits to the laan needing help s-hove ever^ other consideration. The tirae has now coiue when the social agencies and the eirnlojiiient a^encies can .?et together b;/ adopting a coniion standai-d for eiaploinaent and for employees. The social a^'ency in the past has oeen particnlarly interested in finding a job for the r.ian whe_-e he would "be thle to earn a day's pay, and in .aany jases tried to find the position regp.rdless of Wi.eti.er the ..;an efrned the pay or not. The e.i|^lo:er, on the other -and, has "been partic'Olarly interested in virhat the man could produce, and in most cases has not tried very hard to deterijiine whether a handicapped aan could turn out this product or not, './ith new standards being set which will "bring both to a corninon understanding, the future for the r.andicapped inen of all ages shoula oe exceedingly bright. The time is not far dist-^nt when the v/orld will look haci*: with horror on the previous years wl en the man who had been iiandicapped through some accident in industry, or throu<:?h an accident of nature, was unable to get a position, and was compelled to depend vipon che s;Tapathy of his fellow men rather tlian upon the ability of his ovm hands and his own brain. There will be man;'- blunders before this is completed, but when it is brought about, we will then have etitered a new social da,y. ens-Rged in worlc of this iiind,

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MOTION STUI^ Use of the ilOTION

PIiji'U^iE

CUiERA

As tlie surveys progress in the plants, roany operations appear which have a wide range of use and are highly repetitive, but the inan inalcing the s'orvey is not certain as to their adaptability to the hlind. On the other hand, nxany operations will be found in which there are many thousands of people In either of these cases the notion emplo^'ed in the country. picture camera can be used to a big advantage. In order to understand the methods eiaployed in handling different types of motion studies, it is necessary to have a thorou^gh understanding of the following: 'ihe technique of motions for educational purposes. 1. Unless especially trained, worlanen are seldom skilled in the It generally takes best method of performing any operation. a long time to determine the best method, and once this method has been determined, it is vary iijtportant that it be preserved and reduced to standard practice. Operations consist of a series of motions, and unless the motions are studied in detail, the operation cannot be taught th the new man. This is especially true in the case of the handicapped, since he must be taught to perform the operation without the missing facxilty.

2. The working elements of motion. A carefixl study of almost any series of motions will show methods of shortening opei'ations by A. Eliminating non-essential motions,

B.

shortening the essential motions,

C. so changing the order of the motion in the operation that certain operations will become unnecessary and will be eliminated. It sometimes becomes possible to eliminate parts of a motion which require faculties not possessed by a handicapped man by

a. substituting a simple contrivance for the lost sense or faculty, such as making use of a swivel chair for a legless man.

b. so changing the operation that the use of the lost faculty is not required. c. substituting machine operations for hand operations.

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It is a very safe maxim essentials of iTiachine design. not involve the use of the 7/hich operation does that any ""find','"sGlect" and "inspect," can be icnows as "search, motions In many cases, operations reduced to machine operations. which involve tnese fotir motions can be reduced to machine In many cases, operations hy changing the method of handling. the essential action of to discover a machine ty possible it is a careful study of the motions of xiie hands, remembering in all crises that it is the result and not the method that is reauired in the end, 3.

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4. 'i'he value of motion studies as a method of determining It is i.possible to determine what the proper fair piece rate. piece rate for performing a unit of wor^i is without a careful Once the data study of the detail motions of the operation. as to the proper time for each motion of the operation is available it is possible to determine quite accurately the correct piece i"ate for the operation by the process of synthesizing motions, lilETEOI?

OF STUBYINa 0PE11A.TI jNS

il-ie method to be used in studying any operation is determined Instudying any operc-tion entirely by the amount of work involved. or series of operations, consider first the verj' largest 'I'he over-all operations of the possible unit in the plant. plant must be studied to determine

1.

whether it is possible to eliminate certain operations

entirely. 2. whether it is possible to segregate operations of one type so that they liiay be all performed at one place more economically. '6. whether operations can be so planned as to place related operations together.

"ithen once the general plan of operations has been evolved, the individual operations may be studied in three different v/ays:

In case the operation does not require ohe full time of one employee, exa-aine the operation carefully in the light of the sixteen elements of motion, and determine which oan be eliminated, and how. 1.

the operation requires the full time of from one to four men it sho'old be studied by writing down e- en individual motion, eliminating motions where possible, and then timing the revised list of motions with a stop watch from twenty to one hundred or more times, '-^'he individus-l motions os.n thus be studied in the light of the stop wr.--ch reading ana shortened or eliminated vfherever possible, vhe motions can then be synthesized in the operation and the proper cost accurately determined. 2.

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where the operation is highly repetitive, and v/here it ij. is ijossible to make a large saving in dollars on the operation in SlUj single plant, the operation should he studied by a careful visual examination to deterroine, as ne'^rly as possible, the "best laethod of performance and then "07 means of the motion picture machine or, in other words, micromotion study. JO:0RO"J?O0?IOK

STUDIES

In making aicromotion studies, it is always well to remember that there are many thousands of dollars involved when this method is used, and that the accuracy of data and permanency of records are of first i portance; and that the cost of It obtaining these results is a secondary consideration. is, therefore, well to have the best materials and the v„ry best appartus for making such studies. Briefly, tne apparatus involved in loaking micromotion studies is as follows: 1. A motion picture studio, or aurroujidings motion picture studio, 2.

^hanging room,

3.

Light,

4.

Jilectric current,

5.

Motion picture

6.

Motion picture films, or raw stock,

7.

'rripod and bench for camera

8.

Screens

9.

Sign painter's apparatus

eous-l to

a

amera,

10. Clock 12.

Stereoscopic caiaera

15,

Dictating laachine, and

14. Necessary apparatus for

performing the operation.

The personnel required is as follov/s: 1,

A good director,

2.

Expert operator to perxorm the work bein^c studied, who

is known as the "star"

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6.

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these requirements one

n-ainliers

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Appartus 1.

Motion PjctTire Studio

since the cost of -^'he studio is an important factor, malcing motion pictures is so great and the results to be obtained "oj t\e use of proper surroundings are so much greater than the -he motion pioutre results to be secured in poor surroundings, studio should be at least ten feet wide by twentj-five feet long,

and should be fitted with several banks of mercury vapor lights A very good over hee.d, which can be turned on or off at v/ill. substitute for a studio is a rooia v/itn a skylight, and with It sometimes windows avimitting the light fro^:: the South V/est. becomes impossible to remove the operation to a studio. In such cases, it is wise to get studio conditions so far as possible in the plant. 'I'Lis can be done by properly illuminating This bhe space in the shop around the operation involved. should not be done, however except v;hen a.:solutely necessary, since the curiosity around the shoj) cannot be other than detrimental to shop discipline. 2 Changing

Room

In changing? from one film to another, a dark room should It is possible to do this v/ork inside of always be provided. a biaok cloth bag, but the operation is alws.ys very slov/ and laborious, and is not xo be reooiainended, except where absolutely necessary. 3.

Light

It sometij.es occurs ths.t the internal lighting in the studio is not siifficient xo give the proper illumination, and outside

Very good lights for this purpose are These ai-e open arc lights, hpving the reflector at the b^ck and sides, so that the light .lay be thrown in practically a straight line, ^i/hen using these lights, it is very important that the"Star" be warned totjto gaze at the light any length of time, since these lights v/ill cause electric ophthalmia. The mercury vapor light is very good for overhead lighting, but due to the fact that that tubes are more or less fre^ale and cannot be moved frora "Irce to piace, the;' are hardly adaptable except as local lights. When lights are not available to handle the operation, the same resxilt can painting all of the importsmt sometimes be obxained in a way parts of t-.e machine white, and then taking the picture imder regular factory conditions. The only difficulty v/ith this is that one is never certain v;hen the picture is being taken, just wh'.t part of the action is going to be necessary in /iiaking lighting must be provided.

knov/n as the Kleigel lighxs.

'Xt'j

the final study.

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4.

G-orrent

serve the li.^?lit where a special motion pictiire studio amperes and 220 volts, or 150 is not provided recuires about 75 size amperes and 110 volts, or even aore, depending upon the of the objedt which .aust tie photographed. I'o

0.

Camera

motion There are several good csmeras on the market for t king is exiDensive most the pictures. -The very best, as well as This r^j he used where all tne orob^-olv the Bell Howell camera. There is, however, a hand made camera 'surroundings are ideal. from the Bass known as the U.S. compact, which niay be purchased very are which cameras Other Camera Gomoany of Chicago. i;ew naanufactured Pathe, are: satisfactory for the purpose Co. James and Burke by sold Camera York City, the Universal Chicago, Chicf^o; and the Schusek Camera, manufactured in

m

,

g.

Motion Picture i'ilms

or five No day's v/ork should be beg-un without at least four easily or hand on negatives pictvire thousand feet of motion so ti.at accessible. All magazines should be kept loaded, changing films. in lost be need time great no case of long a:iti^n, considerable in this class of T'he amount of film used is always work.

m

^

7.

'Jripod and Benches for Camera

wise to In handling the motion picture camera it is always small three have on hand a chair, one large table, and two or which platforms tsbles with -onfinished tops or two or three small on set be can be moved around at will, so that the camera n;s.y close up or over top of the benches in order to ta^e the pictur s the head of the operator. 8.

Screens

screens must be In order to measure the length of the motion, I'he vertical floor. the pl-ced at the back of the operator and on s operator the to screen tmist be oiaoed at the back, as close screen horizontal The side as is convenient for rapid work. must show in tne must be placed under the feet of the operator and deciding a is movement picture where^fever the length of the herewith shown those are v/ork vhe best screens for this factor, on a lines black have should as Figure 1. One of these screens have should other the and bacKground, gray or white or yellowish should backgro-ond black The whiie lines on a blac: background. the vertical screen. be used for the floor, the white b ckground for heavy lines These should be marked in four inch squares with

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^1 indicating the divisions, ./hen measuring; the lengths oftnotions in the film, thisjf/ill fe,cilitate determininir the exact lengths, Other types of by interpolation of dista.:ce shown on the screen. screens can "be used, but the possibility of moving the screen and its adaptability to being- Laoved from place to place must always be considered, and it is believed that the type of screen shown will be cheaper in the long run. 'iVhere the permanent mcromotion study laboratory is established, it is possible to have permanent screens on the wall and on the floor by simply painting In all cases, the raaterial used must not the proper divisions. reflect the li<5h.t. 9,

Sign Painter's Apparatua

There should be on hand a sign painter's table or bench, a full sxipply of sign painter's pens, India ink, gray card board in pieces of si es Sfj by 12 inches, S|- "q^ 18 inches, 2-|- by 24 inches, and 5 by 24 inches. About twenty-five pieces of each size of this card board will be req^u.red for each day's photographing. 1©.

Scene

j:'itmiberg

nuabers can be provided by the use of calendar pads shO'j:-ld always be of sucli size that they will appear on the film from one to "cwo percent as high as the picture. The numbers from calendars should be white figures on It is always wise to select sheets of different a black field. size letters from calendars to select sheets of different size letters from calendars of this sort. The numbers cen be cut out of the calendars with sissors and fastened to^-ether by means of paper clips. »>cene

of different sizes, i'lgures

11.

Clocks

The clocks for making these pictures are the most important The only suitable clock on the feature of the entire s-pparatus. F.B. market is the one handled by llr. &ilbreth of Providence, Ehoj.e Island. In es.ch picture there must be at least ibwo clocks: A. The ir.icromoxion eloci:, the liand of which revolves at twenty revolutions per minute. The dial of the clock is divided into one hujidred divisions, so that e^ch division of the clock '-i-'he clock has no escapement is one two-thousandth of a rainute. This and therefore the reading is accurate at all times. clock is a ver^/ delicate piece of mechanism, and in aioving it around from place to place, it should be carefully packed. It should never be entrusted to express companies unless packed in an especially padded trunk*

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alarm clock, which has "but one hand revolving aroun.d the face once per minute. This clock has no escapement, and csonsequently the reading is accurate to the hundredth part of a minute, and "by interpolation, the readings can "be made to the thousandth part of a minute. y:'his clock is encased in an alarm cIock caseo 3.

Vftien it is necessary to photo2:raph over a large amount of time, or v/hen it is necessary to leave off photographing for any length of time, due to changing the operation, the ordinary alarm clock, fron which the glass has heen removed is also placed These three clocks should oe very carefully in the picture. regulated, so that each one is running accurately. The picture must always show whether two clocks or three clocks are used,

12.

Stereoscopic Cariera

In reading films, and in aaking machine designs, it is frequently necessary to have an accurate idea of the conditions in all dimensions V7hich existed at the time, vhis can only fee gained ty means of a stereoscopic photograph of the set. This picture is not always necessary while the film is being read, "but it is impossi'ble to tell just when the necessity is likely to arise. The 'jaraera should always "be on hand and one picture should be taken of every set, and properly identified on the note book. 13.

Pictating I'LacMne

In making every ..lotion stud;/- iaiportant enoiogh to require the use of a motion picture machine, iniportant items are constantly arising and idees occurring to the director and otherK, In order to jiave a coia.plete record later on as to the peculiar features of the operation and surroundings, these ideas should be placed in permanent form imiTiediately, to be transcribed later and used with the motion picture films while they are being read. For this purpose, possibly the best apparatus is the Edison dictating roachine, with a liberal supply of skaved records. In diciis,ting to the machine, it is always important that the name of the operator, the date, and the reasons for dictating the items be included in the dictation to give a complete index to the portion of the film concerned. 14.

liecessary Apparatus for Performing the Ope--ation

iTeedless to say, it is impossible for a woricman to do his best unless the conditions existing in the factory are duplicated in the studio. This sometimes seems to take a considerable expense, but in an operation which is to be studied with the motion picture, the cost is not to be compared with the benefits to be gained. The maeiine or apparatus should be set up in the studio exactly the ssAde as they appear in the factory, so far as possible, unless it has been found by previous experiments that some b.:tter method already exists for performing this operati n. In this case,

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tlie

Personnel 1.

A Good

iPirt'Ctor

The director of the scene must be a first class engineer, who thoroughly understnads the v/hole purpose of the wcrk. 'I'he director shall, at all times, have control of the work, and shall give all orders to the "Star" csuaera men, and others coniieated with the scene, -i-'he director is responsible for the finil outcome of the picture. 2.

Expe rt Wo rkman or Op ^ rat or

One of the purposes of motion pict-ure study is to determine Therefore, the operator the best way in doing a piece of work. who works in the scene, or in other words, the star should be the best operator in the plant lor this class of work. In addition, the operator shoiild be given a saa.ll incentive for doing the operation in the very best vay that is knov/n. Sometimes a piece of the film v;hich has been made of a short operation is sufficient to get the very best work done, especially if the operator happens to be girl or a woma,n. 3.

A good Camera Han

'i'he camera man ca^ either make the picture a decided success from the standpoint of photography or he can make the picture almost mireadable, depending upon his ability and attention. It is, therfore, necessary?" that a first class caiae:.-a man be provided, and that he give his undivided attention to the production of a good picture. It is well to impress upon him, when taking a picture, that it is detail that is wanted, not artistic

beatity. 4.

A Good hlectrician

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A Good Sign Painter

A sign painter must te provided who is an expert on "bold Gothic littering. In doing this work, both speed and neatness arc prime req.uisites. 'i'!here there is a great deal of this work to be done, it will pay to have two sign painters on the job, since one rnay not be able to letter the signs rapidl. enough. It is well to study the work ahead at all times so tiiat a list of signs rnay be given hira to make up in advance while the scene is going on. Tneve are very few sign painters who are able to do this work well, and the rate for this class of work is froni one dollar to one dollar and fifty cents per hour. Do not attempt to use second rate sign painters. 5.

A Go od Attendant to Watch ^cene

I.u-nbers

The scenes that appear in the picture, and the scene numbers are of extreme importance when matching up the negatives and wnen reading the film. One person should make it his business to see that the scenes are properly placed, and that the scene numbers are put in the pictures and chan^-ed often enough to clearly show the different divisions of the film, '^'he most coim-non error made in scene numbering is in not putting in enough nuabers. If the attendant thoroughly unaerstands the work, he or she need not be a first class engixieer, but shoxQd be someone who is endeavoring to learn motion picture study, and who, therefore, has a great deal of interest in doing the job v/ell.

General Instructions be photographed, machines must alv/ays be so placed that they can be illuminated without light shining into the camera. One screen must be hung vertically so that each picture will show the star and the apparatus in front of the vertical screen. It is generally best to use the screen with the black lines on the light background for a vertical screen, since this gives the masiraum The norizontal screen must be placed on the floor illugiination. at tight angles to the vertical screen in such a way that the lines on the two screens aatch. V/hen tiie screens have been placed, the apparatus upon wnich the star worics should be placed as near as possible in tiie angle fonued by the two screens and near the center of the screen. The light should be placed imaediately outside the range of the camera in such a way -that it will illuminate the center of attention in the picture. All other apparatus, such as dictating machine, sign painter's bench, etc. should be out of t:.e picture entirely. 'i'o

The caiuera must be set as near to the appar-tus -^s possible to take in all the desired moti^jns. It is generally well to take the picture first from a sufficient distance to cover tie entire apparatus, and second, close up, showing the details as required. The cair.era can be raised or lowered into position either by means of a tripod, or "oj means of a bench which has been provided. The camera uiaxi must watch his illumination, i.is film, and his focus at all times.

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It is well to reraemter in taking liiicromotion piotuxe studies that the cajiiera must be so focused as to show the laaxirr.u.i detail i'Le center of attention is generally at the center of attention. the operation; for instance, in assembling the vital point of attention of v/ill be the bench on the center a gasoline engine, '.Te are not perticular about asse.uoled. which the pai-ts are being the ajid if it suits purpose of the stud;/-, picture, the looks of the cut off. ..lay be entirel; the star the head of

7^

One of the idost i.-portant things to be taken into consideration in takiiig microinoticn picture studies is the signs. Signs s.re placed in the picture while the operator is working, or in case preliminary signs are required, they are either fastened to the frame vrork of the apparatus and left there dui-ing the entire scene, or placed in the scene, one at a time, until the preliminary signs have been used. Explanation signs are alway placed in the picture while the operation is being perfon-aed. 'fhe signs must be held level, and it is a very good role to place a saall wire stand on one end of the sign while the director holds the other in Ihen in doubt as to the amount of explanation required, his hsAd. the best rule is to re:ae:n.ber that no picture v/&,s ever photographed which contained too much inforraation.LIany times an element in the operation seems to be a small and insignificant detail while the apparatus is working; but it is not at all easy for the fild reader to supply the explanation of the detail iron ti.e pictures, v.'henever possible, a complete list of the signs that are going to be required should be handed to the sign painter in advance, ^hese signs should alYirays be arranged in their proper places on the bench, so that each sign may be piciced up at the right tine during the set. 'ihe nai-ae 'i-'his list should be saved a-id sent to the film reader, of the -ompany whose work is being photographed, the date, special data as to the surrounding vveather conditions, the name f the star the naiae of the operation, the place where the pict-ore is taicen, and the name of the process of which the operction is a part should always^be noted for every set.

Before starting work on a picture, be sure to have on hand a loose leaf note book in w-.ich to keep these notes. A convenient size is the !•? Loose Leaf Binder iJo. 105 v/ith Lefax filler. Use Eo. 13, which consists of cross section paper with ten divisions to the inch to loa.re a diagram of the positions of the screens, operator, camera, and other items of interest. The best speed for talcing pictures ordinarily is 16 exposures 'co the second. Vifhen, however, the motions are extremely rapid and it is desired to determine facts regarding the motion ^hat cannot oe learned by the use of the orclinary film, difficult parts 01 the action laay be ta^en at a much gr : ter si;eed. Pictures have been taken at the rate of four hundred pictures oer second.

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Care should be taken to 1. iDe stire that the n-mnbers are chaiit-ed often enoiigh to certain what each scene is and where it begins. 2.

place the nuxabers in some spot

v/iiere

aa-ce

they can easily be seen,

3. see that the nuiabers are the ri^rht size to be in the picture, and yet not obscure the vital parts of the set. Vilien charting the action, be sure that the operator is allowed to carry throujjh exiough cycles to enable you to see just what you vrnt in the picture, and arrange your set so as to be able to It is v/ell to remembGr that raw film stock take in these items. is expensive, and when irov. take more pictures than are desired, you are using considerable amount of money. On the other hand, it is expensive to leave out vital actions. On short cycles, at least three com[:)lete cj'Cles should be obtained. On longer cycles, tv/o should be sufficient.

When starting on a new lot of films, be sure to take a test piece, one or two feet long, to determine 1.

the quality of stock

2.

the exposure required for taking.

3.

the exposure required for developing.

Each roll of films must be enclosed in a box which is impervious to light, '''he smallest lea:cage of light will spoiii an entire roll of film, i'he film should be sent at once to a comiaercial laboratory for development, or if a private l8.boratory is available, it should be sent there, ihe diagrau shown as 3"ig. 2 -.ill give a very good idea of a proper arrangement for a small private laboratory. As a general rule, the pieces of negative are mixed up considerably in the process of development. 'I'hey must then be arranged in their proper order and pieced together. The piec^ing of negatives is not always an easy task, 'i'he best method is to arrange the pieces into piles according to scene nuiabers and properly label them in piles. Then start with the beginning of the scene and wind the film on a reel, fastening the proper ends together as

you go. A most convenient apparatus for

aiatchinq* films

consists of:

1. a repaire table. This consists of a small metal table from the center of one side of which a section six in. wide by ten long has been cut and covered with groujid glass. A strong inazda

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7y light is placed vuider the glass. Ahout tv;o feet to the ri^ht is placec a; film' winder and two feet to the left a reel holder. A diagraia of this tahle is shovm herewith as j'ig. 3. 2.

A sefety r'~zor blade.

3.

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la piecing films, proceed as follows: 1.

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2. Cut the last picture off sqiiarely ahout one quarter of an inch from the forward end with a safety- razor hlade. 5.

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at the edge. 6. Place the end of the first picture on the second piece of film against the end of the last picture on the first piece of film taking care that the emulsion side of each piece is toward you, and that the holes in the edge of the film are uie^tched

perfectly. 7.

Hole the ends t.gether until the cement sets.

The light "onder the groutid glass is of great value in finding the end of the pict\ire, and in determining whether the holes of the mended portion coincide exactly, /or printing purposes, negatives should "be made up in four hundred feet rolls, i'he negatives caa then oe sett to the printing room, and the positives printed, ViThen the positive is printed, it should he pieced together into one thousand feet rolls, so that the action follows in consecutive oruer. Usa the sa;ae method for piecing the positive that was uaed in .iiatching negatives. i'ilm ^ieading

In studying this kind of work, it is well to rcviev/ the purpose of motion study, ^o facilitate reading, all motions rna "be divided as follows: 1. SEAEGH is the motion required in seeking an obje;t upon which work is to "be performed. Search may "be with the eyes, hands, or any other part of the "body, and represents the period of uncertainty as to the location of any piece of work or any tool.

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lU Z. E'liro consists of loc:.ting the piece upon which the work is to be perl'ormed and takes into consideration the time following the moment when "search" hes been completed, and v/hen "selection" or

"grasp" begins. 8. SELECT is the operation of determining which piece to use in performing the worK. lieedless to say, t .ese three motions should be avoided v/herever possible. In ;;iost cases, they represent waste motion, and whenever they represent any considerable portion of an operation, a study should be raade to ascertain whether elimination is possible. They also prevent the use of automatic machinery.

consists of taking hold of a piece, and holdin? it afterwards is required; for instance, the operation of holding a board while it is being sawed in two would be known as "grasp". 4.

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5. POSITIuii consists of changing the position of a piece with relation to the hanas, fingers, or other part of the body, so that it loay be ready for the next pperation; after a ha-iii: ler has "'o^QXi grasped, turning the hautiier so that the saall end su8,ll be available for a riveting operation is known as "positioning" tiie hairrraer.

AS3Ei;3EL consisos of placing two pieces or more together for further use; for instance, placing tY;ro halves of a core box together so ths,t they may be filled with sand is an assembly operation as much as placing the parts of an engine together during the process of assembling 6.

the engine. 7. U3i consistis of performing the actual operation connected with the tool; for instance, when a wrench has bi^en placed on a nut, the turning of the nut with the v/rench is a "use" operation of the wrench.

8. DISASoE/'IBLS consists of taking pieces apart which have been previously placed together; for insta-ce, taking two halves of a .;ore box apart after the core has been mr.de is known as a "disassemble" operation. S INSPECT consists of testing a piece for defects. This testing may be ill the form of visual inspection, inspection with the fingers, or in any other v/ay.

10 TiiAijSPjHT LOADKD consists of moving a piece from one place to another. 11 PHEPOSITIOI-I consists of putting a tool which has been used into position for the next operation; for instance, if a hammer has been used for riveting, and it is necessary to turn the handle in order to place the haimaer in the rack, this is known as "proposition" for the

next operation.

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12, .\ELEAoE LOAD consists of motion of letting go of the piece after the operation has "been perf oruied. 'ihis applies whether it is the fingers allov/in-? the piece to drop, or a heavy imchine operation, such as dumping the earth irom a drag hucket.

13. 'i'RAlfSPOIlT EiiPTY consists of moving the hand or some other part of the "body from one position to anotner without the load. "Transport empty would also apply to a dray moving from one place to another without its load.

14 AVOIDABLE DELAY consists of those dels-ys which the operator can avoid by properly handling his work and exercising the In many cases, this delay consists of necessary energy. ordinary loafing. 15 UEAv'OIjA^LE LELAY refers largely to delays caused hy others. It refers to those delays over which the operator has no control. 16. DELAY FOR OYESJO:.:iEG FATIGUE period on the job.

fAIcSS

m

the necessary rest

i'or the purpose of writing down findings, a short hand scheme for designating the motion has oeen devised, in which each one of the movements has "been reduced to a symbol. I'o facilitate charting, a color scheme has been arranged so that a synopsis of the operations can be easily read from a color chart. The following is an explanation of the code and the color scheme:

KOTIOII

COLOH

METHOD OF

SYI-IBOL

HEJ'.1EIIBEEIUG

SY!.CBOL

Search

Violet

jxep resents

the eye

with the "ouoil in the oornarr the e:,'e with the puDil in the center

jiind

Light green

Select

^.ediuEi

Grasp

Olive Green

Position

Yellow

i-^ep

Assemble

Chrome Yellow

Represents four strsinds of cotton woven together

Sisassemble

Orange

itepresents the assembled fibres with one of the

xtep resents

green

Hepresents an arrow pointing to a p&rtioular object

/^

-^^

Represents a strav/berry stemmer ready to ta^ce off the stem of a berry resents a marble on the end of the fingers ready to place.

V

fibres taicen away

,

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7^

p

Light Pinic

Inspect

Piepre;ents a .aagnifying

class itepresents a hand carrying a iDali in the pain

J.-ted

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r.epresents a "bov/ling pin ready for the player

Release Load

.^adder

Sep. the palm of a hand upside down, the oall ready to fall out.

I'ransport

Jiurnt

oienna

a hand with the hall out of it

iiep.

S,.ipty

Unavoida'ble

Hep. a ;nan who has r.stuh'bed his toe a:::d fallen face downv/ard

uobalt

Delay

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Hep. a roan lying on his

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Black

Delay for

Kep. a man sitting in a chair

Overcoirdng ?atifnie

h

In typewritin:^ codes, it is sometijies possihle to use initials to represent these motions; for insts-nce, the following is now being used b^ a large viroodwo rising concern:

Hun4 (search)

H

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Select

S

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Transport Loaded

L

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Position

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11

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I

A H

A K

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operation

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tired (delay f rove rooming fatii^ej

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Preposition for Operation

p

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Careless or avoidaole delay

i^est

Kelease Load

The meaning of the headin^rs given below is as follows: I

Intelligence

F.

A

Arms

L

Legs

H

Hands

If

vision

i'ingers

E Hearing

Wherever a letter oC'jTirs beneath one of these headings it indicates that this particular faculty is required to perforgi this operation wherever it occurs, and wherever the Goluimi is blank, it means that this faculty is not required to per;;'orta this operation.

:-^OTION

I

A H S F L V

Peculiarity

Search

I

A H

5'

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S'ind

I

A H

11

Select

I

A E F Y

Can generally be avoided by making selection before material has becoae confused, and by keeping lots in selected form.

A E

A machine operation

Grasp

F L

V

Time

Position

A K

Transport Loaded

A E

F

.005-. 005

Should generally be performed as part of a second operation Jjlachine OTseration

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Machine operation 'i'ime: .003-. 005

F L

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F

llachine operation

Time :,004-. 006 Uns.voidaole Delay lioida'ble Delay

Delay for >Jverconiing Fatigue The utility of this ta^ole ca"n 'be readily understood frora the following instructions given to the field engineers of the A*nerican lied Gross. When inspecting eji operation, it is alv/ays well to examine it in the light of this ta"ble; for instance, if an operation does not recuire one of the six elements of Motion that are listed under vision, it is not necessT:. to recuire vision for that particular operation, unless the safety condition enters in going to and co.aing from worK. In that case, the thin?r that you want to v/atch is whether there is some way 'uLat the difficulties from the safety standpoint can "be overcome.

that if one of the six eleaents of motion mentioned should he included in an operation that a olind man a-ninot handle the work, "because it :aay "be possihle to suhstituue the hands, the fingers, or even the arras for tne operation that is now performed hy the ?yes. A very good illustration of this found in the typewriter, where the hands and fingers take the place of the eyes entirely in tne "searca", find and select operations while the eyes are not used on the assenihle" and "use" operations. Inspection is taken care of "by another party who measures up the opeaation 'becomes quantity of work done, and thus> the entire one for the fingers and the hanus, and vision is not required. -ou will find The saj-ae thing is true of a wide range of operations, comparatively fev/ operations wiiere the eyes are not used now. The question for you to decide is whether the hands and fingers can he .nade to take the place of the eyes on the operation as perfornied. It does not necessarily .aean, however,

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"

gl In the case of the arms, you will not find any one operation where In the arms are used for all the elements of motion as noted. many cases it will be possible to substitute the eyes for the arns on "search, " "findV and 'select operations. In fact that is v/hat is -he same thing is true with the hands and fingers. generally done, It will be necessary for you to examine each notion in detail in order to determine v;hich of the faculties are used in performina- that motion, and then to deter;;iine whether soae other faculty can tsice the place of the faculty that is being used, thereby eliminating soiae of the r quireraents of the job. You laust remember, however, that it is not a good policy to eliminate the req_uirenients of the job if it seems that you are going to cut down the output.

In case of the legs, "grasp" operations, "release load" operations, and "use" operations are generally included when substitution is j.n fact, in an ordinary shop made for tiie arms and hands. manufacturirig a straight line Jroduot, the legs are the easiest thing for which to find a substitute, since a stool, in inany cases, can take the place of the legs.

Perhaps the place where the biggest showing is aia,de is in the It is v/ell to remember that any intelligence qualifications. operation which does not require intelligence very seldom requires a A machine can nearly always be devised to take the place of the man. man, where intelligence is not involved. It will be surprising to find out how many such operant ions there are, and you will find that the thing for you to do is to wa-uch out for this point in making your studies. Kor is the above the only use which can be made of this table, The examination for p.utomatic machinery is even better. For instance, when more than standard time is taken in any case, something is generally wrong, and on the average, it will be found that this holds true over a ;,ide range of industrial operations today. \>lien, for instance, more time is taken for grasp s-nd release load operations than that given in the table, a different sort of grasping device is devised, and, as a general rule, this is very simple when you understnad v;hat is to be done. Perhaps the tool is too poorly placed; perhaps it is too far away from the worker; perhaps the worker's attnetion is diverted; perhaps there are unnecessary fatigues-often the lack of a foot stool. All of these things and other items will appear when you study the laotions frorr. the standpoint of their require.nents.

Iiathemacics on B.:.ology by Elderon is a v;ry good book to give some idea of tne possibilities of charting motions. A chapter headed ^Arrangement s for Greater Irrrp roveaent s will' be af special i-nterest

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n^ A very good curve study of any chart to every film reaaer. will be afforded 'by the following: Chart 1. This will be each of the sixteen subdivisions arranged in accordance with the total length of time in which each of thea appears in the siiaultaneous raotion cycle chfrt. Ohart 2. Vhis will be the sixteen subdivisions arranged in the same way accordii.g to color that they appear in Chert 1, but this chr.rt will be for t^.e nuinber of tin:es that each one of the subdivisions ocoxirs in the simultaneous motion cycle chart. Chart arrsuiged

3. This will be average time of the sixteen subdivisions in acuordauice with their quantity.

Chart 4. This will be the minimum time in each of the sixteen subdivisions.

A study of these

chrrrts,

in many cases will give you the cue

for labor saving devices. To thoroughly familiarize the moving pict-ore reader with the terms, we would advise tne beginner to take an operation v/ith which h.e is familiar, and mentally apply the proper designations to the elements of motion as observed, 'i-'he terns are as applicable to biscuit making as to core making or as to ball playing or chair finishing. For instance, carrying flour to the bowl would be 'transport loaded* taking the biscuits from the pan would be disassemble, etc.

However there are some terms which are confusing even to those most experienced in the science of ..lotion; for instance, to a question as to the difference between "transport empt; * and search the leading exponent of motion study replied: "Transport empty is used only when the working member has find and select in view-in other words, the turning from a transport loaded operation. If Beach is an element, you have iramediately search, find, select to considered.** We have again: "Tne purpose of search is to cause the worker to look to the location of materials and tools. It is important to emphasize this so as to /-ave standardized location, If there obvious sequence, automsxio notation as to location. is no use for the eye when the hands go to a tool or part, then the "be

use is transport empty."

term

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It is well for "che film reader to know what the purposes of reading are from the beginning, 'i'hey are;

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reduce the time required for each operation considered on the and niaice it possible for an en^-ineer to get a ;:jraphic idea film, of tiuie when viev/ing the pictiire itself. 1.

'i'o

2. I'o enable the worker to jjet the easy irriprovements before the higher priced engineer attempts to look for the more difficult ones. 3.

--'o

reduce the findin^-s to a x^ermanent form.

4.

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give a graphic representation of the motions.

personnel required in film reading consists of one operator be either a woman or an engineer who is beginning his training as a time study :aan. 'x'he operator will turn the crsjik of the projecting ioachine and tell the ti.ae at the beginning and the end of the motion, to a recorder, 'i'he recorder should be a young lady who can write long ha,M frora dictation. '^'he

who

;Tiay

'i'he

materials required for film reading are as follov/s:

1. An ordinary room at ler-.st ten feet long v/hich can be easily darkened, xhe room can be totally darkened if preferred, but this ia not necessary.

iJ'ilm

2. One Americs.n Projectoscope, manufa'jtured "oj the American Company of Chicago. This should be the hand driven model.

3. One screen three feet by four feet which v/ill not reflect the light. A white plaster wall cot:,ted with bluish v/hite paper is the best. A light -jray may also be used.

4. One table on which to set the machine with sufficient additional space for note paper or for mending films. V/here possible a square hole should be cut in the side of this desk and fitted with ground glass under which is an electric light, so as to permit easy work with films. A diagrara is shown herewith as Figure 3. b.

One tB,ble or desk l^.rge enough to permit one person to write

notes, 6.

Slectric connections for both laap and Projectoscope.

A. One electric light for the recorder's use. This may be either a desk lamp or a standing lamp with reflector. ". The cost of nitrogen electric bulbs for the projecting machine is four dollars each, and these may be bought from the American Brojectoscope Go. of Chicago, i'he £.v..-rage life of a nitrogen electric bulb for a Projectoscope is seventy-tv/o hours, according to the American Projectoscope ^^o. A light may be used for months, however.

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turning/off while the reader v/rites notes. Frequent turnin.9: off of the light has the douole advantage of saving light current, and reducing the possihility of setting fire to the film. The plug of the Projectoscope wears out if too frequently re..ioved, so it is "best -0 place a switch at the end of the table vmere the projectoscoue is placed, allov/ing a sufficient leng-h of cord "betvreen the t.?"ble ai:;d wall socket to permit the Pro,jectoscope xo be placed at different distances from the wall. A Benjamin lio. 92 multiple light cluster is very good as it permi-cs you to attach light and lantern to the same wall socxcet. The reading light is provided with a swit :h o- its own. "by

7.

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A cons

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1.

One extra reel for the Projectoscope. Eeels with steel spools are preferred to those with wooden centers, 'i^he wood v;ears down and fails to catch on the ridge in the center of the magazine, "..hen fitting the reel onto the axis, hold the axis firmly with one hand, turn the reel around, pressing it forward until it catches on the edge of the axis. The scraping sound, when manipulating the machine is an indication that the reel has slipped from the ridge. 10.

In turning a Pro jectoscope, follov; the suggestions given in the directions which come wi-ch the machine. 1% is well to remem"ber the follov/ing: 1.

Kever

2.

In case of fire inside the Projectoseope,

haste

doors open v/hen the light is lit. do not open the

The fire will smother itself automatically if the doors are doors. kept closed. 3. 'i/hen running the film, "be sure to vfatch the inside of the Projectoseope carefully through the window .uo see that the machine is working properly.

4. After using the machine eight hours, it should "be oiled. The small screw on the right side of the Projectoseope at the top of the machine "box covers an oil hole. 5. The glossy side of the. film should "be on the inside. If the letters look as if reflected in a rairror on the screen, it is "because the glossy side is not on the inside.

Sometimes the films, after having been used, or after having 6. In this case, put the been mended, have the end at the "beginning. reel in the left hand magasine and wind o1|to the reel in the magazine at the right. To rewind the film, turn off the uiachinery by pressing down the lever under the outside lens. Slip the film that is coming

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^r out of the left hand reel over the cogs of the left feed socket at the right side on the reel in rns^t^azine 1 on the rif^ht side. Use the smallest handle on the axis of i:iaf!:azine 1 ar,d turn forward. To t\irn on the machinery, press the "button just ahove the lever. 7. ^jThen the film glides through the Projectoacope with no auaible snap, the film gate is open pro'bahl^, and often causes the films to be injured. Another isgn that the film gate is open is when the picture on the screen wabhles.

8. i'he framing device in the left hand corner of the left door of the i.iachine inay "be used to refranie a picture, "but care shoiild "be used as the filra does not always fit the holes over the cogs and causes the film to split at the holes. If a picture is continually getting out of frame, that is, if the black lines are not just at the bottom and top, it is a sign that the holes are injured, 'i'he film should be. inunediately patched at the point of the defective holes, or the split holes will cause the filra to deteriorate still further. 9. Patching films has alres-dy been laentioned; but in the .niddle the of reel it is not suitable to rev/ind the film onto one reel in order to laend it. To mend film, remove edges from the roller to talce long leads from each nagazine. Scrape if desired, and cement over the glass in the table. If ground glass is not r;vailable, a glass ink well is very well adapted to this purpose, provided an electric Ifght is placed just above the ink well. The bottle holds the film in position and keeps the dtill side of the ends right side ap<,

A horizontal slit across the top of the American Projectoscope would have the folio-wing advantages: 1. 'i'he film, still on the reel, could -.e removed from the Prljectoscope and replaced, thus expediting changing frora one reel to another by eliroinnting rewinding. 2. It would enable the reader to hold her place by replacing the film in the gate just 8,s it v/as taken out.

2. It would enable the film reader to make a correct mend on a regular fil..i mending apparatus suid then replace the film in the machine.

Poor cement is of-en a cause for poor patching, 'i'he Parkway motion pictxire house uses cement that can be bought at 412 East Lexington Street, Baltiiaore. Porr patching is the cause of much tearing of films. In mending broken films be sure to have the brushes clean. Some film manufp-ctxiring companies use a brush stuck in a cork and kept constantly moist in the cement to keep it soft. The handle of the brush extends only half way into the cork to avoid the possibility of evaporation. Sharp bends will cause tne film to t'ear in going through the i-'rojectoscope. Decided bends should be cut out of the film.

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If the stireeri is dark, although the lantern is lit, the film has In this sase, wind the film onto the reel by probably piled inside. hand, and shorten the belt by turning the screw that is luider the outside lens, to the left tvro or three tiiaes. So.:ietines before you have discovered the difficulty, the filu has wound around the fe^id socket In this case, remove the film from the mafz:azine, release several times. the cap above the feed socket and untangle the film.

At thecase of the front of the Projectoscope, there are two screws A picture may be placed high or to regulate the length of the legs. low according to the length of the legs, Sometiiaes two pictures of the same opei'ation are equally clear. To determine which is better to read in detail, count the total nui.aber of revolutions of the lower clock auring each operation, and I'ead tr.e picture of the operation which is done in the shorter time. Tnen determining what pict-ore to choose for reading, select one taken at normal speed and with no breaks in the action so far as can be judged. Someximes the action is continuous although the time is not, owing to the fajt that, ohen the picture was taken, the negative gave out before In this case, make two charts, and the operation was completed. The picture tsJcen when the "star" is working of each. add the elapsed time at short distance from the camera that do not taken a slowly ana pictures finding out those points that are not for we used include the clock, the"star" when worx^ing slowly csjanot Since picture. other clear in the at normal speed, the slow working when motions as ma.ce the asjae as to what probabli-" occurs in the suggestions must be read &,s pictures actual facts. basis for than a rather as pictures, fast

Vhen beginning upon an unfarailiar operation, it is well for the reader, if possible, to find out the technical terms of the tools and parts, ihether she uses the technical terms or her ovm terras to describe the tools, diagrams shotild be drav/n to illustrate. In reading the films, the operator first turns the crank at normal speed to determine what the operation is. Then she turns the pictuj^e bacicwards to the begiiining and studies tr.e movements in detail. The operator calls the name of the motion and the time to the recorder, who sets down each aotion with the necessary detail and its time on the micromotion sheet, shown herewith as i'orm 1. In rer.ding, it might be well to remember that all parts of the bidy will not be performing the same motions at the same timd, for instance, the left hand may be "grasping" while the right hand is "using" and at times the fingers roay be "grasping" while the hand is "using." These must be noted very carefully in order that improvemenbS iaay be made. As the v/ork progresses, the operator and recorder will notice items which are of interest, and in many cases will see possibilities for improvement. These should either be included on the noxe sheet as the work progresses, or sho'old be noted on the she;is of a special loose leaf note book, to be later typewritten and fastened to t:.e chart itself.

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^/. "be sure to note on cross section paper, the article being worked upon. See fforiri 2. It may te possi'ble to determne tiie reason for different tiaies reouired for the sa:.ie operation. These reasons should he noted, s.nd the different kinds of motions should he put on cross section paper for co .ipariosn and record.

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'i'he motions for each part of the body must "be follovred through the entire cjcle, and the clocii reading of each motion entered in the first colwiin of the iiiicroaotion sheet, ihe s^/ahol representing its proper classif i'jation, and the work done oy this rioveaent is set down in the ooluTin headed "Elementary I&tions Shov/n on Filra. " It is c-cenerally "best to follow tiiroujh one part of tlie ""oody, and then go "oeck and get the same infor;.i-".tion for soiae other part, and so on, until completed, althoxigh it is possi'ble, at times, to carry notations for "both hands at once, particularly if they work in harmony. It is very iraport--nt that all parts of the "body involved in the operation "be followed through very carefully, so that the engineer, going over the final charts, may he ahle to get a graphic idea of the movements.

On each micromotion sheet, there should he the nwaher of the reel and scene, the subject of the scene, the name of the i.ianui'acture, where xsicen, and the name of the "starT 'j-'he pages of each sheet should he numbered, and the da-;e of the reading noted, 'iliis data is very important as it ties the charts, films, and micromotion si-eets to>-:ether. It ma;.- be well to repeat here that the lower clock makes twenty revolutions to the minute, while the upper clock revolves once a minute, "ii/'hile the lov/er cloche revolves tw4ce, the upper cIoc'k has just moved through one of its ten aivisions. In other wor s, the small clock moves through one division in six seconds, while the large clock tables three seconds for one complete reipolution. iLe smallest division in the lower clock is one two-thousandth of a minute. £'or the purpose of teaching the blind, the position of zhe tool or part could be described in terms of the positions of the hands of an ordinary clock-quarter after, half past, o_uart«r to, or on the These positions could be recorded in the last vacant hour, etc. column of the micromotion sheet. Of course, a fixed point would iiave to be selected as a centero 'ile should also suggest that a separate list of tools and apparatus used in each operation be ms.de. The more tools that are used, the more Vifould be the necessity for "search" "find" and "select" 'rherefore, in selectinvg an operation to be performed by t"ne blind, the number of tools should oe considered.- 'x'his list fflil call the attention of the reader to the possibilities of suggesting combination tools or noting where the combination tools are aire' dy usedo

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and "Diatanoe". xhese are tv/o of the variables of certain t^.'pes of motions, such as "transport loaded." Uoaparative differences may toe roiighly judged liy observinf^^ tl.e barred lines of the background. These screens, as described, have foot divisions subdivided into four inch un ti.e microiaotion sheet and the chart, ..e have divisions, used abbreviations to S' ve tirae. ViTaen speaking of all the finders, we use F. .(hen speaicing of a-'^ertain one, we i'ive it a nuabar-the forefinger would be represented by the abbreviation Fl, the next by F2, xhe thumb would be v, the ar A-y^.3. stood for work box, etc. If a letter is used in the center of a line C.P. for core plate. raotion, it is underlined to identify it as a motion, to describe a 'i'he work of reading motion pictures is likely to be tedious and should be alternated with charting. i

CHlHi'IiiG

xhe pTirpose of charting operations is to ,^;ive an s-ccurate graphic conception of a cycle of motions, and, through this graphic repre seiit at ion, to enable the engineer to determine v?hat improvements ihe personnel in charting is the are possible in the oper-tion. same as that in reading, and the work is simply alternated with the 'I'he materials required are as follows: reading. 1. One roll of one-tenth inch ruled cross section paper, twentytwo inches V7ide, which consists of twenty one-inch sc'oe^res with an inch iaargin 2.

heading strips.

See iiorm 3A attached.

stands for colors such as per diagram shovm herewith 'i'hese stands should be made of card board boxes. Two stands, one the top of the box, the other the bottom of the box are better than one stand for all the colors, s.s the stands canbe ujsed for a box to carry the colors from one place to another. ij'or convenience in charting, the crayons are placed in the boxes, opposite the na,iaes of the raoti ns which they represent. 3.

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4:.

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5.

A good pen for fine lettering

6.

Lettering ink.

7. A long uable e-nd high chair, preferably a swivel chair with leather seat, 'ihis enables the draftsman to stand or sitchange his position p,t vdll-and red-aces fatigue.

A music rack is a good thing to hold the micromotion sheets 8. before the reader v;hile charting.

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making up your sheet, first place the headirvc strip shov/n herewith as iJ'orm 3 A across the top of the chart, 'xo place the heading; strip at the top of the chart, wet aoout two inches at the left of the headiii,^ strip with a nearly dry x-uolDer sponge. Paste down, hut he sure the strip is perlectlj rtiatched against one of ohe heavy lines of the cross section paper. Use a paint crush A paper towel is good for drying. Wet and paste to smooth down. down only a few inches at a time. 'X'he heading strips are so printed tnat part of the oody noted thereon fits into its proper one-tenth inch division, and gives axiproxiiaately one inch "betv/een If a chart is Ion,?, it is very convenient to have the divisions. an extra heading on the chart, "but not pasted to it, to refer to. Each inch spa,ce of this he?.ciing can he to it, to refer t.o. Er-ch of the siaaller divisi.ns can he nuiahtred from left to right and right to lef"c in Arahic nuiiihers. -his is for the purpose of more easily finding in which division to write on the cross section i'o keep tnis in shape 8.nd prevent It frora sticking of the paper, to the chart, it is well to pls.ce a Les-vy piece of papar at the See Form 3ji. hack. \Vlien

Beginning, on the second line, put dovrn in the first colujnn, at the left, the clock readings as shown in the detail sheet rememhering that the cloche readin.js are all in two-thousandths of The a minute represented h;/- one inch of the length of the chs.rt. At clocic reading must he put down for er/ah change in action. the left of the first coluiin, put the elapsed time as shown j;n As a matter of convenience for finding your calculation sheet. the proper line for filling in the time column, these lines may he numhered in pencil at the left hand (unruled) inargin hy tuventiesI'hen thi-ee inch lings numhers raay he erased later 20,40,60, eta. and ti.e linesiriJ-uraheJed in in^c in l;ens-10-S0, 80, etc. -showing approxiroately what the elapsed time is in thousandths of a minute instead of two-thousandths oi" a minute. lYhen possihle, the upper or tenth-minute time should he noted down in the center of the first column, so that a motion can he referred to in terms of the upper clock, and in reviev/ing the picture, the motion can he identified, i'his i:^per clock motion is differentiated from the other hy placing As it is freouently impossihle to read a circle around it. If this is the this clock, tr.e reader may not he .ahle to note it. case, the one who charts, notes in the space to the right of ';he first oolu-rm the nxunher of revolutions of the lower clock as v/ell as the time; for instance, when the time is twenty, and the clock has revolved tv;ice, 220 should he noted in the third secion, of the time column. As the clock readings are entered on the cho.rt, take the color from the hox which represents tne mution an. color within the limits of the clock reading, the colu-.m v/hioh represents the "hen put part 01 the hody that is performing the movement. in the second clock reaaing and the second motion in the same way. Copy on the chart all the data on the calculation sheet until the movement of all the parts of the hody required for this work have oeen charted. Enter in the space allowed at the left hand side of the color joluion, the description of che v;ork performed "between One person can work on ch'^rting the clock readin:;s. See i'igure 5. as rapidly as two, and it is suggested tha.t, while the operator is charting, the motions, the recorder he calculatin g the notes in advance, that is suhstraoting the clock readings from e-ch other

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fo and entering the individioal time in the sixth column of uhe original xhe calculation can be set by determining^ v/hether record sheet, the total elapsed time eq^uals the elapsed time covered on the sheet, 'ihe calculating- should ..e done during the reading. This has the advanta-a'e ofgivin^^ the reader a conception of the elapsed time of each motion, and calling her attention iiuiediately to unnaturally lon^ daracions of time, which may suggest an improvemen t ixi the operation. In some vacant spi^ce on the chart, put In the number of film, ana number of scene, tiie narae of the factory, the n£L;.ie of the operation, the date they were ta^cen, the name of the "star, " the name of the photo
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In making- charts for work for the blihd, or for the purpose of reminding- the motion study man to make the work easier, the eye column should be taken into account, x'he lens column should be filled in if the eyes look at thin«:s at a distance. If the object locied at is aarker or lighter than the previous one, the pupil has become lar^^'er or smaller. If the eyes turn to their corners, the eye balls have been used.

When it is difficu-lt to describe an action, an enlargement should be talcen and pasted on the ch'-rt. According to i-?.jor Gilbreth, "If yo'ii desire to make enlarge-ments fro:a negatives of motion pictuxe films, you will i;et the best results, of course, by having them made for you at a regular photograph gallery, -^ut if this is not feasible, and you are willing to put uj» with fourth rate photographs, you can project them through your Prujectoscope through a petition in a dark room, 8,nd have the bromide paper on the wall, 8Jid in this way, get a photograph that will be pretty The projector has not a safiiciently good lens to give 8good. first class result, and furthermore, it requires considerable skill in photography to to this carefully, b-ut ; ou can learn it if you think it worth while, "To identify the right frs^ae for enlargement, we uded the Bennison tags, about an inch square, whibh were tied opposite to the hole opposite the ire^mes that we desired to enlar-?-e. You imist remember, however, tlmt every time that you run yoxir negatives, you are bound to scratch them more or less, and every scratch of one hundredth of aii inch i.iakes a scratch of an inch when you put it on a screen ten feet wide. I do not suggest every cutting out a It xvould oe b:tter for you to have a celluloid frame from the film. positive made from it; then hs.ve as many prints as^ you like made from the negative, which in turn is made from the celluloid ositive. In other words, from the negative, make the celloid positive; from the celliiloid positive, maice the celluloid negative; froi:i the celluloid negativ^ make as many enlargements or prints as you like.

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Of course, every time that you duplicate the photography, you a^-e bound to lose a little, and on the other hand, in the hands of a skillful photographer, sometimes you are a"ble to make a better duplicate repDoduotion than the original negative. He use our ordinary projecting machine for findin;;- a certain film to enlar-:e, V/e hav§ a rather oetter, or more handy projecting machine ths.n the Projectoscope for the purpose."

USE OF CHAHTS The man who uses the charts should he a first class engineer. The hest roethod is to place the chart on the recording tahle, while the operator turns ihe crank, or to have the recording le.ble and the Projectoscope standing close together, so that the engineer rnaj- he able to project the picture himself and look at the chart at the same time. Then the engineer will have the motions involved definitely connecxed with the chart, 'i'he cha.rt should be stiidied to determine 1.

whether any of the motions require more than standard time.

2. whether the identical motion reqxiires more time in one instance than in another, and if so,

3.

how the longer time can be shortened.

4. whether two raembers of the body and thus cut down the time.

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be set to working together,

5. whether there is any preponderance of "search", "find," or "select" movements.

6. whether there is any one motion which requires such a large portion of the time involved that it would pay to make a special study to determine how this portion of the operation cauid be eliminated. For instance, in wii^ing off chairs it v/as found that the "graspin ••" and "using" operations ?/ere much greater than all tlie remaining operations combined, 'ihe question that iauaediately presented itself was as to how these operations could be eliminated by imchine methods, and as a res'olt, our present method of wiping chairs was evolved. 7. whether any part of the body interferes in performing a given operation.

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any other part

8. whether motions can be interchanged from one member of the body to another, ana thu^ eliminate part of the time on both.

y. whether any of the raotiaus can be eliminated and still obtain the same results.

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n ..'hen imking a stumaohiner. 10. what the possi'bilities are for autoraatic ideas he mah have all the of note maice will dy* of a oicture, the engineer machinery automatic If operation. the of regarding the possilDilites vvhii possible, nearly as out, as wrixe shoixLd raav be suostituted, he aocomplish sho-old what it and suitahle, types ox -aachinery he believes -he sane should be done with suggestions as to the design,

together If possihle, he should make notations for chan;?es in apparatus. involve new apparatus, of chans;es in the operation, when they do not He take place. should they where itself at the Doint on the' chart out point woria.ian, other some or sho^ald then call on the "star," and have him try the to him the changes which he belives possihle, vdth it. '-hen the familiar less more or new method until he hecoaes should he taken method new the under overal_ time of nerforming it under the old it performing of time and compared with the overill es approximately is operations most of '^'he learning curve method, tne for required time the if consequently shown in ilgure 6, and' required time the than less is operation first attempt at the new that the new for the old operation, it may he safely assuiaed percent of the time siaty to percent fifty aoout operation would take of the old.

perform The picture may also he used to teach heginners how to and repetitive, highly is operatioh the case In the operation. the machinery, automtic of use the permit cannot be ^-educed to record permanent a form to photograpr.ed he should new series of motions of the quicker method. in In teaching- the students from motion pictures, especially screen the on motions teaching: the blind, the teacher should watch the ab]B he is until and pradtice each motion of the revised operation, then be brought should students i'he time, standard in to perform it taught to imitate the in, shown the object of the operation, and with picture, motion by motion, and so on until fairly fairdliar^ be^stuaied then the indiviauei motions, 'i'he combination should time. standard in operation the perform to able imtil he is days the few If this is done, it is safe to say that within a and faster better beginning work will be able to do the operation this study nmke to thaxi any" expert, sinoe it is almost impossible it, and ehortenmy of an operation without discovering methods of the beginner has nothing to unlearn.

generally best In designing imchinery for new methods, it is or one oi that engineer, that the designer be a first class designing mechanic aroimd all plant-the t^/pe which sometiues esists around the su-:gestions the review He should who is born a mechanic^ and inventor. and time sufficient verv carefully, he should then be allowed the different resources to draw ud his ideas and experiment with it can invented, been has features involved, until a special machine can be judgment reouire not safelv be said that an operation which does work enough is there performed bv an autoioatic machine, provided setting of the machine, .he to be done to justify the building and the which allows the apparatus of motion Dicutre ca.iera is the one piece the same langua,-e, in talk to engineer, the mechanic, and the financier design proper and machine the and to determine bo -h the neeJs for operation. of the machine to perform the

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f3

APPE15DICEE

APPEETDIXA

CLASSIFICATION

OF

IlimUSTEY

AxiaiiagfA

HOITADI'BiiaeAJO

10

iHTsucrai

9^

Directions for use of

Classification of Industry

Open up the last sheet of the classification. the entire set. sheet applies to every other sheet in

This

1.

page referred to in the page reference coluian of the sheet which contains the is in each case a continuation page references. 2.

'i'he

the All items following the first two letters in the of columns two last classification and preceding the classification are enclosed in parentheses. 3.

and The information must be filed alphabetically numerically, according to code. 4.

divisions In propaganda and in placement work, the divisions proper the closely very shown will he found to show deal, of industry with which to 5

6

complete nor as So not accept this classification as carefully very be to need will it correct, since

absolutely checked before final

acceptance.

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fC>

CLA3SIFIC ;tio» of ihdustst

INDEX SHEET GEHTERAL CLASSIFIC'TI>.H

OODECE OF HAW 'EHIALS

CliiSS

of HAW

MTimiALS

:

r

f.

Forest Products

A.P.

(P.

L.

Live Stock Aalmal Prodxicts

/.L.

(P.S)

A.P.

(P. 4)

P.

A. Agriculture

FOR FUHTHER CLlSSIFICiTI H SEE PAGE

S.

Plant Pi'oducts

Sea ILnd Other Water ;,Iaterials ifisiieries)

V.

2)

A,S,(P.5)

Variously Classified

C. Car"bon8 (ijaiiurali

M. Ifetals 0.

II.

Mning

R.

M.M.

(P.

7}

Oils and Natural Gases

M.O.

(P. 8)

Rocks and Soils

M.H.

(P.

S. Salts (Ijiineral) Not included in Socks and Soils

Services yet classified

M.C.(P.6)

y.

Variously Classified

L.

Legal

9)

M.S. il.lO}

!.L.

(?.H)

S.

(No



M. Medical

S.M.

(P.

12)

-1-

•I-

:.

.

:

TTTT

''T

trr,

T

-

-,T'7Tr,'^

.7'*.



(OX.t)

.8.K

(11.'^')

.J.(..

(Si

.1)

,M.:

.-.ar

.

.

BlloK

Ma

0(1

.J

XfloiJieM

Jl

1-3

(JJeniBa*

f7 CLASSIFICATIOH OF lUDUSTHY COIW.

-2"^^

^^"^"^

FOHEST PHODUCT CLASSIFICATION

CLASS OF EAW

1

M&?:JIIAL

TYPE OF IKLUcTEY

1,

'

Structural

FOS FUETK3H CLASSIFICATIOII SEE PAGE

A.F.{P.2A)

'i'imber

2.

Silos and I'anks 1

5.

Lvuater

A.F. (P. 2B) 1

1

A.F. Forest

4.

Wood Distillation

5.

Wood pulp

i

i

Products

A.F. {P. 20)

i

6.

Bark

7.

Sap

S.

A.F.(P. 2F)

::•--::

1

A.F. (P.2G)

i

i

8.

irruit

9.

Variously Classified

A.F. (P.2H)

1

-a'^'-''^^^^

.ot;co ysTstJcmi -eg pi:;itaoi'5IBcAJO

KOI^'A.OI^iaEAJ'J T0I3iIO£
HO IT ADI'EiaSAJO HKHTHU?

m

a3A
ssa

ITil

.1 lecfiax'i'

(as .i).'t[.A

.s

nc.L^fB.Ilxd-eid JJooW

2ltijse

.d

{Ǥ.=[) ."S.A

gaS

.f

(HS.'D.'i.A

tiin-'i

.8

(IS

.?).'5.A

,

.

bQiliBsalO

JAISt:^

CLASSIFIQATIOH OP INDUSTRY

SIEUCTUEAL CLASS OF INDUSTRY

COITT.

TIZ.IBES CTiA.SSIFICAIION.

IHYISIOIT OF

-

z-

9t

TYPE OF INDUSTRY

INDUSTRY

1.

BftBfc

H.

Sawdust

B By Prdducts

'

C.Creosoted Paving Blocks P.Posts -

H. Rods T.

Ties and Hails

A.F. (S) Stractural

Timter S.

Shingles and Laths

M. Sawmill

Products 7. Variously

Classified

A.F. (2) Silea and Tanks

.i?.;:iTA0i'5is?.:-J0

szsura JxauTo-jHirs 'JO

ilOiellT/lI

TSTBTJilTII

"30

22.U0

YHTSUaill

sittJia:

.1

i-exrf)\v\aa

.S i)9rf-oaoe'i0.0

82looia -^alval

si>o£

sliaH

bm

Ji

esiT .T

ISrfffliT

IXiiiiwsS.iiI

80112 {S).'5.A 82liisT

baa

CLASSIFICiS'ICN 0? INDUSTKY COl^T.

POBEST

PHODUGu-'S

TYPE OF

CI VI SI

GL SSIFICATION

LIT

OF IITDUSTEY

IlI]}U3raY

j

B.

Boxes arid Cooperage

COI-JT.

FDHTHSE CLJSSIFICATION S2E PA&E FOP.

A.F. {3B)

2B1)

(P.

I

1

'\

C.

C'r Constraction

Gross Index

P.

Fiomiture

A.F. (3P)

(P.

2B1)

^6-.

Sporting A.P. (3G)

(P,

2B4]

Q-oods

H.

I.

(P.

7B6B)

Hospital Supplied Instnuaerxts

A.F. ^31) P.2B4)

{Llusical)

M. lia-tches

A.F.(3)

0.

Liiraber

Office Fixtxa-es

P. Planing Hill Prodxicts B.

i

S. T.

Wood Turnings Sec-ting

A.F. (3H)

(P.

2B4)

A.F.{3S).

(P.

2S11)

A.P.

(P.

2B11)

Tables

U. Undertakers*

Supplies 77.

T.

Wagons and Yehicles

Variously Classified

{3U)

A.F. (3^) (P. 2B11) Cross indes (P. 7^4)

I

.TliOO TIOITAOI'SISS

tr-T-'oi'iTSg/i.aO EIH'fSCE ED'S aSA"=[

..ilO

STOUdOSI

YaiBUaTII TO 'aciSIVia

(aaav

.^)

SES

xsbal asoiO

.'^)

(MS

(aSj.'I.A

.
OS'.'S.A

^0

5^T

YSTcUGHI

ba& Q&xoE (laS

18,12011

.5.

agpSiaqocO n.zd-ojj-id-axioO

fO

.0

8J3OO-0

f>ei:Iqcrj;;2

(

MS .1

\j.^'

,C .^.

8 ouaii^.'i ^J'snl

.

(laox&j/II)

ee'mtxi'i 90111:0

.0

XX2I£ ::3ainel^

.7

saxiinoirT i)oo¥ .£

(i-t'S

.ij

;^^5).?.A

diss

.^T)

.{aS).'5.A

gnia 98

{U5)

esxIqqi/S

(lies .1)

.'5.A

fins enoa-si'

(XiaS (S>^V

.
{".TS)

39X)jiix

.l.A

eaXoxxIsV

83010

i)9xlxe83lO

o

.'7

isomirJ

{S).1,A

^^^

CieWSSIFICATK-H OP IIi^USTHT COHT LUffflBiai

DIlriSION OF

CLASS OP INDUSTRY

:

IITDUSTilY



1.

Baskets

t^

Boxes

3.

Sooperage

4.

Hoops

6.

PaoklJ3g Boxes

is.

Taljacco Boxes

i

Cooperage and Boxes if.

,

(3F.P.)

"f

F01\ FUffi^HEE

CL'-SSIFICATION

SEE PAGE

luo'jii

tr.

A.F. (30).

^"^

CLASSIFICATION COKT.

O'lfti;* "(JWii.'JiO 'tr':C£)

7,

10. Vsxiously

Classified Carriages

1.

Balay

2,

Benches and

A.F.(3F.2)

(P.

2B1B)

Cliairs

1

1

3. 4.

Fixtures

6.

Hospital Supplies

T.

Kitchert Caliinets

8.

A.F.

i,3F)

Fur-

9.

10.

(P.

2BIB)

Desks

5.

i

A.F.(3F.)

Case Goods

Beds

!

Sewing maoliine Boxes '^

Picture Frames Refrigerators

,.

" '

-««

11. Upholstered

Furniture

,

i.i.

.::; ..-^.s

^2. 1

Drafting Bo 0^^ Furniture

13.

Scats

14.

Tahles

-..-

-.'«*

(A.F. {3F. 14)

(P.

2B2A)

1

r

.-i=i-ii :i

fti

S-jJkOu.

.S

a£.!'i3qcoS

.iS

EC'.-

ba& ei

89X0S

i

cLXtii:

.;

;

ii;

.ic;; .i,.L

ooo-arfaT

.3

jii„B

toofl axjlJl.'j'rd

.SSI

a'UftlxiX'.f?

s::

(ASiif:

.51

)

-

CLASSIFICiTION OF INDUSa?EY COWT.

CHAIR

MD

"CLASS OP lETbUSTET.,

A.F. (3F.P.

Benches aiid Chairs

CASE GOOLS CLASSIFICATION SPECIFIC cl;ssificatioii Office Chairs L. 2.

Dining Room Chairs (High Grade)

3.

Dining Room Chairs

4.

Dining Room Chairs (Cheap Grade)

5.

Bed Room Chairs (High Grade)

6.

Bed Room Chairs (Medium Grade)

7.

Wood Seat Chairs

8.

Fancy Chairs and Rockers

9.

High Chairs and Kiddies' Chairs

10.

(l.iedium

Grade)

Bent Wood Chairs

TiT^Double cane chairs 12.

Piano Benches

IS.

Reed and Cane chairs

14.

Wheel Chairs

15.

Swings

20.

Variously classified

1.

Beds

2.

Book Cases

3.

Dressers and Chiffoniers

4.

Buffets

5.

Shirt Waist Boxes

Cedar Chests, Costumes and Kovelties A.F. (3F.C) Case Goods

6,

10.

Porch Swings Yariously Classified

2

5^^c>^

>«:^-^

YETSUam

.THOO

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UCITv.DI'ilSaiSuIO

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FIMHTUBE CLASSIFICATION ''

DITISIOKS OF INEUSTRY

A.P. (5F.T) Tables

r

CLA^S OF IffiDUSTEY

1.

Tables and llovelties

2,

Li'brary and Exliension

S.

Office

4.

Yariously Classified

.THOO YfiTSUmi

-aO

H0I'JLDI'3122AJ0

TfClTA.DI'SiaaAJO SnJTII'KFJ'il

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baa

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^ ^^CLA..SSIFICATIC1I OF INIUSTRY COIIT. PLAJIIirc

pivisicm OF irousTRY

HILL CLASSIFICATIClf

CLASS OF IlTDUSTiiY

1.

Blinds

2.

Flooring

3.

lloulding

4.

Sash and Doors

5.

Panels

6.

Veneer

A.F. (3F.

Planing lail Products

10. Variously

Classified

'^3

^>^

^ .nioo YflTeuaTii

'tic

iici^'aoiiiss^o

T/LOl'HAdl'ilZZAdO dais. xTaillAJ?

niTEUiXBII

siood

ButlllK

.1

ixia xl8a8

.* (.-I5).'3[.A

II D,: snirtal?

TjIafc'oiiisV

Jbsi'ixesijIO

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Classification of Industry Cent. LII'iBER

BIVISIOIT OF

CIASSIFICATIOH

r""CL^S

Cffi"

'INDUSTHY"

INDUSTRY

.F. (3G)

Sporting

1.

Pool and Billiard Tables

2,

Bowling Alleys

3.

Base Ball Bats

4.

Variously Classified

Goods

G.

P. A. F. 31

)

Graphophones

Pianos

Inst riiment s

Musical

5.

String Instruments 3 (Wood)

V.

Variously Classified

B.

BoT3"bins

and Shuttles

P. Firefc Arms

(Wooden Parts)

"LrTjadders

A.F. l3S) Wood

S.

Spokes and

T.

Tool Handles

lii/heels

Turnings U. Umbrella Sticks and Canes

X

Spools

V Variously Classified

^^ JlCI^fADI'5I2£M0 YHa'auuiii 10

HSEUJ

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30

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aslcfs'f

Ms

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JJiaillia

ei^aa

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(i)ooW)

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%aiifQ

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8l9SfIW baa 892loqa .S

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DIVISION OF INDUSTRY

A.P(3S) Seating

Z /5Xc/

CLASS OF lOUSTHY

1.

Chairch

2.

Depot

3.

Opera

4.

Shoe Shining

10.

A.F.{2U) Undertakers Supplies

CLASSIFICATION COM.

-

Variously classified

1.

Shipping Boxes

2.

Caskets

3.

Hearses

4,

Tariousljr classified

Aeroplanes Boats and Canoes Carriages aiig Buggies 3. 4. Farm Wagons Cross index to a,nd Trucks M.il. (2B6) (P. 7B«) 5. FHaaid Trucks 7. Motor Bodies Push Carts 8. 3. Sleighs 10. Wagons _1. 2.

A.F.3W) Wagons and Vehicles

11. 20.

lilieel 'barrows

Variously classified

q

-'b^s

.THOO

frI'i'BUU.HI

'JO

W0I'-A0I'iI83AJO

.MOO mii!k'oim?:A^o

assisji

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)

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bai'iisa&lo xlzuoiisY

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eao^aW (WS.'J.A EiOxriT

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CLASSIFIC/TION OF

IlfJj-JSTRY

COM'.

-Z-

PJjREST PEOUUC'-S C .OSSIFICATION COHT.

CUSS

DIVISION OF

TYPE OF iraUSTHY

OP IKIXJSTRY

IITPUSTRY

A.F. (4)

i

BisTi lift ion

Vv'ood

A. Artificial

1.

TextileslSee silk)

Silk

A.F.{6} Bark

B.

Ginnaaon

E.

liye

K.

Cork

P,

Paper

Wood

1. Accessories 2. Boots 3.

and Shoes

Clothing

1

Cr.

Gutta ?©rclia

4.

Druggists' Sxmdrles

5.

Ifovelties

6.

Tires and Tuties

10. Variously Classified

A.F. (7'

Sap /

M. Maple H.

Eesin

T.

Turpentine /

A.F.(8) Fruit

V.

Variously ClsBSified

C,

Canned and Pi ckled

D.

Bried

R.

Raw

Tariovisly c las si fied

^TOsS^.'VM^ -J"-

.

ai.c<<4«ta.c;



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JfTTT

-el« l>ooW

(ilia «s8)6&Xi*-x3'

Pf^XtOB^SOoA. .1

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CLASSIFICATION OF IFDIISTRY :;0M\

-zt.

PAPim CLASSIFICATION CLASS OF INDUSTRY

DIYISIOII OF IKDUSaiRY

A.F. (6P)

Artificial paper flo¥/ers Lanip Shades Fans Articles ctit from Paper or thin card board Ms.rks for Labels Siireds, Confetti, etc. Cut Cai'ds for Visiting, etc. Placing Cards Cut ajid Perforated Cards Lace Paper Articles of Paper or Thin Card Board Folded, Plaited, or Pasted Paper Bags Envelopes for Letters Folders for Documents Boxes and Receptacles of Folded and Plaited pa.^eB Lamp Shades of Plaited Paper -^Articles of Paper or Thin Card Board Rolled or Pasted Paper and C8.rd Board Tubes (Tubes for Cartridges, Shuttles for Looms, etc.) IS. Boxes and Cylinder Cases20. Cornuoopias 21. Lamp Shades with Vertical Sides '22. Articles of Paper and C:ird Board Assembled and Pasted 23. lla.ps, Wallets, and Cai'd Board Portfolios 24. Boxes for Envelopes and Note Paper 25. Office System Cards 26. Record and Classification Cards Boxes with Covers, Paste Board Boxes for Confection27. '

Paper 1

ery, 28.

29. 30. SI. 32.

33. 34.

40.

etc.

Articles made of Paper and Sheet Card Board Joined and Molded Capsules, Covers, and Receptacles Joined Boxes and Cases Joined Articles and Utensils of Folded Pulp Articles for Household Use, Buttons, Toilet Articles, Brushes, Jewels and Ornaments, Brooches, etc.. Boxes and Caskets made of Laccuered Board, Cases, etc.. Furniture Ivlade of Lacquered Board Articles for Industrial Uses, Railroad Car Wheels, Automobile Bodies, Building Boards, etc. Egg Case Fillers Variously Classified

YH!i?ajCrPII

10 8EAJ0

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BiX^'i

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.ts^aq

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CLASSIFICATION OF IKDUS^^RY COHT.

MlilAL PSOrUCV'S CLASSIFICTIOF. CLASSOF

TIPE OF

RAW

MTERIALS

IIIDUSTEY

FOS FUSTHZtt CLASSIFICATION SEE PAGE

L.Y/i Id

A.L. (1)

(P.SAandSAlI

A.L. (2)

(P.3B)

2.

3.

Animals

Stock

Domestic

A.L. (3)

(P.3B)

Anirii&ls

A.L. live

Stock Animal Products

4. Fowls

5,

6.

Insects

Variously Classified

A.L. (4)

(P.3B)

A.L. (5)

(P.3E)

-d-

jmiim

.loiT Di-iisaAJO Z'juuaom 10

ff'ol'.'

'.7AH

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[XA5 Mj3 AS.^)

(D.a.A

(as.q:)

(sj.i.a

eLmittk

bir-if.J.

3lood'£

.S

(S).J.A

(£S.<2)

ai^iiiixA

evil .J .A IbkIjoA ^voiH (

25 . 1

)

[M.V

i

s^

j

.

lI

,

(a).J.A

bIwo^ ,^

aJossnI.a

CUSSIFICATIOK OF INDUSTRY CONT. WILD f YPE OF

MIML

- 3 CLASSIFICATIOK

DIVISIOIf OF INDUSTHY

IMUSTHY

B.

A.l.

By-?ro ducts and Oils

F.

Fur

E.

Hides

FOK FU2THEH CLASSIFICATION SEE PAGE

A.L. (IB)

(P.5A1)

A.L. IF)

(P.3A1)

A.L. (IH)

(P.5A1)

(1)

Wild Animals

V. Yarioiisly

Classified

A

K ilOIEAOI'tiaaAJO JA2IIPIA ajiw IIOlTA-OIUISaiLiO

ffilKThTJ'g:

aoA^i

[

iA>j

.

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(lAS.^)

V -J.

X

;

su

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•'i

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(IAS.?.)

(HI). J .A

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LIxW el^mloA

CLASSIFICATION OF INEUSTEY COIW.

¥ILD MI!IA.L CLASSIFICATION COHT. Division OF

CLASS OF

I]vTiU3TEY

INUUSTiiY

A.L.{1B) By Products ai'id Oils

0.

I.

SPECIFIC jliASSIFICATIOH"

Ivory Oils Whale Bone

W, V. Variously

j '

Classified

C.c\ ID.

A.L. (IF)

Fur

H. Y.

Clothing Dressing and dyeing Haw skin Varioiisly

classified

Auto Cushions Auto supplies saddl rry B. Belting C. Clothing B. Forniture G. Clover and ilittens H. Hats and caps P. Pocket "bcolcs and novelties S. Shoes and iDoots T, •Trunks and Valises U. Upholstery V. Variously classified A.

L.

Leather goods

A.L. (IH)

Hides

Clothing Hides (raw) Tanners V. Variously classified C.

H. T.

//O

\-V

,•1^00 HOITAOI'JISP.AJD JJTT/Ji.

HOITAUI'ilSEAim Ol'irjiilZ

aJIV %0 8SAJ0 YHTauain

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CLASSIFICATION OF INDGSTEy COKT LIVE STOCK CLAISIFICATIGN

TYPE OF

DIVISION OF

I1IDU3TEY

Il'IDUSTRY

H.

L.

FOK FUm'HER CLASSIFICATIOif SEE PA&S

Hides

A.L. (2H)

A.L. {£ L)

Live Aninials

A.L.

M, Meat

A.L. (2)

Stock

1

Oils and Other Tjy-Products

V.

Variously classified

'

(P.SBL-SBS)

{P.3B1)

12M)(P.3BS)

IIOITAOIilB AJO S0OT2 SVIJ TT0IG?Jiai'5I32Aa0 gEH'-FHU^ £0-5 SilAI SSS

(saS-jaS.f)

{ISS."!)

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(aS),J.A

(sae.iXMSi

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S9l>iH

sXaraixiA.

sviJ

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CLASSIPIGA!riOIT OP iroUSTSY COOT. IXDalSSTIC

TYPE OP

MIIOLL CLASSIPICA'.. lOH

DIVISIOI OP IKDUSTEY

CLASS 0? IEDUSQ?RY

Il'IDUSTSY

B. Bv-Products

and Oils

C. Cat Gut F. Fertilizer v. Variously

Classified Clothing dressing and Dyes E. Eaw V. Variously classified C.

D

P.

Fur (cat!

and

SalD'bit)

A.L.(5) Donestic

C.

Cat

D Dog H. Hares and

Aniuials L.

Live animals

Ea'b'b it s V. Variously

Classified

Clothing Dressing H. Hides (raw)( C. 3).

S.

Skin (dog)

V. Varioxisly

classified

V. Variously

Classified

aOI'jJAOI'SISCAJO

JEIIZUTAI iO 8SAJ0

JMITiA

GI^i._^.ua

YF.'HSUQMl

10 KOISITia

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sviJ

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//5 CLASS IF I CAT I Olii OP IIJD'OSTBY CCm. FOTTL

TYPE OF IKBUSTaY

"f

CUSSIFIOi.TICK

Division OP INDUSTRY

CLJSS OP

POH FURTHER

IJffiUSTHY

IPIClTlOiT SI

D. Do-erns -(-

P.

F.

Feathers

Peatiier "bone

P. Plumes V.

Variously classified

D.

Dairy Products

A.L.(4) Fowls

L.

Live Pov/ls

M

V. Variously

Classified

i'leat

A.L. (4L.D. )P.3B5

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CMSSIFIGATICH OF INDUSTRY LIFE STOCK CLASSIFICATION DIVISICS" OF

irousTEY

A.L.(2H) Hides

CLASS OF lEDUSTET

C.

Clothing

H.

Hides (raw)

L.

Leather Goods

?.

Variously classified

8.

Cows

H.

Horses

FOK FUETHER CLASSIFIC.'.TION S2E PAGE

A.L.

(2L.c)

(P.3B1B)

M. Htdes s.

Sheep

A.L. (2L)

Live Animals

V. Varioxia ly

classi fied

A.L. (2L.S.

)

{P.3B1B)

J

YKTSimil

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CLASSIFICATION OP lUDUSTHY CONT POL'X

^ —-J

1.

A.L(P.P.) Fes-ther bone

A.L.

(

4F.P.)

10.

Pillows Upholstery Variously Classified

1.

Clothing

1.

milinery

1.

Caimed

Dairy Prodxicts

(See A.L.

(4 F.D.

Classification)

A.L. (4L.:i. Meat

1. 2.

10.

i

1

Plumes

A.L. (4 F.D.)

-3 /S>-

CLASSIFIC-^.TI01I

2.

A.L(4P.B.) Dovm

G0I7T.

SPECIFIC

CLASS OP lATDUSTHY

CUSSIPICJ.TIOK

Canned Fresh Variously Classified

,>»rV-3~ir-

iWVJU

IJiiClUVi.lJl.

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1

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- 3 /3-1 CLASSIFICATION OF lUIUSTRy COIW. LIVE

SPECIFIC CLASSIFICATION

CLASS OF INDUSTRY

A.L COWS

(

MTmAL

-

CLASSIFIGATIOIJ

EIYISIOH OF PLAITT

3.

Powdered Milk

E.

Evaporated liilk

i.

Ice Ci-eam

2L.C. 1.

Dairy Products

M. Malted llilk

3.

Sugar of Zilk

X.

Condensed Milk

T.

Variously Classified

f.

fextiles (See Textile Sheet under Plant Products)

r.L. T2L.HT Horses

A.L.

(2L.L!.

)

LIules

A.L. (2L.S.)

Sheep

1.

Wool

^-

3/31// 6

.TOIOO

TT'IAJ
YHTSUOTI

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CLASSIFICATION OF IliDUS^SY

COIIT.

LIVES STOCK CLASSIFICATION

DIVISION OF INDUSTRY

CLASS OF INIUSTEY

C.

A.L.

(2H0)

Meat

SPECIFIC CLASSIFICATION

Cured

D. Dried F. Fresh P. Packed S. Salted X. Pickled V. Variously

C.assified

F.

G.

Fertilizer

Glycerin

1.

Coanetics

2.

Ifedicine

3.

Chemicals

10. Variously classified 1.

liLatresses

2.

Upholstery Textiles Brushes and Brooms

8.

H.

Hair

4.

10. Variously

classified

A.F. (20.) Oils and

Other "byProducts

1. 2. 0.

Oils and Fats

Oils Fats 10. Variously classified

3.

4.

V. Variously

classified

Lai-d and Su'bstitutes Butter and Su'bstitutes

"1

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CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTEY COIW.

- B

IISECT CLASSIFICATION

TYPE OP IKDU3THY

DITISIOW CP

CLASS OP IlII'USBEY

IMUSTEY

B.

Bees

B.

Bees Tfax

H.

Honey

SPECIFIC CLASSIFICATION

1.

Com'b

2.

Strained

3.

VarioTisly

Classified 7.

A.L.(5) Insects

Variously Classified

Lac Beetle

1.

Dyes

2.

LacQuer

3.

Sealing Wax

4.

Shellac

5.

Varnish

L.

L.

Lao

6.

Variously-

Classified

S.

Silk Worm S.

1.

Textiles

2.

IThread

Silk 3.

fariously Classified

-

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CLASSIFICATION OP INIjUSTHY COHT. --Z/

PLAIIT PHOI/UCTS CLASSIFIGAG?IOIi

CLASS OF HAW MATEEIALS

TYPE OP IIDUSTEY

POP. FUETI-EE

CLA3SIPICATI01T

SEE PAGE

1.

Teztiles

A.P. (1)

{P.4A)

2.

Seeds

A.P. (2)

(P.4B)

A.P. (S)

{P.4B)

3.

Grain

A.P. Plant

Products

4.

Tegetables

5.

Berries

^0.

Variously Classified

'f

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CLASSIFICATION OF IIOTJSTRY COM. I'EXTILE CLASSIFICATION COHT.

CLASS OF INLUSTSY

SPECIFIC CLASSIFI CATION

1.

2.

Hosiery Sweaters ''

A.P.(1C.9) Knitters

3. Undervreaur 4. Glover^ and 5. Neck Ties 6. SZafflers

Mitt ens

7. Jersey Cloth ^8. Bathing Suits 10. Variously classified

1.

Broad

2.

Narrow

A.P. (1S.2)

Weavers

-

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TFXriLE TYPS OP INDaSTIT

CLx'

2-

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SIFIC/TION

Division OF IKDUSTRT

CLASS OP INLUSTBT

POH FURTHER CI./.5SIPIC/TI0H

SEE PAGE

Bleaching and dyeing 2. Cotton Spinning iiail 3. Cotton Thread Llill 1.

C.

Pine Cotton Spinning Mill

4.

..eaving

mil Weaving Jdll 6. Wool Spun Cotton rail 7. Cotton Spinning !;Iills into Heavier Count 5.

A.P. (1)

Textiles

8.

Printing:

Patterns Mill

K.

Knitting

A.P. (1C.9) (P.4A2) 1.

2.

10

Silk Throwing Weavers VarioTisly

classified 3.

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Cloth mils Worsted aad Woolen 2. Woolen Cloth Mills 3. Worsted Cloth Mills 4. ¥(^ted Vveaving Mills 5. loroted Tarn Mills 6. Wool Tarn lails 10. Variously Classified 1.

W.

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A.P. (1F.2) (P.4A2)

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CLASSIFICATION OF IITOUSTRT COIW.

P

LAI.T?

PRODUCTS CLiUSSIFICATION CLiiSS OF INDU

DIVISI K OF INDUSTRY

TYPE OF INDUSTRY '

Ar"bor and Nursery Plants F. Field Seed G. Garden Seed H. Horticulture or Flower Seed V. Variously Classified

A.

A.P. (2) Seeds

BreaJCfast

B.

food A.P. (3)

Grain

F. Flour Y. VarioTisly

B.

Classified i

C. D. 0.

A.?. (4)

legetabies

Canned Dried Oiled

( VegetaTale) P. Pickled H. Raw T. Variously

Classified

C

.

J.

A.P. (5^

Berries

Canned Jara and Preserstes-—

Raw R. Y. Variously classified

i

Bakers'

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CLASSIPICATIOI OP IITDUSTRY COIW. FISHERIES CLASSIFICATIOIJ CLASS OP SAW

SPECIAL k:.te

MAIPEKIALS

A.F. Sea and Other water ilate rials (fisheries)

We

wei-e

promised this

classification complete IJtaited

States Department

Fisheries in Washington.

"by

the

of

We had

the matter up V7ith the Deputy Commissioner, hut as yet we have

received no classification.

I

would suggest that the Red Cross Institute follow this matter up,

and get the classification they

may have completed

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this time.

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CLASSIPICATIOK OF IIIDUSTRY COM'. CAR301J

CLISS OF EAW

~

M.'T2RIALS

1.

2.

MID OIL CLASSIFICATION

TTPS OP IKDUSTST

r^='

DIVISION OP IITDUSTEY

Anthracite Coal

1.

Coke and Goal Gas

2.

Coal a?ar Fuel Variously Classified

3it-uiiLinoTi3

Coal

M. C. Carbons

(natural)

3.

10.

3.

Graphite

Luhricants Pencils Crucibles 4. Variouslj Classified 1.

2. 3.

1.

Crude Oils

2.

Natural Gas

Oils and Natural Gases

11.0.

3.

Refined oils

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COl^T?.

METAL CLA3SIFICATI01I GLASS OP RAW ilATEHIALS

TYPE OF IlIDUSTEY

1.

M.M. Metals

2.

Alloy Metals

FOR PCIRTHEE CLAGSIPICATIGN SHE PAGE

I.M. (1)

(P.7A)

]I.M.(2)

(P.7B)

C online re ial

Metals

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DIYISIwH 0? IK DU3THY

1.

CLASS OF IFDUSTRY

POH FURTHER

l.Iickel

M.II. (1)

CLASSIFICATION SZE PAGE

2.

Yenaditun

3.

'Tungsten

4.

Manganese

5.

Chromi-uin

1.

BaiD'bitt iletal

2.

Type

4.

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Iron Alloy

M.M.(l)

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S.

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CLASS OP ira^USTHY

H.IvI.

SPECIFIC CLASSIFIOATIOH-

DIVISICE OF

PLAl'IT

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A. Autoiao'bile

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Il'IIUSTEY COIIT.

PHECIOUS LE^'ALS CLASS IFICAT ION

TYPE GP INJDUS'THY

DIYISIOI OP IWDoSTRY

CLASS OP liTKCISTHY

Coins Dental Supplies 3. Jewelry 4. Surgical Instnments 10. Variously classified 1.

2.

Gold and Related Metals

G.

M.M.(3) Precious Hetals

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TYPE OF INDUSTEY

DIVISIOK OF

CLASS OP

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IUKJS'iSY

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3.

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1.

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FOE FlIRTHEB CVASSIFICATIOF SEE PAGE

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Ji.Yi/2p.2)

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Vehicles

6.

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7.

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a5:.M.2P.8)

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Engines, liotors and Locoiaotives

(p. 71)9)

16. Variously j

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Services Eendered

1.

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611.

M.

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METAL CLASSIFIC;TI0N CLi'SS OF IITKUSTRY

SP2CIFIC CLASSIFICATION

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K.M. {2M.6;

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S. R. T.

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IvIiCHIFiJ'ilY

CLASSIFIW-TION

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0.

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COIIT.

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PLMT

1.

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2.

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3.

Multigraphs

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Experimental chinery

IJa-

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6.

Typewriters

7.

Addressographs

and

.TMOD

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132. CLASSIFICi.TION

OB'

IfflXJS'rEY

COIK.

PIPING TEAJDES CLASSIFICiTION

-

7/6^

^

CLASS OF INDUSTRY

SPECIFIC

DIVISION OF

PLAINT?

CLASSIFICAT'ION

Stoves and Fittings (oil and Gas) Boilers 3. Boilers, Tanks, and General Boiler repairs 4. Ventilating 5. Heating, drying and Vacutm cleaning 6. Blowers, positive and rotary 7. Flanged Fittings and Steam Specialties 10. Variously classified 1. 2.

Heating and Ventilating

H.

M.M. (2P.1) Piping Trades

Pimping ISachines Pumps 2, Oil and gas well supplies Ip. varioiisly classified 1.

L.

PiJiaping

N.

Engines and Boiler Fittings

2.

1.

Ip.

LulDricators

Variously classified

Pipes, Water Works supplies, hydrant s 2. Automatic specialties, tanks, etc. 3. Fire apparatuxs, Extinguishers, automatic sprinklers 4. Valves, Hydraulic ilachinery 5. Water, Gas and plumbing Goods 6. Finished plumlaing 7. Fixtures 1.

P.

Plumting

10. Variously classified H.

Refrigerating

1.

Refrigerating Llachinery

2.

Ice Llaking Ilachinery

ifechinery V.

Variously Classified

^^^^v'i;;x

,

*«.yr-^-j

..uwj AJj.Auuu.ri J.

uv

u>.

X X

mi'Tkoi'iiszMo saaiiiT

TJULII

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TiCIEIVIO:

OIIIOS<3:3

HCITAOI-^IEEUO

TC'

SEAJD

YET8Ua/II

fifuj ,82iasT ,8'x9lioa .5 aii^qa-x isXioa laiant^')

baa ^aiihuE ,H

^stoT

i)nfi

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bexlxeaalo ijlsx/cxia? .01

(i.^S).M.M

senldo&il •^ixqim^ .1 IIs'.v s-r^ 603 liO .i Jbsiliaeslo \;l8J:/oiisT .ol

geiiircOTB

g'iOt.'.Ol^O'L'vI

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'xslxoa

£)Sxli88sIo -^ilBxroiisV .ql

.esxiqqxra siioW

nsa-JsV/

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)^9

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8b5

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sax itsiS'a inlsH '^ ^XbxtoxIjsV

1)9X1X883X0

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.

-

/S3 CLASSIFICATION OF

Il^EDUSTEY

COM.

SERVICE MCHIKEEY CLA^SSIFICATIOK CLASS OP INDUSTRY

SPECIFIC CL/iSSIFICATION

BI VIS ION OF PLANT

1.

D.

Eairy (Hi Ik)

Pishing Reels

16. Variously classified

Ilachinery

Brass and metal beds Pressed Steel school desks 3. Steel filing devices and 1. 2.

locicers M.^'. (2P.1)

F.

Safes ajad Vaults 5. Barbers' Chairs and Barbers' fixtures 5.__Metal furniture and supplies

Fiirniture

4.

Service Llachinery

10.

Variously classified

Phonographs Player Pianos 3. Pianos 4. Wind Instruments Variously classified 10. 1

M. liasical

2.

Instruments

Power Transmission ''hains and Sprockets

P.

T

1. 2. 3.

Power Transmission Chains and Sprockets Devices for transmission

of pov/er 10. Variously classified

7^^

.TMCO THTSaonil

:^i

T40ITADI'5IggAJ0

-so

PIOITAOIUISaAJO

YHMIHOr:

[IDITHSa

oiuiozia

TWAa'? TO MCI 81 VIS

W0I?A'JI'3ie2:U0

sl99&

Bi^-iiis-ii

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Jbsi^iesslo \,l8jyoxxsV .©I

83ie9i)

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hxi^ &soiV3Si

suxli^

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(sillM)

Tinia'O:

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enxa/IC'

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tsv/oq 1o

10 r.aA.:o Yai?ua7ii

bn&

snxjari'^

(i.is).:n.K

CLASSIFICiTIOH OF

IinJU;-;TEY

CONT.

ELECTRIC CL/.SSIFICATIOIT of imjustey

cl;:.ss

SPECIFIC

DIVISION OF PLANT

CMSSIFICATION

E. Electric Motors

and Generators H.

Hoists and Elevators

I._^Insulating

Machinery L.

Fixtures for Lighting Starting, Lighting, and Ignition 3. Ms-gnetos and Ignition Devices 4. Motor Cycle Lamps 10. Variously classified

Lighting.

1.

2.

M.M.(2P.3) Electrical

P. Panel Boards,

Switch Boards, G-as and Electric Fixtures T.

Electric Welding Electric Tools 3. Variously Classified 1.

(Tools

2.

i

¥. Water Pov;er

l^chinery X.

X-Ray Machinery

V.

Variously Classified

-7

6^

Ti0IT.10I's[IE2&J0

0IHT05U3

TMAJ1 10 woisivia

'EO

82.5iJ0

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/3S CLASS I?IC AS lOtl OF DIJDUSTRY COiW. -

VEH lOIE

CLA3S OF INDUSTRY

C LASS IF IC M' 1 01\

SPECIFIC CLASS IFICATICH

DIVISION OF PLAMT

FOE RmTEER CLASSIFICATIOIT

SEE PAGE Aut s Aut parts and specialties 2. headlights 3. Trailers 4. Trucks 5. Auto Chasis 10. Variously classified 1

A. Automobiles

and Accessories

M.II.

,

B.

Boats and Ships

M.K. (2P.5B) (P.7B6B)

C.

Cars

M.LI.

(2P.5)

Vehicles (2B.5C) (P.7B6C)

Carriages Carriage Hardware 3. Sleds and Sleighs 10. Variously Classified 1.

H. Horse Drawn

Vehicles

L.

Locomotives

2.

M.K. {2P.5L) (P.7B6E) I

Seaplanes and Aeroplanes

S.

W. Wheel Barrows and Hand Truci:s V.

Variously Classified

7^-

-^v -JOimOI'EiaSAJC! SiOIHSY

IG S£AJO

sanTa'j^ so'5

T!OiaiAOriIS?AJO

KCITiiCIIiaEAJO

YaT8UG;TiI

aoAi ass oSssk

,8ctoA

.1

Beitlsxosge BsIxcfOffloc^xfA

a'isIxBiT

^^isssoiisiV

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89X1038900A bOQ

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(aG.is).:i.7ir

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(iiaa:T.«j)

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.

(06£f,f)

ss^xiisO

! rcwBid ea:£oH .H

9'33ilis0 .S 9X3W1>1SH

boB zbeLZ

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sxi^xelS

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(ja,<=[a).H.M

BavxtoraoooJ

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(asav.i)

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£9llX8S3lD

.?«'

/J6 CLi^SIFICAH'IOlf OF IK-DSUTRY

COliTT.

VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION CONT, SPECIFIC CLASS IF ICMIOS.

DIVISION OF PLAHT

FOR FURTHER GLASSIFICi-TIOH SEE PAGE

Steel Ships Ship Building 2. Ship repairing 4. Machinery for Ships 5. Yacht Boats & Accessories 6. Gasoline Yachts and Engines 1, 2.

M.M. (2P.5B) Boats and Ships

M.M. (2P.5C.) Cars

10.

VarioTisly

Classified

1. Steel Freight Cars 2. Steel and Wood or Compos it Freight Cars 3. Passenger Steam Cars 4. Electric Cars 5. Passenger Car Accessories 6. Freight car accessories 10. Variously Classified

(2P.5B.5) P.&B6B) M.!-!. (2P.5B.6) (P.7B&B) M.ll.

-.¥^~

.'MOn YHTUSail

-so

KOITAOIIISa.IO

,WjOO HOITAOI'^IgSAJO

ai^IMT

50 HO 1 21 via

oi'siD^ia

ZOlTkOl'ilZeUO .5:

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{a:a.
.01

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130

Irigisil.

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asxioaesoos ^lairoiiaV .01

)

^7CLASSIFICATION OF IWHISTRY CONT. -

VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION CONT. PLANT DIVISION

PLAl^'-T

SUBDIVISION

A. Air Brakes B. Bolsters C. Couplers I'.

M.M.(2P.5C.5) Freight Car Accessories

Car Lines

E. Steel Ends F. Floors and Fldior Fixtures G. tears and Shafts H, Hand Brakes J. Journal Boxes K. Brake Beams L, Ladders LI.

Side Bearings

N. Nournal Brasses 0. Al)rasive Castings P. Fenders E, Hoofs S. Steals for Floors T. Safety Treads U, Flust Guards

W. Wheels (Cast iron, cast steel, rolled steel, etc. V. Variously classified

B. Baggage, mail, SJid exress letter cases C. Cxirtains and Curtain Fixtxires D. Diaphragms for Vestihules E. Electric Lighting Apparatus H. Heating apparatus I.

L.

M.K. (2P.5G.) Passenger Car Accessories

M, Oo

R.

S.

W. V.

Interior Mouldings Lavatories llounted or Signal Lamps Openings for Vestibule doors Buffers and Platforms Safety treads Vindov;s and Fixtures Variously classified

7/9<

.

THOO YHTSmill TO KOITAOI'SISSAJO .

.WIOO KOIT.i.OIIISEAJD 5LI0IH3T

aoisiviaaue tviaji

eielqsjoO .0

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.Ct

i99.t£

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Bjona:

atlBi^'ci

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1^^ CLASSIPICATIvON OF INFJSTRY COIIT.

AGRICULTUEAL CLASS OF ISriUSTRY

IITPLE/IEM'

-7 67. -

7S-

CLASSIPICATIOF

SPECIFIC CLii.SSIFICATICN

DIVISION OF PLANT

Corn Huskers and Shredders B. binder [Pwine C. Cream separators D. Grain elevators and A.

V/ag'on Duiaps

Ensilage lilaciiinery & Silo Fillers F. Fruit Spraying Itiachinery G. Garden Tools H. Harvester ilachinery E.

1. 2.

Corn Llachinery Preparation and Production

J.

M.M. (2B.5) Agricultural Impleaents

K. Kerosene

3.

Corn Shellers Feed Mills ajid Grinders Tariously classified

1.

Gasolene

2.

Zerosene

1.

Dairy barn equipment Barn hay tool equipment variously classified

and Gasolene

Engines L, Hay and Ba iling Presses

M. I.Ii Iking Lfachinery N. Windmills and Punps 0.

Potato Machinery and Tillage Implements IfeXLure Spreaders Scales Silos Tractors and Threshers Cotton Gins Wagons Sugar Cand and Cider

Po Plows Q.

H. S. T.

U, W. X.

mils Y.

Yard and Barn Eq.uipment

2.

3.

Grain Drills & Seeding machinery V. Vgriously classified Z.

^^\

II0ITA0IUI3EAJ0 TTIAJ?

'50

lie 1 81

Via

T:'2E.3J'3!SI

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.A

810d-S'l.^q98 iXtS9lO

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•"jleifoiTsV

.S

axisJ^oajBiJ

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nolfouboil baa acli (6.SS) J,I.M

laxu J-itroiajA sJ'jDi.sinsIgiil

3ni3lIxM sllira&niW

•liisxiljtlojsM eq/.'iirl

isns

ii9rLi;rit)£-I,-I

ot.s3'o1

.11

.0

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ai9j3.39iqE

5'i£fJ[iati

.s

BoIiS jEi9ii89iiI5! bsxs

Bioio^rl:

aniO no*3"cD .U

19610 drieraqix/ps na^if \i7iBU

.1

niaa

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boi'±i.ee&io y,l8(ioliav

,S

i-n9fiiqi.-j59

ioo.t

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tiiS[iiqliS!?S

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j£)ii3

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^isnifloBCj; gaJ:i)-J9S

lif. CLASSIFICATION OP lETLUSTHY COM'.

CONSTEUCTION SPECIFIC CLASSIFICATION

CLASS OF INDUSTRY

AlfD

HIKING CLASSIFICATION

DIVISION OF PLANT

Hoisting Llachinery with adjxtncts including "ooilers 2. Cranes, hoists, hridge builders, etc« 3. Fabrication andErection 1.

of Bridges, 'building for

river craft Fabrications, ship steel, machinery and miscellaneous 5. Structural machinery 6. Structural shakes 7. Mil construction 8. Conveying machinery 10. Variously clarified 4.

C,

Construction

M.M. (2P.4) Constriiction, 1. Hydraulic dredges, d-amp cars. Dryers, etc.

L!ining l-iachinery

&

Tools

M. Mining

smd Excavating

2. Mining I,5achinery and Fixtures 3. Drilling liiachines 4. Excavating lilachinery 5. Ivlining, Quarrying, Crushing, Engineering

Ifechinery 6» Coal Mine Equipment,

Clsy Crushers 7. Steam Shovels 10. Variously classified

Variously Classified

V.

7

^^

Jhos-v-*^


'io

Kc TBI via

^L-iiomiz ylOITiOI-fllEaAJO

aisliocf anii)i:fIoni 93l5X1Cf

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YHTaUOTII

8toa[r[,£»jB

fSi&ioA «oJ-9

,l99ja

•20

,8 90810

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tSnoilsoiacf^I

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aolionifziioO .0 ^^nidoasii Iszss&osji&Z .5

^sniiiajsia sai-^svncO

.6

(:^.is).?.:.M

sxiiniK

bas

-^isaidoalil gaixiiM

bIooT

.S

89ixfd-2:l'3

B9nirio>sII saxIIlrrCI

.5

T[i9n2riosIW sni^J-avaoxa

.:&

Sni'issnisna ,3niri3xriO ^i9nixio&M 9nBI j-ii9mqii;p3 IsoO .9 , eisasi/iC ^10 sXsvoriS xoasd^S .V Bei'JiEEalo T5lauoii.a? .01

\;Iauoi'j:jsV

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7/5.

-

CLASSIPICAiTION OP IITIBBTRY CONT.

-

MAUUPACTUPJUG FACHIieRY CLASSIPICATION CLASS OP INLUSTSY

SPECIFIC CLASSIFICATION

FOR FURTHER CLA3SIFICATI .N SEE PAGE

Briek Making and 00 her Soil Working

B.

Iviachinery

\ M.M. (2P.X) ilanufacttiring Liacliinery

C.

Textiles

D.

I'lachine

Driven tools F. Pood Processing li. Metal lokking P. Paper and Pulp S. Small Tools T. Threading and PluialDin,^ machinery \/. Wood Working l^chinery W. Wood Wo Iking }Jachinery

Variously classified

M.Ii. (2P.6B. M.K. {2P.7C.

)

1

(P.7B8A1 (P.7B8B(

M.M. (2P.7II)

(P.7B8D1

M.1I. (2P.7F]

M.H. (2P.7:i) M.M. (2P.7p) M.M. (2P.7S)

(P.7B8C) (P.7B8E) (p. 7B8G) (P.7B8H)

M.M. {2P.7W)

(P.7B8K)

-7^

>«r*J^

.Tiioo Yaa?B5aT'ii

51.

ITADI'SISS&JO

m

tsoitaoi'sispajo

oiiio3?a

flniHTSJ'il flO'i

aoAi ass

^xai'ioW lioS {Asav.-j) jasav.^i)

(/jv.iar.i.i.M (a'x'.'is ).::..IT

(ObSV.I)

CJV.liS).:

.;

(Ksaf.q:)

Di-j.is).:

....

.a)

"xsifyo i)ns

B9ii;t-xsT

.0

efliiiasTil

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aloo* xxavIiG -01^ booZ .'i

^18860, gnx>ilovy iaieii

J;I

(qV.^S).M.M

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^laniiiosii;

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(.aa.
(isav.'?:)

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{w'!'.«js).M.M

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SaiiioW

i)ooW .W

gniahoW

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XisciisiosH.'

(X.=CS).M.M

CLASSIFICAi'ICK OF IITDTSTEY

lUf COI-IT.

MAITUFACTURING ?!ACHIIiEHy CLASSIFICATICN COWi\

SPECIFIC

DIVISION OF PLANT

CLA3SIFIC/.TI01I

Brick Presses and Special Liachinery 2. Glass Llaking Liachinery 3. Stone Working tlachinery 4. lilachines and Appliances for ITsking all classes of clay products, brick, tile, sewer papes, paving hlocks, roofing, and floor tile 5. Crusiieis and Pulverizers 10. VarioTisly classified 1.

M.M. (2P.7P) Soil Woricing

Machinery

1. Cotton and ¥ool machinery and Feeders for Saiae 2. Looms

M.I,I.

(2P.7C)

Clothing and Textile Ivlacninery

S, Sev/ing tlachi.-es 4. Spinning and Twisting I'lachinery 5. Knitting Llills 6. Textile and Finishing

Machinery 7. Weavers, Shuttles, ajtid Shuttle Irons 8. Textile and Printing Machinery 9. Shoe liachinery 10. Variously classified •5

-

7-^

.inoo liouAOizizekio Y&r^iiHos:'" apiiEUTOAcme-T TtiAj? 10

lie

I EI via

DI'5I031S IT'.-:l'5I?,SM0

)ji9nirfo^.I I.sio9q;8

^aaixiosM

3fli2l«i.I

eaalO .S

890fl3J:IqqA Jbrts senirloslil .i5o 898eaXo IIjs §xii3iartt lol (Ssqaq iswse ,9li* jSloiicf fBiossboiq x&io boB t-^ailoot ,e:-ooIcf -anivaq 8.*I9SX19VjJ;f? Jbfl^ 8.i9-*8XraC>

^^isnxiloam

Ioo¥

9ii!.aS

i>na no^ito'J

tol

-xilo,s3';I

^xisxwT hna

\7i9nij(loAM

.2

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8i9i)9o'i fiaa effiodJ

89

(lV.i:s).M.K

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^arsaZ «S

giilfxrtiqS

,;^

^lonixIoaM

alllM

-SiaitilttS.

.3

snij(lsxnx'5 jbus slxdus'i)

.6

;^i9flx4P>afJ finfi

,8'X9V39W .V anp.il ald-todS

,8sld-#xrria

aaiirili^ i»na sIxtesT .8 ^•i9flx4paK >j;i9nx4oaM 9o48 .6 l>9Xlx88SlO lilaXfOXlJSV .01

bos §nx4.+oID "^anxnosil elj:d"X9-

!

CLASS IFICiTIOJI OF IHUUSTRY COFP. F^NUFA-": TURING

SPECIFIC CLASSIFICATION

aCHIiiERY CLASSIFICATICI

DIVISION OF PLAi^T

Hilling Cutters, h.o"bs, and special tools £. Pxmchers, pulleys, liangers, and siiaf tings 3. Hob sav/s and Sfechine tools 4. Power saws 5. Pov/er Hammers 6. ^chine and Mechsjiical Goods 8. Screw ISachinery 9. Bullcozers 10. Braiders II. Wire laachinery 12. Lathe, Crane, and I.

M.M. {2P.7D) !i!Iachine driTen tools

Slxaper 13. Drill Presses,

Drill Chucks 14. Stands for Emery V/heels and Grinding iCachinery 15. llachine Hacks and Keys 16. Taps, Stocks, Dies, Punch Presses, Jigs, Special liachinery 17. Arbor, Povrer, and Other presses 18. Acetylene Generators tnd appliances 19. Engine Lathes 20. Polishing Engines 21. Boring Mills 22. Grinders 30. Variously classified

Bakers' Llachinery Packing House Llachinery 3. Flour Mill Ijlachinery 4. liilling Itlachinery and General Ifechinery 5. Sugar llachinery 6. Chocolate, Paint, Printing and Ink llachinery 7. Oil and 1^11 llachinery 8. Cigar and Cigarette 1.

2.

M.M. (2 .7f$

Food Processing machinery

li'Iachinery

10.

Variously classified

CCITT.

.TMOO KJlTAOIIISaAJO

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//3 CLASSIFICATIOII OF INDUSTRY COITT.

MAFJF-ACTURIUG "ACHIIERy CLASSIFICLTICN COMT,

SPECIEIC CLASSIFICATION

DIVISION OP PLAIOT

Tin working machinery machinery 3. Metal planing machinery 4. Moxilding machinery ajid pressing machinery 5. Hailroad machinery 5, Tools and special metal working machinery 7. Sheet metal working machinery 8« Heavy milling machinery 9. Gear Cutting machinery 10. Collanders and heavy milling machinery 11. Rolling mill machinery and Presses 12. Grinding and Polishing 1.

2.

M.M. 2P. TIvl) I&tal V/orking l%chinery {

V/ire working-

Llachinery IS.

Trucking and Drawing ICachinery

20. Variously classified

1, 2.

Envelope machinery Pulpfwiriachinery

Printing Machinery and paper machinery 10 . Variously classified

3.

4. tfater wheels

K.H. {2P.7P]

Paper and Pulp IJIachinery

oiaioais HCITAOI'IISSAJO

•^loiiixfosffl

aniiiow

sixVi'

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bIooT ,9

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.f

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.11

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i
CLASSIFICATION OF

IlffiUSTHY COi'IT.

-

lIAmiFAGTIGING HACHIIIEHY CLASSIFICATION COKT.

SPECIFIC CLASSIFICATION

Division OF PLAtIT

1. lies, punch presses, Jigs, special machinery 2. Axes and Hatchets

4.

Hand Sav/s Patent Pliers

5.

Nippers, Punches,

2.

M.M.{2B.S. Small Tools

and Tools 6. Punches, Shears and Tools 7. Frenches 8. Anvils and Porgings ajid Tools Chucks, Taps, etc. 10 Gauges 11. "Variously

9.

Classified

H.M. (2P.7T) Threading and Other plurating machinery

1.

Pipe Threading and Cutting Iviachinery

Barrel lliachinery Hoofing and Wall Board lls^chinery 3. Shingles, Headina-s, and Stairs 4. Saw and Planing Mill lifaohinery 5. Wood Working 1.

2.

H.LI.

(2P.7W)

Wood Working Machinery

Jfechinery 6. Counter Making Machinery 7. Variously Classified

7 fsri^-

.TflOO YSTSUaill "£0 TilOIIAOI'fflEeAJC

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TKOO KOITAOI'tEISaAJO

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CLiSS OP IIDUSTEY

Alffi

LOCOLIOTIYE CLASSIPICITION

SPECIFIC CLASSIFICATION

DIVISION OP PLAlifT

POH FliRTHER CLASSIFICATION SEE PAGE

Electric Loaomot ive Accessories 2. Ifotors & Motor Parts 3. Electric Locomotiyes 10. Variously Classified 1.

E.

Electric Motors& Locoiiiotives

j

f

1.

M.M. (2P.9) Engines Motors and locomotives

Gas &

Gasoline Engines

Gasoline Locomotives

G.

1.

L.

Locomotives

Standa.rd Gaoige

Locomotives 2. Narrow Gauge Locomotives S. Locomotive Accessories

M.J,i.

(2P.9L3)

7B9A

1.

Hydraulic

|

j?ur"bines 2.

Steam

3.

Gas

Tiii-lDines!

h, I

S.

Stationary Engines

Gasoline Hjiisines 4. Oil Engines Boilers 5. 10. Variously Classified

.ijiioo

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CLASSIPICATICET OF IIT]7JSTaY COIW.

SERVICES EENDEHSE CLJ^^SIFICATION

DIYISION OF IWDUSTBY

CLASS OF

SPECIFIC CLASSIFICATIOU

3. G.

1.

Foundries

H. P. S. V.

Brass Foundry and Llacliines Grey Iron Foundries Jlill Foundries PirS Iron Steel Foundries Variously Classified

Dry Docking and General repairs 0. Ornaiuental Iron works S. Structural Itlachine Parts T. Track Equipment Y. Variously Classified D.

Structural Parts 2.

M.M. (2S) Services Rendered

3.

iilachine Sho-;:

A

Aluminum Castings Brass Goods, Brass,

Bronze, etc. Bolts, STuts, Rivets, Screws, Nails, and aietal goods C. Cutting Diss D. Die Shapes (pressed metal) F. Fancy metal goods "brass and/ copped G. Gears, Gear Cutting and Worm Gears I&.ch.ine works Jobbing J. blacksmithing and L. Lathes and Other spindle makers M. ^tal stamping, perforated metal. E. Round ball bearings S. Sheet metal works ¥. Wood and Metal patterns V. Variously cl;.-ssified B.

ie. Variously

classified

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CLiSSIFICATIOIf OP INroSTKY CONT. LOCO^TOTIVE ACCESSORIES CLASSIFICATION

CLASS OF PLAllT

DIVISION OF PLAOT

-1- Boiler Bolts -2- Fire Doors -S- Boiler Lagging -4- Fire Bricks -5- Throttle Valves -6- Blow off Cocks -7- Safety Valves -8- Superheaters -9- Grates -10- Ash pans -11- Stokers -1£. Bjrpac.s and release valves -13. Valve Ears -1&. Piston rod packing -15. Springs -16. Engine Trucks -17. Frames -18. Axles -19. Couplers -20. Water Gauges -21. Steam Gauges -22. Air Ganges -23. Speed Recorders -24. Stei=i,tn Heating Apparatus -25. Lubricators, Hydrostatic and Force Speed Injectors -26. Air Brakes -27. Sanders -28. Bells -29. Bell Ringers

iT.!,I.(2P.9L.2)

Locomotiye Accessories



1

-30. -SI. -32. -53. -34. -35. !-36. -40. 1

,

Whistles Headlights Senders and Accessories render Tanks Tender Underframes Tender Trucks Water Hose Variously Classified

.I'MOO

YSTgWrai 10 KOITAOIIISEiJD

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CliASSIPlCATION OP INDUSTRY

ROCK

MD

COM.

J^il

SOIL CLASSIFICATION I

CLASS OP RAW MTI'RIALS

TIPS OF INDUSTRY

B.

Brick

C.

Construction Stones

K.

Chalk

L.

Slate

M.

Mica

P.

Precious Stones

euid

Other Clays

M.R. Rocks and Soils

\.

Quartz

S.Sand

V.

Variously Classified

.

.

J.

^VJ

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CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRY COM".

MINSEAL SALTS CLASSIFIGATIOU

CLASS OF HAW

TYPE OF INDUSTHT

!,IATI]EIALS

A. Alkali Salts

H.S. Salts (Mineral) E.

Earth Alkaline Salts

B.

Remaining Salts

V. VarioTisly classified

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T/IOITACIIiaaAJO EOUIAS JAHSlilM

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Cli^

SSIFICATION OF IKDUSTRy LEGAL CLASSIPICATIOU

GLASS OF EAW

TYPE OF INLUSTHY

!.IATEEIALS

S.L. legal

Not Yet classified

COIJT.

.fllOD

YHTBUdTn 10 KOITAOI'JISSiy.D

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CLASSIFICATION OF IITOUSTEY COFP.

SEDICAL CLASSIFICATIOIT

CLASS OF HAW

TYPE OF

IinJBISTET

MTEHIALS

S.M.Medical

Not yet Classified

-

1.-

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U~5^ CLASSIFICiiTICH OF IlIDUSTRY COOTIITOATIOI SHEET

These notations apply to all subdivisions on the reroaining sheets.

Work Performed

ft.

Type of information

Growth, or

Harvesting

B.

Publications

P. Preparation

A.

Associations

M. llamifaotiire

L.

Lists

^.

Distribution

S.

Surveys

U.

Ultimate Consumer

V.

Variously classified

V.

Variously Classified

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^PEKDIX B KOlCr OF SUKTET OF OCoUPATloHAL POSSIBILITIES KOH THE MILITARY BLIND

City

Sed Uros3 Institute ror the Blind, Baltimore, .Maryland

Date

Dear Sirs: 1.

I

wish to

s'abiidt

the followini? survey of the

plant at City

which is the

^State

If a "branch, sire address of main office, naraes and addresses of "branches.

2.

In

iaakinf>;

this investi ja.tion,

Nana

I

main plant a hranch

if main plant, give

interviewed the following Position

lien

:

3.

My name and position is:

4.

This plant manufactures the following materials and products

5.

seasonal The work in this plant is full time, for tho following reasons:

Add a paper

i.iimediately

sufficient space.

back of this sheet if you have not

anUE

YJIATIJIM STfT ECi

U.A,0 -50

BJTI'nl,

J

fills ifisff

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sr{^

lol

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eriT

•ooaqa taal oltlue

)

li>'i/

6.

The

inarlcet

for this material Is dOi.iestic.

If foreif;n,

the

foreign laarlcet is specifically what? The extent of each i.iarket is as follows:

Following are the raw products for this plant, where ohtained, 7. the character of supply-steady or uncertain-and reasons:

flen eit^jlojed in this country in this industry approximately (if investi;':ator is urip.ble to answer this question, refer it to the Statistical Department, which will olatain the data from the U.S.

8.

Census Reports.) If possible inake an organization cliart of this plant, which Denote on this chart the names of "by interview. Be sure to cover the practicable). men eac:. ppsition (if the in chart: points following in jaur 9,

you can obtain

Who is the Industrial Engineer (or man in equivalent (a) capacitv) of this plant? Wh8,t training has he had? ("b)

'"'ho

is T.hQ Sv^erintendent

oi"

the plant?

What type of

man is he? (c) How are the foreaen usually selected in this plant? type of foremen are foiiiid hero? (1) The driving type, or (2) the persuasive type?

Ti.at

facilities has xhe plant at the present time for '*.at instruction is now being giv n? TOiat plans are under way for the instruction of employees in this plant? |d)

v/hat

instructin:^: its eia^iloyees?

(e) To what extent has the experimental department of this plant been developed?

(f Has the plant a planning room ? of the planning room? (g)

Has the plant a balance of stores record?

(h) V/hct method is (i)

If so, v/ho is the he."d

V/hat

used to keep

tracjlf.t

of piece work?

is the method of time keepin!:?

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taaoeaoi bna-cflai-isoasj to

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eriJ"

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tf^nlviii)

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lol smid- dnsse'tjq edi i^a taaiq ?n tIs •p.nlstf won al ncj^

edrr

ead soltilios't iadH [bi ?8eevoIqm9 ed^Jt :nlioii'iSeal ?J^nisIq sirf*

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d-r.aV

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(ri)

(1)

lo

/I If possible, supplv a routing chart, ahov/in how the materials trrwel from machine to inachine and note on this routin,fj chart the places you think a "blind employee could v/ork. (j)

>

Inslitutions in the vioinity for the blind, which are interested 10. are as follow, enoh eing conducted under the stated auspices:

Tiie transport' t ion to and frora the residence district at this 11. plant is PS follows) State the transportation that would need to be used hy the plant, if hy car, the condition of the err service. Ifeice any suggestions that may oc ;ur to you th- 1 would make it possible for the blind to g:o to and from work, also sjny ,c!:eneral remarks regardin,-; the f-oncral surroundin-is, housing and social GonJi'ions, that will enable the central office at Baltimore to drt ermine its policy from the housing standpoint around this plant)-'

12.

Whrit

are the conditions for gettin^r in or out of the plant?

botp.aieini sis daidv ^Lnllrf iBOoiqaisa betJiis arft

alrf*

9d

c.j-

d'js

cfoli^sii;

b&9a

filxrow

.9oln98 elcfloeoq tl

.snoli-ifirtoo BJJt

i>Ij/ow

lalor

onlrrrs^o/j

at

Bdi lo

Jinx;

oJ aoid'"j'ioqea8'xd'

end-

sJ-jsd-fi

ssox

rna oeXa

ocf

»rfd'

iw. 00

,

\;j'jn

^tf

r^nlttt'^v.

'

9. IT ,11 at'ollol 8" ei i^nalq "11 ,cfnalq ariJ \icf Lsexr

8«oi*39:A2j;.B

;f'/;rl;?

o^t

0?.

Xai: is:) sdJ -lif

to't

,0X

(

c'

i ej/O/l

\yiH

irillcf ori*

si^.rxiJbao'OitrirE

qi'"~

v.idf ftrcuois

10 nl

.xso

,iiiow raortl fias

Q-:i
oiro

sfJoitfxr^Uactl

doss ,woIIol 8a eia

e)d& no-x't

-^^nierorf

''•{itip.Lr.

Td-aj»Xq

-iiJ-

erit ffi

^snle

b93-oj:;l>Kcr.

lo fioitlfinoo ;f

laneng-.-

lol ij*|aioir

i;^/!dT0C[3na•^i^

/.Tei .^

liTo Siit

saLeffi

a3lm*m9'i

srii

ic©t*«i;r

..-•

siaM aol

,

1

i

i

^^IJbiass^

]

XXlw rf^srf* moil Y.oIXoq

3lJ.:fi;9 srfcf

snolflJSnoo Silt

a-t/i

J-/ijrfW

.31

|

I

13.

Is this plant ujaioniaed (lator)?

14.

Wh^.t

are the sanitarv conditlorjs in this olant and how located?

Consider especially the following:

Toilets

Wash Rooms

Heat

Light

Ventilation 15.

are the

(a)

"That

(o)

How are the

(c)

v^'hat

^leneral

'.lachines

safetj conditions?

guarded?

are the ..eans of escape from the plant in case of fire?

emooK

rfsalt'

1

o'riaivi

i

I

^bQbiaif^ soalAoam 9dJ «ub woH

^'sii'i

'^n

-="^.'3C

al

i'^niJlq

Si{^ moi'i

sqisteo

"to

ert^-if^

sixf*

sts

i.*f«i'fV

(d)

(o)

i

:

SPECIi'IC OP-RATIONS if'ill

OP'^HATION NO.

'his out only in cases where the occupation is thow;ht a t;he 'blinci or can be /ade a possibility for the blind,

possibility for 1.

Kame and briefly describe this operation:

2.

'i'he

employment is full time, gsasoiml

The ^possibility of displacing this operation by autonuitic inachinery is as follows:

3.

Give yo^or

4.

»-'he

opinion and the general rerson for your opinion at this point.

v&ge plan on this ocoupatioi^. is -s follows (day work, pfeece work,

bonus, etc,

)

;

Amount

A blind man working; on this job would probnbly receive wages on the following basis: 5,

6,

'VorA-ing

hours are

p.s

follow:

Starting

noon hour

finishing time

tirae_

^to

Following are details as to nif^h,; shifts, present case ana futur'This would depend a grep.t deal on ti.e so .rce of pov/er, possibilities the output demanded, and other information that ;,'0u will have to obtain from the managers of the plant I

)

The material passing thro\:igh this operation is routed as follows (leave this out if route chrxt is furnished):

7.

,0%

H(

SV.

tswollol

,^nIoq eldi i6 nolfllqo

,:^nc\T

eoady

,

allow

xb'.>)

xsroTj

lot noe

-ai

laienss

©^w

bIjI* no nfliq.

o* '-isitin

,i9wocf

'to

DiiB

se*o ^nsBOiq .c^llxfe

so-rcos Oil* ne

Xj?*!)

aaJtwolXol

isiosi noorr

Tri>ilrt

stilJ'

ot bs eXlJi^el'

3b9iv, b fcrtaqel) Llt/ow elilT

)

(.'^9.ielriTtr'2

Bl Ji

.':

stool 11

arij

no

^liteinll

sijb grnXwoXXo*?

Bt^i^flXirflesoq

.

1

.^ ,9Ua0fi

arl*'

'.[,03-3

X8l»flcl

el

XiJon eTiO

»rf? jba^s ituiKjtqo

bvoIIoI sr si aoltecjijooo

8/3

Jxro

ai-^-cio

alrii dvasX)

J

fi

DesdTibe the organization t|^(^ movinj^ ahead ol' each machine at all times. 8.

:iiaterial

and

keepin,':;;

work

The lainintum physical and temperamental reqiiirementa for this operation (and any other inrormp.tion that may be of use in determining an educational prograia and tJie type of man required for this job are r.s followa: 9.

10.

Tiie

following qxtalifi cat ions woxild be very useful in handling this

works Is this trade xinionized? 11, lUiion are as follow:

Are

tlie

If so, the requirenients of the

requiremenls likely to be eased up any for the

hlin":

or handicapped?

In order ilsat the hlind may be hie to handle this operation I suggest the use of the following- jigs If you have a routTh idea wl.at ji.iTs could ce adapted to this v/ork, but are not certain as to the design of tl.o jig, give your idea and t.he American Society of Hcch-^nical Jingineers will work on the jif? design): 12.

I

I'd,

"i'he

cost of tiiese

ji:;'s

would be

s

follov/s:

In order that the blLnd iflay be ^ble to handle this work, the 14, follov/ing instructions v/ould be required:

-^he following exhibits or work .goinc? throu^'^h this process Obtain samples of the work are being sent to JJaltiraore by express. to be done v;herever possible, noting on the sample any defects Kote alos on the that Ldight possibljp^ pass throu^^h a blind snan's liands. part anythiniT about which t/iere can be any aoubt as to the hl'nd man's ability to handle. Uote who raised the objection, givinf; his name and position. xhis is needed to dstennine whether it is prrictical to try Place tj:e full to teach this operation in the S':!hool at i5alt i rao re explanation of your exhibit on the paper which you attach to tne exhibit, and in this space sim;ly note wiiat the exhibits are, so that they can be identified with this process when they arrive at Baltimore,

lb.

I

.

Lis is oaldosM. dOBOt lo bMQsLi

.Bdini^

"Qti

Inlisnaioh ni sbss lo ad ^jam iadt

i.^

..

.

laxfcui

j

ncldfirxsqo

.3)

:8WOIIol

ijfoLIot

nohuu

sifl

815

I

i

i'R.I?,'

J39x>i

ariit

0:?

lis I. ixL«M I osij

lo

rfjiJxoT:

a hrad no, 11) E^it SiilwoIIol: sdi lo

R^ ni*.ti&e ton

e-ri^

tatf

sJUf^ Oj

,3iiov/

sat;

iJsJqiii:,?

Jeaas^a

siiJ

»c'

l>Iiroo

'

c^if,

[

ag.oiTLG.'uA

;

ti/oy;

'

,vi. :j.o

.

,1^,

OiiJ-

Aj,

-r

....

sdJ ^i'r-

......

"lo

.

•^"'-

....

;

lewollo't e- ed

9ili-

,:tTow elrf^

elbaad of

d%uoidi

l)Ii.'ow

sitfa ed ^aja

8>,lt ©'iS-tj

balld qAS

lo J^eon

tadrr

exii'

.SI

rsbio al

.H

xo s^icTixfxs a*TiwoXIol ad* .ex .eeaiqxa "^cf siorali'X.att ot ta9J& 5nl9rf sia -.^j no afilJc' f^cleeoq -sovfliod*- aao£ stf 0* eiuelai) %«£ 9X-.i...sMfiif B^aiu-.-. bnild a •d* no soXa 9i?o?I as-cq ^Icrieaoq ;ti^sli_ faifj i>riXtf ©rfj oJ 8a J-di oc '^na atf «ar bu&.iJ rfol.lw .t-xaq baa saian alrf ^^«? r«G2Joof,(5o sdd' ZJSsXai odv diclS. .f?Xi)Xi^«. ....— .s'asia al d"! iBiitedw abtximiej-al) oJ jboJBasn al slrfx .noi^iaoq Vit od- Is llsr'i 9iii soiiXI .aio/.-riJ'Iatt J^a Xooilrie sxli^ al nciJ.eioqo sld& Ac^RSt ai »!:• ,,.T dosijB JJO^ rlolifw laqaq edf no #l(fii{x9 xiro^i "lo noi*aisaIqr9 BiMdJilsa orfi' jTartw 6*oix vXtrmle soaqa elriJ" nl j&na .J-lcfldx© SvlTiJS ^aiiJ^ asriw seeroiq elrfy i^tlw i)©ill;rn9l3i stf nao •<^edt t&dS .8 .eia ataoo'iq

:llow eilj

"io

Hirf.t

-.oiioa Jliow

aeXqci/J8

v.

c-

-

STomlJ^Ix^a ta

j

\

ii'i 16.

The rollowing photo*: apha or this work are beln

17.

'i'Le

work,

18.

aont to iJaltimoro,

followlnfr photoo:raphs are available at this plant for this but no prints are available to be sent lo iJaltimore,

la)

Uvunber of

iae:i

employed in this work in this plant

lb)

Number or

;!ieii

employed in this work in this country

"hat is the attitude of men with whom tliese men will work toward 13, the blind?

.eiofliUIaa 0* inoH 'al&e sia iliow

airiff

lo sriqso-oifc

:

ollol

srfT

.51

/^.

PAST I

SUEVSY

Oi'-

-11

illiiU.^TRT

Survey submitted by Address

DAtB 1.

Nature or the industry

FITl:;!

na-ne

Address Same and address of main officje, if this a branch:

Name and addresses of 'branohes,

if this is the inain plants

Names and positions or the inen in the plant 2. worked in making this investigation.

'6,

4.

The work in this plant is a.

Seasonal

b.

Permanent

c.

Steady

d.

"i'eraporary

I

throu-
whom you

reasons in each case)

Markets and their extent for the product of this plant: a.

Foreign

"b.

JJoinestic

i

KrAa

:/l3n.«i'.'

::fn«Iq nJt«m

9rf;r

.-^

Birld'

1i .soi'ilo

ei sldi tl

iix.'vm

^e^dDtua1
'io

se

"f''-

iJiiaVl

soeaoibbA Imn

iMUOaJfU'C

,A

siajsH

)

)

Haw .mtrrials used by this plant are (ffive mterial. source, steady ^^^^^7 ' or uncertain supply/; I 5.

Uumoer of men employed in this industry in the U.S. (If the invPstl-otor is unable to ans er this question, refer it to the statisti-al department, which will obtain the data from 6.

'

United States reports):

Organization of tne plant (If possible, incluie an 7. organization chart wl-ach my be oDtained by interview. See tl,e Suoerintendent. ^ote under each of the following heaJs the name of the raah holding t.-e position and whether or not he is likely to coopernte in finding ^ opportunities for the blind. a.

Superintendent

Industrial

i^^iigineer

Other Important Executives

Head of Planning Department 8.

How pre foremen usually selected and trained in this olant?

see the superintendent

9. Are the foreraen of the t;y-pe likely to coop rate in training and assist int7 handicapped persons?

10. V7hat racilitios has the plant for training its employees? See the Superintendent. Indlude opportunities for evening?; school classes and other supplementary edacation as well as training given in a vestibule school or by special instructors in the different depvrtraents.

vf 11. r.t plans are beln,'^? considered for additional instruction of eni)loyGes in this plant?

12.

Hs

the plant an experimental or laboratory departrae .t?

Can it cooperate in

v/orkintT out

special devices for handicapped men?

'i

s^ts&'d bsJlriU

:{zi'r.oq,$Ti

M(.j;t

-



'.

'r,nl

,er"

-

-

II) i:-

"

;iJo

,



(

.Ln,

to

s

-Jill 'i,d s»C :5riiZ>Iori itsnr srf^f lo enan «rf* eiiiierf ^iwoiXol SnJbnll tit ^4tfiqaoo oi ^lI9^IJ:I el sil iaa te .ji

;-.

aif*

>.

,'

stf

.T

J'tado

lo dose istajj ed'oH •^*.--

'- 'v fcna

TC't

_.

'sgTv lilvr

e

-

r j.

..:;[0

I

8--

vl.+xrr)f>xSr

&ti.sfioqrsl nsrfit'O

j

;J

?d-n«Iq ztdt nl bdalBti

Ms

:.'.s^''

J

1 'Jisu

"i-iTiiiiti-.u

'

lU

ijs /;l

DoJ-oald* xilmsea usimsiol ©t^ woH {

tasbnetalioque

ed'i

'

.6

see

1

•Ixfcfltfasv r ,E

"

---

-

^^^^ g^ xxs"/ aa n; 'liL e/l;t ni ^-ni



-

's ^ta.fnsmsIqcjcxB t^iio 1 J,aio9q8 vcf to loorfoe

^tiiAlq aldt

til

\

'

8e9xo-i
I

?n9ffl

Jb&qgao lf>ixad lol teolrob laldaqB tifo :s^ia
!

y 13.

Has the plant a oalanae of stores reoord?

14.

What method is used to Keep track of piece work?

15.

What is the .aethod of time keepin-? (intcrm'.tional or local)

If possible, auppl,- a routinf^ chart, shov/ing how the ;tiaterial8 vel fro/a laaohine to .nachine and key to chert to your detail oper.'^tlona opi-rating sheets.

16. tr-

institutions for the hlind in the vicinity are as follows auspices under which each is conducted-see Johnson with the Board of Education) ll/

'i'he

(Stfite

'i'ransijortstion to and froa the residence district f^bout plant is ns follows (Note condition of car service. Ivlake any sUf'^frestion that raay occur to you that woiila make it easier for "blind persons to fo to and fro;!i work)

18

19. Are conditions for entering and leaving the plant such as to en'ible hllnd persons to go to and frou their work v/ithout accident hazards? 20.

I"ia.ce

any ^jeueral suggestions which .you may have re?rr>rding the tl e plant as to housinj;^ and social conditions

surroundintcs of 21.

Does this plant enplov only union lahor?

22. '.d'hat are the sanitary conditions in the plsint? the followin :

Consider especially

Toilets

a.

b. "^ash rooms c.

Heat

d.

light

e.

Ventilation

"Shp-t are the zeneral safety conditions? 23. Dept., Transport-tion JJu.lding)

P 24.

Hov/

are the inachine guarded

See State Factory Inspection

^-^

V

;c.oi:i

ct^o#8 1p

6f)a/tls
is

iOBiq

e«H

orfi

.SI

j

I

)

1

I

•Ijslisteiti

9dt vod

3xil*x)riB

,ti!iilo

;Xqc^8 .elrfleaoq II

^i*j;;oi a

.91

.e#'»9ii8 '*tit--'.i'-qo

i

I

8--'

al

J'n.'iXq

JxroJ'^

f>«j*

0* 03

o;f

tciiitell)

anoEieq

SLnsilBm

l>fliX
-ro"*

"ssiase

.n«tT 3^1

M;jOV *£iJ

exatn

xrc\ 0* ttrooo

(aiow

^

•I

tut

81

iiionl

9lA

..

..C'l

I

^Il£l09q89 nsLianoO

fJnsiq

a/f^

nl anolJ^lLnoo x^aJ'lajBB sd^ sta teui^ .SS

sisiloT fsrTK-r

..a

i(b.rW

.«f

iT^dH

.0

td^ii

.b

n!j?i-iiXiJ-M-;(r

,A

.5S .

b&t

'TJii:^

€\y.ldsatP

&di

9ij>.

voH

(fcfja

1

/65 25.

What are the latang of escape from the plant

26.

Does the plant have fire drills

Appendix PABT II

i'or

during fire?

its employees?

C

SURVEY OF SPECIFIC OPk->ATIOKS

1. 2.

Plant Number

Operation number

3.

Name of operation

4.

Nujraber

a. 5.

In this plsut

h.

K'ow

In the country

In

noriiial

Description of operation (sufficient upon which to

preliiiiinar;,'

7.

"b.

Average earnings per week at this oouupation in this plsint a.

6.

of people emplo.ved at this occupation

ti:ae

'

times -se a

study)

Neturc of employment with reasons a.

Seasonal

fa.

Steady

o. 'i'en^jorary d.

8.

Permanent

o'hangea in this occupation likely to occur "because of the

perfection of autoniatic machinery (State in full the reasons for your opinion)

T.nr-TivF-.

tff-^In

ft'^t

o-.d-^'T

"'Sfff!.'

f,

'hv

r;^:3

.!

9r(

'

S-fi?

i?.iV^'

.cS

T80S,,..x-

D xJtJ!)Xl0qe-A

17 T-S:q e>:!,r^"

n
jB

98-.'

"

^

ot

rfoiilw iioqjJ

^nsiol'Slus) noJtaiec]

L'o>.l.i

or

0^

l^'yilseeCI

'rid-

.S

fli

(noiniqo

/^y 9.

The

v^raf^e

plan is "s followslday work, piece

v/ork,

lionus)

10. A handicapped inan working on this job would pro'^nbly receive wRxres

on the following oasts:

11.

HoiiTS of woric

Ifrom

to

Noon hour

"

"

Saturday

"

"

Are changes likely to be nade in these hours?

Are there any night shifts on this operation? 12.

liYirt

are the provisions for moving ros-terial to ami from each operation

Tie mterial passin';^ throu,~h this operation is routed as follows (Note each step in the process, ttnlRss you have provided a routing chart on jOMX pl;mt data sheet)

I'd,

14.

Hequirements for eniployees on this operation are as follow: a. Physical fa.

General Education

c.

Special Training

d.

Tejaperainont

e.

Intelligence

Qualifications which would Ve helpful, but a e not essential in 15. doing- this work: a. Physical b.

General Educfition

c.

Special trainiiig

d.

e.

Temperament In' elli,v:ence

I

I

(ax/norf

,j'TCir 80f>ic,

•-

"jsij-.

trclj.oi z- ei

;--.'iq

bi^v aai

. ii

|

reie"!!'

^nlwollo* siJ no

j

I

I

ut

>-ic*/

.-C1-.

3Xi^'',:i

.xi

:

j

"

"

to

issod noaiK

j

I

TnoI#jntiqo

elilJ^

no BJ^tlde

9i9di

ifl-^la rjie

eiA.

]

i

i

no

aaiii^i

1

j..-JOftq£

#naa»x9
.tl

Icx

see^-

30ii



fl

'Jjfj

t

u

"iiy;!

is

ni-.'-^v

- 1 *

-v

en'.-'j;

.0

.it

.iiii;u.',

,51

eM^

gfllol)

tiiow

J[«oi8\,iii

.a

I

.

Supplementary inforniation regarding handicapped (Noie whether this operatl n can be perl'or ed by persons suffering handicap in any of Kot |also arj;/ chanr^es which need to be made the iiieiaborB listed below. in the machine or in the process to render it possible for handicapped men to do this work) 16.

a.

Legs

Tj.

Arms

Hands

c

Fingers

d.

1

e.

liars

f.

leok

g.

Head

h,

Trumc or -ans

i.

Hernia

j.

Lung wounds and pulmonary diseases

k.

Skin

1.

Shell shook

''Vh-'-it provisions a.re raade by this con^jany for training employees for this operation or work sioiilar to it?

17.

18.

From what operation may eBtployees

19.

Wiiat

20.

Are tj.ere any special requirements regarding tie nationality of

are the p rob'

1)1 e

"be

promoted to this task?

opportunities for promotion

fro:;i

this operation.

the eiT5)loyees? If this trade is unionized, note the requirements of the union and whether the requirements are likely to bo eased up any for tiie 21.

handicapped.

o# 6s9rt ;:' fisoc^olLruBrf lol si..,. •fc«n

aid-

sdT

,

-.

,

U-iio* eliii

g38jf»e2I) ^ijsnoffliijq

?:jl8/iv

.noitBi^go

no'

sMj

8lil#

od"

hocfomoiq

.li .Jo:aoB
9tf

eso-^oXcy::*

Sua

y-iri-

.a

s 's.^.'-i

.

::..co,l

.1

slrf^dosa

sriJ

s/ij-

Q;to«

,t

'

ni aaci

9

. ".

i^arfw lusiii

.61

ei^ J

'

' :

eb oi

.aiflifow goi/il

tj^ aoid-flaaqo

eoJc'iriL'iJ-'ioqqo

...j

._

.

..

;

'Jtl

.IS

,.59qqjsi*Ii>xierI

]

i

i

:

'iVlriat is the attit^ide toward the "blind or other handicapped of tlie foremen and other executives in this plant? Are objections to t e handicapped li-tcly to be raised uy o'.her woncers in the acpartmerit?

22.

What special appliances are necessar;^ in order that the blind 23. (If or other handicapped may be able to perforra this operation'; you have a rouch idea of the kind of appliances which would be adapted to this work, but are not certain as to the design, ^:ive a .^erieral idea of what ou propose, and the Ar.ierican Society of '.'Techanical Engineers will v/orK out the design. ;

)

24.

The approxiiuate cost of these appliances would be about as follov/s;

'JL'he followinii' exhibi-s or v/ork .
to the exhibit, and in this space simply note what the exhibits are. If doubts are raised as to tie ability of a handicapped iian doing any part of the work, jive name and position of the one :nf kins- the

objection)

following Government: 26.

'ilie

ph,!i>t0orH.ph3

of this work are bein,; sent to the

following photographs of this process are available at this plant, bat no prints c-n be sent to the uoverni.aent 27.

I'Le

una ,88oqoTcq

XaoiaaiiosAI lo i^J^alooE nB<y^A.- ©x{* (

6ii5 :)(iow

o.t

ssaooiq eii ado- lo eal',.

'^s .fji^'.'x

..

ot

fii'iv

ftn'Irf

-

a

\,_

;

.._-.

.

_.-_:.^„

alqpiae. eill

^tbned

iliBq

scf

go

e'rtani

"^lUb/sJi

sdi too

sso

iiio?/

to aoLl

iAii^i

:

lllv

eiaenJtaflSI

U) c

v

d-09"t9f) -^J8

d-f^dJ

.n^aissJi

\itf

rf-fiu

_

..

._

:^

_.

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APPENDIX D PART I CODE USED IK MJ.KINC SUBVEY OF ARMOUR PACKING COMPAMY IMTELLI'IENCB A.

Highest grade of executive capacity to "he figures gathered ty the Dnited States this includes the first five percent of the piqiulation.

Acoordirifj; Arra^',

JtJ.

Uapalile of acquiring and using technical directing others

knov/ledsje

and

According to the rindings of the U.S. Army officers, jB inlelligence includes the second ten percent of the population. Positions rating B si ould he positions requiring some degree of executive ability, a knowledge of research work, or positions requiring jud^rment involving a great deal of responsihilit;;/, or positions which require a high order of intelli^'ence on the part of the operrtor suffering froa tie handicap noted on the sheet, hot instance, a Tjllnd stenographer doing careful tahulated work would require B intelligence, while the ordinary typist would only rate at C. C.

Ordinary intelligence

According to the u, S. Araiy officials the next seventy-five percent of the population will rsjik C. D

Ail others

In the upper grades of D classification will be; those positions which are apecializcd and require the performance of the same operation over and over a^-^ain, and where no great loss v/ill occur At the lov.er end of the D if an error is inade on this oper-^tion. be perforraed "by partially can which scale are found those operations

Insane.

MONTHS HR

;T;IR'5D

TO LTIARH THE '"OHK TJNDER AVKHAGE aoroiTIONS

The months required to learn the operation where a fairlv f;)od course of training is given is a good index as to the difficulty In training operat rs to io this v/ork. Of courne, it follows that the position that requires the lon
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learn to perrorm the operation well, since there will not be so much competition v/ith skillccl help. In caae the operation r-qxdrea less time than a i;ionth, take the rull nxiraher of days reouired and divide it "by thirty, mteing a fraction of a iconth v/hioh will indicr^te the number of days required, T TR/IinNG AND HDUC/.TION

In order to determine this, consider the rc'iuireraents of the position very carefully, and note just what the applicant for the position mi.ejht be called upon to do. It is sa in5)ortant that the applicant for a position be properly placed according to previous training, as it i3 tiiat he shoxild be properly placed according to intellig-enct. Under no circuiastanwes confuse intellip:ence with training. There may be people with a high grade of intelli.o^ence who are poorly trained, and luany other people with college edacf^tione who will only rate u in intelliijence. .

X

ILLlT'-J-iATE

Manual jobs which do not rer;iiire the ai;plicr.nt to read or write instruction c?.ras will be placed in this class. When the opportunity for advajicement is taken into consideratlonj the emi:)loyee with a siaall amount of ed.,c;ation is More likely to be satisfied with routine work than is the employee with a high grade of educr tion. B

Can ret'd "blue prints

In every machine shop tl ere are a few positions at least which will require the knowledge of blue prints, and these positions are, of cotirse, much higher paid than the ordinary run of positions, since they require more or less engineering training, and are not in ooiapetition v^ith ordinary raanual jobs.

R

Can read and write There are a nuinbor of positions in laost plants that req ,ire a man to read instructions. So ne of them require that a nian shall be able to raake out instruction crcis. It is rather important to ;:now of these re.'Uirements when placing an employee,

^.

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t

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This refers to an ordinary business course in some branch of office work, or the equivalent of sarae, and refers to positions such as "bookkeeping, steno -rraphy, and otiicr clr^rical technical positions.

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UniTersity or college technical training TLe positions are fcenerally positions or an exof rimental nature, or positions requirinr admlnistrfftive ability or Ijoth. It is -ell to remember xi.at not all raen who are sh -t on battle field or injured in industries are men of mediocre ability, and that positions must be found for The ;;ian of exceptional training as well as for the man who has not been Trained previous to his entrance into Liilitery life or preTlous to his being in an industrial accident. As a -^jeneral rule, positions wiiich require a very thorou'th knowledge of analysis, such as the ability to follov/ up and analyze reso; rch topics, ai-e positions which require a university or college technical training. All positions of a professional nautre will fall v/ithin this cle.ss. Aiura*]ro;iBEE

determine the number of arias, legs, fingers, or hands required •;,.ny operation, it is necessary to make a rather care fxil It is v/ell to remember motion study of the operation in question, tiiafc the motions involved in each part of th© arm or lei^ must be very carefully considered. There are hooks on the market which to with artificial arras which permit tne vforker to make bjij direct pull which can be made vdth the shoulder muscle if enow.Ch stuiap is left to If the work requires movement allow the placement of the artificial arm. of xhe elbov/, but does not rQq^ure the use of the fingers, it may be po sible to make VLse of a hook in place of a hand, and in that case, the position would call for arras, but not hands. 'I'o

to handle

If a posIn all cases the matter of safety must be considered. ition is hazardous without the loss of any aembor or sense, the man 80 handicapped shoidd not be given a positiun working on this oper-^.tion. At all ti;Ties the laeans of goinf: to and cominr -^ro n the work inside the plant must be considered, \7here the operator c^^n sit all day long and perform the operation efficiently, it is obvious that Tegs are not required unless tliere is soi.ie particular f ;ot operation which could 11 to remember also It is not be handled by the stoinp of the leg. that there are very good artificial legs on the rnrket t3-,at will v.

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///^ enable the operator to walic about and hE,ndle himself very ell, provided he is not called upon to stand all day. In fact, many operators handle standing jobs with artificial limbs. Chairs can be devised wLicL enable an operator to work on operations at the sfune level over a horisontal distajice of several feet. In all cases, the enj^ineer is called upon to use in 'enuitv to deter"iine what might be done to laakc this operation possible for a handicapped t:ia,n, and if the means suggested would not in any way out down produ;tion, the ninimum requirenent is ^i'^fen aoi^ordingly, together with an explanation of how this rcqixireaent was arrived at. Care must be taken on the part of the en,-^ineer to make sure that he thorou'<;hly understands the reciuirements of the job as to the numbev of lim-,'s or sense. If it is proposed to chjin-ce t! e operation in any way, notation as to the Chan e *fee should be clearly laade, so that those checking the report raay have a record of the (jhani^e in question,

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Kormal

A job which requires ti at the operator be able to rely on a steady nerve at all tiiaes is said to require noi'tnal nerves. This does not necessarily mean that the person shall h^ave exceptional nervous strength, H

Heliable

Occupations where the nervousness of the employee has but little to do with the output or the general welfare of the employees, but which requires tLat the employee shall not be subject to fits of any kind Under this or to sirailar nerve disease are said to require reliable nerves. classiric tion, the emj/loyee must not be in doubt at any tiiae as to how his nerves are likely to act. S.

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can be used in On these operations, fits, etc. are not serious.

is the lowest rona of nerve disease that

Arias

OR Hl!!/KIIO

Normal

Operations requiring; that a person shall be !ible to henyi ordinary/ all sounds, shall be able to distinguish trouble in a laaohine by means of sound, will be rated as norraal operations.

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The Question of detection of trou'ble in loac! ines, and the detection of dan 'er froui the sense of soi nd is one that muist always be looked If the person is in a into when studyin^j hearing re luirernents. position where the element of danj^cer does not enter if the he.iring hetv.een is not Rctite, and it is unnecessar;/ for him to distinguish ii.itruotiona 8 Junds and wlere tiere are not a great niany verbal to oe understood, the applicRJit does not recuire norni;~l hearing. P.

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W

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SEE A R

ARi/IS

RiJPTWlE OH HERMIA

^ernia is now 'renerally considex'ed a disease. As the dise-^se develops the hernia is likely to c'-row worse, and unless the disepse can he remedied or the cause removed, it is not safe to place any person with hernia on any work requiring heav;/ liftin;». The presence of a hernia, however, does not disturh work re uiring especially fast inoverirent where heavy lifting is not involved. H

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Positions, the nature of which exclude a H,

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Hamia Positions on whioh a

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It will be noted tJiat practically all the positions in the Stock 'iaids re;raire normal lim-s. As The reason for this is ohvious.

the eniplo;eea are continually handlLn,^ Tieat, and food Lhat is to eaten hy ot;:er people, it is t. erefore extre.aely necessary?' that no person be erjolo., ed who is likely to infect the food.

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Occupations where the ventilation is fairly good, tout in wJilch no dust or lint is involved may te handled l)y a man with poor lungs. A,

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Arrested TuT3erc\iloais

Tie modern theory among "lany people miBUjriderstand tuberculosis. the leading physicians in the country seems to he that if a er.se of tuherculosis is aken in time, it is possible to stop it. Mo person with an rictive case should be allowed to work in e-ny industry, hut If this is should he sent to a sanitarium where he can he cured. inipossi'ble because of financial considerations, the only thing left Is to place the person on some form of very light occupation where the work is mostly out of doors, and where the exposure is A person with an arrested case not necessarily too great. can work on bjvj occiipK,tion where the ventilation is exceptionally ~ood, where there are no fumes or dust, to aggrsvate lun^: conditions.

SKIN If.

formal

An occupation which exposes ijortions of the enployer's hody to acid action or to otiier chemical action, or wet occupations and all which might le d to infection of other people if a diseased oonciition This will apply to the direct sl'Ould result, require a norraBl skin. handling of brine, acid, or alkaline waters, and to all wet cleaning operations. In order to he rated as normal, a skin need not have an exceptional strength or endurance, I

Irritated

A akin which is either very tender, or which due to a past disease condition or some kind will he very naaily irritated by dust or water or other similar jonditionri, but a skin which is Occupations handling brine, acid, not at the present time diseased. or that require tlie applicant's hands coiae in direct contact with food stuffs cDJinot be handled by people with irritated skin, 3ome washing operations could thus oe handled, provided the conditions were not such as to le d to cliaffe.

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Outside of a few positions in handling- friaciinery some cUatance fro;a where the food proper is being prepared, there are but very few positions in the packing plants where a porson with diseased skin could safely work. Care must always be -thken that the employee thus handlin/5 does not endanger the health or convenience of those around him. '^'here are laany other industries, however, in which a person with diseased akin could very easily work, V VISiOS N.

Koriaftl

All positions which require sufficient sight to "be ahle to write and read with ^^lasses are said to r quire norraal vision. Uoraal vision does not i^nply exceptional via-oal strength. Before gauging an;.'- item as to vision, it is well to ask the question as to whether the position requires judgeraent based upon si^^ht, or whether exceptional danger aay follow because of the lack of sight, remerahering a at all times that xhose who hs-ve not their sight are naturally an that cliances little ti.:dd, and are not likely to take the ordinary employee will take. F'

Poor

This applies to all persons who have not sufficient eyesifr-t to t read and write i^rdinary print with glasses, but sufficient eye sig' handled be can tliat oocu:ations to find their way aroiuid, and perforin cliairs very largely hy the sense of touch. For instance, a inan sanding to one simply no tl:ere is in the ordinary finiahln,: room, where product away, would proo bly hlffl with stock or to take his Tinisbed "be necessary for him would renuire at least poor sight, since it and the finished, hut chairs to be able to see the pile of unfinished spot whoce the individual it woiild not be necessrry to see the to the point cultivated bf chair v/as sanded, siuce t; e touch can work done the of quality where it is much better index of the hy determined be can than is the sight. I'he r.ethod of sanding suh-foreraen. accurate educ-^tion hy the foremen or B.

Blind

This includes not only all people who have not sufficient merely sight to see ordinary objects, hut Inoluiles all people who are generally It is dprK. and able to distinf^uish hetv/een daylight set of well to remember that any occuimtion which can be reduced to a are there provided aian blind h;/ a Motions can be eventually handled )rohlera. the affect to safety, as such no other outside circumstances, The general q^aestion to ask in rating hlindness is to doterraine opened whether it re(iaires judgeiaent hased pon sight. If not, it is investigator the for possible is for the hlind. In many cases, it the judgtnent rcruired to call the attention of the factory officials where one person, on three or four -,onsecutive operations can he controlled hy *, allowin the remr.iilder to handle their part of the work as a he can this whenever f rule, general As a straight matter of routine. ms.terially increased. done,' the output of all pai-ties concerned can be very

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APPENDIX E SlIHTlTy

0?

THF.

PAOKI

;G IFDIJiiTRY

The packing Indxistr: to the casual observer means the leat packing This conception, howerer, is inadequate; tj.e pacJcim; industry hns grown to such treinendous sine tl-iat today it controls, for the ;aost part, the butter, cheese, and condensed inilx, tiie canning azid preserving, the leather tanning, curinr, and finishing industries, fish packing, In view of the tact that the development l>a3 poultry, and eggs. been toward concen-cre-tion, it is easy to see how great packers are ahle to produce profitably riany suosidiry products. '%ny toaterials, which would he wasted under sraall scale production, can be i.-iade into useful nrticles. '^'he rnsTgin of profit, of course, is necessarily small, and the tremendous voluae, of the pack rs slone makes it possible to s ve. *or instance, in certain rendering processes, tJiere is a small quantity of tallow extracted in order to rasJce the lard more pure. ',7hen thousands and even millions of pounds of lard are thus purified, the residue of tallow is sufficient to make it proritable for the packers to furnish a large share of the market's siapply. In like raanner albumen is extra-.ted fro:: ti:e blood of slaughtered animals and the pacikers becoae a source of one of the essential ingredients of varnish. Even with this snving, blood would be a great waste if it were not utilized f:jr fertilizer, production of potash, etc. industr;/.

•Uuring the process of curing and packing, the ne-t must be kept i'he quantity of ice required for their own use in a cooled roo:n. made it profitable for the packers to manufacture ice, not only for their ovm use, but also for sale.

Labels and advertising ^naterials are necessary for the effective distribution; hence it boca!:ie profit? ble for tiie pack rs to install their ovm printing establisiiaents to supply their own needs find the needs of some of the other industries. In a sduailar inanuer a long list or subsidiary products which are vitally relatec to the meat packing industry- ^ have developed along with tlte packing indtistry. Aiflon;^ the subsidiary products, ti.e following are a few of the aost important; soao, fertilizer, lard compounds and stibstitutes, condensed milk, canned and preserved fruits a;j.d vegetables, paper and wood pulp, job printing products, ice, glue, petrole-oin, pickles, steam csrs, leather, che.micals, wooden boxes, grense and tallow, dressed poultry, upholstering mat rials, saurkraut, butter, oleom.'^^rgarine.

A»ecau3e of the necessity of makin use of by-products, the tendency of the meat packing business in the U. i>. has been tr-6 draw around it a lar^e group of industries which were not strictly rae-^t 'ihen consiiierin': the study of any of the ls.r=:e packing packing, houses, to thoroughly understand the scope of work covered, one must understand the work of re oackin: in'ustry. '

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The tollowia;,!; published tstole gives a very good Idea size or one concern (1917 figures)}

ti.e

^otal isrnplojee

^^

Killinx i'lants »rR.nc5i;

vrround

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Houses

,q„

,

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J!Juni"ber

2 qOO 000

or visitors

250 OOC

,172,084,300.00

Paid for Sheep (U.S.onlv)

'!:gl,

Amount Paid for Mo^s (U.S. mlv) Amount Paid for Oalves (U.S. NuralDer

kqq

^

^'eet

Amount Paid for Cattle (3. S. onlv) Amoiuit

.::,1;

0:52,600.00

:fl60,3i58,&00.00

110,909,500.00

]

of Fertilizer Plants

itefrigerator uapacitv in Tonspcr da^

28 .

.

.

.

17,126

,

ilotor 'i-raoks in Service

^

auna"bouts in Swrvioe. \Vagons in Service

-

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Area in Acres

Floor Area in Square

^^

599 53g

.0.

868

.

Buggies in Service

165

aieighs in Service

^133

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1

q77

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This ;.olicy of centralization has extended, not onlj to the or other lines or "business aroun^ the packing houses, "but has also shov-Tfi itself in the increasin,-: size of the various large corapanies, the the ^rcn-ter the qxiantity of byreason, of course, bein^v thproducts which could he handled as a single unit, the moi-e efficient Along with this oentralizati n has come the use mp,de of this 'b;,-pro.luct. the large use of automatic ^nachinerj(-the tendency t,o reduce the amount of lahor per dollar of food products, xhe charts attached herewith as a portion of this report, give an idea of the growth of the packing indxxstry since 13bO. grotipint'^

It will "be seen from these charts that the value of the products, as a general rule, has increased very inaterially of late ye:vrs. Ihere has "been some thought of forei'?n coiupetition, "but ohe chance of this competition reducin? v&rrj iOf^teriall^ the work of the packing houses is very remote, since isxiropean .narkets are absorhing nearl, all the South ALiierican and Australian raeat. uonditions in this countr;,^ at the present time, however, seeui to point to a tendency to a gradual dropping off in the increase of growth of the packing industry, since most ofthe countr: is nov? settled, and the intensive cultivation of cattle is v/ell under way. Ti.e growth that ?/e may expect in the packing houses in the next fe-w for the same, or sli-'htly years will be toward larger unite of producti

m

increased total quantities of work handled. not esp"cially good, The workinr? conditions in the Stock Yards are that existed formerly. hut sxe vastly improved over conditions of hours per ^veek. ajid r^^^^ive nwaher The men now receive a .-uf-ranteed irrom the standpoint of the hlind hour, a rainimua wa.e of forty cents per houses .oward °entraland handicapped, the tendency of the packing within tae plant occupations of iaPtian and toward the speoializa'ani the mofe highly specialised the is especially encouraging, since use of the hlind. occupation, the more availahie it is for the

that the packing and It will he seen by the map attached widely scattered ar.l t.ere canning industries in the U.S. are very these plants do not exi=:t. are very few cities in which some of

factories will ta.ce care of Even in the coimtry districts the canning a large number of workers. therefore, be seen, that while a ^^^^^"^"-^ J^™''f _„^ appli.-tion of ".he d.ta obta.nea from of a single ^acKing house, t]^e the country, and what this stud- is aLaost universal throughout affects a great many thousands affecfs a comparatively few in one yard It v/ill,

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in other sections. It is with this in mind that this report of tLe Armour Prokinj i^'o. survey or occupations is su-bnitted. The statistics on P.-E2-will fiivc somn i'les of the size, and the no. or employees, of this large packinf; house.

^

The packing plants coramonly icnown as the ''Bi^- ^ve" ^re operated on the chain production system; that is, each .lan's -orK is highly soeoiali zed, and the aniinel is carried from operator to operator as each operation is purrormed. This :aethod or produjtion is used in a larf^e number of items, eapocielly in assein^jl.- work such s the assemhlin. plants or autoraobil-s. Practically the only difference between packln- plants and the as.-enhlin- plants is thar in tLe packing plants the assembler article is taken down instead or built up. All or the operations in he plant can, therefore, he divided into three classes? 1.

'perationa performed di.Gctly on the animal or

sov:ie

part thereof. vVork

performed in handling the macldnory and apparatus.

Operati

-ns

performed on raw

raate.-ials

other than the animal.

In order to deterraine what type of operation is involved "t any time, the follov/ing code hr.a been arranged to differentiate between the articles upon which the v/ork is done.

G-Cattle H-Kos'S

S-Shipper

ho.^'S

L^Lambs or Sheep K-Oalvcs ?il-lfeahiner;;-

,

otc

The operations differ in their -enersl chara:.-ter. Some consist of cutting ;aaterial off the e.nimrl and diverting it to some other point, while others consist in preparing the ani:iwa so that part of it may he out off at some future operation. -bvioualy, where msterial is out away from tJse arjimal and sent to anoth.-r depsrrtraent, a sec.nd ch rt is needed to trp.ce operations in the new department, since the primal itself (coes direct to the next operation in the first dep,a.rt-aent. In order to distinguish between t.he two types of operations, the following code has b en decided pon.

'So

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iljsioe'

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;7f Remainin.^ operations; thone operationa in whioh notins: dep r a from the animal, and at which point, therefore, it is unnocessary to consider an^ operations outside the depnrtment.

H

eparture operations; those operations where soraethin^ has D departed from the aniroal and gone to the next department. At these points, it is necessary to index the operation on the part th^t has 1 -ft the animal to a second dep'^rtment and tie re ort nu-abcr is /dven so thot the thread 'na^ ho taken up» The opesritions theiiselvos are nioinbered conseat.tiiVGly In ccl. dept. In indexing the depc-.rture depts. which hranch off £ro:a tie departure operation in the inain departcient, the departure oporption no. beco.-iea the fir;vt p-.rt of a new department niuaoer. 'J^'his is usually followed h. tl'.e initial of the departing portion of the anitnal hen the operations in t}ie new to make vip the depart.aent report no. dept. are nunhered witn their report no. and their serial number v/ith their indi'.'idu£,l classificrition as H,C, or . '-^'he operation no. is alwajf's p.aced in the lower left hand c rner of the precedin/^ chart hox. In the lov/er ri.^'ht hand corner of the procedure chart tox is plr.ced the nuaber of eraployees on this operation. If this varies, the variation is s:iven.

In tiiG TApper rirfit ham comer of the box is given tie rate per hour, rate per hundred, or per unit, depending .pon the unit of ayment in each partiouiar pl?u-it. In Ga;5e of the packins- industry the rate is generally r&te per hour, a.nd wherever iteuis appear v/ithout other quslifications in this chart, it will be .-^nown as tie rate per hvur. In the ccnte'- of the box will be found the na:ne of the operation as oriinarily loiown in the plant, -his refers always to the particul.-.r op ration nasae, and na not be tiie title 6f the position that the ^lan holds, althou-h the nar.-ie of the op^-Tation generally sugr-^sts the title of the tua^n holdintr that position.

In tiie t^per left hand corner will be found the requir©ie?u.3 The top line indicr-:tes the of this position as indicated by code. The itetas qa£.lified. lower line the ratin;'' for each factor noted on the a per line. Er.oh letter or fifjure, therefore, on the lov/er line always qualifies the correspond: n- letter on the upp(?r line, 'i'he key to the code and tae scheme for abating is shown as Appendix 0,

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The Bcoon^)anyin.J ohart shov/s a flow sh ct of the first twenty operations of Aymour Pajlcin;- Oo, a..d. illustratea t/ie lethods follcved. xhe first operation in butci.Gring tne cattle is drlvinfj the cattle into tne Killin-r pens. X'othin*r is c t away from the aninmi at this point; hence the operation noted at he lov/er left hand corner of In the lower rleht hand corner of the box is -'iven the the "box is MIL. I.

nxKibGr of eniployeea as 1.

In the upper left hand corner are given

he reuuirements of the qualified as noted above, and the line below ^epr^3sents the requirements in this partictilar. i'he requireMeijts of irivim- in would be? job.

i

'he line above r;ivea the ite;fls

Intelli.rence, laodiuju or f'art:

Time to learn, one day; Srainiijfj required,

none;

Iduijation and privious training rscuired, none;

WervG requirements, must be reliable;

Hands required, two;

Hearing must be normal; Fingers requii-ed, eig;.t; iT'onJi:

'jrtjans

must be

r^orraal;

Legs required, two;

Hernia porraissible; Lun

"S

Skin

rau:

-an;;;

t

be

norr)a,i;

be disetised;

Vision must be normal The rate of pay is riven in tne .pper ri/rJit hand corner of the In the oase of cattle icilllng, nothing leaves t,e ani.nal to bax. a process in other depr.xtraents until op ration D7 or blood catching. The blood catcher j? tchea the blood in buckets and sends it to the Albumin albumin departraent, where it is made into albumin. >

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manvifactvires 'becoraes known as i^hurt no.

0D7A. By referring to the / or'T.nizRtion chfrt, we notice thut tho line of proraotion of these twentyfour opc^rations is thro^a,;t the icillin,; foreman to the foremen and assistant superintendent of the plant, although as a general rule, a roan pro. crosses from co.':imon Irihor to skilled lahor, and froia the low r ^^jraocs of skilled labor to the hij-^'her grades of s'cilled l,'>o ir.

Looking now at the organiz."tion chart in Box 4aH, we find that there is one driver in the plant B,nd d is concerned with operation no. crl, and it takes from one to two thirtieth of a month to train -fhe space for the rate is in the him. pper r4,,Tht hand corner of the hox. Inthe next box, we find thr t t ere are four laiockers in the plant, and that it takes from one to two months to train them, and Jhen they are conecx'nea with the second operation on the cattle. Between these two cL-rts, it is possible to ohtsin any data that we d*sire regardin;^ rectuireraents, the salary and opportunities for advancernent. ;

big PdvontOfCe offered by th=; flow sheet is an autoroatic to index all other ch. rts or differe it depts. F,)r instnace. if vse wish to locate t^e c rt for the fertiliser depprtsaerit, vie hrwe only to turn to chart li. ?OT8F in the files and v;e have all tie OjKirations in the fertilizer dep? rtment on a single chart. Thf,

.

Tjiere are eraplo^.ed in t..e U.S. 54( .OOO pesple in tv-e paciving and cannim-; industr , B-couvalng to the 1310 cenaiis x-eport. If the same perceata.^e appli .s ot the entire industry as applies to Arraour Pa:king Conpaii^-, the nuiicer of people in tj.e ^paa&iru: industry who cauld be blind would arao-unt to the enorraous total of 46,750. '^'his, m .at .^ssuredly foriris one 6f the greatest fields for blir.d placement that ti.ere is in the entire coun ry.

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APPENDIX

F

POHMB IN USE

Toy

the

PACK&SD MOTOR CAR

COICPAlTy

with

Chfljiges

Suggested Where Necessary

to Provide for the Employment

of the Handicapped

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/ff APPENDIX F

suEvirr OP the packabd

motor cab coitpamy

The motor industry differs from almost every other in-d dustry in the coxintry in that the shop methods that are followed are in advajice of almost every other type of machine work. The use of automatic machinery and the development of specialization has heen carried to the limit in this industry. Not all of the improvements of any one kind will he foiind in a single plant, but when a good idea is found in £iny other industry, the chances are that some company in the automohile industry is making use of the idea.

The industry is also peculiar in that the work involved covers a wide rajige of trades. Nearly every trade involved in metal or wood working is represented. Due to the production of various grades of cars, the possibilities of machine and organization development have been tremendous. Perhaps the best laid out plant of any kind whatever in the United States is the Ford Motor Company's plant of Detroit. Wierever quantity prodtiction exists, the principles laid dov/n by the Ford Motor Coaapany are more or less applicable, and are coming more and more into general use. On the other hand, perhaps one of the best organized machine shops in the v;orld for specialized production is the Franklin Motor Company, of Syracuse, New Yor^. The motor indtistry, very naturally confines itself to large industriil centers because of the large amount of skilled labor tiiat is required. The work done for the blind in this industry will apply to the larger cities only, but once the application has been worked, the high decree of specialization and the progressive policies pxirsued by the heads of the motor industry will very probably take care of practically all of the blind in the cities where the motor industry exists. In practically every motor plant of the country is found an employment department. The forms that are used differ somewhat.

The Packard Itotor Car Company of Detroit, Michigan, represents one of the firms manufacturing a high grade of special The employment department is fairly cars in fairly large quantities. In well organized and keeps a very good index of its personnel. going over the employment system, it v/as found that all that was required to properly index the employment requirements was to place the requirements on the card foniis that already existed.

1 XICIHI^Ii

rkUtfiOO ZkO flOTOM aflAMOA'J 3KT gO YSVHUS

I)-ni lerioo Aji&ve ci^eoflils raoi5 eisl'iii) \itssriins. 7.otoa exlT i)9WoIIo"i ana d-jBdi- ei)0ii*9Jii qode s/lJ- i^JSii:^ ni ^i^toaoo arid- ni •^•ijsi;^ sill? .:}{iow SAxiiasra lo sq^d- led&o \;i9V9 d-aomla lo eonsvjb^ al sib

lo tnsmqolsvab sri& ba& y,zenido&a olismoius lo ssir .\tsafjbni eldv ai ii.alL adi o^ bsir-i^o need sad edi lo iia io'i'i isjd ,3-rtsIq sisaxs & ni bcmol ecf Iliw bai-^ SJio lyia lo sTxismevoiqmi 91J3 asonsrio srit ^xntsubai tedio \a.& as. fim/ol ei ssiji i)oos a nsriw 9riv+ lo 98Jj gniism ax ^fi &isbal eiidomoissa edi- al y^asqmoo omos iadi ,sebl ftcid-ssiljsitiecjs

E19V00 Jjsvlovnl iiow 9rlcf ^^arld" ni isiXj;;o9q oela si ^i*ayi>fil 9rfT Ssvlovni 9631* ^:i9V9 xii&sVl .sebaii- lo 3-%aBi eblw a

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lo egitilicfisaoq

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•is79d-ariw i)ni2i tj^*^ 'io

tbd-ilsspsi el

toiiii^

oi xlqqa XXiw ^^esjbat zldt ai balld 9di tiol eaob :{iow 9riT,i)93iiow ne9a 8«ri noidsoiXqaa e/i* sono i-icf ,-^Xao sslil^j ta-St-isL edt asioiXoq 9vi8eaasoiCT 9di baa noidBsiXeiogqe lo 99ig9f) rigid ed& ©sLed- -^IdBdoiq ^i^v iiivi ^.ttssibai aocrom ©rid- lo ftb&ed 9rid- Y;cf l)9JLrexf;q 10*0.11 9rid 9'i9jriw 89id-io 9rid- ni balld sdi lo XXb -^cXXBoid-rvsiq Ic 91.30 .ed-8iX9 xTiasibal

ifu/ol ei ^^id-mroo erid" lo d-nsXq louora ^19T9 ^XXaoid-osiq nl dri&rfivoXqnis . d-n9ind-i3q9i) .daxlwemoe lalliJb bssfs 913 de.rid eciicl sriT

ros

tOSSBldSiM ,d-ioid-9CI lo isJ^raqntoO ibO ioJoM iJusiosT Qrt'i' lo sbarg d:%ld s ^lisjio&'isjaam ainiil erid lo gnto adasesiqgi .89ididriayp 98i«X ijXiisl ni aiBO •^XiiBl ei dTi9iiid-iaq9i) dn9imi,oXqffl9 sriT .X9xuio8'X9q edi lo X9i>ni iJoog •y;i9v a eq99ji baa beslaa^io ILev nl eaw iadi LLa tadi basiot saw &i ,JH9*e\:B ;trt9crsjoXqm9 &di- i9Vo snioB od- saw etaBsaBilsjgst d-n9jmioIqjH9 ertd- X9i3ni -^Xisqoiq od- ^9iijj-p9i »f)9d-sxx9 yjiaa'ile i-adt acaol xnao sri* no 8*n9ffl9iix:psi grid- goaXq Xj8ici9qa

iw

Following is a list of the varioiis forms used, and the changes that will "be reouired on ea.;h in order to properly iuaex the work of the sxirvey:

"Suspended Roll Record'*

car4 in this space.

SUGGESTION

Provide space in which to state applicant's physical qualifications and the requirements of the joh.

:vevnf8

srid-

"io

allow

T!0ITS£O€US

.a'oi.

sxitf

lo

gi'n&CieiiJjps'X srit

baa aaoilsoniljairp

11 ^

"Introduction Card" in this space

SUGGEST lOE Provide space for req_uirements of the job on the first line; then the qualifications of the applicant.

"Help Kequisition"

card in this space

SUGGIIS'TION

Provide space for requirements of job to

"be

filled.

HOITSaOOTS

"noioxaixfosH qlelT

,f>9lXil

9cf

oi'

dot lo Ed-namsixi/psi tol soaqs 9jOxvoi^

n\

"Application for Transfer" in this space

SUGGESTION Provide space for qualifications of applicant himself.

"Employees Departmental Record" in this apaee

SUGGESTION

Provide space for the applicant's physical qualifications and the requirements of the old joh and the new job.

"Jbiooefi iBin&tati^qad esavolqtiiS."

M0IT33O0US

.tfoc,

W9X1

srid-

6tt8 dot ^-to

edi lo adnamaiiirpsT

^il;^

.

M^

SUGGESTION ,

include the Policy of the conrpany concerning the employment of handicapped people, in the employees' Exiles and Hegu-lttions.

^^^^es

m

"Packard Hegulations' j ^J^^s apac

WOITES-OOUa

9caqB eido ai '893TjoXgrj9 edi- ai

,elqo3q

.

/'f1

SUGGESTION PuTjlish a suinmary

of tlie Survey, in Foremen's Duties

tiie

"Packard Duties of a Foreman" in this space.

A

MoiTaaooua

.fiosqa.

sidu ai

ytfd

"Applioation

Card"

in this space

SUGGESTION Provide space on the application card for the applicant's physical qualifications, which are obtained by the examining Doctor.

PI0IT82K)U8

^niiixiaaxs

arid-

'^cT

Jbaai^dcTo

sis doiiiw ^saQiisollllsssp laole\jAq .lod-ood

2,6

Entplojroent

Record Card

in this space

SUGGESTION Provide space on the employment record card for the applicant's physical o^ualifications, which are obtained "by the examining Doctor.

1

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ioI btjso biooQi ia^tazolqme

erii

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no aoaqa siiivoi^

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ZO

"Physical Examination"

in this space.

^

.sosqa

sirfJ'

al

7-Oi

Date

Qualifications

Name

Description

No. 56

Number of Hen

Design for this form was arranged for a cerd file to the enable the employment man to hava an easy reference to various johs.

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Rand Card File.

BATE

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Operating and oiling overhead traveling crane for iiandling material in yard or hammer room.

Crane operator— Traveling

Ko.

This form was designed to enahle the analj'-sis

to pux

working on joh

tc work out a Rand Card Form which would enahle him

doTi-n

read the

roan

on jot 2

the full description of his joh analysis and to

roq. air events

details at a glance,

and the description along with other Note that the name of the joh is at

the hottom on the edge where the Hand Card shows in autoiiatic index.

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Rand Card

Description

Qualifications

Bate

Name

Numlier

A second card designed for the Rand File alternately with Form 2

v^hich can

'be

-used

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Department and

Name

Operation Numoer

Description.

Q-ualifications

Rate

Another card designed for a oerd file

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ojjrH

aao li&oi'tli&ij9

Bill bino s zol bsir^ieab b'tso ledioak

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QuftliflCRtiojin

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Doscriptioa

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For:a

iixai^ie

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6 filled out

and

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'ASdc*;ii x-.

ttnoi* '901^1 X^-yi/P

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APPEJJDIX

G

OEGAIiaATICK CHARTS

OF THE

FOEGE

MD

FOimDEY

BIYISIOHS of the

PACKiBD MOTOH CAE COMPAJIY

IiETEOIT-IIICHIGAK

xittiia^'U

8TEAH0 TIOITAfilMOSO

SHT 10

Tfi^-io'ja

anA asao'3

SHoiaivia Qua'

riiIA--IIfflO

i'J

SAO SOSOM asusoAi

MaiHoiii-TioiiTaa

7

APPMDIX G A study of the plant of the Packard Motor Car Company shhws that there are two main sections; 1.

Forge and foundry division, and

2.

All other diwisiona.

The labor conditions in the forge and foundry are harder to meet than in any other part of the shop, largely hecause of the difficult character of the work involved and "because of the In carrying on this study, it was decided that in strenuous labor. the matter out, a study should he made of the for;^e order to test as have to the results on the two most difficult and foundry so In these two departments the work does not ^o through depa^rtment s one aschine or any one set of machines in succession. There is not sufficient work of any one type to keep any one machine going its full Hence, it is necessary to use the organization chart, rather time. than the procedure chart, as a raethod of showing; the requirements of The charts herewith will shov/ the organization with the employthe joh. ment requirements of each position of the forge and foundry divisions of the Packard Mttor Car Company. .

The following is a table showing the physical requirements of these two departments in terms of possible handicaps?

The number of Employees Handicapped in the Sespects llor. ed Vho Can be Used in the Two Important Divisions of the Plant of the

PACKARD MOTOE CAS nature of Handicap

COI/iPAFr

Forge Division

Foundry Division

1

4

SO

48

EA1TD3

7

6

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